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C03_TUN

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 6

  • pg 1
									Bu ild ing
Tech niq ues :    C3 – Wooden floor with poured support, with mortar
Coun try :
                  Tunisia

 P R É S E N TATI O N

 G e o g r ap hi c a l In f lu e n c e

                                                                                                                                                             D e f i ni ti on

                                                                                                                                                                Wooden floor with poured support, with
                                                                                                                                                                               mortar

                                                                                                                                                                                               s
                                                                                                                                                             - Load bearing structure: beam and/or
                                                                                                                                                             wooden joists , with v ariable slenderness and
                                                                                                                                                             span, acc ording to the ar eas, qualities, and
                                                                                                                                                             characteristics of the speci es of trees us ed.

                                                                                                                                                             - Use of a for mwork (sacrifice or used agai n).

                                                                                                                                                             - Laying of a poured material, c onstituting the
                                                                                                                                                             flooring.

                                                                                                                                                             - Finishing of the s urfac e for the flooring, l eft
                                                                                                                                                             bare or cover ed with a floor c overing.




 E n v i ro n m en t

 Li mited to six countries of the MEDA area : Al geria, Spain, France, Morocco, Tunisia and Pales tine.
 One notes the c ommon use of this ty pe of floor in all types of environment : urban, rural, plain and sea side.

 Associated Floors:
 Found on gr ound fl oors (when it is loc ated above a cellar or an empty space) and for the v arious floors.
 In Tunisia, the use with this type of constructi on is c ommon in the ar eas of Toz eur and Nefz aoua. It is also used in urban environment, the
 countryside and in environments as varied as mountai n or plain.

 Associated Floors:
 In Tunisia, this tec hnique makes it possible to use the ground floor, the fl oors (commonl y c onstr uctions have one level) and can also to be us ed
 for a roof terrace.

 I l lu s t r a ti on s

 General views :                                                                                                                        Detail close-up :




 This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States   1/6
                                                                                                              C 3 T uni s i a – W o ode n fl oor w i th po ur ed s up por t, w i th mor t ar

C O N S TRU C TI ON PR IN CI P L E

Ma t e r i a l s                                                                                                                                           I l lu s t r a ti on s

Nature and availability (shape in which it is found)
                                                           ini
The realisation of the various beams takes two deter m ng factors into account in the MEDA
area, on the one hand the quantity of the forest resources and on the other hand the nature of
the s pecies av ailable.
Indistinc tly in Spain, Franc e and in Morocc o, the realisati on of the mortar is based on a
  ix
m ture of li me, aggregates (sand) and of water.
However, in Algeria, in Morocc o and in T unisia, it should be noted that one us es hard-packed
earth s ometi mes mixed with s and, as well as poured earth mortars, in particular in old
médinas, in rural areas .
The finis hing of the flooring v aries acc ording to its us e and the natur e of construction. Left                                                                 Construction principle : roof secti on
bare or cover ed with a si mple surfacing w hen it is loc ated in a modest interior or under a roof,
after, it is cov ered with a s urfacing ; a bed of ceramic or fl ooring of s tones in the cas e of
nobl er cons tructions.
In Tunisia:
- the str uctural l ayer is ensured with wooden palm tree beams .
- the layer of support and/or distribution, consists of boards or palm tr ee feather-grass
sometimes es parto grass.
- the layer of filling consists of layers of hard-pac ked earth, bare or cover ed with white clay, or
plaster, or terrac otta hexagonal floor-tiles.

Modules, Dimensions, Dose ratio
                                     s
Commonly, the sec tions of beam vary according to the quality of w ooden us ed, and the
slenderness accordi ng to the hei ght of the trees chopped down. Di mensions vary in s ection
from 18x 22 to 8x15 c m, for s pans from 5,50 to 1,80 m. One thus finds a c orrelation between
the distance trees mus t be c arried and the choppi ng, but als o between the richness of buildi ng
material resources and type of constructi on.
The thickness of the floorings of li me or earth mortars v aries acc ording to the distanc e
                               ,
between the centre of beam on av erage 0,90 c m, and a thickness goi ng from 15 to 25 c m.
In Tunisia, the cr ossing is carried out by means of pal m tree feather-grass joists, laid out with                                                         Construction principle : axonometrical secti on
regular inter vals from approximatel y 30 to 50 cm or by j oists of triangular s ection, in jointed
laying. Thes e ar e obtai ned by s awing and c utting up starting from the cor e of the trunk. T hen
comes a l ayer of es parto weather-stripping or a s tem from a palm tree, in the c ase of a joi nted
joisting or a s preading layer realized with a j ointed board. Finally a l ayer of beaten and hard-
pac ked earth, spread on the whole surface of the floor.


