City Gallery education sculpture trails teachersresource kit by ghkgkyyt


									             City Gallery education
                 sculpture trails
             teachersresource kit

Cover Image: Paratene Matchitt, City to Sea Bridge, 1993, Civic Square. Image courtesy of Wellington City Council.
    City Gallery Wellington is managed by the Wellington Museums Trust with major funding support from the
  Wellington City Council. City Gallery Wellington education programmes are supported by LEOTC, funded by the
 Ministry of Education. City Gallery would like to thank Wellington Sculpture Trust and Wellington City Council for
                    permission to use images of public sculpture in this Teacher Resource Kit.

Contents                                                                2

Introduction                                                            3

Symbols/Tohu: The City to Sea Bridge and Civic Square       4
            Mary Louise Brown Seven Steps to Heaven
            Neil Dawson Ferns
            Ralph Hotere and Bill Cuthbert Fault
            Matt Pine Capital and Prow
            Rewi Thompson and John Grey City to Sea Bridge & Civic Square
            Paratene Matchitt City to Sea Bridge sculptures
            Charlotte Fisher The Pool
            Wellington Writers Walk

Artist Profile: Paratene Matchett                                       10

  oiee d;
Mā rLgn s                                                          13
        The Fish of Maui
        Ngake and Whataitai the taniwha who created Whanganui-a-tara

Sculpture in the City: Wellington Waterfront and Wharf            15
               Len Lye Water Whirler
               Tanya Ashken Albatross
               William Trethewey Kupe Group
               Wellington Writers Walk
               Four Plinths Temporary Sculpture Site

  oiee d
Mā rLgn ;                                                               21

Sculpture Trail Education Programme and Curriculum Links                23

Sculpture Trail Pre and Post Visit Activity Suggestions                 24

Sculpture Trail Resources: Web Sites & Books                            26

Sculpture Trail Glossary                                                28

Sculpture Trails
    k g h mot fh cete i ta w len n b ii o tah r e u s
      n                         v t
Mai te so te rai cyh t ei ia d ud g n e cesrq et  v           ln                 ’  s
and our past successes with our previous City to Sea Bridge programme, we are
pleased to offer students a chance to explore public sculpture in the central
Wellington region. Exploring public sculpture is a great way for students to engage
with ideas around story telling, symbols, and mythology, and understand issues of
civic identity, town planning, site specific art, and the purposes of public art.

This Teacher Resource Kit contains information about two sculpture trail options:
Symbols/Tohu: The City to Sea Bridge and Civic Square, and Sculpture in the City:
Wellington Waterfront and Wharf. Each trail lasts approximately 45 minutes, and
involves interactive discussion, looking and sketching. Our programmes can be
tailored to meet all year levels and curriculum needs, please contact one of our
educators to discuss your requirements.

Teacher Resource kit
This Teacher Resource Kit is designed to assist teachers in making the most of their
visit. It supports teaching and student learning by offering suggestions for activities in
preparation and following your sculpture trail experience.

Included is a glossary of relevant art and Te Reo terminology introducing some of the
language that is used during the sculpture trails. There is also a list of relevant
websites and further reading, designed to assist teachers planning and/or student
research around the subject of public sculpture in Wellington.

This Teacher Resource Kit was compiled and written by Helen Lloyd and Miri Young,
Educators at City Gallery Wellington in 2009, revised by Helen Lloyd in 2010, and
incorporates some content written for City Gallery by Janina Konia for the previous
City to Sea Bridge programme in 2004.

Ph 04 801 3021
Fax 04 801 3950

Symbols/Tohu: The City to Sea Bridge and Civic Square
‘Beneath Wellington lie nga tapuwae tupuna (the imprints of ancestors) and the nga
paki ngaro (unheard stories) which speak to the lives of people who have lived here
before. Sculptures and public art are a more recent layer in the story of our city; they
in turn, tell us something about the history of this place and the people who live here.
In the past pou whenua (carved posts) were used by Mā to mark boundaries and
claim custody of the land. Now public sculptures have become markers which can
help us to understand the places where we live’   . (Debbie Martin, in Wellington: a city
for sculpture, editors J Harper and A Lister, 2007 Victoria University Press). Public
sculptures can even become symbols or icons which are used to represent a certain
               e D w o ’Fern sculpture is often used to symbolise Wellington –
place (e.g. N i a sns                                                               it
was used recently in a New World supermarket television advertising campaign).

 Narratives
 Symbols, signs, representation and visual language
 The story of how Whanganui-a-Tara was created
 Voyages, navigation and arrival
 Land, sea and people and the Pacific
 Colonisation and the introduction of new materials
 Whakapapa (geneology)
 Erosion of the environment

      Recycled wood
      Redwood
      Tiles
      Terracotta
      Bricks
      Sandstone
      Concrete
      Timber
      Metal

Mary Louise Brown, Seven Steps to Heaven
This sculpture forms a type of journey in both physical and literal senses. Seven
stepping stones in the ground form a word ladder; SEA SEE SET SAT SAD SAY SKY.
The artist has changed one letter each time from one word to the next creating both
a poem and a sculpture.

Neil Dawson, Ferns, 1998. Image courtesy of the Wellington Sculpture Trust.

