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					Civil Works Challenges,
Strategies and Priorities
                 Presentation to
        Pacific Northwest
      Waterways Association

   Steven L. Stockton, P.E.
   Director of Civil Works
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

               2 March 2010

US Army Corps of Engineers
                                   1   BUILDING STRONG®
Civil Works Value to the Nation
                                                                                                        926 Harbors

                                                         Stewardship of Public Lands
               3% of Nation’s Electricity:                      11.7 M Acres
                $800 M + in power sales

                                                                          12,000 miles of
                                                                     Commercial Inland Waterways

    400 miles of
 Shoreline Protection

                                  ~11,750 miles of Levees                 50% cost of Rail;
                                                                         10% cost of Trucks
 Destination for 75%
  of U.S. Vacations                                                                                Environmental Restoration
                                 Recreation Areas
                                 370 M visitors / yr

                                                                              12                   72,000 Regulatory Permits
                           Generate $18 B + 500 K jobs                     Responses

               • US Ports and Waterways convey >2B Tons of Commerce
                 • Foreign Trade alone creates >$160 B in Tax Revenues
                                                                 2                                 BUILDING STRONG®
Water Resources Challenges
 Aging Infrastructure
 • ASCE overall grade of U.S. infrastructure in
   2009:“D” Would need $2.2 trillion to fix
 • Over half of Corps locks, many other
   facilities, beyond 50-year “design life, need
   extensive maintenance & rehabilitation
 • Failure poses risk to populations, economy
 • Foreign trade is increasing share of U.S.
   economy – could reach 30% by 2010
 • Inability of ports and inland waterways to
   handle greater cargoes could limit economy.
 • Development of hydropower as clean source
 • Role of waterways in transport of coal,
   petroleum and natural gas
 • Volumes of water needed for new sources
                                     3             BUILDING STRONG®
Water Resources Challenges
                                                       County Growth, 2000-05
Demographic shifts                                       Areas with significant water issues
• World population to increase 2.2 billion by 2025
• U.S. population to reach 440 million by 2050
• Population more urbanized, concentrated in
  coastal communities at risk from severe
  weather and lack of fresh water

Persistent Conflict
• Population growth leads to increased demand
  for scarce water, environmental degradation
     •>900 million people without access to clean
     water, >2.5 billion without adequate sanitation
• Terrorist threat – need to protect infrastructure
  from attack
• U.S. role to promote regional stability

                                        4                     BUILDING STRONG®
Water Resources Challenges
Environmental Values
• Pressure from increased development
  impacts natural environment
• Developing sustainable water resources
  will require cultural shift, lifestyle changes
  as well as technical innovation
Climate Change
• Earlier spring snowmelts, river pulses
  seen in western U.S.
• Potential to affect all aspects of water
  resource management
• May exacerbate water scarcities,
  lead to increased conflict over uses.
Declining Biodiversity
• 3 times as many freshwater species as
  land species lost to extinction
• Need for habitat restoration
                                         5         BUILDING STRONG®
 Water Resources Challenges
• Determining proper roles for Federal,
  State, local and non-government entities
• Gaps in jurisdiction as watersheds
  cross political boundaries
• Perceived lack of national direction on
  water resource issues
Continued Pressure on
 Federal Budget
• More older people = more entitlement spending, less available for
  discretionary programs
• Rigorous analysis needed to ensure projects and programs are prioritized
  to ensure greatest value for taxpayer funds

                                       6                    BUILDING STRONG®
Water Resources Challenges
                     Demand for

              7       BUILDING STRONG®
USACE’s Campaign Plan

            8       BUILDING STRONG®
How We Achieve Our Goals
          Integrated Water Resource
          • Systems Approach
          • Collaboration &
          • Risk-Informed Decision
            Making & Communication
          • Adaptive Management
          • State-of-the Art
               9           BUILDING STRONG®
Our Strategy: Integrated Water
Resources Management
A Definition:
  A holistic focus on water resource
  challenges and opportunities that reflects
  coordinated development and
  management of water, land and related
  resources while maximizing economic
  services and environmental quality and
  ensuring public safety while providing for
  the sustainability of vital ecosystems

