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					                                                                                                                                                    Earth Sciences / 207


DNCE 260 (E-Z). Seminar in Dance History (4)                DNCE 297. Directed Research (1-6) Outside research,         Assistant Professors
Seminar, 3 hours; written work, 3 hours.                    3-18 hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor and         Elizabeth Cochran, Ph.D.
Prerequisite(s): graduate standing; consent of instruc-     graduate advisor. Individualized studies in specially          Gareth Funning, Ph.D.
tor. Studies in E. Periods; F. Styles; G. National Forms;   selected topics in Dance under the direction of a fac-         Gorden Love, Ph.D.
H. Individual Artists; I. Choreographies; J. Aesthetics;    ulty member. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit                                     **
K. Dance Literature; L. Notation. Each segment is           (NC). Course is repeatable.                                 Adjunct Professors
repeatable as its content changes.                                                                                         Larissa F. Dobrzhinetskaya, Ph.D.
                                                            DNCE 298-I. Individual Internship (1-4) Internship, 3-
DNCE 264. Oral History (4) Seminar, 3 hours; individ-       12 hours; term paper, 3 hours; written work, 3 hours.          Robert C. Finkel, Ph.D.
ual study, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing      Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of               Douglas M. Morton, Ph.D.
or consent of instructor. Theory and practice of oral       instructor. Individual study or apprenticeship with an      Adjunct Assistant Professors
history as a research technique. Ethnographic, social       appropriate professional individual or organization to         Katherine J. Kendrick, Ph.D.
history, and gender perspectives on oral history; meth-     gain experience and skill in activities related to dance       Thomas A. Scott, Ph.D.
ods for research preparation, interview procedures,         studies. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC).         Lecturer
transcription, editing, and legal responsibilities.         Course is repeatable to a maximum of 12 units.                 Marilyn A. Kooser, Ph.D.
Interview project and analytical paper required.
DNCE 267. Choreographies of Writing (4) Seminar, 3
                                                            DNCE 299. Research for the Thesis or Dissertation (1-12)
                                                            Outside research, 3-36 hours. Prerequisite(s): consent
                                                                                                                        Majors
                                                                                                                        The Department of Earth Sciences offers B.S.
hours; discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate        of thesis or dissertation director. Research for and
standing or consent of instructor. An analysis of the       preparation of the thesis or dissertation. Graded           degrees in Geology and Geophysics, and a B.A.
types of relationships that may exist between dance         Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.   degree in Geoscience Education. These degree
and text. Examines the methods and strategies for                                                                       programs are designed for students with a
translating choreographed action into a written
description of that action. Students’ writing is a major
                                                            Professional Courses                                        strong interest in various aspects of the Earth
                                                                                                                        Sciences, and for students interested in sec-
focus of discussions.                                                                                                   ondary teaching with a science emphasis. The
                                                            DNCE 301. Directed Studies in the Teaching of
DNCE 269. Laban Movement Analysis (4) Seminar, 3            Dance (4) Seminar, 3 hours; consultation, 1 hour.           B.S. programs place substantial emphasis on
hours; outside research, 1 hour; consultation, 1 hour;      Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of            fieldwork with field courses, field trips in all
individual study, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): DNCE 120;        instructor. An assessment of the field of dance studies     appropriate courses, and excursions between
graduate standing or consent of instructor. An              as preparation for organizing and teaching general          quarters. The B.A. degree places emphasis on
advanced survey focusing on applied research con-           education courses. Analyzes current anthologies and         the fundamentals of geoscience, with additional
cepts and theories of the Laban Movement Analysis           other dance publications. Students create course syl-       coursework in education.
method of observing, recording, and analyzing human         labi and lesson plans and discuss a range of practical
body movement. Special attention is given to motif          teaching issues. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit
score writing, applying Effort, Shape, and Space            (NC). Course is repeatable to a maximum of 8 units.         Academic Advising
Harmony paradigms. Course is repeatable to a maxi-                                                                      Undergraduate advising in the Department of
                                                            DNCE 302. Teaching Practicum (1-4) Lecture, 1-4             Earth Sciences is designed to allow close
mum of 12 units.
                                                            hours. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing. Supervised
DNCE 280. Colloquium in Current Topics in Dance
                                                                                                                        professional contact with faculty and staff.
                                                            teaching in upper-division Dance History and lower-
Research (2) Colloquium, 2 hours. Prerequisite(s):          division Dance courses. Must be taken at least once
                                                                                                                        Counseling on graduation, departmental
graduate standing or consent of instructor. Colloquia       by all teaching assistants. Graded Satisfactory (S) or      requirements and enrollment is handled by the
on current research topics in dance by students, fac-       No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.                       major’s professional academic advisors housed
ulty, and visiting scholars. Students who attend all col-                                                               in the CNAS Undergraduate Academic
loquium and discussion sessions, and who write
weekly review papers and a term paper receive a let-
ter grade; other students receive a Satisfactory (S) or
                                                            Earth Sciences                                              Advising Center and the faculty undergraduate
                                                                                                                        advisor for each major.
No Credit (NC) grade.                                                                                                   Each student selects a faculty mentor who coun-
                                                            Subject abbreviation: GEO                                   sels the student on career goals and research
DNCE 290. Directed Studies (1-6) Outside research, 3-       College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences                opportunities. The department recommends that
18 hours. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing; consent
of instructor and Department Chair. To be taken to                                                                      students meet with their faculty mentor at least
meet special curricular problems. Normally graded              Mary L. Droser, Ph.D., Chair                             once each quarter to clarify career objectives and
Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) only, but students          Richard A. Minnich, Ph.D., Vice Chair                    revise the program of study so it is commensu-
may petition the instructor for a letter grade for spe-        Department Office, 3432 Pierce Hall                      rate with the developing interests and objectives
cialized topics pursued with close faculty supervision.        (951) 827-2441; earthscience.ucr.edu                     of the student.
Course is repeatable.
                                                            Professors
DNCE 291. Individual Study in Coordinated Areas (1-            James H. Dieterich, Ph.D.                                Teaching Credential and B.A. in
12) Outside research, 3-36 hours. Prerequisite(s):             Mary L. Droser, Ph.D.
graduate standing; consent of instructor and graduate          Harry W. Green, II, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                        Geoscience Education
advisor. A program of study designed to advise and
                                                                                                                        Teachers in the public schools in California must
                                                               Nigel C. Hughes, Ph.D.
assist graduate students who are preparing for written         Martin J. Kennedy, Ph.D.                                 have a credential approved by the State
and oral qualifying examinations. Does not count               Tien-Chang Lee, Ph.D.                                    Commission on Teacher Credentialing. The cre-
toward the unit requirement for the Ph.D. degree.              Timothy W. Lyons, Ph.D.                                  dential requires an undergraduate major, bac-
Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is           Richard A. Minnich, Ph.D.                                calaureate degree, and completion of a graduate
repeatable.                                                    Peter M. Sadler, Ph.D.                                   credential program such as that offered by the
DNCE 292. Concurrent Analytical Studies in Dance (1-        Professors Emeriti                                          Graduate School of Education at UCR.
4) Outside research, 3-12 hours. Prerequisite(s):              Shawn Biehler, Ph.D.
                                                               Lewis H. Cohen, Ph.D.                                    Before admission and student teaching in a
graduate standing; consent of instructor and Graduate
                                                               Wilfred A. Elders, Ph.D.                                 graduate credential program, the candidate
Advisor. To be taken concurrently with some 100-
series course, but on an individual basis. Limited to          Michael A. Murphy, Ph.D.                                 must pass the California Basic Education Skills
research, criticism, and written work of a graduate            Stephen K. Park, Ph.D.                                   Test (CBEST) and demonstrate subject-matter
order commensurate with the number of units elect-             Michael O. Woodburne, Ph.D.                              proficiency by passing an examination. All can-
ed. Normally graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC)      Associate Professors                                        didates for a multiple subject credential to
only, but students may petition the instructor for a let-      Michael A. McKibben, Ph.D.                               teach in the elementary grades must pass the
ter grade for specialized topics pursued with close            David D. Oglesby, Ph.D.                                  Multiple Subjects, California Subject Exam for
faculty supervision. Course is repeatable.                     Alan E. Williams, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                        Teachers (CSET). Students are urged to start
                                                                                                                        early, preferably as freshmen, selecting courses
208 / Programs and Courses


most helpful for this career. Details and coun-     geologic training including geology, geophysics,      Geoscience Education Major
seling on the Perpare to Teach Program, a pro-      geochemistry, and paleontology. An emphasis           Students who chose the B.A. degree in
gram for the multiple subject credential, are       is also placed on fieldwork (mapping, sam-            Geoscience Education intend to teach earth
available in the Office of Interdisciplinary        pling) and thoughtful analysis of geologic data       science and general science at the secondary
Programs, 2417 Humanities and Social                (including statistical and graphical analysis with    school level. Students receive Freshman- and
Sciences, (951) 827-2743. Details and coun-         computers). Though broadly based, the option          Sophomore-level training in General Geology,
seling on other programs are available in the       provides the student some flexibility to pursue       training in introductory Biology, and Freshman-
Department of Earth Sciences or the Graduate        specific geologic areas of interest at the upper-     level training in Chemistry, Calculus, and
School of Education.                                division level. Graduates of the General Geology      Physics. They also take courses in Education
                                                    option are qualified to pursue almost any pro-        that are required for state examinations and
UCR does not yet have a state-approved sub-
                                                    fessional career in the Earth Sciences and are        teacher credentialing in California. The B.A. in
ject matter undergraduate program for earth
                                                    well-suited to tackle graduate research at the        Geoscience Education degree is designed for
science majors who wish to teach at the sec-
                                                    M.S. or Ph.D. level.                                  prospective secondary science teachers; it will
ondary level. The Teaching Credential in
Science, geoscience authorization, is required      Global Climate Change Option The Global               not lead to a career as a professional geologist.