Neil Dawson, Ferns
This sculpture depicts 5 types of native fern (wheki, puniu, petako, lace fern and
ponga). It is made from coated aluminium suspended on stainless steel wires. The
sculpture even has its own website: ! Ferns was presented to the
city in 1998 as a joint commission by the Wellington Sculpture Trust, the NZ
International Festival of the Arts and the City Gallery.

"When I started work on Ferns I saw Ian Athfield's nikau palms as major markers of
the Square. What I've aimed for is a sort of delicate intricacy that can float over the
                               me tcn ok i ah te…   h
top of the palms so the two ele ns a w r wt e c oh r "What I wanted to
do with my sphere was to extend Athfield's poetry by adding variety in the form of five
different ferns because, of course, the basic form of the nikau is overlapping ferns."
(Wellington Sculpture Trust,, October 2008).

Ralph Hotere and Bill Cuthbert, Fault
                 fl rse tg tcos g e i te i aey wn w which
                   u           i           n      n
Fault consists o f oecn lhs rsi b h d h CtG lrs i o s      y l ’ d
face the Civic Square. The City Gallery building used to house the public library. Fault
was installed in 1994 when the Gallery moved into the former library building. This
  cl uesse p ci –it
     p         i        fc
su tr i‘t sei ’ was made specifically for this location. It represents the
  i’ o t n n n at u k fu le
  ts c o                  h            tn
cy l ai o a e r q a e a li . The dark background and the bright white
light are symbolic of the bicultural nature of New Zealand society. It is most striking
at night. Hotere and Cuthbert have collaborated on many works including Void,
installed in Te Papa in 2006.

Matt Pine, Capital and Prow
Matt Pine is te Ati Haunui a Paparangi, Te Atiawa, Ngati Tuwharetoa. Capital and
Prow are two sculptures from a series of ten works called Reflections on an Ancient
Past. They form the bottom colonnades to the City to Sea Bridge steps leading up
from Civic Square. Prow (on the right as you stand at the bottom of the steps looking
up) has a taniko pattern and is symbolic of waka and our Mā inheritance. Capital
(on the left) symbolises Classical Greek architecture and reflects our European

heritage. The non-Classical organic spiral on its inner side suggests the form has
been adapted for its Pacific context.

Rewi Thompson and John Grey, City to Sea Bridge & Civic Square
In 1984 the Wellington Civic Trust organised a competition for the Wellington
waterfront. They wanted to find a solution to the separation of the city and the
harbour. The main objective of the Wellington City developments was to enhance and
 ep ccl rli i a c o o e p c,h w tr e g a d h sa o Mā r
           t      gf   c
rsetu uas n i ne f p nsaete aes d e n te e fr oi
and Pakeha while reflecting histories of arrival and the uses of sea and land.
Rewi Thompson and John Grey were hired as the architects and Paratene Matchitt
was contracted to design and create the stunning sculptures that adorn it. The brigde
was completed in 1993. It has been designed and created as more than just a way to
get from A to B, but a meeting point in the middle of the environments we live in.

Paratene Matchitt, City to Sea Bridge sculptures
Para Matchitt is te whanau a Apanui, Whakatohea, Ngati porou. Matchitt has a world
wide reputation as a sculptor and artist of many years. Many of his works are held in
collections and galleries throughout New Zealand and other countries. His sculptures
often refer to traditional Mā culture and legends. The City to Sea Bridge tells the
                                                           e rsni te i ’ a
story of Maui fishing up the North Island, with the bridge rpee t g h fh tiss l
                                     i ’ o y.
and Civic Square representing the fh b d

Paratene Matchitt with Rewi Thompson and John Grey, City to Sea Bridge, Maunga (mountain detail),

             u g me n ‘ u ti a d t ar.
                                  n       o y For
In Te Reo, Ma n a a smo na ’n ‘ cr ’ Mā a maunga is an  ori
important part of who we are and where we come from. Here the maunga has
  n te fnt n i l at s n nh ro Ma i fh gi .
             i ts          s
a oh ru co ; a o c a a a co fr usi i le         ’ sn n

Charlotte Fisher, The Pool
                                                       r su tdn us ad n t
The three benches that create the artwork The Pool ae i ae iMa i gre a     ’
the top of the City to Sea Bridge. The wood looks old, as if it might have come from a
demolished wharf. The scooped out edges suggest water rippling.

Paratene Matchitt with Rewi Thompson and John Grey, City to Sea Bridge (taniwha detail), 1993.

Paratene Matchitt, City to Sea Bridge
On top of the City to Sea Bridge there are two birds (manu) to the south, with wings
open wide in a welcome gesture. The birds are a symbol of welcome, hospitality and
festivity. Mā legend says that the bird brought the kumara to Aotearoa.

Opposite the manu on the north side of the bridge are two large timber whales or
taniwha (sea creatures/monsters) they lie tai- to-tail to form a safety barrier but are
also a place to sit and play. They represent the two taniwha, Ngake and Whataitai
who were responsible for shaping Wellington harbour. The Mā name for Wellington
is Whanganui-a-Tara.

 e te rs ’rf n ae 0 o moen r t n ead g t ts
            is      l
S e h att poi o p g 1 fr r i omai rgri Maci’
                     e              f o n ht
practices, processes and materials.

Paratene Matchitt with Rewi Thompson and John Grey, City to Sea Bridge (poles detail) 1993.

