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					 The Old
Testament
                                  Genesis
The Creation of the World                                       great lights – the greater light to rule
                                                                over the day and the lesser light to rule
    1:1 In the beginning God created the                        over the night. He made the stars also.
                                                  1


heavens and the earth.                                          1:17 God placed the lights in the expanse
    1:2 Now the earth was without shape                         of the sky to shine on the earth, 1:18 to
and empty, and darkness was over the                            preside over the day and the night, and
surface of the watery deep, but the                             to separate the light from the darkness.
Spirit of God was moving over the sur-                          God saw that it was good. 1:19 There was
face of the water. 1:3 God said, “Let                           evening, and there was morning, a fourth
there be light.” And there was light! 1:4                       day.
God saw that the light was good, so God                             1:20 God said, “Let the water swarm
separated the light from the darkness.                          with swarms of living creatures and let
1:5 God called the light “day” and the                          birds fly above the earth across the ex-
darkness “night.” There was evening, and                        panse of the sky.” 1:21 God created the
there was morning, marking the first day.                       great sea creatures and every living and
    1:6 God said, “Let there be an ex-                          moving thing with which the water
panse in the midst of the waters and let                        swarmed, according to their kinds, and
it separate water from water. 1:7 So                            every winged bird according to its kind.
God made the expanse and separated the                          God saw that it was good. 1:22 God
water under the expanse from the water                          blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and
above it. It was so. 1:8 God called the                         multiply and fill the water in the seas,
expanse “sky.” There was evening, and                           and let the birds multiply on the earth.”
there was morning, a second day.                                1:23 There was evening, and there was
    1:9 God said, “Let the water under                          morning, a fifth day.
the sky be gathered to one place and let                            1:24 God said, “Let the land produce
dry ground appear.” It was so. 1:10 God                         living creatures according to their kinds:
called the dry ground “land” and the                            cattle, creeping things, and wild animals,
gathered waters he called “seas.” God                           each according to its kind.” It was so.
saw that it was good.                                           1:25 God made the wild animals according
    1:11 God said, “Let the land produce                        to their kinds, the cattle according to
vegetation: plants yielding seeds accord-                       their kinds, and all the creatures that
ing to their kinds, and trees bearing fruit                     creep along the ground according to their
with seed in it according to their kinds.”                      kinds. God saw that it was good.
It was so. 1:12 The land produced vege-                             1:26 Then God said, “Let us make
tation – plants yielding seeds according                        humankind in our image, after our like-
to their kinds, and trees bearing fruit                         ness, so they may rule over the fish of
with seed in it according to their kinds.                       the sea and the birds of the air, over the
God saw that it was good. 1:13 There was                        cattle, and over all the earth, and over all
evening, and there was morning, a third                         the creatures that move on the earth.”
day.                                                                  1:27 God created humankind in his
    1:14 God said, “Let there be lights in                            own image,
the expanse of the sky to separate the                                in the image of God he created
day from the night, and let them be signs                             them,
to indicate seasons and days and years,                               male and female he created them.
1:15 and let them serve as lights in the                            1:28 God blessed them and said to
expanse of the sky to give light on the                         them, “Be fruitful and multiply! Fill the
earth.” It was so. 1:16 God made two                            earth and subdue it! Rule over the fish of
                                                                the sea and the birds of the air and
    1 tn The English verb “create” captures well the            every creature that moves on the
meaning of the Hebrew term in this context. The verb            ground.” 1:29 Then God said, “I now give
‫( ָּא‬bara’) always describes the divine activity of fash-
 ‫ָר‬
  ‫ב‬                                                             you every seed-bearing plant on the face
ioning something new, fresh, and perfect. The verb              of the entire earth and every tree that
does not necessarily describe creation out of nothing           has fruit with seed in it. They will be
(see, for example, v. 27, where it refers to the crea-
tion of man); it often stresses forming anew, reform-           yours for food. 1:30 And to all the ani-
ing, renewing (see Ps 51:10; Isa 43:15, 65:17).
                                                            2
                                               3                                 GENESIS 3:7
mals of the earth, and to every bird of            freely eat fruit from every tree of the
the air, and to all the creatures that             orchard, 2:17 but you must not eat from
move on the ground – everything that has           the tree of the knowledge of good and
the breath of life in it – I give every            evil, for when you eat from it you will
green plant for food.” It was so.                  surely die.”
   1:31 God saw all that he had made –                 2:18 The LORD God said, “It is not
and it was very good! There was evening,           good for the man to be alone. I will make
and there was morning, the sixth day.              a companion for him who corresponds to
   2:1 The heavens and the earth were              him.” 2:19 The LORD God formed out of
completed with everything that was in              the ground every living animal of the
them. 2:2 By the seventh day God fin-              field and every bird of the air. He
ished the work that he had been doing,             brought them to the man to see what he
and he ceased on the seventh day all the           would name them, and whatever the man
work that he had been doing. 2:3 God               called each living creature, that was its
blessed the seventh day and made it holy           name. 2:20 So the man named all the ani-
because on it he ceased all the work that          mals, the birds of the air, and the living
he had been doing in creation.                     creatures of the field, but for Adam no
                                                   companion who corresponded to him was
The Creation of Man and Woman                      found. 2:21 So the LORD God caused the
                                                   man to fall into a deep sleep, and while he
    2:4 This is the account of the heavens
                                                   was asleep, he took part of the man’s side
and                                                and closed up the place with flesh. 2:22
the earth when they were created – when            Then the LORD God made a woman from
the LORD God made the earth and heav-              the part he had taken out of the man,
ens.                                               and he brought her to the man. 2:23 Then
    2:5 Now no shrub of the field had yet
                                                   the man said,
grown on the earth, and no plant of the                  “This one at last is bone of my bones
field had yet sprouted, for the LORD God                 and flesh of my flesh;
had not caused it to rain on the earth,                  this one will be called ‘woman,’
and there was no man to cultivate the                    for she was taken out of man.”
ground. 2:6 Springs would well up from                 2:24 That is why a man leaves his fa-
the earth and water the whole surface of           ther and mother and unites with his wife,
the ground. 2:7 The LORD God formed the            and they become a new family. 2:25 The
man from the soil of the ground and                man and his wife were both naked, but
breathed into his nostrils the breath of           they were not ashamed.
life, and the man became a living being.
    2:8 The LORD God planted an orchard            The Temptation and the Fall
in the east, in Eden; and there he placed
the man he had formed. 2:9 The LORD                    3:1 Now the serpent was more shrewd
God made all kinds of trees grow from              than any of the wild animals that the
the soil, every tree that was pleasing to          LORD God had made. He said to the
look at and good for food. (Now the tree           woman, “Is it really true that God said,
of life and the tree of the knowledge of           ‘You must not eat from any tree of the
good and evil were in the middle of the            orchard’?” 3:2 The woman said to the
orchard.)                                          serpent, “We may eat of the fruit from
    2:10 Now a river flows from Eden to            the trees of the orchard; 3:3 but con-
 water the orchard, and from there it              cerning the fruit of the tree that is in
divides into four headstreams. 2:11 The            the middle of the orchard God said, ‘You
name of the first is Pishon; it runs               must not eat from it, and you must not
through the entire land of Havilah, where          touch it, or else you will die.’” 3:4 The
there is gold. 2:12 (The gold of that land         serpent said to the woman, “Surely you
is pure; pearls and lapis lazuli are also          will not die, 3:5 for God knows that when
there). 2:13 The name of the second                you eat from it your eyes will open and
river is Gihon; it runs through the entire         you will be like divine beings who know
land of Cush. 2:14 The name of the third           good and evil.”
river is Tigris; it runs along the east side           3:6 When the woman saw that the
of Assyria. The fourth river is the Eu-            tree produced fruit that was good for
phrates.                                           food, was attractive to the eye, and was
    2:15 The LORD God took the man and             desirable for making one wise, she took
placed him in the orchard in Eden to care          some of its fruit and ate it. She also gave
for it and to maintain it. 2:16 Then the           some of it to her husband who was with
LORD God commanded the man, “You may               her, and he ate it. 3:7 Then the eyes of
GENESIS 3:8                                    4
both of them opened, and they knew they                 3:19 By the sweat of your brow you
were naked; so they sewed fig leaves                     will eat food
together and made coverings for them-                    until you return to the ground,
selves.                                                  for out of it you were taken;
                                                         for you are dust, and to dust you will
The Judgment Oracles of God at the Fall                  return.”