for teachers who want to teach earth sci-           Climate Change option offers earth science            Students who want to have the option to
ence/geoscience in middle school and high           training with an emphasis on modern and               become either a professional geoscientist or to
school. Students who plan to get this creden-       ancient evidence for global climate change and        teach earth science in secondary school should
tial must take the CSET exams in Geosciences        the effects of such processes on the planet.          pursue both the B.S. in General Geology as
and should make certain their academic pro-         Links between human activities, organismal            well as the teaching credential from the
gram includes preparatory course work. The          evolution, weathering, volcanism, plate tecton-       Graduate School of Education.
examination includes geoscience in depth and        ics, extraterrestrial events and the history of the
general science with introductory, college-level    atmosphere and oceans are examined.                   University Requirements
biology, chemistry, physics, and geoscience         Ancient earth climate trends are studied as           See Undergraduate Studies section.
(geology, meteorology, oceanography, astrono-       proxies for predicting future climate change.
my). CSET test guides are available at              Students in this option receive training in cli-      College Requirements
www.cset.nesinc.com.                                matology, oceanography, paleoecology, stratig-        See College of Natural and Agricultural
                                                    raphy, earth resources and the global carbon          Sciences, Colleges and Programs section.
Further information about courses, require-
                                                    cycle.
ments, and examinations can be obtained in                                                                Some of the following requirements for the
orientation meetings, the CalTEACH-SMI Office       Geobiology Option The Geobiology option offers        major may also fulfill some of the college’s
(1104 Pierce Hall) and the Graduate School of       broad-based geological training combined with         breadth requirements. Consult with a
Education (1124 Sproul Hall).                       a special emphasis on paleontology and organ-         department advisor for course planning.
                                                    ism–time interactions. Students take the geolo-
Earth Science students interested in a secondary
                                                    gy core but at the undergraduate upper-division
school science teaching career, who intend to
                                                    level focus on courses related to the fossil
                                                                                                          Major Requirements
obtain a Teaching Credential in Science, geo-                                                             Geology Major
science authorization, are encouraged to pursue     record, evolution and biodiversity, sedimentol-
                                                    ogy, stratigraphy, and biogeography. The gradu-       All courses in Geosciences that are prerequi-
the B.A. degree in Geoscience Education. This
                                                    ate leaves with a marketable geology degree           sites for other courses in the major must be
degree will best prepare such students for the
                                                    coupled with special insight into historical          passed with a grade of “C-” or better before
state credentialing examinations, but is not
                                                    aspects of life’s place and role on this planet.      proceeding in the sequence. For example,
intended for those students who wish to become
                                                                                                          GEO 001 is a prerequisite for GEO 122.
professional geologists. Students who want to       Geophysics Option The Geophysics option
have the option to become either a professional     allows a student to combine general geological        The department offers four options to majors
geoscientist or to teach earth science in second-   training with geophysical techniques to image         in Geology: General Geology, Geobiology,
ary schools should pursue both the B.S. in                                                                Geophysics, and Global Climate Change. All
                                                    the Earth's interior. Students take the geology
General Geology as well as the teaching creden-                                                           students majoring in Geology are normally
                                                    core but complete additional courses in physics,
tial from the Graduate School of Education.                                                               required to take the core curriculum.
                                                    mathematics, geophysics, and geohydrology.
Students in CNAS who intend to pursue a             Emphasis is placed on applications of geophysics
Teaching Credential in Science, with authoriza-
                                                                                                          General Geology, Geobiology,
                                                    to hydrological, environmental, and natural
tion in another science, should consider pursu-                                                           Geophysics, and Global Climate
                                                    resource problems. Graduates are especially
ing a Minor in Earth Sciences.                      suited to enter professional employment in            Change Options
Geology Major                                       environmental geology and resource exploration        Core Requirements (77-79 units)
The department offers four options for the          or graduate programs in Earth Sciences.               1. Lower-division requirements (58-59 units)
Geology major: General Geology, Geobiology,         Students seeking to enter graduate programs in
                                                    Geophysics should pursue the Geophysics major.          a) GEO 001, GEO 002, GEO 003/
Geophysics, and Global Climate Change.
                                                                                                               BIOL 010
Students who choose the Geology major study
the structure, composition, processes, and his-
                                                    Geophysics Major                                        b) BIOL 002 or both BIOL 005A and
                                                    Students who choose the Geophysics major
tory of the earth. In particular, the Geology                                                                  BIOL 05LA
                                                    apply the principles and concepts of physics,
major stresses features of the Earth’s surface                                                              c) Either CHEM 001A and CHEM 01LA or
                                                    mathematics, geology, and engineering to the
and interactions between its atmosphere,                                                                       CHEM 01HA and CHEM 1HLA, either
                                                    study of the physical characteristics of the
hydrosphere, biosphere, rocky crust, and interi-                                                               CHEM 001B and CHEM 01LB or CHEM
                                                    earth and other planets. They make measure-
or.                                                                                                            01HB and CHEM 01HLB, either CHEM
                                                    ments of gravity and magnetic fields, seismic
General Geology Option Students entering the        waves, temperatures, and natural electric                  001C and CHEM 01LC or CHEM 01HC
General Geology option study the nature, distri-    current. Geophysicists study these topics from             and CHEM 1HLC
bution, age, and origin of minerals, rocks, and     the standpoint of the physics of solid bodies,          d) MATH 008B or MATH 009A,
their contained fossils, placed within a global     gases, and fluids. Some geophysicists are field            MATH 009B, MATH 009C
framework of the Earth as an evolving geologic      oriented, some laboratory oriented, some theo-
system. The option entails a broad range of         retical, and some combine these areas.                  e) PHYS 040A, PHYS 040B, PHYS 040C
                                                                                                                              Earth Sciences / 209


2. Upper-division requirements (19-20 units)      1. Lower-division requirements (71-72 units)      6. Education requirements (41 units):
  a) GEO 101, GEO 115, GEO 122                      a) Either CHEM 001A and CHEM 01LA or              a. EDUC 003, EDUC 004, EDUC 100B or
  b) STAT 100A or STAT 155                             CHEM 01HA and CHEM 1HLA, either                   equivalent, EDUC 104/MATH 104, EDUC
                                                       CHEM 001B and CHEM 01LB or CHEM                   109, EDUC 110, EDUC 116, EDUC 139,
Global Climate Change Option (59 units)
                                                       01HB and CHEM 01HLB, either CHEM                  EDUC 174, EDUC 177A
1. Lower-division requirements (20 units)              001C and CHEM 01LC or CHEM 01HC
  a) BIOL 005B, BIOL 005C                              and CHEM 1HLC                                Minor
                                                    b) GEO 001                                      Students who wish to Minor in Geology,
  b) GEO 009, GEO 010 and GEO 011
                                                                                                    Geophysics or Global Climate Change must
2. Upper-division requirements (39 units)           c) MATH 008B or MATH 009A,                      complete 20-28 units of organized upper divi-
                                                       MATH 009B, MATH 009C, MATH 010A,             sion courses in Geosciences. A minimum of 16
  a) GEO 118, GEO 136 or GEO 137, GEO 152              MATH 010B, MATH 046
     or GEO 153, GEO 157, GEO 160, GEO                                                              of these units must be unique to the minor and
     169                                            d) PHYS 040A, PHYS 040B, PHYS 040C,             cannot be used to satisfy major requirements.
                                                       PHYS 040D, PHYS 040E                         To satisfy prerequisites, additional preparatory
  b) Fourteen (14) units of related upper-                                                          coursework in Earth Sciences and other sci-
     division course approved by the under-         e) CS 010
                                                                                                    ences (Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics,
     graduate advisor                             2. Upper-division requirements (67-71)            Physics) may be required.
General Geology Option (58 units)                   a) GEO 115, GEO 116, GEO 140, GEO 145,          Minor in Geology: GEO 001, GEO 115; plus
1. GEO 100, GEO 116, GEO 118, GEO 123                  GEO 122                                      15-23 additional upper division Geosciences
                                                    b) Three of GEO 144, GEO 147, GEO 157,          units.
2. GEO 102A (14 units in one quarter), or GEO
   102A and GEO 102B (14 units in two quar-            PHYS 177                                     Minor in Geophysics: GEO 001; GEO 140; plus
   ters), or GEO 102A, GEO 102B, and GEO            c) PHYS 130A, PHYS 130B, PHYS 135A,             16-24 additional units taken from GEO 115,
   102C (14 units in three quarters).                  PHYS 135B, PHYS 136                          GEO 116, GEO 132, GEO 144, GEO 145,
                                                                                                    GEO 190, and GEO 199.