The sculptures at the top of the City to Sea Bridge include poles adorned with
symbols: a star, moon, sun, mountains, arrow and heart. Matchitt intended these
symbols to represent all those who have come to New Zealand (a multicultural
                                         o n v ai ; ori
                                                g o
statement). They also act like symbols fr ai t n Mā used the stars to
navigate their waka (canoes) when they first arrived in Aotearoa, and the arrow is
used today to direct traffic and pedestrians in the city.

Matchitt has used these symbols in many of his artworks and they are partly inspired
  yh smb l h t p e r n e o t at f g
               s                         ’s l a
b te y o ta a p a o T K oi b te l Te Wepu (e iT P p ’              d
                                                                hl n e aa        s
collection). Te Kooti was a leader of the Ringatu faith and flew the flag during his
 a a n o rs tnen h 1 6 ’ e mbae mo en y n te ol fhe
        g          s                    .
cmp i s feia c ite 8 0sH e rcd d ri a d h to o t                t               s
colonisers. The flag was made by Catholic nuns in Hawkes Bay, and Te Kooti re-
interpreted the symbols on the flag so that they came to represent the Ringatu faith.
 h cosh at n ta g r ue rg l l n t ts okTe rse t
                        i e
Te rs, e ra d r nlae sd eu r iMaci’w r.h cecnay          ht
moon is a tohu (portent) of a new world. The cross is a fighting cross of the Archangel
Michael. The circular shape is symbolic of many things such as the beginning of the
creation of the universe or space, the kanohi o Io (eye of god) and the spiral the
beginning of life, as well as the sun and the moon.

                                                                 oiu ue‘
                                                                       t Pou
The pole, or pou whenua, has great significance as a marker in Mā rcl r.
whenua are carved posts placed strategically on the land to acknowledge and
 e rsn te e t nh ew e Tn aa e u ( p o l fh l ) e
                 ao p
rpee th rl i sib te n ā gt Wh n a te ep o tea d,h i   h        e       n t r
 net s n te ni n n o trn a a w e p c o s d g
      o           r r
a cs r a d h ie vo me t rūa gw e a (l e ftn i )       a        a n.

In short, they mark the ancestral and contemporary associations between the people
 t gt) n tea (h n a,n a sc ae ey i i a to oh oin
  ā                 n                                   gf
( n aa a d h l d w e u )a d s uh r vrs n i n t b t Mā ra d   c
 h i o tb t n o e e l d u uah rae n i ty (uk n Ct
    r       i o
te cnr ui t N wZ a n 'cl rl ei g a dd ni. A cl d i
                               a s t            t          e t’          a       y
Council Historic Places,
parks/pou-whenua.cfm, October 2008).

                                       Walk. Image courtesy of Wellington City Council.
Catherine Griffiths, Wellington Writers’

Wellington Writers’Walk
                       t t yu a ’ i h r b ca c,
                        ’ u           tv
                       Isre o cn le ee y h ne
                     you have to do and be, not simply watch
                    or even describe. This is the city of action,
                       the world headquarters of the verb –
                      Lauris Edmond. From The Active Voice.

 The Wellington Writers’ Walk consists of nineteen sculptures of text and quotations
from several writers associated with Wellington. It is a project made by the Wellington
branch of the NZ Society of Authors to celebrate the city and our writers. Catherine
Griffiths designed the sculptures made from concrete and Fiona Christeller designed
the sculptures made from wood. Each of the text sculptures tells us something about

The                                                   l go itee res
                                                       l n
‘ walk celebrates and commemorates the place of Wei tnn h s wi r          t ’
i sa d h i l en h l f l go ’Wei tn i r’ l
 v          ra             fe
le, n te p c itei o Wei tn ( l go WresWa ,
                                    ln         ln         t       k
October 2008).

Artist Profile: Paratene Matchitt

   Born in 1933 at Tokomaru Bay
   Te Whanau-a-Apanui, Whakatohea and Ngati Porou
   Auckland and Dunedin Teachers College
                 a           o       s s
      o t A cl d d ct n or’ r n c t p c ltr       as
    S uh uk n E uai B ad ata d rf seii f 1958 for 16        as om
   District Art Advisor to the Wanganui Education Board for three years
                 N             h       o      h is p
       mb r f a u a i n aa n wt rs a h oeeS l n r
    Me e o ‘g P n Wa a g’l g i attR l H tr, e y Muu                      w
      n Mai   ly     b .h a a o tmp rrMā rat vme t eu n 9 3
    a d r nWe bTiw s cne oay oirmoe n b g ni1 7 .
    This movement was to foster innovation and creativity while maintaining cultural

Matchitt has a worldwide reputation as a sculptor and artist of many years. Many of
his works are held in collections and galleries throughout New Zealand and other
countries. He explores both two or three dimensional artwork, which often features
strong signs and symbols of geometrical shape, as seen in the City to Sea Bridge and
the works included in this profile.

Thematic concerns
 Looking back at the past, in particular referencing the prophet Te Kooti and the
    i t fi
   Rnaū a h   t
 Pacific cultures
 Marae and whare
    t n s f oi d
     a             a
 Sr d o Mā r n Western culture
 Weaving arts
 Historical imagery and customary ideas

Practices and Processes
 Sawn timber - referencing the introduction of saw milling to New Zealand in the
                                                 o Mā raci c e n at
                                                                t u
   nineteenth century and the influence this had n oirh etr a d r
 Use of bold power tools for woodworking
 Combining pre and post-European symbols, processes and materials
 Recycled building industry materials.