                                                       3:20 The man named his wife Eve, be-
    3:8 Then the man and his wife heard            cause she was the mother of all the liv-
the sound of the LORD God moving about             ing. 3:21 The LORD God made garments
in the orchard at the breezy time of the           from skin for Adam and his wife, and
day, and they hid from the LORD God                clothed them. 3:22 And the LORD God
among the trees of the orchard. 3:9 But            said, “Now that the man has become like
the LORD God called to the man and said            one of us, knowing good and evil, he must
to him, “Where are you?” 3:10 The man              not be allowed to stretch out his hand
replied, “I heard you moving about in the          and take also from the tree of life and
orchard, and I was afraid because I was            eat, and live forever.” 3:23 So the LORD
naked, so I hid.” 3:11 And the LORD God            God expelled him from the orchard in
said, “Who told you that you were naked?           Eden to cultivate the ground from which
Did you eat from the tree that I com-              he had been taken. 3:24 When he drove
manded you not to eat from?” 3:12 The              the man out, he placed on the eastern
man said, “The woman whom you gave me,             side of the orchard in Eden angelic
she gave me some fruit from the tree               sentries who used the flame of a whirling
and I ate it.” 3:13 So the LORD God said           sword to guard the way to the tree of
to the woman, “What is this you have               life.
done?” And the woman replied, “The ser-
pent tricked me, and I ate.”                       The Story of Cain and Abel
      3:14 The LORD God said to the
      serpent,                                        4:1 Now the man had marital relations
      “Because you have done this,                 with his wife Eve, and she became preg-
      cursed are you above all the wild            nant and gave birth to Cain. Then she
      beasts                                       said, “I have created a man just as the
      and all the living creatures of the          LORD did!” 4:2 Then she gave birth to his
      field!                                       brother Abel. Abel took care of the
      On your belly you will crawl                 flocks, while Cain cultivated the ground.
      and dust you will eat all the days of           4:3 At the designated time Cain
      your life.                                   brought some of the fruit of the ground
      3:15 And I will put hostility                for an offering to the LORD. 4:4 But Abel
      between you and the woman                    brought some of the firstborn of his
      and between your offspring and her           flock – even the fattest of them. And
      offspring;                                   the LORD was pleased with Abel and his
      her offspring will attack your head,         offering, 4:5 but with Cain and his offer-
      and you will attack her offspring’s
      heel.”                                       ing he was not pleased. So Cain became
      3:16 To the woman he said,                   very angry, and his expression was down-
      “I will greatly increase your labor          cast.
      pains;                                          4:6 Then the LORD said to Cain, “Why
      with pain you will give birth to             are you angry, and why is your expression
      children.                                    downcast? 4:7 Is it not true that if you
      You will want to control your                do what is right, you will be fine? But if
      husband,                                     you do not do what is right, sin is crouch-
      but he will dominate you.”                   ing at the door. It desires to dominate
      3:17 But to Adam he said,                    you, but you must subdue it.”
      “Because you obeyed your wife                   4:8 Cain said to his brother Abel,
      and ate from the tree about which I          “Let’s go out to the field.” While they
      commanded you,                               were in the field, Cain attacked his
      ‘You must not eat from it,’                  brother Abel and killed him.
      cursed is the ground thanks to you;             4:9 Then the LORD said to Cain,
      in painful toil you will eat of it all       “Where is your brother Abel?” And he
      the days of your life.                       replied, “I don’t know! Am I my brother’s
      3:18 It will produce thorns and              guardian?” 4:10 But the LORD said, “What
      thistles for you,                            have you done? The voice of your
      but you will eat the grain of the
      field.                                       brother’s blood is crying out to me from
                                                   the ground! 4:11 So now, you are ban-
                                              5                              GENESIS 5:24
ished from the ground, which has opened           From Adam to Noah
its mouth to receive your brother’s blood
from your hand. 4:12 When you try to                  5:1 This is the record of the family
cultivate the                                     line of Adam.
ground it will no longer yield its best for           When God created humankind, he
you. You will be a homeless wanderer on           made them in the likeness of God. 5:2 He
the earth.” 4:13 Then Cain said to the            created them male and female; when
LORD, “My punishment is too great to en-          they were created, he blessed them and
dure! 4:14 Look! You are driving me off           named them “humankind.”
the land today, and I must hide from                  5:3 When Adam had lived 130 years
your presence. I will be a homeless wan-          he fathered a son in his own likeness,
derer on the earth; whoever finds me will         according to his image, and he named him
kill me.” 4:15 But the LORD said to him,          Seth. 5:4 The length of time Adam lived
“All right then, if anyone kills Cain, Cain       after he became the father of Seth was
will be avenged seven times as much.”             800 years; during this time he had other
Then the LORD put a special mark on Cain          sons and daughters. 5:5 The entire life-
so that no one who found him would                time of Adam was 930 years, and then he
strike him down. 4:16 So Cain went out            died.
from the presence of the LORD and lived               5:6 When Seth had lived 105 years,
in the land of Nod, east of Eden.                 he became the father of Enosh. 5:7 Seth
                                                  lived 807 years after he became the fa-
The Beginning of Civilization                     ther of Enosh, and he had other sons and
                                                  daughters. 5:8 The entire lifetime of
    4:17 Cain had marital relations with          Seth was 912 years, and then he died.
his wife, and she became pregnant and                 5:9 When Enosh had lived 90 years,
gave birth to Enoch. Cain was building a          he became the father of Kenan. 5:10
city, and he named the city after his son         Enosh lived 815 years after he became
Enoch. 4:18 To Enoch was born Irad, and           the father of Kenan, and he had other
Irad was the father of Mehujael. Mehu-            sons and daughters. 5:11 The entire life-
jael was the father of Methushael, and            time of Enosh was 905 years, and then
Methushael was the father of Lamech.              he died.
    4:19 Lamech took two wives for him-               5:12 When Kenan had lived 70 years,
self; the name of the first was Adah, and         he became the father of Mahalalel. 5:13
the name of the second was Zillah. 4:20           Kenan lived 840 years after he became
Adah gave birth to Jabal; he was the              the father of Mahalalel, and he had
first of those who live in tents and keep         other sons and daughters. 5:14 The en-
livestock. 4:21 The name of his brother           tire lifetime of Kenan was 910 years, and
was Jubal; he was the first of all who            then he died.
play the harp and the flute. 4:22 Now                 5:15 When Mahalalel had lived 65
Zillah also gave birth to Tubal-Cain, who         years, he became the father of Jared.
heated metal and shaped all kinds of              5:16 Mahalalel lived 830 years after he
tools made of bronze and iron. The sister         became the father of Jared, and he had
of Tubal-Cain was Naamah.                         other sons and daughters. 5:17 The en-
    4:23 Lamech said to his wives,                tire lifetime of Mahalalel was 895 years,
      “Adah and Zillah! Listen to me!             and then he died.
      You wives of Lamech, hear my                    5:18 When Jared had lived 162 years,
      words!
      I have killed a man for wounding me,        he became the father of Enoch. 5:19 Ja-
      a young man for hurting me.                 red lived 800 years after he became the
      4:24 If Cain is to be avenged seven         father of Enoch, and he had other sons
      times as much,                              and daughters. 5:20 The entire lifetime
      then Lamech seventy-seven times!”           of Jared was 962 years, and then he
    4:25 And Adam had marital relations           died.
with his wife again, and she gave birth to            5:21 When Enoch had lived 65 years,
a son. She named him Seth, saying, “God           he became the father of Methuselah.
has given me another child in place of            5:22 After he became the father of Me-
Abel because Cain killed him.” 4:26 And a         thuselah, Enoch walked with God for 300
son was also born to Seth, whom he                years, and he had other sons and daugh-
named Enosh. At that time people began            ters. 5:23 The entire lifetime of Enoch
to worship the LORD.                              was 365 years. 5:24 Enoch walked with
                                                  God, and then he disappeared because
                                                  God took him away.
GENESIS 5:25                                 6
   5:25 When Methuselah had lived 187            among his contemporaries. He walked
years, he became the father of Lamech.           with God. 6:10 Noah had three sons:
5:26 Methuselah lived 782 years after he         Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
became the father of Lamech, and he                  6:11 The earth was ruined in the sight
had other sons and daughters. 5:27 The           of God; the earth was filled with vio-
entire lifetime of Methuselah was 969            lence. 6:12 God saw the earth, and in-
years, and then he died.                         deed it was ruined, for all living crea-
    5:28 When Lamech had lived 182               tures on the earth were sinful. 6:13 So
years, he had a son. 5:29 He named him           God said to Noah, “I have decided that
Noah, saying, “This one will bring us com-       all living creatures must die, for the
fort from our labor and from the painful         earth is filled with violence because of
toil of our hands because of the ground          them. Now I am about to destroy them
that the LORD has cursed.” 5:30 Lamech           and the earth. 6:14 Make for yourself an
lived 595 years after he became the fa-          ark of cypress wood. Make rooms in the
ther of Noah, and he had other sons and          ark, and cover it with pitch inside and
daughters. 5:31 The entire lifetime of           out. 6:15 This is how you should make it:
Lamech was 777 years, and then he died.          The ark is to be 450 feet long, 75 feet
    5:32 After Noah was 500 years old,           wide, and 45 feet high. 6:16 Make a roof
he became the father of Shem, Ham, and           for the ark and finish it, leaving 18
Japheth.                                         inches from the top. Put a door in the
                                                 side of the ark, and make lower, middle,
God’s Grief over Humankind’s Wickedness          and upper decks. 6:17 I am about to bring
                                                 floodwaters on the earth to destroy
    6:1 When humankind began to multiply
                                                 from under the sky all the living crea-
on the face of the earth, and daughters          tures that have the breath of life in
were born to them, 6:2 the sons of God           them. Everything that is on the earth will
saw that the daughters of humankind              die, 6:18 but I will confirm my covenant
were beautiful. Thus they took wives for         with you. You will enter the ark – you,
themselves from any they chose. 6:3 So           your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives
the LORD said, “My spirit will not remain        with you. 6:19 You must bring into the
in humankind indefinitely, since they are        ark two of every kind of living creature
mortal. They will remain for 120 more            from all flesh, male and female, to keep
years.”                                          them alive with you. 6:20 Of the birds
    6:4 The Nephilim were on the earth in
                                                 after their kinds, and of the cattle after
those days (and also after this) when the        their kinds, and of every creeping thing
sons of God were having sexual relations         of the ground after its kind, two of every
with the daughters of humankind, who             kind will come to you so you can keep
gave birth to their children. They were          them alive. 6:21 And you must take for
the mighty heroes of old, the famous             yourself every kind of food that is eaten,
men.                                             and gather it together. It will be food
    6:5 But the LORD saw that the wick-
                                                 for you and for them.