                      10             BUILDING STRONG®
Systems Approach
• Look at river basins,
  waterheds and coastal zones
  as a whole
• Shift focus from individual
  projects to interdependent
• Shift from immediate to long-
  term solutions
• Recognize that any single
  action triggers one or more
  responses and reactions in
  other parts of the system
                        11        BUILDING STRONG®
Inland Marine Transportation System
Investment Strategy Team Goals
 • Waterways should be planned and managed as
   • Prioritize work
   • Fund priority work efficiently
   • Maximize system benefits within funds provided
 • Project acquisition plan should be based on
   efficient project funding once a project
   commitment is made.
 • Realistic risk-based estimates of project costs and
   schedules at completion of feasibility reports.
 • USACE – Industry (IWUB) Team
                                 12                   BUILDING STRONG®
Collaboration & Partnering
• Allow multiple organizations
  to contribute to problem-solving
• Leverage funding, data and talent
   – Efficiencies, given scarce
   – Sophisticated state and interstate
   – Tribes, local governments, non-profit
   – Partnering with profit-making organizations a
     next step
                         13             BUILDING STRONG®
Examples of Collaborative
• “Building Strong Relationships
  for a Sustainable Water
  Resources Future” Project
• Climate change initiative
• Risk management
• Shared Vision Planning
• Regulatory streamlining - EPA
• Focus collaboration efforts – NRCS
• GIS Investment Decision tool
                    14           BUILDING STRONG®
Risk-Informed Decision Making
& Communication
• Consequence analysis,
  especially risks to
• Forestall possible failure
• Quantify & communicate
  residual risk
• Ask which projects will
  fail to perform as
  designed, the likelihood
  of failure, and the consequences
• Recognize limits in disaster prediction
• Recognize limits in protection provided by
  structural means
                             15                BUILDING STRONG®
Shared Flood Risk Management

                   Residual Risk

              16           BUILDING STRONG®
Adaptive Management
              • Principle commonly
                used in ecosystem
              • Measure responses to
                interventions within
                systems to adjust
                planning, construction
                and operations in
                response to changing

             17             BUILDING STRONG®
State-of-the Art Technology
• Research that improves
  resiliency of structures
• Updated design criteria
• Improved approaches to
  planning & design
• Take advantage of
  advances in communication, information
  access, remote sensing, GIS’s &
• Coastal & River Information System

                         18            BUILDING STRONG®
Major Priorities - Short Term
(60-120 days)
• Presentation and defense of FY 2011 Budget
  – Answers to Congressional questions
• Execution of funds made available for FY 2010
  – ARRA Work: Ensure obligation of entire $4.6 B; Shift
    funds to other projects if funded projects stall.
• Completion of WRDA 2007 implementation
• Inland Marine Transportation System Investment
• Operational Condition Assessments (Navigation)
• Recreation Roadmap
                           19                 BUILDING STRONG®
Major Priorities - Long Term
• New Paradigm for Budgeting
  – Dialogue on alternate schemes to fund, finance and
    prioritize CW actions
• Collaboration
  – Integrated Water Resources Management vision
  – response to Executive Memorandum on
    Transparency & Open Government
  – Increase opportunities for public participation.
  – Technology platforms to improve collaboration in
    watersheds and systems
• Consider steps to reach goal of 18-month
  feasibility studies

                           20                 BUILDING STRONG®
Major Priorities - Long Term
• WRDA 2007 Implementation
   – $23 B – largest in a generation
   – ~900 provisions
   – Train field to develop draft guidance consistent with policy and
     previous guidance.
   – Corps reform provisions including independent external
     peer review, mitigation, Principles and Guidelines.
• Achieve vision for USACE National Flood Risk
  Management Program
   –   Full intergovernmental partnership and collaboration
   –   Updated Executive Order on Floodplain Management
   –   Expansion of Silver Jackets program
   –   Flood Risk Management Strategy to address USACE role in
       assuring All Hazard Protection and resilience of Nation's critical
       water resources infrastructure
• Fully implement Readiness XXI initiative
                                     21                     BUILDING STRONG®
Major Priorities - Long Term
• Asset Management culture
  – Deliver reliable infrastructure through use of risk-based
  – Risk-informed strategy applied to budget process
  – Optimize use of limited resources across multiple
    business lines
• Move Regulatory program toward more
  transparent, clear, consistent process.
  – Collaboration with Federal, State, Tribal and Local
  – Decisions based on best science for protection of
    aquatic resources