3. One course from GEO 157, GEO 160,                d) Twelve (12) units of upper-division physi-
   GEO 161, GEO 162, GEO 169                           cal science courses, which may include       Minor in Global Climate Change: GEO 001 or
                                                       up to 4 units of Senior Thesis (GEO 195A,    GEO 002; GEO 011; GEO 160; plus 16-24
4. One course from GEO 124, GEO 132, GEO
                                                       GEO 195B, GEO 195C) or up to 4 units of      additional upper division Geoscience units.
   136, GEO 137
                                                       independent internship (GEO 198-I).          Before submitting a petition for a Minor to the
5. One course from GEO 140, GEO 144,
                                                                                                    college, students interested in pursuing a Minor
   GEO 145, GEO 147.                              Geoscience Education Major
                                                                                                    in Geology or Geophysics or Global Climate
6. GEO 151 or GEO 152/BIOL 152                    The following are major requirements for the
                                                                                                    Change must consult with the undergraduate
                                                  B.A. in Geoscience Education. All students
7. Eight (8) additional units of related upper-                                                     faculty advisor in Earth Sciences.
                                                  majoring in Geoscience Education are normally
   division courses approved by the under-        required to take this core curriculum.
   graduate advisor
                                                  1. Lower-division Geoscience
                                                                                                    Graduate Programs
Geobiology Option (58 units)                         requirements (20 units)                        The department of Earth Sciences offers the
1. BIOL 005B, BIOL 005C                                                                             M.S. and Ph.D. in Geological Sciences.
                                                    a. GEO 001, GEO 002, GEO 003/BIOL 010,
2. GEO 100, GEO 116, GEO 118, GEO 123                  GEO 004, GEO 010                             Graduate education in the Geological Sciences
                                                                                                    emphasizes general geology combined with
3. GEO 102A (14 units in one quarter), or GEO     2. Upper-division Geoscience
                                                                                                    specialization in fields such as evolutionary
   102A and GEO 102B (14 units in two quar-          requirements (26-30 units)
                                                                                                    paleobiology, invertebrate and vertebrate pale-
   ters), or GEO 102A, GEO 102B, and GEO            a. GEO 115, GEO 122                             ontology, Quaternary geology, neotectonics,
   102C (14 units in three quarters).                                                               applied geophysics, geotectonics, crustal
                                                    b. Four courses from:
4. Three courses from GEO 151, GEO 152/                GEO 100, GEO 101, GEO 116, GEO 118,          processes, geochemistry, groundwater, mineral
   BIOL 152, GEO 160, GEO 169                          GEO 123, GEO 124, GEO 132, GEO 136,          deposits, stratigraphy, sedimentology, sedimen-
                                                       GEO 137, GEO 140, GEO 147, GEO 151,          tary geochemistry, basin analysis, landscape
5. Four (4) additional units of related upper-
                                                       GEO 152/BIOL 152, GEO 157, GEO 160,          ecology, fire ecology, and natural resource con-
   division courses approved by the under-
                                                       GEO 168, GEO 169.                            servation. Integrated field and laboratory stud-
   graduate advisor
                                                                                                    ies are encouraged.
Geophysics Option (55 units)                      3. Mathematics requirements (12 units)
                                                                                                    Admission An undergraduate degree in geology
1. MATH 046                                         a. MATH 009A, MATH 009B, MATH 009C              or geophysics is the normal preparation for
2. PHYS 040D, PHYS 040E                           4. Natural Sciences requirements (28-31 units)    graduate work; however, a degree from a relat-
                                                                                                    ed field of science or engineering is often
3. GEO 116, GEO 118, GEO 132, GEO 140,              a. BIOL 002, or BIOL 005A and BIOL 005LA
                                                                                                    appropriate. Applicants to graduate status must
   GEO 144, and GEO 145 or GEO 147                  b. CHEM 001A and CHEM 001LA, CHEM               supply GRE General Test (verbal, quantitative,
4. Two additional 4-unit upper-division courses        001B and CHEM 001LB, CHEM 001C               analytical) scores before admission.
   in Geosciences                                      and CHEM 001LC
5. Two upper-division physical science courses      c. PHYS 002A and PHYS 002B and                  Master’s Degree
   approved by the undergraduate advisor               PHYS 002C, or PHYS 040A and PHYS             In addition to the general requirements listed
                                                       040B and PHYS 040C                           under the Graduate Studies section of this cata-
Geophysics Major                                                                                    log, the requirements for the M.S. degree in
The following are major requirements for the      5. Humanities requirements (to count              Geological Sciences, under the Plan 1 (Thesis),
B.S. in Geophysics. All students majoring in         towards College requirement of 20 units        are as follows.
Geophysics are normally required to take this        for the B.A.)
                                                                                                    Admission Students must make up any defi-
core curriculum.                                    a. LING 020 or LING 021                         ciency in preparation. The background re-
210 / Programs and Courses


quired is course preparation equivalent to the      1) Required Core courses: Geo 224 upon entry        Major emphasis in this examination is on the
bachelor’s degree in Geology or Geophysics at          into the program, Geo 260 and Geo 212.           dissertation and related topics.
UCR. Courses taken to remedy background
                                                    2) At least two additional disciplinary courses:    Normative Time to Degree from the B.S. 17
deficiencies are not applicable to the graduate
                                                       GEO 221, GEO 226, GEO 239, GEO 249,              quarters
degree. Such courses are designated in the let-
                                                       GEO 251, GEO 255, GEO 264, GEO 265,
ter of admission to the program sent by the
dean of the Graduate Division to the student.
                                                       GEO 268, GEO 301, OR ENSC 200, ENSC
                                                       218, ENSC 224, ENSC 225, ENSC 232.
                                                                                                        Lower-Division Courses
Biannual Reviews All students must undergo
                                                    Thesis Work Before the end of the third quarter     GEO 001. The Earth’s Crust and Interior (4) Lecture, 3
biannual reviews by the departmental Graduate
                                                    students must nominate a faculty advisor and        hours; laboratory, 3 hours; one 1-day field trip. An
Progress Committee. A student’s progress is                                                             introduction to the physical development of the Earth.
                                                    identify a thesis topic. Before embarking on
assessed in these reviews, and the committee                                                            Emphasis will be on Earth materials (rocks and miner-
                                                    research the student must submit a thesis pro-
may recommend changes in a student’s plans                                                              als), processes (weathering, erosion, mountain build-
                                                    posal based on original work for approval by a
after these reviews.                                                                                    ing), structures (folds and faults), and current theories
                                                    thesis committee. A maximum of 8 units of
                                                                                                        regarding the Earth’s crust and interior.
Course Work All students must enroll each           research credit can be counted toward the 36
quarter in the Graduate Seminar in Geoscien-        unit minimum. Students present an open              GEO 002. Earth’s Climate through Time (4) Lecture, 3
ces (GEO 250). Students must attend the             research seminar as a final oral examination.       hours; laboratory, 3 hours; one 2-day field trip.
                                                                                                        Prerequisite(s): none. An introduction to the history of
weekly Hewett Club lecture series.
                                                                                                        Earth’s changing climate and its relationship to the
Students must complete a minimum of 36 units        Doctoral Degree                                     evolution of life on human to geologic time scales.
of course work in the major and related subjects    The Department of Earth Sciences offers the         Topics include the interrelationships among short- and
and obtain advance approval of a coherent plan      Ph.D. in Geological Sciences. In addition to the    long-term carbon cycling; plate tectonics; ocean and
of study from the graduate advisor.                 general university requirements of the Graduate     atmosphere circulation; and greenhouse gases
                                                    Division as found in the Graduate Studies sec-      through time.
A maximum of 12 upper-division units beyond         tion of this catalog, the Ph.D. in Geological       GEO 003. Headlines in the History of Life (4) Lecture, 3
the requirements for the bachelor’s degree may      Sciences normally requires the following.           hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): none.
be applied to the 36-unit requirement.                                                                  Evolution of life beginning with precellular life. Topics
Students must complete a minimum of 12              Biannual Reviews All students meet with the
                                                                                                        include the origin of sex, multicellularity, vertebrate
units of graduate courses, which must include       Graduate Progress Committee during their first
                                                                                                        classes, morphological specializations, adaptive radia-
at least four graduate-level instructional cours-   week at UCR to discuss general interests,           tions, extinction dynamics, and the biology of
es taught by four different faculty members as      goals, and plans. The committee recommends          dinosaurs. Cross-listed with BIOL 010.