edness of humankind had become great                 6:22 And Noah did all that God com-
on the earth. Every inclination of the           manded him – he did indeed.
thoughts of their minds was only evil all            7:1 The LORD said to Noah, “Come into
the time. 6:6 The LORD regretted that he         the ark, you and all your household, for I
had made humankind on the earth, and he          consider you godly among this generation.
was highly offended. 6:7 So the LORD             7:2 You must take with you seven of
said, “I will wipe humankind, whom I have        every kind of clean animal, the male and
created, from the face of the earth –            its mate, two of every kind of unclean
everything from humankind to animals,            animal, the male and its mate, 7:3 and
including creatures that move on the             also seven of every kind of bird in the
ground and birds of the air, for I regret        sky, male and female, to preserve their
that I have made them.”                          offspring on the face of the earth. 7:4
    6:8 But Noah found favor in the sight
                                                 For in seven days I will cause it to rain on
of the LORD.                                     the earth for forty days and forty
The Judgment of the Flood                        nights, and I will wipe from the face of
                                                 the ground every living thing that I have
   6:9 This is the account of Noah.              made.”
   Noah was a godly man; he was blame-               7:5 And Noah did all that the LORD
less                                             commanded him.
                                               7                               GENESIS 8:19
   7:6 Noah was 600 years old when the             caused a wind to blow over the earth and
floodwaters engulfed the earth. 7:7 Noah           the waters receded. 8:2 The fountains of
entered the ark along with his sons, his           the deep and the floodgates of heaven
wife, and his sons’ wives because of the           were closed, and the rain stopped falling
floodwaters. 7:8 Pairs of clean animals, of        from the sky. 8:3 The waters kept reced-
unclean animals, of birds, and of every-           ing steadily from the earth, so that they
thing that creeps along the ground, 7:9            had gone down by the end of the 150
male and female, came into the ark to              days. 8:4 On the seventeenth day of the
Noah, just as God had commanded him.               seventh month, the ark came to rest on
7:10 And after seven days the floodwa-             one of the mountains of Ararat. 8:5 The
ters engulfed the earth.                           waters kept on receding until the tenth
    7:11 In the six hundredth year of              month. On the first day of the tenth
Noah’s life, in the second month, on the           month, the tops of the mountains became
seventeenth day of the month – on that             visible.
day all the fountains of the great deep                8:6 At the end of forty days, Noah
burst open and the floodgates of the               opened the window he had made in the
heavens were opened. 7:12 And the rain             ark 8:7 and sent out a raven; it kept fly-
fell on the earth forty days and forty             ing back and forth until the waters had
nights.                                            dried up on the earth.
    7:13 On that very day Noah entered                 8:8 Then Noah sent out a dove to see
the ark, accompanied by his sons Shem,             if the waters had receded from the sur-
Ham, and Japheth, along with his wife              face of the ground. 8:9 The dove could
and his sons’ three wives. 7:14 They en-           not find a resting place for its feet be-
tered, along with every living creature            cause water still covered the surface of
after its kind, every animal after its kind,       the entire earth, and so it returned to
every creeping thing that creeps on the            Noah in the ark. He stretched out his
earth after its kind, and every bird after         hand, took the dove, and brought it back
its kind, everything with wings. 7:15 Pairs        into the ark. 8:10 He waited seven more
of all creatures that have the breath of           days and then sent out the dove again
life came into the ark to Noah. 7:16               from the ark. 8:11 When the dove re-
Those that entered were male and fe-               turned to him in the evening, there was a
male, just as God commanded him. Then              freshly plucked olive leaf in its beak!
the LORD shut him in.                              Noah knew that the waters had receded
    7:17 The flood engulfed the earth for          from the earth. 8:12 He waited another
forty days. As the waters increased,               seven days and sent the dove out again,
they lifted the ark and raised it above            but it did not return to him this time.
the earth. 7:18 The waters completely                  8:13 In Noah’s six hundred and first
overwhelmed the earth, and the ark                 year, in the first day of the first month,
floated on the surface of the waters.              the waters had dried up from the earth,
7:19 The waters completely inundated               and Noah removed the covering from the
the earth so that even all the high moun-          ark and saw that the surface of the
tains under the entire sky were covered.           ground was dry. 8:14 And by the twenty-
7:20 The waters rose more than twenty              seventh day of the second month the
feet above the mountains. 7:21 And all             earth was dry.
living things that moved on the earth                  8:15 Then God spoke to Noah and
died, including the birds, domestic ani-           said, 8:16 “Come out of the ark, you, your
mals, wild animals, all the creatures that         wife, your sons, and your sons’ wives with
swarm over the earth, and all humankind.           you. 8:17 Bring out with you all the living
7:22 Everything on dry land that had the           creatures that are with you. Bring out
breath of life in its nostrils died. 7:23 So       every living thing, including the birds,
the LORD destroyed every living thing              animals, and every creeping thing that
that was on the surface of the ground,             creeps on the earth. Let them increase
including people, animals, creatures that          and be fruitful and multiply on the
creep along the ground, and birds of the           earth!”
sky. They were wiped off the earth. Only               8:18 Noah went out along with his
Noah and those who were with him in the            sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives. 8:19
ark survived. 7:24 The waters prevailed            Every living creature, every creeping
over the earth for 150 days.                       thing, every bird, and everything that
    8:1 But God remembered Noah and all            moves on the earth went out of the ark
the wild animals and domestic animals              in their groups.
that were with him in the ark. God
GENESIS 8:20                                   8
   8:20 Noah built an altar to the LORD.           covenant for all subsequent generations:
He then took some of every kind of clean           9:13 I will place my rainbow in the clouds,
animal and clean bird and offered burnt            and it will become a guarantee of the
offerings on the altar. 8:21 And the LORD          covenant between me and the earth. 9:14
smelled the soothing aroma and said to             Whenever I bring clouds over the earth
himself, “I will never again curse the             and the rainbow appears in the clouds,
ground because of humankind, even                  9:15 then I will remember my covenant
though the inclination of their minds is           with you and with all living creatures of
evil from childhood on. I will never again         all kinds. Never again will the waters be-
destroy everything that lives, as I have           come a flood and destroy all living things.
just done.                                         9:16 When the rainbow is in the clouds, I
      8:22 “While the earth continues to           will notice it and remember the perpetual
      exist,                                       covenant between God and all living crea-
      planting time and harvest,                   tures of all kinds that are on the earth.”
      cold and heat,
      summer and winter,                              9:17 So God said to Noah, “This is the
      and day and night will not cease.”           guarantee of the covenant that I am con-
                                                   firming between me and all living things
God’s Covenant with Humankind through              that are on the earth.”
Noah
                                                   The Curse of Canaan
   9:1 Then God blessed Noah and his
sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and                9:18 The sons of Noah who came out
multiply and fill the earth. 9:2 Every liv-        of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Ja-
ing creature of the earth and every bird           pheth. (Now Ham was the father of Ca-
of the sky will be terrified of you. Every-        naan.) 9:19 These were the sons of Noah,
thing that creeps on the ground and all            and from them the whole earth was popu-
the fish of the sea are under your                 lated.
authority. 9:3 You may eat any moving                  9:20 Noah, a man of the soil, began to
thing that lives. As I gave you the green          plant a vineyard. 9:21 When he drank
plants, I now give you everything.                 some of the wine, he got drunk and un-
    9:4 But you must not eat meat with             covered himself inside his tent. 9:22
its life (that is, its blood) in it. 9:5 For       Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his fa-
your lifeblood I will surely exact punish-         ther’s nakedness and told his two broth-
ment, from every living creature I will            ers who were outside. 9:23 Shem and
exact punishment. From each person I               Japheth took the garment and placed it
will exact punishment for the life of the          on their shoulders. Then they walked in
individual since the man was his relative.         backwards and covered up their father’s
      9:6 “Whoever sheds human blood,              nakedness. Their faces were turned the
      by other humans                              other way so they did not see their fa-
      must his blood be shed;                      ther’s nakedness.
      for in God’s image                               9:24 When Noah awoke from his
      God has made humankind.”                     drunken stupor he learned what his
    9:7 But as for you, be fruitful and            youngest son had done to him. 9:25 So he
multiply; increase abundantly on the               said,
earth and multiply on it.”                               “Cursed be Canaan!