Paratene Matchitt, Fish III, 1990. Painted wood and steel,770 x 500mm.

Fish III
   t ts ok
Maci’w r Fish III has been made using cut and assembled recycled wooden
patterns taken from an engineering industry where they were used to make metal
castings. The past use of the material can still be seen in its surface. The metal
shapes were cut and nailed on, and patterned with power tools or stamps.

Paratene Matchitt, Huakina 1987 (detail). Collection of National Art Gallery.

                                        e f e ot at f g.h maeis sd
                                                      ’s l a
In Huakina Matchitt has recreated on o T K oi b te l sTe tr lue               a
are from huts, redoubts and dwellings. This work evokes feelings of bitterness and a
portrayal of the severity of the conditions in which Te Kooti and his followers lived, as
fugitives. It is a statement of defiance, and of spiritual survival.
 I r vrd leae o oe ta t I e ot i h r w sh l
  w               i
‘ ok ey eb rtlt cvrh ti . T K oi t tee a teat
                         y                me n             s
                                                          ’ me                   s
deliberate creative programme that breached the walls of creative advancement.
There is pain; artists feel they are not understood but they, nevertheless, have the
 o rg o te o v t n’
                  r      co ,
cua e fh icnii s (Para Matchitt, Waikato Times, 10 May 1986).
 Mac t ss h i gro te at f g sh rp soy fh w i a fh
      ht                                 l a
‘ t i ue temaey fh b te l a te e oi ro te a u o ti           t             r       s
story. It was a simple faith of people living close to natural rhythm expresses in
simple symbols; the moon, the morning star, the mountain, the Christian cross, the

bleeding heart, the four houses of playing cards, signs of entertainment, of
divination, of the four winds, the quadrants of all power and understanding (James
         ‘ ai ’ ai aAt aey 9 7.
         H n, o
Ritchie, u k a N t n lrG lr 1 8 )   l ,

Te Porere –Flag of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, 1860s.
Hand-sewn by Te Kooti supporters. Cotton with woollen stitching. 1940mm x 795mm.
In the care of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.

The flag is a powerful symbolic device used during times of conflict. This flag here
was captured during 1869 at Te Porere. The symbols are said to stand for the
following things:
     h l tr W ’
          t s
 T ee e ‘ I                                                          i t ah
                    –stand for Wairua Tapu (the Holy Spirit) in the Rn aūfi      t
 The crescent moon –a tohu (portent) of a new world
 The red cross –a fighting cross of Archangel Michael

  oiee d
Mā rLgn s

The Fish of Maui
Maui had magical powers, and his brothers did not want him to go fishing with them.
So Maui hid himself in the bottom of their canoe and took with him an enchanted
magical hook which had been shaped from a jawbone. He did not come out of his
hiding place until they were well out to sea, and then he told his brothers to go out
further and further.

At last they stopped paddling the canoe and started fishing, and soon the canoe was
 i d i h ct Wh n h y a cu h l o fhMa i boh r w ne t
fe wt te ac. e te h d a gtos fi , u s rtes a td o
          h        h                          t       s       ’
return to the shore but Maui wanted to try his luck fishing too. He had no bait and the
others refused to give him any; so instead, he hit his own nose so hard that it bled
and he smeared the blood over his magic hook.

When he put this magical hook into the water and pulled it out again with all his
   g ap w r n s e gh h d n ac
     c               r            dt h
mai lo e a d t nt, e i ’ct a real fish like his brothers had. What he
pulled up was a giant fish shaped portion of the earth. As he pulled up this giant fish
which was actually a piece of earth, the canoe came aground on it.

Maui left his brothers with strict instructions neither to eat nor cut up this giant earth
fish until he had made appropriate prayers and offerings to the gods. But while Maui
  a a a te rtes i ’ ie t tee an g. s d h y t t t ct p
                           d ts
w s w yh boh r d n ltn o h s w ri sI ta te s r d o u un ne               ae
the fish attacking it with their knives, and the fish started to toss about –leaving
huge gashes along its side.

According to legend these huge gashes formed mountains and valleys on the land.
Maui had caught the home of Tonga-nui, grandson of Tangaroa, god of the ocean.
This piece of land is now known as the North Island of New Zealand or Te Ika a Maui,
the fish of Maui. The fish hook Maui used, became the cape which now forms the
southernmost tip of Hawke's Bay.

Ngake and Whataitai, the taniwha who created Whanganui-a-tara
Whataitai and Ngake both lived in a great lake (which is now the harbour). Whataitai
was a gentle easy-going taniwha who lived at the northern shallow end of the lake
(near the beach which is now known as Petone). Ngake, who lived at the southern
end of the lake (near to what is now Wellington city and Oriental Bay) was vigorous
and turbulent. Ngake decided to leave the lake and join the deep water of the sea
that he could hear crashing on the other side of the land (on the hills where
Wellington city now stands).
He went to the northern corner of the lake and wound himself up into a great fury, his
tail lashing backwards and forwards, scooping up sand and piling it in the corner,
(which is why it is so shallow now near Petone). Twisting his tail up like a giant spring,
with a giant hiss and a roar of taniwha enthusiasm, he drove off to the south at great