Ty p e o f l a y in g

Type of laying, use of a formwork, formwork supports
Two systems coexist:
                                      w                                                    s
1. Tec hni que of the sacrifice for m ork, the v arious elements are borne by the beam (beam        s
                                                                      w
and/or joists). T his tec hni que av oids the sys tematic use of for m ork supports.
2. The use of a compl ex wooden ins tallation of for m    work s upport/for mwork for the realisation
of a poured flooring (system of the KES).
In Tunisia, no formwor k and formwor k supports ar e necess ary for the i mplementation of these
floor construction techniques.


To o l s
In addition to the traditional tools of the mason (saw, tr owel, hammer ...), no tool c ommon to
the users of this tec hnique was reported.




 This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States   2/6
                                                                                                              C 3 T uni s i a – W o ode n fl oor w i th po ur ed s up por t, w i th mor t ar

C O N S TRU C TI ON PR IN CI P L E (C O N TI NU E D )

Tr a d e s                                                                                                                                                 I l lu s t r a ti on s

Trade, Number of people necessary
In the MEDA area, this tec hni que is i mplemented by mas ons .
In Morocc o, a carpenter is supervised by the mason.
The teams ar e two to five people accordi ng to the difficulty of the work to be carried out, in
particular during the pouring of the fl oor, whic h requires quick realisation for better coherence.
In Tunisia, mas ons c arry out this type of wor k.
The teams ar e generally made up of a mason and two or three wor kmen.


P e r f o r m an c e s

Physical (span...).
Spans go from 2,80 m to 5,50 m : the possibility of increasing spans v aries acc ording to ;
countries, the slenderness and the shape of the trees us ed, but als o by the us e of various
     s
for m of c onstruc tion process . In this spirit, one can us e inter mediate beams (Franc e), or
increase the secti on of the beam (Spain).
In Tunisia, s pans can var y from 2,00 to 3,00 m : the pal m tree joists are trapez oidal or
rectangular s haped.                                                                                                                                               Construction principle : type of laying
No traditional means to i ncreas e the s pan were r eported.

Thermal - Acoustic.
With the exception of Palestine, and in c omparison with the nature of poured materials used ;
lime, s and, earth, this ty pe of floor offers good acoustic and ther mal perfor mance.
In Tunisia, this type of floor pres ents good calorific and phonic aptitude. However, those are
related to the thickness of hard- pac ked earth.

Waterproofing, protection against bad weather (top floor)
In Algeria, in Morocco, in T unisia and Palestine, this ty pe of fl oor is als o us ed as roof terrace.
In this case, one applies a waterproofing blanket on the surface made up of clay / white cl ay
or with an applicati on of a pl astery c oati ng on the whol e surface to waterproof.
In Tunisia, the means implemented to carry out the waterproofing of this type of floor, when it
is used as a roof terrace consists in the application of a layer of cl ay or a thick plaster layer
above the c omplex of hard-pac ked earth, applied and distributed on the whole surface to
waterproof.




 This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States   3/6
                                                                                                              C 3 T uni s i a – W o ode n fl oor w i th po ur ed s up por t, w i th mor t ar

AS P E C T, P ATH O L O G Y

As p e c t

Finishing, associated roofing.
The beams are commonly left bar e, howev er throughout the MEDA countries, li m w ashes,    e
projected plaster or painted dec orations are also used.
Flooring s urfaces can be left bare, in particular for roof attics, r ural or modest i nteriors. They
can also be protec ted with a surfacing of li me or, in the cas e of wealthier buildings , with the
laying of terracotta el ements , of stone floorings, s ometi mes even of Terrazzo, starting from
the 19th c entury. In Algeria, i n Morocco, in T unisia and Palestine this type of constructi on c an
be used for the realisati on of roof terrace.
In Tunisia, aside from the techniques mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the finis hing of
this type of floor can also be left bare, c overed with elements of terracotta or milky plas ter for
dwelling interiors.