approved by the graduate advisor.                   courses designed to prepare a student for
                                                                                                        GEO 004. Natural Hazards and Disasters (4) Lecture, 3
                                                    research and to correct deficiencies in back-
Subject to the approval of the graduate advisor,                                                        hours; discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): ENGL 001A
                                                    ground. This committee also reviews a stu-          or equivalent (may be taken concurrently). Application
a limited number of upper-division courses in       dent’s progress biannually and may recom-           of basic principles of climate and geology to recogni-
the major and related sciences, if not required     mend transfer to the master’s program if nor-       tion of natural hazards and their mitigation. Topics
for the bachelor’s degree and not taken previ-      mal progress is not maintained.                     include fires, freezes, floods, winds, landslides, vol-
ously, may be accepted for graduate credit.                                                             canic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis. Emphasis
                                                    Course Work Students must complete at least
Thesis and Final Oral Examination Before the                                                            is on confronting hazards of concern to home-buyers,
                                                    four graduate-level instructional courses taught    planners, and conservationists in the western United
end of the third quarter of study and before        by four different faculty members as approved       States, especially southern California.
embarking on research, the student must sub-        by the graduate advisor. Course work used in
mit a written thesis proposal to the graduate                                                           GEO 005. Our Family of Planets (4) Lecture, 3 hours;
                                                    satisfaction of the M.S. degree may be accept-
progress committee. After approval of the pro-                                                          discussion, 1 hour. An introduction to the comparative
                                                    ed with the graduate advisor’s approval. All stu-   study of planets, moons and other solar system
posal, the student must submit a thesis based       dents must enroll each quarter in the Graduate      objects. Explores the physical, chemical and nuclear
on original work for approval by a thesis com-      Seminar in Geosciences (GEO 250). Students          evolution of the cosmos, stars and solar systems.
mittee. A maximum of 12 units of thesis             are also required to attend the weekly Hewett       Addresses similarities and differences in appearances,
research may be counted toward the 36-unit          Club lecture series.                                orbital motions, compositions, conditions and histories
minimum.                                                                                                of global change on planets and moons, including
                                                    Written and Oral Qualifying Examinations            extra solar planets and life.
Students present an open research seminar as        Students must write two research proposals.
a final oral examination, which is advertised to    The proposal topics must be approved by an          GEO 006. The Violent Universe (4) Lecture, 3 hours;
all the students and faculty in the Earth Sci-                                                          discussion, 1 hour. An introduction to violent phenom-
                                                    examination committee to ensure breadth. The
ences Department.                                                                                       ena that power the universe, specifically phenomena
                                                    committee reviews the proposals and, if
                                                                                                        that illustrate basic astrophysical principles. Topics
Normative Time to Degree 7 quarters                 acceptable, recommends proceeding to the            include impacts in our planetary system: explosions of
                                                    oral qualifying examination. An oral examina-       stars, bursts of star formation, galaxy collisions, black
Global Climate and Environmental Change
                                                    tion committee appointed by the dean of the         holes, quasars, cosmic jets, and the “Big Bang.”
(GCEC) The GCEC MS track is a field and labo-
                                                    Graduate Division examines the adequacy of          Cross-listed with PHYS 006.
ratory based multidisciplinary program focused
                                                    the student’s preparation to conduct the pro-       GEO 007. Minerals and Human Health (4) Lecture, 2
on the evidence for and controls of past and
                                                    posed research. Advancement to candidacy in         hours; discussion, 1 hour; field, 30 hours per quarter.
present climate change. Candidates must com-
                                                    the Ph.D. program follows successful comple-        Prerequisite(s): none. An introductory overview of the
plete the following:
                                                    tion of the oral examination.                       role of minerals in human life and industrial activities.
Course Work Students must complete a mini-                                                              Discusses basic concepts of mineralogy and modern
                                                    Dissertation and Final Oral Examination A disser-
mum of 36 quarter units of graduate and                                                                 methods of mineral studies. Topics include the impact
                                                    tation normally evolves from one of the research    of minerals on human health, the role of minerals in
upper-division undergraduate courses, and
                                                    proposals. The dissertation must present origi-     modern biotechnologies, asbestos and silica prob-
research credit from 1 and 2 (below). Other
                                                    nal scholarly work and be approved by a disser-     lems, occupational diseases caused by inhalation of
upper-division undergraduate and graduate
                                                    tation committee before the student may take        mineral dust, and environmental protection in
classes outside may be substituted with con-
                                                    the final oral examination. Students must have      California.
sent of the Graduate Advisor. 24 of 36 credits
                                                    satisfactory performance on the final oral exami-   GEO 008. Earthquake Country (4) Lecture, 3 hours; dis-
must be graduate level.
                                                    nation given by the dissertation committee.         cussion, 1 hour. An introduction to the study of earth-
                                                                                                                                                       Earth Sciences / 211


quakes and the problems of living in earthquake             well as writing of geological reports. May be undertak-     crystallography, with an introduction to X-ray diffrac-
country. Why earthquakes occur, how they are record-        en as a one-, two-, or three-quarter course (GEO            tion, electron microscopy, and other analytical tech-
ed, and what the effects are on man and his struc-          102A, GEO 102B, GEO 102C). Total credit awarded             niques.
tures. The scientific and social consequences of            for GEO 102A plus GEO 102B plus GEO 102C may
                                                                                                                        GEO 124. Advanced Petrogenesis (4) Lecture, 2 hours;
earthquake prediction.                                      not exceed 14 units. Graded In Progress (IP) until the
                                                                                                                        laboratory, 6 hours; two 1-day field trips.
                                                            last quarter is completed, at which time a final grade
GEO 009. Oceanography (4) Lecture, 3 hours; discus-                                                                     Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 with a grade of "C-" or bet-
                                                            is assigned.
sion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): none. A general intro-                                                                   ter. Explores advanced topics in the petrogenesis of
duction to the geological, physical, chemical, and bio-     GEO 102B. Summer Field Geology (1-14) field, 30-420         igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Earth’s crust
logical processes related to the characteristics and        hours per quarter. Prerequisite(s): GEO 102A. Covers        and mantle. Examines field and structural relation-
evolution of the ocean system. Students gain an             geological mapping and interpretation, as well as writ-     ships of crystalline rocks and how thermodynamics,
understanding of the important role oceans play in          ing of geological reports. May be undertaken as a           experimental phase equilibria, and computer model-
regulating climate and the cycling of elements on the       one-, two-, or three-quarter course (GEO 102A, GEO          ing are used to study petrogenesis. Each student
Earth’s surface and how the ocean system has been,          102B, GEO 102C). Total credit awarded for GEO 102A          completes a field and laboratory research project and
and continues to be, one of the most important influ-       plus GEO 102B plus GEO 102C may not exceed 14               prepares a written and oral report on the project.
ences on life.                                              units. Graded In Progress (IP) until the last quarter is
                                                                                                                        GEO 132. Groundwater Geology (4) Lecture, 3 hours;
                                                            completed, at which time a final grade is assigned.
GEO 010. Earth Resources and Sustainability (4)                                                                         laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): both CHEM 001B
Lecture, 3 hours; discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s):      GEO 102C. Summer Field Geology (1-14) field, 30-420         and CHEM 01LB or both CHEM 01HB and CHEM
none. An introduction to the occurrence, availability,      hours per quarter. Prerequisite(s): GEO 102B. Covers        1HLB; MATH 009B or MATH 09HB; PHYS 040A.
marketing, and usage of metals, minerals, fossil fuels,     geological mapping and interpretation, as well as writ-     Covers the nature and behavior of waters in geologic
nuclear fuels and other geologic resources, including       ing of geological reports. May be undertaken as a           media; including the chemical nature of groundwaters
both historic and recent trends. Addresses conflicts        one-, two-, or three-quarter course (GEO 102A, GEO          and geothermal fluids; principles of fluid flow in sedi-
between modern society’s need for increasingly              102B, GEO 102C). Total credit awarded for GEO 102A          ments and rocks; chemical reactions between solutes
scarce resources and mounting environmental prob-           plus GEO 102B plus GEO 102C may not exceed 14               and geologic media; geologic aspects of contaminant
lems. Also covers achieving sustainability through          units. Graded In Progress (IP) until the last quarter is    migration in groundwaters; behavior of geothermal flu-
conservation, recycling, and substitution.                  completed, at which time a final grade is assigned.         ids; elementary computer modeling of groundwater
                                                                                                                        and geothermal fluid flow in geologic media.
GEO 011. Global Climate Change (4) Lecture, 3 hours;        GEO 115. Geologic Maps and Landforms (5) Lecture, 2
discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): none. Application      hours; laboratory, 6 hours; field, 30 hours per quarter.    GEO 136. Introduction to Molecular and Petroleum
of the scientific method to critical issues of the global   Prerequisite(s): GEO 001 (may be taken concurrent-          Geochemistry (4) Lecture, 3 hours; discussion, 1 hour.
climate change debate. Provides an understanding of         ly); MATH 004 or MATH 005, or MATH 008A.                    Prerequisite(s): both CHEM 001C and CHEM 01LC or
Earth’s climate system and the feedback systems that        Examines characteristic patterns of bedrock outcrops,       both CHEM 01HC and CHEM 1HLC or equivalents;
regulate the climate “over long- and short-term” time       surficial deposits, the related landforms, and their rep-   GEO 001 with a grade of "C-" or better or GEO 002
scales. Includes general oceanic and atmospheric cir-       resentation on maps. Covers unconformities, folds,          with a grade of "C-" or better. Explores the global car-
culation patterns, the major reservoirs and mecha-          faults, intrusions, alluvial fans, river terraces, and      bon cycle and the origin and fate of organic carbon
nisms of exchange of the global carbon cycle, and the       landforms indicative of glaciers, volcanoes, landslides,    molecules throughout Earth’s history. Covers produc-
influence and origin of greenhouse gases.                   and earthquakes. Applies map information to                 tion and composition of biogenic matter and micro-
                                                            resource and hazard evaluation.                             bial, chemical and thermal processing of sedimentary
GEO 050. Survey of Geoscience for Science
                                                                                                                        organic matter, leading to oil, gas and coal formation.