Whataitai pushed his head out of the water at the other end of the lake (near
Scorching Bay) to watch Ngake crash into the great wall of rock and earth (at
Seatoun). He crashed into it with such force that he smashed right through it out into
the open sea. Bleeding and battered, Ngake swam off into the deep waters of
Raukawa Moana, (Cook Strait) out into the deeper waters of Te Moananui a Kiwa
(Pacific Ocean) and was never heard of again.
Whataitai slowly pushed off from the side of the lake (near Ngauranga) to join Ngake
in the sea, whose violent movements had now let the tides into the lake. But as the
tide went out again Whatatai became stranded in the shallows of the lake where he
wriggled so much he became well and truly stuck. He stayed there for a long time,
kept alive by the tides washing over him but eventually he died.
His wairua (soul) left him in the form of a manu (bird), whose name was Te Keo. It
flew to the hilltop Matairangi over the harbour, and began to tangi, (to weep), for
Whataitai. The peak of Matairangi was renamed Tangi te Keo, (the weeping of keo)
this place is now known as Mount Victoria.
This is how the harbour entrance and the Miramar Peninsula, once the island Te
Motu Kairangi, were formed, with the suburb (W)Hataitai built on the back of the
great taniwha who died there.

(Collated from sources including Wellington City Libraries, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New
New Zealand in History, and the City Gallery City to Sea Bridge
Programme, developed by Janina Konina, 2004.)

Sculpture in the City: Wellington Waterfront and Wharf
Why do we need public sculpture?

The Wellington Sculpture Trust believes:

             Public art works can be playful
             They can give cause for reflection
             They may fit our mood and can uplift the spirit
             They challenge us to see the familiar in new and exciting ways
             Public art invites interaction and response
             It performs the vital task of enriching our lives, and is a measure of a
                i’ rsc n c imau
                 ts ii
              cy att a d ic trity  v
             There can be few finer public advertisements for ourselves - of what we
              think, believe and value
             Major cities around the world have for centuries commissioned works
              of art and created spaces where sculptures can be seen and enjoyed
             They are a source of pleasure and pride for residents, and an
              important attraction for visitors
             Today contemporary sculpture is rich in creative ideas and the
              innovative use of materials and new technology
             It is used extensively to promote the attractiveness and appeal of
              urban areas
             Surrounded by harbour and hills, Wellington is the political and arts
              capital of New Zealand. Its vibrancy and energy continue to draw
              people into the inner city to live.

Wellington Sculpture Trust, October 2008.

All public sculptures tell us something. Often they tell us something about the place
they are situated in, or the people who are living near them now or have lived there in
the past.

By carefully looking at and analysing some of the public sculptures along the
waterfront of Wellington we can: identify a range of different types of sculptures,
discover what the histories of the sculptures are, learn the Mā rlegends about New
Zealand being told by the sculpture, and question why they have been placed here
and what they mean to the people of Wellington.


Len Lye, Water Whirler, 2006. Posthumously realised in various materials. Image courtesy of Wellington Sculpture

Len Lye, Water Whirler

Len lye was born in New Zealand but spent most of his working life in the UK and
 S . es n o N w e l d       a s sfmo s rs n rai ayHe
                                               is t
U AH io e f e Z a n ’mota u atti en t n l. was an           o l
artist, film maker and writer.

The sculpture Water Whirler is unusual because it was made after the artist had died,
from drawings and ideas he had noted down in sketchbooks when he was alive. A
computer programme was specially designed to operate the sculpture. The
mechanisms which control its movement are very complex and include: motors,
  pi sp os n w i t h s ‘n t’cl
    n      v            g . s            i c       p
sr g, i ta d e hsTiiak ei su ture –a kinetic sculpture is a
sculpture that moves. This sculpture is easily missed when it is turned off but when
 t n ae so to t n i i l ru d k g o s t h ni fr a d
  s                             s rs
i o w tr p us u a dtp a ao n mai cntnlca g g oms n  n       a y         n
patterns. It was presented to the city in 1996. The main intention of the Wellington
Sculpture Trust when making this sculpture was to ensure it performed just as the
artist had meant it to in his imagination, even though he had never had the chance to
build it and see it working himself.

                                                 a a tsc h rorp yj
                                                       i         e
Len Lye described his ideas for Water Whirler as ‘ fnat coega h, t
 t a f te pa, he d
  r      i
s e mslg h isryitre i ni s Wellington Sculpture Trust,
          n     r         n              o ,
                                   me s n’ October 2008.

Tanya Ashken, Albatross, 1986. Ferro-cement. Image courtesy of Wellington Sculpture Trust.

Tanya Ashken, Albatross
Tanya Ashken was born in England and trained as a silversmith, she moved to New
Zealand in 1963 after marrying John Drawbridge, another famous artist who made
abstract paintings. Askhen lives near the sea and this is the inspiration for many of
her sculptures. The sculpture itself started life as an idea for three abstract shapes
interacting with themselves and their intermingling spaces. The curves of this
sculpture look like the wings of an albatross, and she decided to name it that after it
had been made.