Ag e i n g p a t ho lo g y

Linked to materials and climatic conditions :
Throughout the c ountries of the MED A area, one notes that the mai n causes of degradation
related to ageing are insec ts, mus hrooms and especially moistur e. Due to a lack of
                                             s
maintenanc e, in particular for water room , (bathroom, kitchen) and for attics. T his lack brings
about a disintegr ation of the li me mortars and causes the rotting of the beam .    s
In order to av oid thes e degradati ons, one c arries out white-was hing whitewas h or plastering of
          s
the beam , as w ell as regular c hecking of the roofings and leak age risks.
In the c ountries usi ng this technique of floor, for the realisati on of roof terraces, one notic es an
agei ng of the w ork under the acti on of rain and moisture when the layer of waterproofing,
generally out of clay, is not maintained.
In Tunisia, the ageing of this floor (low and high) is linked to three main factors:

- m oisture : U nder the acti on of rai nwater and lac k of mai ntenance one notices the sagging of
  the j oists constituting the floor.

- the tec hnical c onditions w hile chopping down the pal m tree and the quality of the w ood
  (treated and untr eated) : The pal m trees used for c onstruc tion must be alive, quite green
  and with sap. They can be chopped down at any s eason, bec aus e the s ap runs
  permanentl y (as long as it is ali ve and as long as it was not us ed for the extraction of Legmi
  juice). This s ap plays a significant role in the pr eser vati on of wood after choppi ng. It
  transfor ms into resin, impregnati ng the fibers of wood, thus offering a bl oc ker to the various
  aggressions. The palm trees, intended for c hopping, ar e an average 9 m. They are
  chopped out with an axe, in logs 4 to 4,5 m. Under the effec t of ambi ent dr y air, untreated
  wooden bec omes breakable and friabl e.

- The hygrosc ope variations as well as the attacks of i nsects finish off this degradation. In
  order to pres erve the wood in its mass, the wood is soaked in a proc ess c alled " tangui ". It
  consists in the immersion of the tr unks i n the s alty water of a" chott " (brac kish water lake)
  for at l east six months. T hen, they are l eft to dry under the s un for si x months before bei ng
  cut to size.

Linked to the technique:
Generally, ageing pathologies related to the technique are linked either to a under-sized
     ary
pri m structure, or to an ov erload of the flooring, or to the quality of the wood used.
In the fr ame of floors laid with a s acrifice for m-work, the elements constituting the for m-work
can bring forth degradation and w eak nesses of the flooring, bec aus e of their perishabl e
nature.
In Tunisia, the essential ageing factors linked to the technique ar e primarily the type of
waterproofing chosen for the roof terrac es and mai ntenance.


AS S O C I ATE D W O RK S

O p e n ing s
Generally, the ass ociated w orks are hoppers used to ensure vertical circulation with a
staircase or a ladder.
In Tunisia, no opening for this type of floor, were noticed in T unisia.


C on n e c t ion fr a m e w o r k - V er t i c al S tr u c tu r e ( w a ll ) :
The connection with the vertical s tructure is carried out by embedding and sealing.



 This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States   4/6
                                                                                                               C 3 T uni s i a – W o ode n fl oor w i th po ur ed s up por t, w i th mor t ar

R E AL I Z ATI O N D E S C RI P TI O N
The mas on c an proceed i n two ways:

1st Method :
  Assemble the masonries and make nec essary supplies to l ay the beam s ections, then carry out the laying of the beams, after having lifted them
  by means of hoists and pulleys .
                                                                                             s
  This technique requires the stuffing or s ealing of the areas between wall and beam with mortar. Assembl e the mas onry and lay the beams
  gradually as the work comes along, using the freshly lai d beams as scaffolding.
  Then, another mortar l ayer is put i n plac e, s preading the weights and pl aying the role of a for mwork left in plac e.
  Finally, lay the finishing slab.