Teachers (4) Lecture, 3 hours; discussion, 1 hour.          GEO 116. Structural Geology (5) Lecture, 2 hours; lab-
                                                                                                                        Addresses important applications to the petroleum
Prerequisite(s): both CHEM 001A and CHEM 01LA or            oratory, 6 hours; three .5-day field trips; two 1-day
                                                                                                                        and environmental sectors.
both CHEM 01HA and CHEM 1HLA; PHYS 002A or                  field trips. Prerequisite(s): GEO 115 with a grade of
PHYS 040A. Prepares teachers of comprehensive               "C-" or better; PHYS 040A. Examines geological struc-       GEO 137. Environmental Geochemistry (4) Lecture, 3
courses in general science to integrate the geoscience      tures in the field. Covers the graphical solution of        hours; discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): both CHEM
component. Reviews fundamental concepts of geolo-           structural problems and laboratory map study, the           001C and CHEM 01LC or both CHEM 01HC and
gy, oceanography, and meteorology at the foundation-        genesis of rock structures and physics of rock defor-       CHEM 1HLC or equivalents; GEO 001 with a grade of
al level of the California Subject Examinations for         mation, and Mohr diagrams and elementary stress             "C-" or better or GEO 002 with a grade of "C-" or bet-
Teachers in physical science. Emphasizes commonali-         analysis.                                                   ter. Examines the chemical principles of geologic
ties between related sciences.                                                                                          processes at and near the Earth’s surface. Topics
                                                            GEO 118. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (5) Lecture,
                                                                                                                        include geochemical cycles of the elements during
Upper-Division Courses                                      2 hours; laboratory, 6 hours; two 1-day and one 2-day
                                                            field trips. Prerequisite(s): GEO 115 with a grade of
                                                                                                                        chemical interactions of the Earth’s crust, hydros-
                                                                                                                        phere, and atmosphere; applications of thermody-
                                                            "C-" or better. A study of the principles of sedimentol-
                                                                                                                        namics and kinetics to the study of low-temperature
GEO 100. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology (5)              ogy and the comparative study of the origins of sedi-
                                                                                                                        geologic processes; and the use of isotopic tech-
Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 6 hours; four field trips.    ments and sedimentary rocks from various modern
                                                                                                                        niques in age dating and tracing geologic processes.
Prerequisite(s): GEO 115 and GEO 123 with grades of         and ancient clastic, carbonate, and mixed siliciclastic-
"C-" or better. An introduction to the nomenclature         carbonate depositional environments. Emphasizes             GEO 138. Soil Morphology and Classification (4)
and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks.        field and stratigraphic relationships, as well as petro-    Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, normally 3 hours; two 1-
Includes identification of the major rock-forming min-      graphic and hand specimen identification.                   day field trips. Prerequisite(s): ENSC 100/SWSC 100
erals and common rocks in hand samples and thin                                                                         or ENSC 100H/SWSC 100H; GEO 001 or GEO 002; or
                                                            GEO 122. Introductory Mineralogy (5) Lecture, 3 hours;
sections, as well as interpretation of rock fabrics and                                                                 consent of instructor. The study of soils as they occur
                                                            laboratory, 5 hours; two half-day and one 1-day field
textures. Explores tectonic setting and the origins of                                                                  in the field and their relations to current and past
                                                            trips. Prerequisite(s): both CHEM 001B and CHEM
major rock types.                                                                                                       environmental conditions. Use of field and laboratory
                                                            01LB or both CHEM 01HB and CHEM 1HLB (CHEM
                                                                                                                        data to understand soil genesis, causes of soil vari-
GEO 101. Field Geology (5) Lecture, 2 hours; weekly         001B, CHEM 01LB, CHEM 01HB, and CHEM 1HLB
                                                                                                                        ability, fundamentals of soil classification, and land
1-day field trips. Prerequisite(s): GEO 115 with a          may be taken concurrently); GEO 001 with a grade of
                                                                                                                        use potentials. Laboratory emphasizes the description
grade of "C-" or better or consent of instructor for con-   "C-" or better. A study of common and important min-
                                                                                                                        and interpretation of soils and landscapes in the field.
current enrollment. Introductory course in field geolo-     erals and their identification using structural and crys-
                                                                                                                        Cross-listed with ENSC 138 and SWSC 138.
gy. Covers methods of mapping igneous, metamor-             tallographic methods. Stresses distinctive structural
phic, and sedimentary rocks. Includes construction of       and chemical features, diagnostic physical and optical      GEO 140. Introduction to the Physics of the Earth (4)
planimetric and topographic maps, use of aerial pho-        properties, and the growth and development of miner-        Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s):
tographs, and instruction in basic surveying tech-          als in various geologic environments.                       GEO 001 with a grade of "C-" or better; MATH 009C
niques.                                                                                                                 or MATH 09HC; PHYS 040C. Application of classical
                                                            GEO 123. Analytical Mineralogy (5) Lecture, 3 hours;
                                                                                                                        physics to the study of the Earth. Origin of the Earth,
GEO 102A. Summer Field Geology (1-14) field, 30-420         laboratory, 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): both CHEM 001C
                                                                                                                        its gravitational, geomagnetic, and geothermal charac-
hours per quarter. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100 and GEO         and CHEM 01LC or both CHEM 01HC and CHEM
                                                                                                                        teristics, seismicity and the dynamics of the Earth’s
118 with grades of "C-" or better or consent of instruc-    1HLC; GEO 122 with a grade of "C-" or better.
                                                                                                                        crust, plate tectonics, and continental drift.
tor. Covers geological mapping and interpretation, as       Advanced techniques in mineralogy. Covers optical
212 / Programs and Courses


GEO 144. Earthquake Seismology (4) Lecture, 3 hours;       GEO 160. Global Climate Change (4) Lecture, 3 hours;        Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). May be repeated to
laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): MATH 010A,           discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 002C or           a total of 6 units.
MATH 010B, MATH 046, PHYS 040A, PHYS 040B,                 PHYS 040C or consent of instructor. Surveys historical
                                                                                                                       GEO 195A. Senior Thesis (3-5) hours per week to be
PHYS 040C; or consent of instructor. Introduction to       and paleoclimate change using basic principles on
                                                                                                                       established by supervisor. Prerequisite(s): senior sta-
the theories and observations of earthquake seismolo-      gas laws, radiant energy exchange, atmospheric circu-
                                                                                                                       tus; consent of instructor. Preparation of a thesis
gy. Students use physical principles and mathematical      lation and oceanography, and use of proxy data.
                                                                                                                       based upon supervised field and/or laboratory
techniques to study the earthquake process, wave           Topics include variability in modern climate, green-
                                                                                                                       research and literature review in the geological sci-
propagation, and ground motion. The laboratory             house gases, global warming, El Nino, Pacific decadal
                                                                                                                       ences. The thesis may be undertaken as a one-, two-,
emphasizes computer-assisted analysis of various           oscillation, ozone hole, volcanism, ice age climate and
                                                                                                                       or three-quarter sequence. In the case of a two- or
types of seismic data, as well as simple modeling          Milankovitch cycles. Also covers stable isotope pro-
                                                                                                                       three-quarter sequence, the final grade will be
techniques.                                                files, plate tectonics, greenhouse climates, paleovege-
                                                                                                                       deferred until completion of the last quarter. Total
                                                           tation, modern species diversity, and snowball Earth.
GEO 145. Shallow Subsurface Imaging (4) Lecture, 3                                                                     credits for GEO 195A, GEO 195B, and GEO 195C
hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 001       GEO 161. Quaternary Paleoenvironmental Change (4)           may not exceed 9 units.
with a grade of "C-" or better; MATH 009A or MATH          Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory, 2 hours; two 2-day field
                                                                                                                       GEO 195B. Senior Thesis (3-5) hours per week to be
09HA; MATH 009B or MATH 09HB; PHYS 002A or                 trips. Prerequisite(s): GEO 001 with a grade of "C-" or
                                                                                                                       established by supervisor. Prerequisite(s): senior sta-
PHYS 040A; PHYS 002B or PHYS 040B; PHYS 002C               better or GEO 002 with a grade of "C-" or better.
                                                                                                                       tus; consent of instructor. Preparation of a thesis
or PHYS 040C; or consent of instructor. Covers tech-       Examines geological evidence of environmental
                                                                                                                       based upon supervised field and/or laboratory
niques of geophysical investigation of the shallow sub-    change throughout Quaternary times (“Ice Age”) to
                                                                                                                       research and literature review in the geological sci-
surface as they apply to solving groundwater, environ-     provide a framework for understanding natural envi-
                                                                                                                       ences. The thesis may be undertaken as a one-, two-,
mental, archaeological, and engineering problems.          ronmental change and for predicting future change.