''I have always been fascinated by the Albatross, its size, its power and its awesome
grace. My sculpture is large and white and of the sea. There is a realistic albatross
there too, as I realised when the sculpture was being built. I now think of it as a
lament for the albatrosses as they disappear from this planet." Tanya Ashken,
Wellington Sculpture Trust, October 2008.

   trl s vrh su tr i r t nl un gt o ‘ l uei o
       o                  p
Wae f w oe te cl uenemie t tri i rm asu tr’ t a
                                  t     t y        n f          cp  n
f na ’ e s o w trs ae o a y’ bev i s fh ef t n
 o     nT                                       s
‘ u ti.h ue f ae ib sd nTna o sr t n o te f c a d        ao        es
patterns created by tidal water flows in Island Bay rock pools.

Wellington Sculpture Trust and Wellington City Council
The process of raising funds to make this sculpture possible spurred the formation of
the Wellington Sculpture Trust which now pays for many of the public sculptures you
see around the city. To date, the Trust has been associated with twelve sculptures in
the city, five in the Botanic Gardens, four on Cobham Drive and four more planned
before the end of 2009. Wellington City Council plays a significant role. It provides
most of our sites, helps supervise the installation of sculptures, and becomes the
owner and caretaker of the sculpture on behalf of the city and the Trust.

William Trethewey, Kupe Group, 1939. Bronze, installed on Taranaki Wharf in 2000. Image courtesy of Wellington
City Council.

William Trethewey, Kupe Group

This sculpture is known both as Kupe Group and The Coming of the Mā r The  oi.
figures are standing on the prow of their waka Matahourua and point to the land they
can see –Aotearoa, land of the long white cloud. Kupe, standing at the top in the
middle of the group of figures, is the legendary Mā rdiscoverer of New Zealand. He
is holding up a taiaha (spear). His wife on the left is Hine Te Aparangi, and on the
right stands Peka-Hourangi who was their tohunga (priest). He is holding a
                                           ov q i mo s s n h i p o n y
                                               a s              e’
tewhatewha (long club) and his role was t ‘ n u h ntr o te e ij re         r c u
(Roger Blackley, Wellington: a City For Sculpture, 2007, p.58).

This sculpture was made by William Trethewey for the 1940 New Zealand Centennial
Exhibition in Wellington. It is part of a larger group of works which consisted of
sculptural groups depicting the progress of New Zealand. It was designed to stand
  l gi oh ri rte ru s‘ o e Me ’n ‘i er me ’
   o d             g v                Pn
a n s e te fuai go p; i er n a d P n e Wo n It was          o             .
originally made in plaster but was cast in bronze in 1999 –William Tretheway never
lived to see the sculpture cast in bronze.

After the 1940 exhibition it was moved to stand in the main hall of the Wellington
Railway Station, where Kupe seemed to point to the departing and arriving trains. At
this point it was still in its original state of plaster, but it was scratched and
vandalised while it stood there. It was taken to the Wellington Show Grounds in
1986, and later put in storage at Te Papa, but it was then cast in bronze and moved
                                                   h s ‘s i i rtesu tr,
                                                    s        io c g v
to this position on the waterfront in 2000. Tiiah tr fuai ’cl ue                  p
designed to tell the story of Kupe.

                                       Walk. Image courtesy of Wellington City Council.
Catherine Griffiths, Wellington Writers’

Wellington Writers Walk

 The Wellington Writers’ Walk consists of nineteen sculptures of text and quotations
from several writers associated with Wellington. It is a project made by the Wellington
branch of the NZ Society of Authors to celebrate the city and our writers. Catherine
Griffiths designed the sculptures made from concrete and Fiona Christeller designed
the sculptures made from wood. Each of the text sculptures tells us something about
Wellington. These sculptures are both poems, texts and sculptures. When a sculpture
                                               ‘ t i eo ‘od r.
                                                e e
is made up of letters or words it is known as atxp c’rw r at           ’

Regan Gentry, Green Islands, 2007. Image courtesy of Wellington City Council.

Four Plinths
Temporary Sculpture Site
Regan Gentry, Green Islands 2007-2009

 ea G nrs y
R gn e t ’Green Islands was the first Four Plinths Temporary Sculpture Project
commissioned by the Wellington Sculpture Trust. Temporary sculpture commissions

are a new area of work for the Trust. This is space in the city next to Te Papa reserved
                 se p ci su tr.
                  i       f c
for temporary ‘t sei ’cl ueThe term ‘t sei ’
                                   p                i        fc
                                                    se p ci denotes that it is made
specifically for the place it stands in. A panel comprised of arts professionals and
trustees of the Wellington Sculpture Trust identify and invite a group of leading New
Zealand artists to submit an expression of interest for this project every couple of
years. The site is challenging in its scale and tough weather conditions but the panel
were thrilled with the enthusiasm of the responses.

                                                        We ae e n o o rd o
Katy Campbell of the Wellington Sculpture Trust says ‘ h v b e h n ue t
embark on this journey where we can showcase some of the outstanding talent of
New Zealand artists. The project will provide extra interest in Wellington and enliven
  pi i w i a b e l oed e o sme co ”
    me t       c              n
a r se h hh s e no g vru fr o at n (Wellington Sculpture i
Trust, October 2008).

                           d n h fu cnr epn si e a a oeo r h
                                            e lt n
The sculptures are situate o te o r o c t ‘i h’ T P p frcutTe             .
works are installed for a minimum of six months and a maximum of two years, and
remain the property of the artist.

