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					            Final Exam Study Guide
   What did Linnaeus base his classification system on?
      o Physical and structural similarities

   What are the taxonomic classification levels from largest to smallest?
      o Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

   What information does a cladogram provide? What does a pedigree tell
       o Cladogram – uses derived traits to create a branching diagram
       o Pedigree – show direct ancestry of an organism from two parents

   How do you know, based on their taxonomy, if certain animals are closely
        o Animals that are the related the closest to one another are found in same
           taxonomic groups, from the domain all the way down to species

   What is ecology?
      o The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their

   What is an abiotic factor? Biotic Factor?
      o Abiotic – nonliving parts of an organism’s environment. (Ex: air,
          temperature, light, water)
      o Biotic – living parts of an organism’s environment (Ex: plant life and
          animal life)

   What are the 5 levels of organization in ecology?
      o Organism – an individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy,
          reproduces, grows, and develops
      o Population – a group of organisms, all of one species, which interbreed
          and live in the same place at the same time
      o Community – all the populations of different species that live in the same
          place at the same time
      o Ecosystem – Populations of plants and animals that interact with each
          other in a given area and with the abiotic components of that area
      o Biosphere – the portion of the Earth that supports life.
   What is an organism’s habitat? Its niche? How many organisms can occupy
    the same niche without competition taking place?
        o Habitat – the place where an organism lives out its life
        o Niche – all strategies and adaptations a species uses in its environment
        o One organism per niche without competition

   What are the three types of symbiosis?
        o Mutualism – both species benefit (Ex: Bee pollinating flower and getting
            nectar from flower for food)
        o Commensalism – one species benefits, other remains neutral (Ex: Bacteria
            on human skin. Skin gives bacteria a place to live and feed, human
            unharmed by bacteria)
        o Parasitism – one species benefits and the other is harmed (Ex: tick feeding
            on a human)
   What is an autotroph? Heterotroph? Decomposer?
        o Autotroph – organism that uses light energy or energy stored in chemical
            compounds to make energy-rich compounds. Makes their own food!!!
            (Ex: fern)
        o Heterotroph – An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds on
            other organisms (Ex: tiger)
        o Decomposer – break down complex compounds on dead and decaying
            plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be more easily
            absorbed. (Ex: Club fungus)
   Why is an ecosystem generally limited to between three and five trophic
        o Only 10% of the energy that is found in a lower trophic level is transferred
            to the next trophic level when one organism eats another. By the time you
            get to the 3rd trophic level, you only have 1% of the energy you had at the
            first trophic level.

   A hawk eats a weasel that has eaten a mouse that has eaten grass seeds.
    What level consumer is the hawk?
       o Grass seeds (Producer)
       o Mouse (1st level consumer)
       o Weasel (2nd level consumer)
       o Hawk (3rd level consumer)
   Why are nitrogen fixing bacteria important to sustaining life?
      o Plants cannot use nitrogen in the air, but they need nitrogen to survive.
         Nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil convert the nitrogen in the air into
         ammonia, which the plants can use in order to survive.

   What is the main process by which carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
    becomes parts of living things?
       o Photosynthesis

   What is the main way in which organisms release carbon dioxide into the
       o Respiration

   How does water reach most terrestrial ecosystems?
      o Precipitation

   What are limiting factors?
      o Any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers,
          reproduction, or distribution of organisms (Ex: water availability in an

   An area is severely polluted and very few organisms survive. One species
    that remains is cockroaches. There is very little pollution fifty miles
    downstream of this polluted area, however mayfly larvae are unable to live in
    the creek. Why is this?
        o When it comes to pollution, cockroaches have a very broad range of
           tolerance and are able to survive under basically any conditions where
           there is pollution. This is not the case with the mayfly larvae, which have
           a narrow range of tolerance with pollution and cannot survive.

   A volcano covers an area with molten rock, killing everything for miles
    around. There is no soil remaining in the area. What sort of succession
    pattern would you expect as organisms recolonize the area?
       o Due to the fact that there is no remaining soil, primary succession will take
           place. If soil was left after the volcano erupted, secondary succession
           would take place.

   A forest fire burns many square miles of forest, leaving little alive. The soil
    remains, but the trees are gone. What sort of succession pattern would you
    expect as organisms recolonize the area?
       o Secondary succession because a soil was left behind.
   All significantly deep aquatic biomes are divided into photic and aphotic
    zones. Based on this fact, what do you think is the major limiting factor in
    such ecosystems?
        o Light. Photic zone has it and aphotic zone does not.