                                                                                                                       or three-quarter sequence. In the case of a two- or
Emphasizes methods, survey design, and interpreta-
                                                           GEO 162. Geomorphology (4) Lecture, 2 hours; labora-        three-quarter sequence, the final grade will be
tion with focus on case studies. Laboratory consists of
                                                           tory, 6 hours; one 2-day field trip. Prerequisite(s):       deferred until completion of the last quarter. Total
both field training and computer exercises using geo-
                                                           upper-division standing or consent of instructor. A         credits for GEO 195A, GEO 195B, and GEO 195C
graphic information systems for analysis of spatial
                                                           study of surficial processes related to the development     may not exceed 9 units.
data.
                                                           and evolution of landforms and landscapes at the
                                                                                                                       GEO 195C. Senior Thesis (3-5) Prerequisite(s): senior
GEO 147. Active Tectonics and Remote Sensing (4)           Earth’s surface. Emphasis is on weathering regimes,
                                                                                                                       status; consent of instructor. Preparation of a thesis
Lecture, 2 hours; discussion, 1 hour; laboratory, 3        mass wasting and hillslope development, river
                                                                                                                       based upon supervised field and/or laboratory
hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 001, GEO 115; or consent       process, and form. Examines erosional and deposi-
                                                                                                                       research and literature review in the geological sci-
of instructor. A computer-based course that intro-         tional processes in tectonic, volcanic, arid, karst, gla-
                                                                                                                       ences. The thesis may be undertaken as a one-, two-,
duces active tectonics and the earthquake cycle and        cial, and coastal landscapes.
                                                                                                                       or three-quarter sequence. In the case of a two- or
how they are studied using remote sensing data.
                                                           GEO 167. Conservation Biogeography (4) Lecture, 3           three-quarter sequence, the final grade will be
Explores examples of actively deforming areas from
                                                           hours; laboratory and field, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s):      deferred until completion of the last quarter. Total
around the world using computer visualization soft-
                                                           BIOL 005C with a grade of "C-" or better or BIOL            credits for GEO 195A, GEO 195B, and GEO 195C
ware and freely available data sources (satellite
                                                           010/GEO 003 with a grade of "C-" or better.                 may not exceed 9 units.
imagery, digital topography, GPS and earthquake
                                                           Application of biogeographic and ecological theories in
data).                                                                                                                 GEO 198-I. Independent Internship (1-12) Field, 3-36
                                                           the conservation of plants, animals, and wildlands.
                                                                                                                       hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor, under-
GEO 151. Principles of Paleontology (4) Lecture, 3         Topics include biological preserve design, ecological
                                                                                                                       graduate advisor, and department chairman.
hours; laboratory, 3 hours; one 1-day field trip.          consequences of land development, and wildlife-habi-
                                                                                                                       Independent study in a surrogate job condition under
Prerequisite(s): BIOL 010/GEO 003 with a grade of "C-      tat relationships.
                                                                                                                       non-university supervision. Internships are normally in
" or better or BIOL 005C. Emphasis is on understand-
                                                           GEO 168. Biogeography (4) Lecture, 3 hours; laborato-       public or private institutions such as planning depart-
ing fossils as living organisms. Topics include funda-
                                                           ry, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C with a grade of     ments, research labs, or industry. Position, task,
mentals of evolution and the fossil record, introductory
                                                           "C-" or better or BIOL 010/GEO 003 with a grade of          method of reporting completion and accomplish-
morphometrics and biosystemic theory, functional
                                                           "C-" or better or consent of instructor. Analysis of        ments, and units must have prior agreement among
morphology, and metazoan organization and classifi-
                                                           world vegetation patterns, migrations, and ecological       student, instructor, and supervisor. One unit for every
cation.
                                                           considerations at scales ranging from geologic to his-      three hours per week spent in internship. Graded
GEO 152. Principles of Invertebrate Paleobiology and       torical. Topics include plant migration, endemism,          Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC).
Paleoecology (4) Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory, 3 hours;    continental species patterns, ecological convergence,
three 1-day field trips. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C with
a grade of "C-" or better or BIOL 010/GEO 003 with a
                                                           island biogeography, and world species diversity.           Graduate Courses
                                                           GEO 169. California Vegetation (4) Lecture, 3 hours;
grade of "C-" or better. Topics include evolution and
                                                           laboratory, 3 hours; two 1-day field trips.                 GEO 203. Mineral Equilibria (4) Lecture, 4 hours.
the fossil record, paleoecology, classification theory;
                                                           Prerequisite(s): BIOL 005C with a grade of "C-" or bet-     Prerequisite(s): GEO 137 or consent of instructor.
the nature of adaptive radiations, and extinctions.
                                                           ter or BIOL 010/GEO 003 with a grade of "C-" or bet-        Applications of thermodynamics and kinetics to evalu-
Cross-listed with BIOL 152.
                                                           ter. Survey of the flora, distribution, and ecology of      ating equilibria among minerals and fluids in geologi-
GEO 153. Biodiversity through Time (4) Lecture, 3          California ecosystems, including Mediterranean shrub-       cal environments. Emphasis placed on equilibria in
hours; discussion, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): BIOL           land, conifer forests, desert scrub, valley forbfields,     geothermal systems, ore deposits, metamorphic and
010/GEO 003 with a grade of "C-" or better or BIOL         and exotic grasslands. Discusses vegetation in relation     igneous rock, and groundwater.
005C. Focuses on the history of biodiversity and the       to climate, physiography, fire, landscape steady states,
                                                                                                                       GEO 205. Geohydrology (4) Lecture, 3 hours; laborato-
responses of organisms to episodes of profound envi-       biological invasions, paleobotany, and broad-scale
                                                                                                                       ry, 3 hours; one 1-day field trip. Prerequisite(s): GEO
ronmental change. Outlines the major features of evo-      change due to land development, invasive species,
                                                                                                                       132 or ENSC 163. Fluid flow in geologic media;
lutionary history chronicled by fossils, the dynamics of   grazing, and fire suppression.
                                                                                                                       resource evaluation; and relevant geologic hazards
evolutionary radiations and extinctions, and the impli-
                                                           GEO 190. Special Studies (1-5) Individual study, 3-15       and geotechnical problems.
cations of paleontological data for current issues in
                                                           hours. Prerequisite(s): upper-division standing; con-
biodiversity.                                                                                                          GEO 206A. Stratigraphy (4) Lecture, 2 hours; laborato-
                                                           sent of instructor and department chair. Individual
                                                                                                                       ry, 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 118; consent of
GEO 157. Introduction to Geographical Information          study to meet special curricular needs. Course is
                                                                                                                       instructor. Covers rock stratigraphy and time stratigra-
Science (4) Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours.         repeatable to a maximum of 9 units.
                                                                                                                       phy with an emphasis on their principles, history, and
Prerequisite(s): upper-division standing. Introduces
                                                           GEO 191. Undergraduate Seminar in Geological                methods. Includes reading and analysis of pertinent
the fundamental theory and application of geographi-
                                                           Sciences (1) Seminar, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): open to      literature and field trips.
cal information science. Topics include geographic
                                                           upper division Geological Sciences majors only. For
information systems, data structures, databases, and                                                                   GEO 206B. Stratigraphy (4) Lecture, 2 hours; laborato-
                                                           undergraduate students who desire formal participa-
spatial data models. Explores various spatial data,                                                                    ry, 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 118; consent of
                                                           tion in the weekly departmental seminar. In addition to
including their coordinate systems, data acquisition,                                                                  instructor. Covers time stratigraphy and biostratigraphy
                                                           attending the seminar, students must write abstracts
and associated errors. Introduces data analysis meth-                                                                  with an emphasis on their principles, history, and
                                                           describing two of the presentations. Graded
ods within geographical information systems.                                                                           methods. Includes reading and analysis of pertinent
                                                                                                                       literature and field trips.
                                                                                                                                                      Earth Sciences / 213


GEO 212. Ecological Systems in Space and Time (4)          and energy resources, such as petroleum resources;          geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic events recorded
Lecture, 3 hours; field, 30 hours per quarter.             nuclear energy and waste disposal; toxic metals and         in the landforms, stratigraphy, and weathering profiles
Prerequisite(s): BIOL 117 or BIOL 152/GEO 152 or           groundwater contamination; and coal resources and           of selected regions. Field techniques include relative
equivalent or consent of instructor. Focuses on how        global warming. Discusses geologic and environmen-          and calibrated dating analysis, section measurements,
ecological systems are interpreted and reconciled at       tal aspects of these resource issues. Content may vary      morpho- and lithostratigraphic analysis, and map con-
the community, landscape, and paleontological              from year to year. Requires oral and written research       structions in fluvial, lacustrine, glacial, coastal, and
scales. Addresses the role of extrinsic factors operat-    reports. Course is repeatable to a maximum of 8             eolian environments.
ing at each of these scales. Also examines the histori-    units.
                                                                                                                       GEO 250. Graduate Seminar in Geological Sciences (1)
cal development of our understanding of ecological
                                                           GEO 241. Advanced Field Geophysics (14) Lecture, 10         Seminar, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate student sta-
systems at various scales. Cross-listed with BIOL 212
                                                           hours; laboratory, 16 hours; field, 14 hours.               tus. Oral reports by graduate students, faculty, and
and ENTM 212.