    9:8 God said to Noah and his sons, 9:9               The lowest of slaves
“Look! I now confirm my covenant with                    he will be to his brothers.”
you and your descendants after you 9:10                9:26 He also said,
and with every living creature that is                   “Worthy of praise is the LORD, the
with you, including the birds, the domes-                God of Shem!
tic animals, and every living creature of                May Canaan be the slave of Shem!
the earth with you, all those that came                  9:27 May God enlarge Japheth’s
out of the ark with you – every living                   territory and numbers!
creature of the earth. 9:11 I confirm my                 May he live in the tents of Shem
covenant with you: Never again will all                  and may Canaan be his slave!”
living things be wiped out by the waters               9:28 After the flood Noah lived 350
of a flood; never again will a flood de-           years. 9:29 The entire lifetime of Noah
stroy the earth.”                                  was 950 years, and then he died.
    9:12 And God said, “This is the guar-
antee of the covenant I am making with
you and every living creature with you, a
                                              9                             GENESIS 11:11
The Table of Nations                              his days the earth was divided, and his
                                                  brother’s name was Joktan. 10:26 Joktan
    10:1 This is the account of Noah’s            was the father of Almodad, Sheleph,
sons Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were            Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 10:27 Hadoram,
born to them after the flood.                     Uzal, Diklah, 10:28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba,
    10:2 The sons of Japheth were                 10:29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All
Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal,                these were sons of Joktan. 10:30 Their
Meshech, and Tiras. 10:3 The sons of              dwelling place was from Mesha all the
Gomer were Askenaz, Riphath, and To-              way to Sephar in the eastern hills. 10:31
garmah. 10:4 The sons of Javan were               These are the sons of Shem according to
Elishah, Tarshish, the Kittim, and the            their families, according to their lan-
Dodanim. 10:5 From these the coastlands           guages, by their lands, and according to
of the nations were separated into their          their nations.
lands, every one according to its lan-               10:32 These are the families of the
guage, according to their families, by            sons of Noah, according to their genealo-
their nations.                                    gies, by their nations, and from these the
    10:6 The sons of Ham were Cush,               nations spread over the earth after the
Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 10:7 The sons           flood.
of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah,
Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of                  The Dispersion of the Nations at Babel
Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.
    10:8 Cush was the father of Nimrod;              11:1 The whole earth had a common
he began to be a valiant warrior on the           language and a common vocabulary. 11:2
earth. 10:9 He was a mighty hunter be-            When the people moved eastward, they
fore the LORD. (That is why it is said,           found a plain in Shinar and settled there.
“Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the          11:3 Then they said to one another,
LORD.”) 10:10 The primary regions of his          “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them
kingdom were Babel, Erech, Akkad, and             thoroughly.” (They had brick instead of
Calneh in the land of Shinar. 10:11 From          stone and tar instead of mortar.) 11:4
that land he went to Assyria, where he            Then they said, “Come, let’s build our-
built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calah, 10:12          selves a city and a tower with its top in
and Resen, which is between Nineveh and           the heavens so that we may make a name
the great city Calah.                             for ourselves. Otherwise we will be scat-
    10:13 Mizraim was the father of the           tered across the face of the entire
Ludites, Anamites, Lehabites, Naphtu-             earth.”
hites, 10:14 Pathrusites, Casluhites (from           11:5 But the LORD came down to see
whom the Philistines came), and Caph-             the city and the tower that the people
torites.                                          had started building. 11:6 And the LORD
    10:15 Canaan was the father of Sidon          said, “If as one people all sharing a com-
his firstborn, Heth, 10:16 the Jebusites,         mon language they have begun to do this,
Amorites, Girgashites, 10:17 Hivites,             then nothing they plan to do will be be-
Arkites,    Sinites,   10:18    Arvadites,        yond them. 11:7 Come, let’s go down and
Zemarites, and Hamathites. Eventually             confuse their language so they won’t be
the families of the Canaanites were scat-         able to understand each other.”
tered 10:19 and the borders of Canaan                11:8 So the LORD scattered them
extended from Sidon all the way to                from there across the face of the entire
Gerar as far as Gaza, and all the way to          earth, and they stopped building the city.
Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim,              11:9 That is why its name was called Ba-
as far as Lasha. 10:20 These are the sons         bel – because there the LORD confused
of Ham, according to their families, ac-          the language of the entire world, and
cording to their languages, by their lands,       from there the LORD scattered them
and by their nations.                             across the face of the entire earth.
    10:21 And sons were also born to
                                                  The Genealogy of Shem
Shem (the older brother of Japheth),
the father of all the sons of Eber.                  11:10 This is the account of Shem.
    10:22 The sons of Shem were Elam,                Shem was 100 old when he became
Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. 10:23            the father of Arphaxad, two years after
The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether,            the flood. 11:11 And after becoming the
and Mash. 10:24 Arphaxad was the fa-              father of Arphaxad, Shem lived 500
ther of Shelah, and Shelah was the fa-            years and had other sons and daughters.
ther of Eber. 10:25 Two sons were born
to Eber: One was named Peleg because in
GENESIS 11:12                            10
   11:12 When Arphaxad had lived 35 11:32 The lifetime of Terah was 205
years, he became the father of Shelah.     years, and he died in Haran.
11:13 And after he became the father of
Shelah, Arphaxad lived 403 years and       The Obedience of Abram
had other sons and daughters.
                                                12:1 Now the LORD said to Abram,
    11:14 When Shelah had lived 30
                                                “Go out from your country, your
years, he became the father of Eber.            relatives, and your father’s
11:15 And after he became the father of         household
Eber, Shelah lived 403 years and had            to the land that I will show you.
other sons and daughters.                       12:2 Then I will make you into a
    11:16 When Eber had lived 34 years,         great nation, and I will bless you,
he became the father of Peleg. 11:17            and I will make your name great,
And after he became the father of Pe-           so that you will exemplify divine
leg, Eber lived 430 years and had other         blessing.
sons and daughters.                             12:3 I will bless those who bless
    11:18 When Peleg had lived 30 years,        you,
he became the father of Reu. 11:19 And          but the one who treats you lightly I
after he became the father of Reu, Peleg        must curse,
lived 209 years and had other sons and          and all the families of the earth will
daughters.                                      bless one another by your name.”
    11:20 When Reu had lived 32 years,         12:4 So Abram left, just as the LORD
he became the father of Serug. 11:21       had told him to do, and Lot went with
And after he became the father of Se-      him. (Now Abram was 75 years old when
rug, Reu lived 207 years and had other     he departed from Haran.) 12:5 And
sons and daughters.                        Abram took his wife Sarai, his nephew
    11:22 When Serug had lived 30 years,   Lot, and all the possessions they had ac-
he became the father of Nahor. 11:23       cumulated and the people they had ac-
And after he became the father of Na-      quired in Haran, and they left for the
hor, Serug lived 200 years and had other   land of Canaan. They entered the land of
sons and daughters.                        Canaan.
    11:24 When Nahor had lived 29 years,       12:6 Abram traveled through the land
he became the father of Terah. 11:25       as far as the oak tree of Moreh at She-
And after he became the father of          chem. (At that time the Canaanites were
Terah, Nahor lived 119 years and had       in the land.) 12:7 The LORD appeared to
other sons and daughters.                  Abram and said, “To your descendants I
    11:26 When Terah had lived 70 years,   will give this land.” So Abram built an
he became the father of Abram, Nahor,      altar there to the LORD, who had ap-
and Haran.                                 peared to him.
                                               12:8 Then he moved from there to
The Record of Terah                        the hill country east of Bethel and
                                           pitched his tent, with Bethel on the west
    11:27 This is the account of Terah.    and Ai on the east. There he built an al-
    Terah became the father of Abram, tar to the LORD and worshiped the LORD.
Nahor, and Haran. And Haran became the 12:9 Abram continually journeyed by
father of Lot. 11:28 Haran died in the stages down to the Negev.
land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldeans,
while his father Terah was still alive. The Promised Blessing Jeopardized
11:29 And Abram and Nahor took wives
for themselves. The name of Abram’s            12:10 There was a famine in the land,
wife was                                   so Abram went down to Egypt to stay for
Sarai, and the name of Nahor’s wife was a while because the famine was severe.