Mā Legend


According to tribal stories, Kupe was the first Polynesian to discover the islands of
New Zealand. He made his journey here because he had some difficulties with
fishing in Hawaiki, his homeland. Apparently the problem was a great octopus
  e ni t K p ’ o ei rMuua g K p st u i i a o t klh
    o n             s         t              .
b l g g o u e cmp to, trn i u e e o t h cn e o ite          n s               l
octopus, and this pursuit took him so long and so far that eventually it brought him to
New Zealand. With a companion known as Ngake (or Ngahue) in another canoe
         ā h irangi, he followed the creature all the way to Cook Strait where it was
called Tw i   r
finally destroyed.

                                                      o ( g h e l d w e se
                                                          o     t o )
It is said that his wife, devised the name of Ao-tea-ra ‘n w i c u ’ h n h
saw the North Island of New Zealand for the first time. Kupe, named the islands in
     l go H ro r f h a gtr
     l n                  e s            , t S me Ia d a d kr ( r
Wei tn ab u atr id u hesMai(o ss n ) n Mā ao Wad           l
                                                            u( e ot s n )h
                                                              t      h l
Island). After travelling down the East Coast of Te Ika-a-Mā i h N r Ia d, e
and his companions rested at Seatoun, and a distinctive rock there was named Te
             u e ‘ e rsne f u e i i o o r
Aroaro-o-K p (h pee c o K p ’nh h n u.   ) s

Kupe then left his family there and went off to explore the South Island. As with many
Mā legends, there are several different interpretations of the legend, but in a story
                                    e tA aw
told by a man called Te Whetu of T Āiw , hen Kupe set off to explore the other
side of the Cook Straight –and the South Island - his two manu (birds), which he had
brought with him from Hawaiki, flew off to the South Island to survey the new lands
ahead of him. One of the manu, a cormorant named Te Kawau-a-Toru, became stuck
 te u t n r  i,
a T A mi a arws ec o w tr fR ni t (e r ’rl Ia d n h
                     o t t f ae of a g oo n a DUvl s n o te
                          r h                     t                  e
                                                                   i l
northern part of the South Island). As the bird struggled it broke one of its wings and
fell into the ocean. Where the broken wing fell into the water it formed a passage in
the sea (now known as French Pass) through which vessels can safely sail, but the
    n ’ n ame wn t e p k g u o te ae a d e i a bt co
        s               g a          n
ma u u h r d i s yd oi o t fh w tr n rma s no s ut n                 n         r i
for ships today. This is now a rocky reef and is known as Te Kawau-a-Toru.

While Kupe was away exploring the Cook Straight his people became worried about
him because he was gone for so long. In despair, one of his daughters threw herself
from the cliff tops at the Southern Coast onto the rocks below, which were stained
with her blood. This area, with its rust-coloured stones, is known as Pari-whero (Red

Kupe stayed in Wellington before exploring the West Coast as far north as Hokianga.
According to tradition, as he began his journey along the West Coast of Te Ika-a-Mā i ,
Kupe made the islands of Kapiti and Mana by slicing them from the mainland with a
mighty blow of his patu (club).Eventually Kupe left Aotearoa and returned to Hawaiki,
his Polynesian homeland to rejoin his people.

Kupe's accounts are taken as traditional evidence that New Zealand was uninhabited
at the time of his visit, but one Wanganui tradition suggests otherwise. His sailing
directions from Hawaiki were said to be used by later Mā voyagers.

According to tradition, Kupe was the only Mā voyager to make the return journey
from New Zealand to Hawaiki, a fact that lends a certain credence to the modern
belief that the Maori settlement was largely the result of accidental voyages.
Certainly, the other voyagers to New Zealand of this period, Toi and Whatonga, did
not make the return journey. Among the Mā Kupe enjoys the highest mana
(respect, power, spirituality) of any ariki (chief).

(Collated from sources including Wellington City Libraries, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New
New Zealand in History, and the City Gallery City to Sea Bridge
Programme, developed by Janina Konina, 2004.)


Sculpture Trail Education Programme and Curriculum Links

Symbols/Tohu: City to Sea Bridge and Civic Square (45 –60 minutes)
The City to Sea Bridge evokes stories about the creation of Whanganui– Tara,
(Wellington Harbour) and Maui with many of the figures on the bridge relating to
   oit i a o th saaraa d ai t n Su e twl n ae i h
         oe                     i            g o
Mā rs r s b u te e ,rvln n v ai . td ns ie gg wt te              l           h
stories, sculpture, symbols and history of Paratene Matchitt's bridge and the
sculptures of Civic Square.

Sculpture in the City: Wellington Waterfront and Wharf (45 –60 minutes)
Students will explore some landmark sculptures, such as Tanya Ashken's Albatross
sculpture, and some newer works like Regan Gentry's Green Islands. Our waterfront
is rich in sculpture telling us stories about place, culture, identity and artists.
Students will engage with ideas around public art, sculpture and interpreting artwork.

Learning Outcomes
Key Competencies; Participating and contributing, thinking, relating to others,
managing self, using languages symbols and texts

Values; Innovation enquiry and curiosity, by thinking critically, creatively and
Diversity, as found in our different cultures, languages and heritages.

Achievement Objectives and Curriculum links
Visual art/Toi ataata: Understanding arts in context; communicating and interpreting
English: Listening, viewing, speaking
Mā               ori:       ori;
   tauranga Mā Toi Mā Te Reo Mā           ori
Social Studies/ Tikanga a Iwi: Continuity and change; identity; culture and
organisation, place and the environment.