                                                           Prerequisite(s): GEO 140; proficiency in a word pro-        visiting scholars on current research topics in geologi-
GEO 219. Theory of Systematics (4) Lecture, 2 hours;       cessing, spread sheet, or programming language.             cal sciences. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit
discussion, 2 hours. Prerequisite(s): BIOL 112/BPSC        Advanced applications of modern geophysical field           (NC). Course is repeatable.
112/ENTM 112 or equivalent or consent of instructor.       techniques to the solution of complex geological prob-
                                                                                                                       GEO 251 (E-Z). Advanced Topics in Paleontology (3-5)
Examines topics developed around a series of classi-       lems, using seismic refraction and reflection, electrical
                                                                                                                       Seminar, 3 hours; laboratory, 0-6 hours.
cal and recent papers on the principles, philosophy,       and electromagnetic, potential field, and well-logging
                                                                                                                       Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Selected
and methodology of modern systematics and phyloge-         methods.
                                                                                                                       advanced topics in paleontology. Content varies from
netic methods. Cross-listed with BIOL 219 and ENTM
                                                           GEO 243. Earthquake Physics (4) Lecture, 3 hours;           quarter to quarter. After consultation with the instruc-
219.
                                                           laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 144, MATH         tor, students enroll in only the seminar (3 units) or in
GEO 221. Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis (4)         010A, MATH 010B, MATH 046, PHYS 040A, PHYS                  both the seminar and laboratory (4-5 units). May be
Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s):    040B, PHYS 040C; basic computer programming                 taken Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) with consent
graduate standing or consent of instructor.                experience; or consent of instructor. MATH 146A,            of instructor and graduate advisor. Course is repeat-
Introduction to electron microscopy and microanalysis      MATH 146B, and MATH 146C are recommended. An                able.
of inorganic solids including minerals and synthetic       exploration of the physics of the earthquake process.
                                                                                                                       GEO 252. Marine Paleoecology (3) Lecture, 1 hour;
materials. Students learn the physical principles,         Students use both numerical models and theoretical
                                                                                                                       discussion, 1 hour; two 1-day field trips.
strengths, and limitations of the method. Laboratory       and analytical tools to learn about the processes of
                                                                                                                       Prerequisite(s): graduate standing. Examines funda-
provides hands-on experience with scanning and             fault fracture, rupture propagation, and slip, and their
                                                                                                                       mental principles of paleoecology and the measure-
transmission electron microscopes and interpretation       relation to ground motion in earthquakes. Requires an
                                                                                                                       ment of biodiversity, abundance, and biomass from
of images and data.                                        independent project in computer earthquake model-
                                                                                                                       the fossil record. Covers the significance of mass
                                                           ing.
GEO 223. Seminar in Geobiology (1) Seminar, 2 hours.                                                                   extinctions, diversification events, and environments
Prerequisite(s): graduate standing or consent of           GEO 243A. Earthquake Physics (4) Lecture, 3 hours;          on the Earth’s changing marine ecosystem. Includes
instructor. Lectures, discussions and demonstrations       laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 144, MATH         taphonomy, ichnology, and field studies. Course is
by students, faculty and invited scholars on current       010B, PHYS 40C, basic computer programming                  repeatable to a maximum of 6 units.
research topics in Geobiology. Graded Satisfactory (S)     experience; or consent of instructor. MATH 046 is rec-
                                                                                                                       GEO 253. Advanced Topics in Petrology and
or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.                   ommended. An exploration of the physics of the
                                                                                                                       Geochemistry (3-5) Seminar, 3 hours; laboratory, 0-6
                                                           earthquake process. Focuses on processes controlling
GEO 224. Sierran Studies: The Paleoclimate Record of                                                                   hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Selected
                                                           fault slip and friction mechanics, as well as modeling
the Sierra (4) Field, 90 hours per quarter; term paper,                                                                advanced topics from petrology and geochemistry of
                                                           the space/time characteristics of earthquake occur-
3 hours. Prerequisite(s): graduate standing. A study of                                                                igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
                                                           rence. Utilizes theoretical/analytical tools and numeri-
climate change in the Sierra Nevada Mountains,                                                                         Course content varies from year to year. Course is
                                                           cal models. Includes an independent project in com-
extending from Precambrian glacigenic sediments to                                                                     repeatable to a maximum of 6 to 10 units.
                                                           puter modeling.
modern glaciers. Utilizes field evidence to access the
                                                                                                                       GEO 255. Advanced Topics in Sedimentary
controls of climate and determine the resolution and       GEO 243B. Earthquake Physics (4) Lecture, 3 hours;
                                                                                                                       Petrology (4) Seminar, 2 hours; laboratory, 6 hours.
limitations of the physical record. May be taken           laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 144, MATH
                                                                                                                       Prerequisite(s): GEO 225A, GEO 225B. Selected
Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) with consent of         010B, PHYS 040C, basic computer programming
                                                                                                                       advanced topics from sedimentary petrology and
instructor and graduate advisor. Course is repeatable      experience; or consent of instructor. MATH 046 is rec-
                                                                                                                       physical stratigraphy. Course content varies from year
as topics change to a maximum of 8 units.                  ommended. An exploration of the physics of the
                                                                                                                       to year. Course is repeatable.
                                                           earthquake process. Focuses on fault dynamics dur-
GEO 225A. Geology of Carbonate Rocks (4) Lecture, 2
                                                           ing the earthquake rupture and slip processes and its       GEO 256. Earth’s Deep Interior: Frontiers in Mantle
hours; laboratory, 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 118;
                                                           relationship to ground motion. Utilizes theoreti-           Petrology and Mineralogy (4) Lecture, 2 hours; discus-
consent of instructor. Covers characterization, recogni-
                                                           cal/analytical tools and numerical models. Includes an      sion, 2 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 001 or GEO 030
tion, and interpretation of carbonate rocks. Laboratory
                                                           independent project in computer modeling.                   or equivalent. Discusses mineral reactions in extreme
work includes study of polished and thin sections of
                                                                                                                       conditions in the Earth’s mantle and at the core-man-
selected suites of rocks.                                  GEO 245. Principles and Applications of
                                                                                                                       tle boundary, the possible fate of continental and
                                                           Geochronology (4) Lecture, 2 hours; laboratory, 3
GEO 225B. Geology of Detrital Rocks (4) Lecture, 2                                                                     oceanic plates subducted to Earth’s deep interior, and
                                                           hours; field, 30 hours per quarter. Prerequisite(s):
hours; laboratory, 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 118;                                                                  new models of the origin and evolution of mantle con-
                                                           consent of instructor. Examines methods of dating
consent of instructor. Covers characterization, recogni-                                                               vection and plumes. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No
                                                           Quaternary successions, including isotopic, physical,
tion, and interpretation of detrital rocks. Laboratory                                                                 Credit (NC). Course is repeatable to a maximum of 8
                                                           chemical, and stratigraphic techniques. Fieldwork and
work includes study of polished and thin sections of                                                                   units.
                                                           laboratory emphasize the collection, preparation, and
selected suites of rocks.
                                                           analysis of samples using modern methods.                   GEO 257. Current Issues in Seismology (4) Lecture, 3
GEO 226. Soil Geomorphology (4) Lecture, 2 hours;                                                                      hours; outside research, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s):
                                                           GEO 247. Electrical Exploration Methods (4) Lecture, 3
laboratory, 6 hours; two saturday field trips per quar-                                                                graduate standing or consent of instructor. Explores
                                                           hours; laboratory, 4 hours. Prerequisite(s): MATH
ter. Prerequisite(s): ENSC 138/GEO 138/SWSC 138,                                                                       current topics in seismology that are not covered by
                                                           009A, MATH 009B, MATH 009C, PHYS 040C; or
GEO 162, or equivalents. Examines the interaction of                                                                   existing graduate courses. Discussion and research
                                                           consent of instructor. Study of electrical properties of
pedogenic and geomorphic processes during the                                                                          topics may include the history of seismology, source
                                                           Earth’s materials. Galvanic resistivity methods in a
Quaternary, with an emphasis on the rate of these                                                                      mechanics, seismic wave propagation, site effects,
                                                           multilayered medium. Potential distribution and inter-
processes. Group research includes field data collec-                                                                  earthquake prediction, and whole-Earth structure.
                                                           pretation of empirical data. Electrical well logging.
tion and analysis. May be taken Satisfactory (S) or No                                                                 May be taken Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) with
                                                           Elements of telluric and magneto-telluric sounding.
Credit (NC) with consent of instructor and graduate                                                                    consent of instructor and graduate advisor.
advisor. Cross-listed with SWSC 226.                       GEO 249. Field Methods in Quaternary Geology (4)
                                                                                                                       GEO 257 (E-Z). Advanced Topics in Geophysics (4)
                                                           Discussion, 2 hours; laboratory, 6 hours; three 2-day
GEO 239. Advanced Topics in Resource Geology (4)                                                                       Seminar, 3 hours; outside research, 3 hours.