Milcah; she was the daughter of Haran, 12:11 As he approached Egypt, he said to
the father of both Milcah and Iscah. his wife Sarai, “Look, I know that you are
11:30 But Sarai was barren; she had no a beautiful woman. 12:12 When the Egyp-
children.                                  tians see you they will say, ‘This is his
    11:31 Terah took his son Abram, his wife.’ Then they will kill me but will keep
grandson Lot (the son of Haran), and his you alive. 12:13 So tell them you are my
daughter-in-law Sarai, his son Abram’s sister so that it may go
wife, and with them he set out from Ur well for me because of you and my life
of the Chaldeans to go to Canaan. When will be spared on account of you.”
they came to Haran, they settled there.        12:14 When Abram entered Egypt,
                                           the Egyptians saw that the woman was
                                          11                             GENESIS 14:12
very beautiful. 12:15 When Pharaoh’s             So the relatives separated from each
officials saw her, they praised her to        other. 13:12 Abram settled in the land of
Pharaoh. So Abram’s wife was taken into       Canaan, but Lot settled among the cities
the household of Pharaoh, 12:16 and he        of the Jordan plain and pitched his tents
did treat Abram well on account of her.       next to Sodom. 13:13 (Now the people of
Abram received sheep and cattle, male         Sodom were extremely wicked rebels
donkeys, male servants, female servants,      against the LORD.)
female donkeys, and camels.                      13:14 After Lot had departed, the
   12:17 But the LORD struck Pharaoh          LORD said to Abram, “Look from the place
and his household with severe diseases        where you stand to the north, south,
because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. 12:18 So      east, and west. 13:15 I will give all the
Pharaoh summoned Abram and said,              land that you see to you and your de-
“What is this you have done to me? Why        scendants forever. 13:16 And I will make
didn’t you tell me that she was your wife?    your descendants like the dust of the
12:19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’    earth, so that if anyone is able to count
so that I took her to be my wife? Here is     the dust of the earth, then your descen-
your wife! Take her and go!” 12:20 Phar-      dants also can be counted. 13:17 Get up
aoh gave his men orders about Abram,          and walk throughout the land, for I will
and so they expelled him, along with his      give it to you.”
wife and all his possessions.                    13:18 So Abram moved his tents and
                                              went to live by the oaks of Mamre in He-
Abram’s Solution to the Strife                bron, and he built an altar to the LORD
                                              there.
    13:1 So Abram went up from Egypt
into the Negev. He took his wife and all      The Blessing of Victory for God’s People
his possessions with him, as well as Lot.
13:2 (Now Abram was very wealthy in               14:1 At that time Amraphel king of
livestock, silver, and gold.)                 Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedor-
    13:3 And he journeyed from place to       laomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of
place from the Negev as far as Bethel.        nations 14:2 went to war against Bera
He returned to the place where he had         king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah,
pitched his tent at the beginning, be-        Shinab king of Admah, Shemeber king of
tween Bethel and Ai. 13:4 This was the        Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is,
place where he had first built the altar,     Zoar). 14:3 These last five kings joined
and there Abram worshiped the LORD.           forces in the Valley of Siddim (that is,
    13:5 Now Lot, who was traveling with      the Salt Sea). 14:4 For twelve years they
Abram, also had flocks, herds, and tents.     had served Kedorlaomer, but in the thir-
13:6 But the land could not support them      teenth year they rebelled. 14:5 In the
while they were living side by side. Be-      fourteenth year, Kedorlaomer and the
cause their possessions were so great,        kings who were his allies came and de-
they were not able to live alongside one      feated the Rephaites in Ashteroth Kar-
another. 13:7 So there were quarrels          naim, the Zuzites in Ham, the Emites in
between Abram’s herdsmen and Lot’s            Shaveh Kiriathaim, 14:6 and the Horites
herdsmen. (Now the Canaanites and the         in their hill country of Seir, as far as El
Perizzites were living in the land at that    Paran, which is near the desert. 14:7
time.)                                        Then they attacked En Mishpat (that is,
    13:8 Abram said to Lot, “Let there be     Kadesh) again, and they conquered all the
no quarreling between me and you, and         territory of the Amalekites, as well as
between my herdsmen and your herds-           the Amorites who were living in Hazazon
men, for we are close relatives. 13:9 Is      Tamar.
not the whole land before you? Separate           14:8 Then the king of Sodom, the king
yourself now from me. If you go to the        of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king
left, then I’ll go to the right, but if you   of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is,
go to the right, then I’ll go to the left.”   Zoar) went out and prepared for battle.
    13:10 Lot looked up and saw the whole     In the Valley of Siddim they met 14:9
region of the Jordan. He noticed that all     Kedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of
of it was well-watered (before the LORD       nations, Amraphel king of Shinar, and
obliterated Sodom and Gomorrah) like          Arioch king of Ellasar. Four kings fought
the garden of the LORD, like the land of      against five. 14:10 Now the Valley of
Egypt, all the way to Zoar. 13:11 Lot         Siddim was full of tar pits. When the
chose for himself the whole region of the     kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they
Jordan and traveled toward the east.          fell into them, but some survivors fled to
GENESIS 14:11                             12
the hills. 14:11 The four victorious kingsnot, Abram! I am your shield and the one
took all the possessions and food of      who will reward you in great abundance.”
Sodom and Gomorrah and left. 14:12            15:2 But Abram said, “O sovereign
They also took Abram’s nephew Lot and     LORD, what will you give me since I con-
his possessions when they left, for Lot   tinue to be childless, and my heir is
was living in Sodom.                      Eliezer of Damascus?” 15:3 Abram
    14:13 A fugitive came and told Abram  added, “Since you have not given me a
the Hebrew. Now Abram was living by the   descendant, then look, one born in my
oaks of Mamre the Amorite, the brother    house will be my heir!”
of Eshcol and Aner. (All these were allied    15:4 But look, the word of the LORD
by treaty with Abram.) 14:14 When         came to him: “This man will not be your
Abram heard that his nephew had been      heir, but instead a son who comes from
taken captive, he mobilized his 318       your own
trained men who had been born in his      body will be your heir.” 15:5 The LORD
household, and he pursued the invaders    took him outside and said, “Gaze into the
as far as Dan. 14:15 Then, during the     sky and count the stars – if you are able
night, Abram divided his forces against   to count them!” Then he said to him, “So
them and defeated them. He chased         will your descendants be.”
them as far as Hobah, which is north of       15:6 Abram believed the LORD, and
Damascus. 14:16 He retrieved all the sto- the LORD considered his response of
len property. He also brought back his    faith as proof of genuine loyalty.
nephew Lot and his possessions, as well as    15:7 The LORD said to him, “I am the
the women and the rest of the people.     LORD who brought you out from Ur of the
    14:17 After Abram returned from       Chaldeans to give you this land to pos-
defeating Kedorlaomer and the kings who   sess.” 15:8 But Abram said, “O sovereign
were with him, the king of Sodom went     LORD, by what can I know that I am to
out to meet Abram in the Valley of        possess it?”
Shaveh (known as the King’s Valley).          15:9 The LORD said to him, “Take for
14:18 Melchizedek king of Salem brought   me a heifer, a goat, and a ram, each
out bread and wine. (Now he was the       three years old, along with a dove and a
priest of the Most High God.) 14:19 He    young pigeon.” 15:10 So Abram took all
blessed Abram, saying,                    these for him and then cut them in two
      “Blessed be Abram by the Most       and placed each half opposite the other,
      High God,                           but he did not cut the birds in half. 15:11
      Creator of heaven and earth.        When birds of prey came down on the
      14:20 Worthy of praise is the Most  carcasses, Abram drove them away.
      High God,                               15:12 When the sun went down,
      who delivered your enemies into     Abram fell sound asleep, and great ter-
      your hand.”                         ror overwhelmed him. 15:13 Then the
    Abram gave Melchizedek a tenth of     LORD said to Abram, “Know for certain
everything.                               that your descendants will be strangers
    14:21 Then the king of Sodom said to  in a foreign country. They will be en-
Abram, “Give me the people and take the   slaved and oppressed for four hundred
possessions for yourself.” 14:22 But      years. 15:14 But I will execute judgment
Abram replied to the king of Sodom, “I    on the nation that they will serve. After-
raise my hand to the LORD, the Most High  ward they will come out with many pos-
God, Creator of heaven and earth, and     sessions. 15:15 But as for you, you will go
vow 14:23 that I will take nothing belong-to your ancestors in peace and be buried
ing to you, not even a thread or the strapat a good old age. 15:16 In the fourth
of a sandal. That way you can never say,  generation your descendants will return
‘It is I who made Abram rich.’ 14:24 I will
                                          here, for the sin of the Amorites has not
take nothing except compensation for      yet reached its limit.”
what the young men have eaten. As for         15:17 When the sun had gone down
the share of the men who went with me –   and it was dark, a smoking firepot with a
Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre – let them take   flaming torch passed between the animal
their share.”                             parts. 15:18 That day the LORD made a
                                          covenant with Abram: “To your descen-
The Cutting of the Covenant
                                          dants I give this land, from the river of
   15:1 After these things the word of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates
the LORD came to Abram in a vision: “Fear River – 15:19 the land of the Kenites,
                                          Kenizzites, Kadmonites, 15:20 Hittites,
                                          13                             GENESIS 17:16
Perizzites, Rephaites, 15:21 Amorites,      16:15 So Hagar gave birth to Abram’s
Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites.” son, whom Abram named Ishmael. 16:16
                                         (Now Abram was 86 years old when Ha-
The Birth of Ishmael                     gar gave birth to Ishmael.)