   What is the difference between aquatic and marine environments?
      o Aquatic biomes – all of the biomes on Earth that are composed of water.
      o Marine biomes – all saltwater aquatic biomes.
      o Freshwater biomes – all freshwater aquatic biomes.

   What are the two main limiting factors in terrestrial biomes?
      o Temperature and precipitation

   Which terrestrial biome is associated with high levels or precipitation and a
    warm climate?
       o Tropical rain forest

   Which terrestrial biome is associated with very low levels of precipitation
    and a warm climate?
       o Desert.

   Which terrestrial biome is associated with very cold temperatures and low
    levels of precipitation?
        o Tundra.

   What is Locard’s Principle?
      o When two objects come into contact with one another, there is a dual
          exchange of particles. (They leave their mark on one another)

   What is considered trace evidence?
      o Trace evidence - normally caused by objects or substances contacting one
          another, and leaving a minute sample on the contact surfaces
      o Examples: Blood, fibers, hair, fingerprints

   What constitutes a legal search?
      o Probable cause determined by a police officer

   When can you use forensics?
      o Criminal cases
      o Negligence
      o Document forgery
   What does documenting a crime scene include?
      o Securing the scene
      o Record the scene
      o Conduct a systematic search

   The majority of fingerprints found at a crime scene are invisible to the naked
    eye. What are these prints called?
       o Latent

   Why can’t crimes be solved based on fingerprint evidence only?
      o Fingerprinting is still not an exact science, so it no enough to convict
          someone of a crime by itself.

   What are the types of fingerprints?
      o Loop
      o Whorl
      o Arch

   What are the techniques used for finding fingerprints?
      o Ninhydrin solution
      o Superglue fuming
      o Inking
   What are the two classifications of fibers?
      o Natural and man made

   List two examples of natural fibers
       o Cotton, wool, silk

   Name the three patterns of fibers.
      o Satin, Plain, Twill

   When was the first synthetic fiber developed?
      o Rayon in the year 1891

   Compare and contrast the characteristics of different fibers.
      o Need to focus on color, texture, combustibility, weave pattern, and shape
         of threads.

   What must a scientist be able to do in order for fiber evidence to be useful in
       o Narrow the fiber down to one source
   What are erythrocytes, antigens, antibodies, and anti serums?
      o Erythrocytes – red blood cells
      o Antigens – found on the red blood cells. Used to determine which blood
          type an individual has. For example, if a person has A antigens on their
          red blood cells, they have type A blood.
      o Antibodies – found in blood, but not on actual blood cells. Basically the
          opposite of antigens. If person has type A blood, they have type B
          antibodies in their blood.
      o Anti serum – Used to test for blood types. Contain high levels of

   Explain the role of antigens and antibodies in determining blood type. A
    person with A antigens has which type of blood? B antigens? No antigens?
       o A antigens = type A blood
       o B antigens = type B blood
       o No antigens = type O blood

   What is the most common blood type in the US?
      o Type O

   Understand what type of reaction occurs when antisera is added to each
    blood type.
       o If antisera are added to a blood, and clumping occurs, the individual has
           the blood type that is labeled on the antisera.

   What is agglutination and what is its role in blood typing?
      o Agglutination = blood clumping
      o Role = allows forensic scientists to recognize a blood as a particular type
          by adding different anti sera to it.

   What are the three layers of hair that are labeled A-C in this picture?
      o A = Cuticle
      o B = Cortex
      o C = Medulla

   What is the approximate medullary index of human hair?
      o 1/3

   Draw a picture of the following medullary patterns
       o Continuous (Medulla throughout the entire hair)
       o Interrupted (Little breaks in the medulla)
       o Fragmented ( About half of the hair has medulla, other half does not)
       o Absent (No medulla)

   In which layer of the hair is color found in?
       o The cortex
   Why do certain substances foam and bubble when they react with vinegar?
      o A chemical reaction is taking place with the acid vinegar.

   Why does a solid form as the result of a reaction between NaOH and another
    chemical in solution?
       o They react in such a way that a solid forms. This solid is called a

   Why is it important to establish the properties of known material before
    being able to determine the identity of an unknown?
       o The properties of known substances will act as a standard for which you
           can use as a reference when testing an unknown substance, to hopefully
           figure out what that substance is through comparison.

   When phenolphthalein turns a solution pink, does it mean that the solution is
    acidic or basic?
        o Basic

   Why is the microscope not the best tool to use to determine the identity of
    white powders?
       o You are not able to see the various characteristics of each powder. Many
           white powders may look similar under the microscope.

   Which known substance had a reaction with iodine in our lab?
      o Cornstarch

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