2nd Method
  Assemble the masonries and make nec essary supplies to l ay the beam s ections, then carry out the laying of the beams, after having lifted them
  by means of hoists and pulleys .
                                                                                               s
  This technique requires the stuffing or s ealing of the areas between wall and beam with mortar. Assembl e the mas onry and lay the beams
  gradually as the work comes along, using the freshly lai d beams as scaffolding. Then, s etting the sc affolding and the for mwork structure below
  or betw een the beams. Finally, lay the finis hing slab, waiting for it to dry before taki ng on with the next levels.

In Tunisia :

•        Palm trees are c hopped down in winter, after cutting up and bar king, plunge the trunks in a salted water lake (chot). Salt penetrates the
         various layers of wood, i mproving in particular water repellent and resistance characteristics.

•        The implementation of the floor takes pl ace in the beautiful s eas on. An absence of rain is necessar y to avoid water i nfiltration.
         A s killed mas on, hel ped by two or four workmen, who hand the materials to him, are c harged to assembl e it.

•        First place joists bound or with a maximum s paci ng of 30 with 50cm if it are intended to bear a l ayer of nailed boards. Sink their s upports in
         lime mortar in order to prevent them from rotting and to ens ure maxi mum preser vati on.

•        Embed the joists with piec es of limestone, which bond the lime mortar.

•        Continue to rise the wall (intermedi ate floor) or the low wall (floor terrace), by laying a bed of stone immediatel y above the mortar, spread
         out over the top fac e of the j oists.

•        Once the joists are sealed, start the realisation of the flooring. The preparator y phas e c onsists in setting up either a bed of es parto, as
         weather-stripping, or a bed of nailed and j ointed boards.

•        Then c omes a thick layer of hard-pac ked earth. Pac k this filling on a height of approximately 20 to 30c m, using a wooden bludgeon with a
         long handle.

•        Level the agglomerate s urfac e with a bl anket of lime mortar, doubled with a layer of clay when this c omplex is used to build roof terrac es.




This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States   5/6
                                                                                                               C 3 T uni s i a – W o ode n fl oor w i th po ur ed s up por t, w i th mor t ar

U S E , E V OL U TI ON AN D TR AN S F O R MATI O N

U se

Types of buildings
This process is commonly used in Algeria, Spain, France, Morocc o, Tunisia and Pal estine whatever the type of building and s ocial environment.
In Tunisia, thes e floors are used for the realisation of all kinds of cons truction, in partic ular of dwellings.

Period when the technique first appeared. Period when the technique is in use – still used today or disappeared :
Generally the us e of these tec hniques is regarded as bei ng thousands of y ears old.
In Tunisia, the use and the appearanc e of this tec hnique are not dated precis ely, however it is regarded as s ecul ar.

Reasons why the technique disappeared or has been modified :
These tec hniques al most disappeared today, although the know-how is not forgotten.
Indeed, taught and us ed till recent ti mes, they little by little c eded to c oncrete techniques, whose cost, maintenance and sturdiness compete with
this type of framew ork.
In Tunisia, the tec hnique of this type of fl oor is not used any more. Several factors contributed to its disappearing; the generalisation of new
materials and techniques of i mplementation.


E v o l u tio n / Tr a n s f or m a t io n

The materials
Two contempor ary tec hniques are possibl e: solid poured flooring and a flooring of beams and mortar.
In Tunisia, today, one most often uses metal beams, hollow bricks with three hol es, and cement.

The technical aspects
The technical as pects are above all the easiness and resistanc e of concrete.
In Tunisia, no c omments were brought on this s ubject.

Evaluation of materials and replacement techniques
The replacement of the traditi onal tec hniques by concrete leads on the one hand to the loss of ancestr al know-how but also to different aspec t
features. If the resistance of c oncrete does n’t need to be proven, it still remains a bad phonic and ther mal ins ulator. Moreover, the combination of
its rigidity and struc tures liable to distort (walls of traditional masonry) has bad res ults.
In Tunisia, no remar ks were made on this subject.




This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States   6/6

								
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