                                                           field trips. Prerequisite(s): GEO 101 or GEO 162 or
Seminar, 4 hours. Prerequisite(s): GEO 100; consent                                                                    Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor. Selected
                                                           consent of instructor. Geologic field problems and
of instructor. Covers topics in nonrenewable mineral                                                                   advanced topics from geophysics. Course content
                                                           associated techniques for reconstructing Quaternary
214 / Programs and Courses


varies from quarter to quarter. Each segment is            students in geological sciences. Graded Satisfactory         Todd Sorensen, Ph.D.
repeatable to a maximum of 12 units.                       (S) or No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.                 Ming Hon Suen, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                        Victoria Umanskaya, Ph.D.
GEO 259. Tectonics of California (4) Lecture, 2 hours;     GEO 299M. Research for Master’s Thesis (1-12)
seminar, 2 hours. Prerequisite(s): consent of instruc-     research, 3 hours per unit. Prerequisite(s): consent of                             **
tor. Geological, geophysical, and paleontological bases    instructor. Thesis research. Graded Satisfactory (S) or   Cooperating Faculty
of interpreting tectonic development of California, with   No Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.                        Kenneth A. Baerenklau, Ph.D. (Environmental
special emphasis on southern California.                                                                                   Sciences)
                                                           GEO 299P. Research for Dissertation (1-12) research, 3       Linda Fernandez, Ph.D. (Environmental Sciences)
Interdisciplinary approach will be emphasized. Weekly
                                                           hours per unit. Prerequisite(s): consent of instructor.      Keith C. Knapp, Ph.D. (Environmental Sciences)
reading assignments, active participation in discus-
                                                           Research for dissertation, arranged in consultation          Roger L. Ransom, Ph.D. (History)
sions, and appropriate field and library research will
                                                           with the staff. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit         Kurt A. Schwabe, Ph.D. (Environmental Sciences)
be required. Participants will prepare two papers and
                                                           (NC). Course is repeatable.                                  Henry J. Vaux, Jr., Ph.D. (Environmental Sciences)
give presentations.
GEO 260. Global Climate Change (4) Seminar, 3 hours;
term paper, 3 hours. Prerequisite(s): PHYS 002C or
                                                           Professional Courses                                      Majors
                                                                                                                     Economics studies the production and distribu-
PHYS 040C or consent of instructor. Explores global
                                                           GEO 301. Teaching of Geosciences at the College           tion of goods and services, as well as the way
climate change in historic and geologic time scales.
                                                           Level (1) Seminar, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s): graduate      in which productive activity helps shape social
Topics include ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, El Niño,
Pacific decadal oscillation, anthropogenic CO2, vol-
                                                           standing in Geological Sciences. A program of weekly      existence. Economists are concerned with the
                                                           meetings and individual formative evaluation required     factors determining national income, inflation,
canism, cosmic rays, polar ozone depletion, global cli-
                                                           of new Teaching Assistants for Geosciences courses.       unemployment, output, growth and inequality
mate modeling, stable isotopes, “ice house”
                                                           Covers instructional methods and classroom/section
Pleistocene climates, “greenhouse” climates of the                                                                   (macroeconomics), as well as the behavior of
                                                           activities most suitable for teaching Geosciences.
Mesozoic and Tertiary, plate tectonics, and the “snow-                                                               individual decision-making units like house-
                                                           Conducted by the Teaching Assistant Development
ball” Earth.                                                                                                         holds and firms (microeconomics). Economists
                                                           Program. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC).
GEO 263. Organic and Petroleum Geochemistry (4)            Course is repeatable.                                     are also concerned with the role of markets,
Lecture, 3 hours; seminar, 1 hour. Prerequisite(s):                                                                  money and interest rates, the forces affecting
                                                           GEO 302. Teaching Practicum (1-4) Seminar, 1-4
graduate standing; BIOL 010/GEO 003; CHEM 001C                                                                       international trade, and many other problems
                                                           hours; practicum, 2-8 hours. Prerequisite(s): restrict-
or equivalent; or consent of instructor. Explores the                                                                of production and distribution.
                                                           ed to those graduate students appointed as Teaching
geologic fate of organic molecules in the sedimentary
                                                           Assistants. Supervised teaching of upper and lower-       Economics is the basis for many careers, some
record, from fossil DNA to lipids. Addresses current
                                                           division courses in Geosciences. Required of all          of which require only a B.A. degree while oth-
analytical techniques used for detecting molecular
                                                           Teaching Assistants. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No        ers require more advanced work. Possible
fossils and for characterizing sedimentary organic
                                                           Credit (NC). Course is repeatable for credit, but units
matter. Covers topical applications of organic geo-                                                                  careers include business, government, educa-
                                                           not applicable toward degree unit requirements.
chemical tools to archaeology, geobiology, paleoclimat-                                                              tion and law.
ic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction, petroleum
exploration, and cosmochemistry research. May be
taken Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) with consent
                                                           Economics                                                 The B.A. is the most general degree offered in
                                                                                                                     economics. It is appropriate background for a
of instructor and graduate advisor.                                                                                  wide variety of purposes, including graduate
GEO 264. Biogeochemical Cycles through Time (3)
                                                           Subject abbreviation: ECON                                study and professional schools. However, those
Lecture, 3 hours; two to three 2-day field trips.          College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences          planning to attend a graduate program in eco-
Prerequisite(s): BIOL 010/GEO 003; CHEM 001C or                                                                      nomics may need more quantitative training
equivalent; GEO 001; GEO 002; or consent of instruc-          Aman Ullah, Ph.D., Chair                               than the B.A. requires. Students who are con-
tor. A comprehensive exploration of the major biogeo-         Department Office, 4133 Sproul                         sidering attending a graduate program in eco-
chemical cycles at and near Earth’s surface.                  (951) 827-1470; economics.ucr.edu                      nomics should consult with their undergradu-
Emphasis is on microbially mediated cycling of ele-                                                                  ate advisor. The Business Economics B.A.
ments and isotopes within diverse sedimentary envi-        Professors
                                                                                                                     degree provides more specific preparation for
ronments and the cause-and-effect relationships with          Richard Arnott, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                     careers in business administration or manage-
the ocean and atmosphere. Explores 4 billion years of         Taradas Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D.
biospheric evolution in light of these cycles. May be         Susan B. Carter, Ph.D.                                 ment or for graduate work in business.
taken Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC) with consent         Stephen E. Cullenberg, Ph.D.
of instructor and graduate advisor.                           Anil B. Deolalikar, Ph.D.                              University Requirements
                                                              Gary A. Dymski, Ph.D.                                  See Undergraduate Studies section.
GEO 265. Special Topics in Earth and Environmental
                                                              David H. Fairris, Ph.D.
Sciences (1-3) Seminar, 1-3 hours. Prerequisite(s):
                                                              Mason Gaffney, Ph.D.
graduate standing. Involves oral presentations and
                                                              Gloria González-Rivera, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                     College Requirements
small-group discussions of selected topics in the areas                                                              See College of Humanities, Arts, and Social
                                                              Jang-Ting Guo, Ph.D.
of biogeochemistry, global climate change, geomicro-                                                                 Sciences, Colleges and Programs section.
                                                              Tae-Hwy Lee, Ph.D.
biology, earth surface processes, and interplanetary
                                                              Victor D. Lippit, Ph.D.                                MATH 009A and MATH 009B may also be
life. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No Credit (NC). Course
                                                              David Malueg, Ph.D.                                    used to meet breadth requirements.
is repeatable as content changes to a maximum of 10
                                                              R. Robert Russell, Ph.D.
units. Cross-listed with ENSC 265.
                                                              Richard C. Sutch, Ph.D.
GEO 268. Seminar in Biogeography (4) Seminar, 2               Aman Ullah, Ph.D.                                      Major Requirements
hours; research, 6 hours. Prerequisite(s): graduate        Professors Emeriti                                        The Economics Department offers B.A. degrees
standing. Topics include Mediterranean ecosystems,            Ronald H. Chilcote, Ph.D.                              in Economics, Business Economics, Econom-
fire ecology, naturalization of exotic species, succes-       Keith B. Griffin, Ph.D.                                ics/Administrative Studies, and Economics/
sion and ecosystem steady state theory, and mapping           Azizur R. Khan, Ph.D.                                  Law and Society.
of vegetation. Course is repeatable to a maximum of 8         Prasanta K. Pattanaik, Ph.D.
units.                                                        Howard J. Sherman, Ph.D., Jur.D.                       Economics Major
                                                           Associate Professors                                      The major requirements for the B.A. degree in
GEO 290. Directed Studies (1-6) Prerequisite(s): con-
                                                              Marcelle Chauvet, Ph.D.                                Economics are as follows:
sent of instructor. Research and special studies in the
geological sciences. Graded Satisfactory (S) or No            Steven M. Helfand, Ph.D.
                                                                                                                     1. Lower-division requirements (4 courses [at
Credit (NC). Course is repeatable.                         Assistant Professors
                                                                                                                        least 16 units])
                                                              Jorge Agüero, Ph.D.
GEO 297. Directed Research (1-6) Prerequisite(s): con-        Wei Li, Ph.D.                                             a) ECON 002, ECON 003
sent of instructor. Research for individual graduate          Mindy Marks, Ph.D.

				
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