    16:1 Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, had not     The Sign of the Covenant
given birth to any children, but she had
an Egyptian servant named Hagar. 16:2             17:1 When Abram was 99 years old,
So Sarai said to Abram, “Since the LORD       the LORD appeared to him and said, “I am
has prevented me from having children,        the sovereign God. Walk before me and
have sexual relations with my servant.        be blameless. 17:2 Then I will confirm my
Perhaps I can have a family by her.”          covenant between me and you, and I will
Abram did what Sarai told him.                give you a multitude of descendants.”
    16:3 So after Abram had lived in Ca-          17:3 Abram bowed down with his face
naan for ten years, Sarai, Abram’s wife,      to the ground, and God said to him, 17:4
gave Hagar, her Egyptian servant, to her      “As for me, this is my covenant with you:
husband to be his wife. 16:4 He had sex-      You will be the father of a multitude of
ual relations with Hagar, and she became      nations. 17:5 No longer will your name be
pregnant. Once Hagar realized she was         Abram. Instead, your name will be Abra-
pregnant, she despised Sarai. 16:5 Then       ham because I will make you the father
Sarai said to Abram, “You have brought        of a multitude of nations. 17:6 I will
this wrong on me! I allowed my servant to     make you extremely fruitful. I will make
have sexual relations with you, but when      nations of you, and kings will descend
she realized that she was pregnant, she       from you. 17:7 I will confirm my covenant
despised me. May the LORD judge be-           as a perpetual covenant between me and
tween you and me!”                            you. It will extend to your descendants
    16:6 Abram said to Sarai, “Since your     after you throughout their generations. I
servant is under your authority, do to her    will be your God and the God of your de-
whatever you think best.” Then Sarai          scendants after you. 17:8 I will give the
treated Hagar harshly, so she ran away        whole land of Canaan – the land where
from Sarai.                                   you are now residing – to you and your
    16:7 The LORD’s angel found Hagar         descendants after you as a permanent
near a spring of water in the desert – the    possession. I will be their God.”
spring that is along the road to Shur.            17:9 Then God said to Abraham, “As
16:8 He said, “Hagar, servant of Sarai,       for you, you must keep the covenantal
where have you come from, and where           requirement I am imposing on you and
are you going?” She replied, “I’m running     your descendants after you throughout
away from my mistress, Sarai.”                their generations. 17:10 This is my re-
    16:9 Then the LORD’s angel said to        quirement that you and your descendants
her, “Return to your mistress and submit      after you must keep: Every male among
to her authority. 16:10 I will greatly mul-   you must be circumcised. 17:11 You must
tiply your descendants,” the LORD’s angel     circumcise the flesh of your foreskins.
added, “so that they will be too numerous     This will be a reminder of the covenant
to count.” 16:11 Then the LORD’s angel        between me and you. 17:12 Throughout
said to her,                                  your generations every male among you
      “You are now pregnant                   who is eight days old must be circum-
      and are about to give birth to a son.   cised, whether born in your house or
      You are to name him Ishmael,            bought with money from any foreigner
      for the LORD has heard your painful     who is not one of your descendants. 17:13
      groans.                                 They must indeed be circumcised,
      16:12 He will be a wild donkey of a     whether born in your house or bought
      man.                                    with money. The sign of my covenant will
      He will be hostile to everyone,         be visible in your flesh as a permanent
      and everyone will be hostile to him.    reminder. 17:14 Any uncircumcised male
      He will live away from his brothers.”   who has not been circumcised in the
    16:13 So Hagar named the LORD who
spoke to her, “You are the God who sees       flesh of his foreskin will be cut off from
                                              his people – he has failed to carry out my
me,” for she said, “Here I have seen one
who sees me!” 16:14 That is why the well      requirement.”
                                                  17:15 Then God said to Abraham, “As
was called Beer Lahai Roi. (It is located
between Kadesh and Bered.)                    for your wife, you must no longer call her
                                              Sarai; Sarah will be her name. 17:16 I
                                              will bless her and will give you a son
GENESIS 17:17                            14
through her. I will bless her and she will       18:6 So Abraham hurried into the
become a mother of nations. Kings of         tent and said to Sarah, “Quick! Take
countries will come from her!”               three measures of fine flour, knead it,
    17:17 Then Abraham bowed down with       and make bread.” 18:7 Then Abraham ran
his face to the ground and laughed as he     to the herd and chose a fine, tender calf,
said to himself, “Can a son be born to a     and gave it to a servant, who quickly pre-
man who is a hundred years old? Can          pared it. 18:8 Abraham then took some
Sarah bear a child at the age of ninety?”    curds and milk, along with the calf that
17:18 Abraham said to God, “O that Ish-      had been prepared, and placed the food
mael might live before you!”                 before them. They ate while he was
    17:19 God said, “No, Sarah your wife     standing near them under a tree.
is going to bear you a son, and you will         18:9 Then they asked him, “Where is
name him Isaac. I will confirm my cove-      Sarah your wife?” He replied, “There, in
nant with him as a perpetual covenant for    the tent.” 18:10 One of them said, “I will
his descendants after him. 17:20 As for      surely return to you when the season
Ishmael, I have heard you. I will indeed     comes round again, and your wife Sarah
bless him, make him fruitful, and give him   will have a son!” (Now Sarah was listening
a multitude of descendants. He will be-      at the entrance to the tent, not far be-
come the father of twelve princes; I will    hind him. 18:11 Abraham and Sarah were
make him into a great nation. 17:21 But I    old and advancing in years; Sarah had
will establish my covenant with Isaac,       long since passed menopause.) 18:12 So
whom Sarah will bear to you at this set      Sarah laughed to herself, thinking, “Af-
time next year.” 17:22 When he finished      ter I am worn out will I have pleasure,
speaking with Abraham, God went up           especially when my husband is old too?”
from him.                                        18:13 The LORD said to Abraham,
    17:23 Abraham took his son Ishmael       “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Will I
and every male in his household (whether     really have a child when I am old?’ 18:14
born in his house or bought with money)      Is anything impossible for the LORD? I
and circumcised them on that very same       will return to you when the season comes
day, just as God had told him to do. 17:24   round again and Sarah will have a son.”
Now Abraham was 99 years old when he         18:15 Then Sarah lied, saying, “I did not
was circumcised; 17:25 his son Ishmael       laugh,” because she was afraid. But the
was thirteen years old when he was cir-      LORD said, “No! You did laugh.”
cumcised. 17:26 Abraham and his son
Ishmael were circumcised on the very         Abraham Pleads for Sodom
same day. 17:27 All the men of his house-
                                                 18:16 When the men got up to leave,
hold, whether born in his household or
bought with money from a foreigner,          they looked out over Sodom. (Now Abra-
were circumcised with him.                   ham was walking with them to see them
                                             on their way.) 18:17 Then the LORD said,
Three Special Visitors                       “Should I hide from Abraham what I am
                                             about to do? 18:18 After all, Abraham
    18:1 The LORD appeared to Abraham        will surely become a great and powerful
by the oaks of Mamre while he was sit-       nation, and all the nations on the earth
ting at the entrance to his tent during      will pronounce blessings on one another
the hottest time of the day. 18:2 Abra-      using his name. 18:19 I have chosen him
ham looked up and saw three men stand-       so that he may command his children and
ing across from him. When he saw them        his household after him to keep the way
he ran from the entrance of the tent to      of the LORD by doing what is right and
meet them and bowed low to the ground.       just. Then the LORD will give to Abraham
    18:3 He said, “My lord, if I have        what he promised him.”
found favor in your sight, do not pass by        18:20 So the LORD said, “The outcry
and leave your servant. 18:4 Let a little    against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great
water be brought so that you may all         and their sin so blatant 18:21 that I must
wash your feet and rest under the tree.      go down and see if they are as wicked as
18:5 And let me get a bit of food so that    the outcry suggests. If not, I want to
you may refresh yourselves since you         know.”
have passed by your servant’s home. Af-          18:22 The two men turned and
ter that you may be on your way.” “All       headed toward Sodom, but Abraham was
right,” they replied, “you may do as you     still standing before the LORD. 18:23
say.”                                        Abraham approached and said, “Will you
                                             sweep away the godly along with the
                                           15                             GENESIS 19:20
wicked? 18:24 What if there are fifty          could lie down to sleep, all the men – both
godly people in the city? Will you really      young and old, from every part of the
wipe it out and not spare the place for        city of Sodom – surrounded the house.
the sake of the fifty godly people who         19:5 They shouted to Lot, “Where are
are in it? 18:25 Far be it from you to do      the men who came to you tonight? Bring
such a thing – to kill the godly with the      them out to us so we can have sex with
wicked, treating the godly and the wicked      them!”
alike! Far be it from you! Will not the            19:6 Lot went outside to them, shut-
judge of the whole earth do what is            ting the door behind him. 19:7 He said,
right?”                                        “No, my brothers! Don’t act so wickedly!