Art History
2.1 Discuss Art Works
2.2 Examine subjects and themes in art
2.6 examine art works in their environments
3.1 Analyse style in art
3.2 Describe the meaning of iconographic motifs
3.3 examine media and process in art.

Visual Arts
1.1 Research art and artworks from Mā and European traditions and their contexts
1.2 Use drawing processes and procedures

Sculpture trails pre and post visit activity suggestions
Symbols/Tohu: City to Sea Bridge and Civic Square
Pre visit activities
    The Museum of Wellington City and Sea offers a range of relevant and
         n rsn e uai pormme b sd nWei tna d oif and
          t i
        i eet g d ct n rga  o              s ae o          l go n Mā rl
                                                           l n                  ie
        legend. A tour of the Museum is a great pre-visit activity, where students can
        learn about local stories that relate to and are a feature of the City to Sea
    R sac te oi gn o N ae n Wh ti in te rai o
          ee rh h Mā rl e d f gk a d aa aa d h ce t n f    t                 o
        Wellington harbour. Read through the story as a class and individually. In
        small groups have students retell the story in their own words.
    Dsusw a ia y o a dnetae o ea l
           c           s           ’
          i s ‘h t smb l n i sgt sme xmp s v i                     e

Post visit activities
    Look at the Ferns sculpture web site and learn about geometry then try to
       make 3D shapes from different sized flat cut out polygons
    Chose a location near your school and design a site-specific sculpture for that
    Make 3D sculptures using clay or paper construction for students to make
       their own pou or poles with symbols that they feel represent themselves, as in
       the City to Sea Bridge

Sculpture in the City: Wellington Waterfront and Wharf
Pre visit activities
    Look at the Wellington Sculpture Trust web site and discuss the question: Why
        do we need public sculpture? Make a list of the things public sculpture might
        be good for.
    Look at some examples of kinetic sculptures and try to make a mobile
        sculpture that moves in the wind.
    Research the work of Len Lye and find images of his work on the internet. The
        Govett-Brewster Gallery in New Plymouth is also a fantastic resource for Len
        Lye research,

Post visit activities
    Investigate an aspect of local history or a Mā rcreation legend and working
       in small groups use self drying clay to make a series of sculptures that tell
       different parts of the story

 Using wire try to create a sculpture of a native New Zealand plant, like Regan
   e t ’su ture, just bend and twist the wire into shape. Put all your
  G nrs cl      p
  sculptures together to form a garden
 Design a sculpture that represents your school, and discuss where students
  would like to see the sculpture installed. Students can discuss, design and
  construct maquettes (models) of sculptures in small groups, and pitch their
  sculpture ideas to the class

Sculpture Trail Resources: Web Sites & Books
Web Sites:

Wellington City Libraries
Information about Mā rhistory in the Wellington region

Wellington Sculpture Trust
Information about sculptures around Wellington city

New Zealand Book Council
n r t n b u Wei tn i r a
  f     o          l n
I omai a o t l go Wre’w l      t s k

New Zealand History Online
Information about the Wellington centennial exhibition 1940

Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand
Information about Kupe and Maui, Ngake and Whataitai

Wellington City Council
A guide to public sculpture in Wellington city

Neil Dawson Ferns
An interactive site about the ferns sculpture

Art New Zealand online articles; Ralph Hotere Len Lye Neil Dawson

New Zealand in History
Information about Maui and Kupe

Govett Brewster Gallery
Information about Len Lye

Wilkipedia, kinetic sculpture


Wellington: a city for sculpture, editors J Harper and A Lister, Victoria University Press,2007.

                        i t Wei tns
                        d     l
Art & About: a pocket gu e o l go ’public art, F Sutton, National Library of New Zealand,

Sculpture Trail Glossary

Te Reo Mā r

Hine Te Aparangi    u e i w o a d h a ‘ e ra
                          s e                  s n o
                   K p ’wf, h n me til d A tao ’
kanohi o Io        Eye of god
Kupe               Legendary Polynesian discoverer of New Zealand/Aotearoa
Māao               Ward Island
Mana               Authority, power, reputation, influence
Manu               Bird
Matahourua          ue ao s
                   K p ’cn e
Matiu              Somes Island
Maui               A demi-god who lived in Hawaiki and fished up the North Island
Maunga             Mountain, to carry
Muturangi           u e o ei r
                   K p ’cmp to     t
Nga paki ngaro     Unheard stories
Nga tapuwae tupuna The imprints of ancestors
Pari-whero         Red Rocks
Patu               Club
Pou whenua         Carved posts
Taiaha             Spear
Tangaroa           God of the ocean
Tangi              To weep
Taniwha            Sea creature, sea monster
Te Ika-a-Mā i      The North Island
Te Moananui a Kiwa Pacific Ocean
Tewhatewha         Long club
Tohu               Portent
Tohunga            Priest
Wairua             Soul
Waka               Canoe
Whakairo           Carving, sculpture
Whanganui-a-Tara Wellington

Art Terms

Kinetic sculpture                 Sculpture which moves or has moving parts
Site Specific sculpture           Sculpture designed an built for a specific site
Figurative sculpture              Sculpture of the human body(s)


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