Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas OEPA by MikeJenny


									Onchocerciasis Elimination Program
                   for the Americas
                                 — OEPA –

                                       October 2005

                Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in the Americas
           5th Regional Program Review Group (RPRG) Meeting
                                            (San José, Costa Rica)
Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the
            Americas (OEPA)
Headquartered in Guatemala, OEPA is
the technical and coordinating body of
a multi-national, multi-agency coalition
that acts under the 1991 Resolution
XIV of XXXV Directing Council of the
Pan American Health Organization
calling for the elimination of all
onchocerciasis morbidity from the
Americas by the year 2007.
       Partnership Organizational Chart
 57th WHA, May 19, 2004                        IACO 2003, Cartagena, Colombia

  MDP/                      Lions     Carter   Gates    PAHO/                     NGDO
Merck & Co.                  Club     Center Foundation WHO                     & OTHERS

                                                       PCC            Programmatic
                          Executor     OEPA

                                           Country Programs

      Brazil        Colombia         Ecuador     Guatemala           Mexico       Venezuela
      Geographic Distribution of Onchocerciasis in
                     the Americas
    MEXICO       2                                                         9. North-eastern Focus
             3                                                             8. North-central Focus
                     4 GUATEMALA                                          10. Southern Focus (Amazonas/Bolivar)
                       6 7                                                  BRAZIL:
MEXICO:                                                                      11. Amazonas-Roraima Focus
1. Oaxaca Focus
2. Northern Chiapas Focus                                                                 (YANOMAMI Area)
3. Southern Chiapas Focus
                                                                                   8             9
4. Cuilco Focus (Huehuetenango)                                                        VENEZUELA
5. Central Focus: - Sololá,
                  - Suchitepéquez
                  - Chimaltenango                COLOMBIA:            COLOMBIA
6. Escuintla , Guatemala Focus                                                              10
                                               12. López de Micay Focus
7. Santa Rosa Focus                                              12
                                   13. Esmeraldas/ Pichincha Focus
                                       - Cayapas River                                               BRAZIL
                                       - Santiago River      ECUADOR
                                       - Onzole River
                                       - Satellite Foci:
                                       (Canandé and others)
   Percentage of the Ultimate Treatment Goal (2)
                  by Focus, 2004

*UTG(2): UTG multiplied by two.
               OEPA Strategy
(wording from WHO Certification Document)
 6-monthly mass distributions of Mectizan® in all
   endemic areas, covering at least 85% of the
   eligible population.
 Two primary goals:
  First, to eliminate morbidity due to infection with
   O. volvulus in the six-country programme by the
   year 2007. This is also stated as elimination of
   onchocerciasis as a public health problem by the
   year 2007.
  Second, to eliminate parasite transmission in
   those countries or foci where feasible. No time
   limit is specified.
    Criteria for Certification of Elimination
     (wording from WHO Certification Document)

        4. 1. Elimination of Morbidity
    Absence of reversible lesions in the anterior
     segment of the eye (punctate keratitis,
     microfilariae in the anterior chamber). A 5-year
     cumulative incidence rate of less than 1 new
     case per 1000 is acceptable
    It must be remembered that permanent eye
     lesions, as well as some severe skin or lymphatic
     lesions, are irreversible. Such “old morbidity”
     cannot be eliminated except by death.
4 .2. Elimination of Transmission and

4. 2. 1. Entomology
   The absence, or near absence, of infective-
   stage larvae in the vector population as
   determined by PCR in a minimum sample
   size of 10,000 flies for each endemic
   community tested.
4. 2. 2. Human Epidemiology (Children)

  The absence of detectable infection
  (as evidenced by microfilariae, nodules,
  immunological or other proven tests) in
  untreated children reaching the age of 5.
  A 5-year cumulative incidence rate of less
  than 1 new case per 1000 susceptible
  children is acceptable.
4. 2. 3. Human Epidemiology (Migrants)

  The absence of detectable infection in
  untreated, new residents who have
  migrated into an endemic area where
  transmission has been interrupted
  (1 new case per 1000 susceptible
SIMON: A simulation of numbers of infected persons in
the population of Corriente Grande following continual
       six-monthly distribution of ivermectin.
Proportion of non- receivers 2.0%. Each line represents one of 100
                         model replicates.

                                    Adult Worm Negative
SIMON: A generated probability of eliminating all living
  female O. volvulus from the human population of
  Corriente Grande, expressed as the proportion of
   uninfected persons remaining in the population
                      each year
  Year          2001        2002     2003     2004     2005     2006     2007

                   2          15      53       77       95       99      100

                 -0.3 -      8.6 –   41.0 –   62.5 –   78.9 –   82.6 –   83.5 –
95% CI            4.3        21.3     65.0     91.5    111.1    115.4    116.5

 Source: Davies, 2005, unpublished

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