    18:26 So the LORD replied, “If I find      19:8 Look, I have two daughters who
in the city of Sodom fifty godly people, I     have never had sexual relations with a
will spare the whole place for their sake.”    man. Let me bring them out to you, and
    18:27 Then Abraham asked, “Since I         you can do to them whatever you please.
have undertaken to speak to the Lord           Only don’t do anything to these men, for
(although I am but dust and ashes), 18:28      they have come under the protection of
what if there are five less than the fifty     my roof.”
godly people? Will you destroy the whole           19:9 “Out of our way!” they cried, and
city because five are lacking?” He re-         “This man came to live here as a for-
plied, “I will not destroy it if I find        eigner, and now he dares to judge us!
forty-five there.”                             We’ll do more harm to you than to them!”
    18:29 Abraham spoke to him again,          They kept pressing in on Lot until they
“What if forty are found there?” He re-        were close enough to break down the
plied, “I will not do it for the sake of the   door.
forty.”                                            19:10 So the men inside reached out
    18:30 Then Abraham said, “May the          and pulled Lot back into the house as
Lord not be angry so that I may speak!         they shut the door. 19:11 Then they
What if thirty are found there?” He re-        struck the men who were at the door of
plied, “I will not do it if I find thirty      the house, from the youngest to the old-
there.”                                        est, with blindness. The men outside wore
    18:31 Abraham said, “Since I have un-      themselves out trying to find the door.
dertaken to speak to the Lord, what if         19:12 Then the two visitors said to Lot,
only twenty are found there?” He replied,      “Who else do you have here? Do you have
“I will not destroy it for the sake of the     any sons-in-law, sons, daughters, or other
twenty.”                                       relatives in the city? Get them out of
    18:32 Finally Abraham said, “May the       this place 19:13 because we are about to
Lord not be angry so that I may speak          destroy it. The outcry against this place
just once more. What if ten are found          is so great before the LORD that he has
there?” He replied, “I will not destroy it     sent us to destroy it.”
for the sake of the ten.”                          19:14 Then Lot went out and spoke to
    18:33 The LORD went on his way when        his sons-in-law who were going to marry
he had finished speaking to Abraham.           his daughters. He said, “Quick, get out of
Then Abraham returned home.                    this place because the LORD is about to
                                               destroy the city!” But his sons-in-law
The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah          thought he was ridiculing them.
                                                   19:15 At dawn the angels hurried Lot
    19:1 The two angels came to Sodom in
                                               along, saying, “Get going! Take your wife
the evening while Lot was sitting in the       and your two daughters who are here, or
city’s gateway. When Lot saw them, he          else you will be destroyed when the city
got up to meet them and bowed down             is judged!” 19:16 When Lot hesitated,
with his face toward the ground.               the men grabbed his hand and the hands
    19:2 He said, “Here, my lords, please
                                               of his wife and two daughters because
turn aside to your servant’s house. Stay       the LORD had compassion on them. They
the night and wash your feet. Then you         led them away and placed them outside
can be on your way early in the morning.”      the city. 19:17 When they had brought
“No,” they replied, “we’ll spend the night     them outside, they said, “Run for your
in the town square.”                           lives! Don’t look behind you or stop any-
    19:3 But he urged them persistently,
                                               where in the valley! Escape to the moun-
so they turned aside with him and en-          tains or you will be destroyed!”
tered his house. He prepared a feast for           19:18 But Lot said to them, “No,
them, including bread baked without            please, Lord! 19:19 Your servant has
yeast, and they ate. 19:4 Before they
GENESIS 19:20                               16
found favor with you, and you have shown        again tonight. Then you go and have sex-
me great kindness by sparing my life. But       ual relations with him so we can preserve
I am not able to escape to the mountains        our family line through our father.” 19:35
because this disaster will overtake me          So they made their father drunk that
and I’ll die. 19:20 Look, this town over        night as well, and the younger one came
here is close enough to escape to, and it’s     and had sexual relations with him. But he
just a little one. Let me go there. It’s        was not aware that she had sexual rela-
just a little place, isn’t it? Then I’ll sur-   tions with him and then got up.
vive.”                                              19:36 In this way both of Lot’s
    19:21 “Very well,” he replied, “I will      daughters became pregnant by their fa-
grant this request too and will not over-       ther. 19:37 The older daughter gave
throw the town you mentioned. 19:22 Run         birth to a son and named him Moab. He is
there quickly, for I cannot do anything         the ancestor of the Moabites of today.
until you arrive there.” (This incident         19:38 The younger daughter also gave
explains why the town was called Zoar.)         birth to a son and named him Ben-Ammi.
    19:23 The sun had just risen over the       He is the ancestor of the Ammonites of
land as Lot reached Zoar. 19:24 Then the        today.
LORD rained down sulfur and fire on
Sodom and Gomorrah. It was sent down            Abraham and Abimelech
from the sky by the LORD. 19:25 So he
                                                    20:1 Abraham journeyed from there
overthrew those cities and all that re-
gion, including all the inhabitants of the      to the Negev region and settled between
cities and the vegetation that grew from        Kadesh and Shur. While he lived as a
the ground. 19:26 But Lot’s wife looked         temporary resident in Gerar, 20:2 Abra-
back longingly and was turned into a pillar     ham said about his wife Sarah, “She is my
of salt.                                        sister.” So Abimelech, king of Gerar, sent
    19:27 Abraham got up early in the
                                                for Sarah and took her.
                                                    20:3 But God appeared to Abimelech
morning and went to the place where he
had stood before the LORD. 19:28 He             in a dream at night and said to him, “You
looked out toward Sodom and Gomorrah            are as good as dead because of the
and all the land of that region. As he did      woman you have taken, for she is some-
so, he saw the smoke rising up from the         one else’s wife.”
                                                    20:4 Now Abimelech had not gone
land like smoke from a furnace.
    19:29 So when God destroyed the cit-
                                                near her. He said, “Lord, would you really
ies of                                          slaughter an innocent nation? 20:5 Did
the region, God honored Abraham’s re-           Abraham not say to me, ‘She is my sis-
quest. He removed Lot from the midst of         ter’? And she herself said, ‘He is my
the destruction when he destroyed the           brother.’ I have done this with a clear
cities Lot had lived in.                        conscience and with innocent hands!”
                                                    20:6 Then in the dream God replied to
    19:30 Lot went up from Zoar with his
two daughters and settled in the moun-          him, “Yes, I know that you have done this
tains because he was afraid to live in          with a clear conscience. That is why I
Zoar. So he lived in a cave with his two        have kept you from sinning against me
daughters. 19:31 Later the older daugh-         and why I did not allow you to touch her.
                                                20:7 But now give back the man’s wife.
ter said to the younger, “Our father is
old, and there is no man anywhere nearby        Indeed he is a prophet and he will pray
to have sexual relations with us, accord-       for you; thus you will live. But if you don’t
ing to the way of all the world. 19:32          give her back, know that you will surely
Come, let’s make our father drunk with          die along with all who belong to you.”
                                                    20:8 Early in the morning Abimelech
wine so we can have sexual relations with
him and preserve our family line through        summoned all his servants. When he told
our father.”                                    them about all these things, they were
    19:33 So that night they made their
                                                terrified. 20:9 Abimelech summoned
father drunk with wine, and the older           Abraham and said to him, “What have you
daughter came and had sexual relations          done to us? What sin did I commit
with her father. But he was not aware           against you that would cause you to bring
that she had sexual relations with him          such great guilt on me and my kingdom?
and then got up. 19:34 So in the morning        You have done things to me that should
the older daughter said to the younger,         not be done!” 20:10 Then Abimelech
“Since I had sexual relations with my           asked Abraham, “What prompted you to
father last night, let’s make him drunk         do this thing?”