                              22                  BUILDING STRONG®
A Picture of the Future ….
• Stronger partnerships for
  collaborative problem solving
• A comprehensive strategy to
  inform and educate
• Smarter regional planning
• Advocacy for critical national
  water needs
• Joint efforts/resources to
  achieve common goals
• Life-cycle approach from
  holistic assessment through
• Risk-based management
• Resilient water infrastructure
                           23      BUILDING STRONG®
US Army Corps of Engineers
                             24   BUILDING STRONG®
       Proposed Guidelines: Water
       Resources Projects Should:
I.    Promote economic development;
II.   Preserve and restore ecosystem functions and services;
III.  Promote wise use of floodplains and flood-prone areas;
IV.   Use a watershed approach;
V.    Use best available practices, analytical techniques, procedures
      and tools;
VI. Use a planning process with a level of detail commensurate with
      the investment level and type of the study;
VII. Account for benefits and costs in appropriate monetary and non-
      monetary terms;
VIII. Account for significant effects and mitigate any unavoidable
      impacts to ecosystem functions and services;
IX. Address risk and uncertainty;
X. Address public safety;
XI. Ensure the planning process is fully transparent; and
XII. Promote collaboration.
                                   25                   BUILDING STRONG®
Principles & Guidelines Revision
• Water is a valued and limited natural resource
  that is important to human health and the
  natural environment.
• The quality and quantity of water resources
  affects all levels of our society, from the
  National level to that of the individual citizen.
• Water resources are an important factor in our
  economy, be it local or National.
• Our society is dependent upon water resources
  for a myriad of things, including food
  production and processing, recreation,
  manufacturing, sanitary waste disposal
  systems, and transportation.
                            26              BUILDING STRONG   ®
 Something to Think About
• What can we do now, within exiting
  authorities, to foster Integrated Water
  Recourses (IWRM) Management?
• What are the products of such planning?
  How they compare with how we define
• What is the Federal role in watershed-
  system planning an approach under IWRM?
• How can we incentivize this approach (look
  at cost-sharing formulas)?
• What can we do with cost-sharing to promote greater
  interest in watershed plans among authorizers?
• What case studies do we have to show value to the
  nation from this approach and what models should
  we promote?
                              27               BUILDING STRONG®
Civil Works Program Overview
                                                    Support for
                                                                              ARRA Funds
             18000                                     Others
                                                  ( Reimbursable )

                                           Flood Control                                            Non-Federal Cost Sharing
                                          Miss. R. & Tribs.
$ Millions


             8000                                                      Flood &
             6000                                                     Regulatory


             2000            Operation & Maintenance

                 FY00    FY01      FY02    FY03      FY04     FY05     FY06    FY07   FY08   FY09    FY10    FY11    FY12      FY13

                                                                       28                               BUILDING STRONG®
Budgets and Appropriations
                                   FY09       FY10     FY10     FY 11
                                 Approp.    Budget   Approp.   Budget
Investigations                  168          100       160       104
Operation & Maint.            2,202        2,504     2,400     2,361
Construction                  2,142        1,718     2,031     1,690
Mississippi River & Tribs.      384          248       340       240
Regulatory Program              183          190       190       193
Flood Cont. & Coastal Emerg.      0           41         0        30
F.U.S.R.A.P.                    140          134       134       130
Expenses                        179          184       185       185
ASA(CW)                           4            6         5         6
Total Regular                 5,361        5,125     5,445     4,939
Supplemental Approps.         6,558
Stimulus Bill                 4,600

                            29                       BUILDING STRONG®
Major Construction Projects
( $10 M or More in FY11 Budget )
                                   Columbia R.
                          137      Fish Mitigation                   11 Garrison Dam

                                                       Missouri R. Fish &
                                                        Wildlife Recovery   78                      Upper Mississippi
                                                                                                21 River Restoration
 Napa River
 Salt Marsh                                                                                                                                Emsworth
                                                                                                                                                                 NY / NJ
 Restoration                                                                                                                               Lock & Dam       57   Harbor
                                                                              McCook & Thornton Reservior     40                         12
          12        78    Folsom Dam                                                                               10   Dover
                                                                                                Little Calumet River     Dam
 Hamilton          10 Sacramento River                                                             Olmsted Lock & Dam
  Airfield           Bank Protection
 Wetlands                                                                                                                               15 Bluestone Lake
Restoration                                                                                                    136           134
                                                                                           Clearwater                               Wolf Creek Dam
                                                                                                Lake     40
                          25 Santa Ana River
                             Mainstem                10 Rio Grande          24 Canton Lake
                                                                                                                              Center Hill Dam

                                                                            Mississippi River Levees     29

                                                                                     Mississippi River                                                 Portugues and
                                                                                 Channel Improvement
                                                                                                         47                                                                40
                                                                                                                                                    Bucana Rivers, PR
                                                                                                                                                            Rio Puerto
                                                                                                                                                            Nuevo, PR
                                                                     Lower Colorado                      17
                   Flood Risk Management                             River Basin 10                 Louisiana                                           Herbert Hoover Dike
                                                                                                   Coastal Area                               105
                   Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration                                                                                                     11 Dade County
                                                                                                                                                        South Florida
                                                                                                                                              180       Ecosystem Restoration


                                                                                  30                                                BUILDING STRONG®
FY11 Budget by Business Line
  $34 M

                                Flood Risk Mgt
                     $1,549 M
 $824 M                         Environmental
                                Emerg Mgt
          $1,653 M

                          31      BUILDING STRONG®
Civil Works Priorities
 • Transforming the Program to meet 21st
   Century needs
 • Flood Risk Management
 • Contingency Planning & Response
 • Watersheds & Systems
 • Knowledge Management
 • Asset Management & Infrastructure
 • Regulatory Program
                      32           BUILDING STRONG®
  U.S. Army Civil Works Program
                                        Preserving the Strength of the Nation
                                                Deliver enduring, comprehensive,
                                             sustainable, and integrated solutions to
                                                the Nation’s water resources and
                                                        related challenges
                                                    through collaboration with
                                                         our stakeholders
                                              ( Regions, States, localities, Tribes, other Federal
                                                                   agencies )
Lock and Dam 15 ( Mississippi River )                                                                   Dredge ESSAYONS ( Coos Bay, OR )
                                                   ($1.746 B) Navigation (32%)

                                                   ($1.865 B) Flood Risk (34%)

                                                   ($940 M) Ecosystem (18%)
                                                  Restoration & Infrastructure

                                                    ($211 M) Hydropower (4%)
Flood Wall ( Williamson, KY )                                                                               Lake Seminole ( Mobile District )
                                              ($284 M) Recreation & Natural (5%)
                                                    Resource Management

                                              ($190 M) Regulatory Program: (3%)
                                                    Wetlands & Waterways

                                             ($14 M) Disaster Preparedness (<1%)
                                                         & Response

Everglades                                         ($5 M) Water Supply (<1%)                         Bonneville II Powerhouse ( Washington )
                                                                       33                                   BUILDING STRONG®
New Operating Reality
     Traditional                     Era of large federal,                             New / Renewed
    USACE Role                       single-purpose water                               USACE Role
                                        projects is over.
                                       …………………….          

                                      Role of USACE as
                                     sole decision maker
             Regulator                                                                       Collaborative
                                     and technical expert                                      Problem
                                      for water solutions                                       Solver
Operator /               Resource         is changing
Manager                  Provider       
                                        Water resources
                                          community                                  Provider of         Provider of
                                      recognizes need for                             Technical          Information
                                     more transparency and                           Assistance            and Data

                                         engagement in
Designer /                              water resources
                                                        Facilitator
              Policy                There is a need and more                                       and
              Maker                  desire for collaborative
                                       regional planning

                                                                34                            BUILDING STRONG®
 New Thinking
     Focus              From                             To
• SUCCESS =    • Projects                • Comprehensive Plans
• CRITERIA     • NED benefits 1st        • More balanced NED, RED,
                                           EQ, OSE benefits
• WORK         • Stay in your functional • Seek horizontal integration
• KNOWLEDGE    • Knowledge is power      • Share knowledge

• STYLE        • Follow SOPs as          • Think creatively, consider
                 recipes                   risks, think systems

• MONEY        • Save Federal $          • Leverage resources
• LIFE CYCLE   • Plan and build          • Plan, fund, monitor for full
                                           project life cycle

                                    35                   BUILDING STRONG®
Innovative Financing
                 • Go beyond traditional
                   government appropriations
                 • Public-private partnerships
                 • Adjustable cost-sharing
                 • Revised funding prioritization
                 • User-based fees
• Federal budget will be increasingly consumed
  by health care, entitlements, military operations
  and interest on debt, leaving little for
  discretionary spending
                         36             BUILDING STRONG®
 Something to Think About
• What can we do now, within exiting
  authorities, to foster Integrated Water
  Resources (IWRM) Management?
• What are the products of such planning?
  How they compare with how we define
• What is the Federal role in watershed-
  system planning an approach under IWRM?
• How can we incentivize this approach (look
  at cost-sharing formulas)?
• What can we do with cost-sharing to promote greater
  interest in watershed plans among authorizers?
• What case studies do we have to show value to the
  nation from this approach and what models should
  we promote?
                              37               BUILDING STRONG®

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