                                          17                              GENESIS 21:31
   20:11 Abraham replied, “Because I             21:11    Sarah’s demand displeased
thought, ‘Surely no one fears God in this     Abraham greatly because Ishmael was
place. They will kill me because of my        his son. 21:12 But God said to Abraham,
wife.’ 20:12 What’s more, she is indeed       “Do not be upset about the boy or your
my sister, my                                 slave wife. Do all that Sarah is telling you
father’s daughter, but not my mother’s        because through Isaac your descendants
daughter. She became my wife. 20:13           will be counted. 21:13 But I will also make
When God made me wander from my fa-           the son of the slave wife into a great
ther’s house, I told her, ‘This is what you   nation, for he is your descendant too.”
can do to show your loyalty to me: Every          21:14 Early in the morning Abraham
place we go, say about me, “He is my          took some food and a skin of water and
brother.”’”                                   gave them to Hagar. He put them on her
    20:14 So Abimelech gave sheep, cat-       shoulders, gave her the child, and sent
tle, and male and female servants to          her away. So she went wandering aim-
Abraham. He also gave his wife Sarah          lessly through the wilderness of Beer
back to him. 20:15 Then Abimelech said,       Sheba. 21:15 When the water in the skin
“Look, my land is before you; live wher-      was gone, she shoved the child under one
ever you please.”                             of the shrubs. 21:16 Then she went and
    20:16 To Sarah he said, “Look, I have     sat down by herself across from him at
given a thousand pieces of silver to your     quite a distance, about a bowshot away;
‘brother.’ This is compensation for you so    for she thought, “I refuse to watch the
that you will stand vindicated before all     child die.” So she sat across from him
who are with you.”                            and wept uncontrollably.
    20:17 Abraham prayed to God, and              21:17 But God heard the boy’s voice.
God healed Abimelech, as well as his wife     The angel of God called to Hagar from
and female slaves so that they were able      heaven and asked her, “What is the mat-
to have children. 20:18 For the LORD had      ter, Hagar? Don’t be afraid, for God has
caused infertility to strike every woman      heard the boy’s voice right where he is
in the household of Abimelech because         crying. 21:18 Get up! Help the boy up and
he took Sarah, Abraham’s wife.                hold him by the hand, for I will make him
                                              into a great nation.” 21:19 Then God en-
The Birth of Isaac                            abled Hagar to see a well of water. She
                                              went over and filled the skin with water,
    21:1 The LORD visited Sarah just as
                                              and then gave the boy a drink.
he had said he would and did for Sarah            21:20 God was with the boy as he
what he had promised. 21:2 So Sarah           grew. He lived in the wilderness and be-
became pregnant and bore Abraham a son        came an archer. 21:21 He lived in the
in his old age at the appointed time that     wilderness of Paran. His mother found a
God had told him. 21:3 Abraham named          wife for him from the land of Egypt.
his son – whom Sarah bore to him – Isaac.         21:22 At that time Abimelech and
21:4 When his son Isaac was eight days
                                              Phicol, the commander of his army, said
old, Abraham circumcised him just as          to Abraham, “God is with you in all that
God had commanded him to do. 21:5 (Now        you do. 21:23 Now swear to me right here
Abraham was a hundred years old when          in God’s name that you will not deceive
his son Isaac was born to him.)               me, my children, or my descendants.
    21:6 Sarah said, “God has made me
                                              Show me, and the land where you are
laugh. Everyone who hears about this will     staying, the same loyalty that I have
laugh with me.” 21:7 She went on to say,      shown you.”
“Who would have said to Abraham that              21:24 Abraham said, “I swear to do
Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have        this.” 21:25 But Abraham lodged a com-
given birth to a son for him in his old       plaint against Abimelech concerning a
age!”                                         well that Abimelech’s servants had
    21:8 The child grew and was weaned.
                                              seized. 21:26 “I do not know who has
Abraham prepared a great feast on the         done this thing,” Abimelech replied.
day that Isaac was weaned. 21:9 But           “Moreover, you did not tell me. I did not
Sarah noticed the son of Hagar the            hear about it until today.”
Egyptian – the son whom Hagar had borne           21:27 Abraham took some sheep and
to Abraham – mocking. 21:10 So she said       cattle and gave them to Abimelech. The
to Abraham, “Banish that slave woman          two of them made a treaty. 21:28 Then
and her son, for the son of that slave        Abraham set seven ewe lambs apart from
woman will not be an heir along with my       the flock by themselves. 21:29 Abimelech
son Isaac!”
GENESIS 21:30                            18
asked Abraham, “What is the meaning of       angel called to him from heaven, “Abra-
these seven ewe lambs that you have set      ham! Abraham!” “Here I am!” he an-
apart?” 21:30 He replied, “You must take     swered. 22:12 “Do not harm the boy!” the
these seven ewe lambs from my hand as        angel said. “Do not do anything to him,
legal proof that I dug this well.” 21:31     for now I know that you fear God be-
That is why he named that place Beer         cause you did not withhold your son, your
Sheba, because the two of them swore         only son, from me.”
an oath there.                                   22:13 Abraham looked up and saw be-
    21:32 So they made a treaty at Beer      hind him a ram caught in the bushes by
Sheba. Then Abimelech and Phicol, the        its horns. So he went over and got the
commander of his army, returned to the       ram and offered it up as a burnt offering
land of the                                  instead of his son. 22:14 And Abraham
Philistines. 21:33 Abraham planted a         called the name of that place “The LORD
tamarisk tree in Beer Sheba. There he        provides.” It is said to this day, “In the
worshiped the LORD, the eternal God.         mountain of the LORD provision will be
21:34 So Abraham stayed in the land of       made.”
the Philistines for quite some time.             22:15 The LORD’s angel called to
                                             Abraham a second time from heaven
The Sacrifice of Isaac                       22:16 and said, “‘I solemnly swear by my
                                             own name,’ decrees the LORD, ‘that be-
    22:1 Some time after these things
                                             cause you have done this and have not
God tested Abraham. He said to him,          withheld your son, your only son, 22:17 I
“Abraham!” “Here I am!” Abraham re-          will indeed bless you, and I will greatly
plied. 22:2 God said, “Take your son –       multiply your descendants so that they
your only son, whom you love, Isaac – and    will be as countless as the stars in the
go to the land of Moriah! Offer him up       sky or the grains of sand on the sea-
there as a burnt offering on one of the      shore. Your descendants will take posses-
mountains which I will indicate to you.”     sion of the strongholds of their enemies.
    22:3 Early in the morning Abraham
                                             22:18 Because you have obeyed me, all
got up and saddled his donkey. He took       the nations of the earth will pronounce
two of his young servants with him, along    blessings on one another using the name
with his son Isaac. When he had cut the      of your descendants.’”
wood for the burnt offering, he started          22:19 Then Abraham returned to his
out for the place God had spoken to him      servants, and they set out together for
about.                                       Beer Sheba where Abraham stayed.
    22:4 On the third day Abraham
                                                 22:20 After these things Abraham
caught sight of the place in the distance.   was told, “Milcah also has borne children
22:5 So he said to his servants, “You two
                                             to your brother Nahor – 22:21 Uz the
stay here with the donkey while the boy      firstborn, his brother Buz, Kemuel (the
and I go up there. We will worship and       father of Aram), 22:22 Kesed, Hazo, Pil-
then return to you.”                         dash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel.” 22:23 (Now
    22:6 Abraham took the wood for the
                                             Bethuel became the father of Rebekah.)
burnt offering and put it on his son         These were the eight sons Milcah bore to
Isaac. Then he took the fire and the         Abraham’s brother Nahor. 22:24 His con-
knife in his hand, and the two of them       cubine, whose name was Reumah, also
walked on together. 22:7 Isaac said to       bore him children – Tebah, Gaham, Ta-
his father Abraham, “My father?” “What       hash, and Maacah.
is it, my son?” he replied. “Here is the
fire and the wood,” Isaac said, “but         The Death of Sarah
where is the lamb for the burnt offer-
ing?” 22:8 “God will provide for himself         23:1 Sarah lived 127 years. 23:2 Then
the lamb for the burnt offering, my son,”    she died in Kiriath Arba (that is, Hebron)
Abraham replied. The two of them con-        in the land of Canaan. Abraham went to
tinued on together.                          mourn for Sarah and to weep for her.
    22:9 When they came to the place             23:3 Then Abraham got up from
God had told him about, Abraham built        mourning his dead wife and said to the
the altar there and arranged the wood on     sons of Heth, 23:4 “I am a temporary
it. Next he tied up his son Isaac and        settler among you. Grant me ownership of
placed him on the altar on top of the        a burial site among you so that I may
wood. 22:10 Then Abraham reached out         bury my dead.”
his hand, took the knife, and prepared to        23:5 The sons of Heth answered
slaughter his son. 22:11 But the LORD’s      Abraham, 23:6 “Listen, sir, you are a
                                            19                        GENESIS 24:21
mighty prince among us! You may bury       household who was in charge of every-
your dead in the choicest of our tombs.    thing he had, “Put your hand under my
None of us will refuse you his tomb to     thigh 24:3 so that I may make you sol-
prevent you from burying your dead.”       emnly promise by the LORD, the God of
    23:7 Abraham got up and bowed down     heaven and the God of the earth: You
to the local people, the sons of Heth.     must not acquire a wife for my son from
23:8 Then he said to them, “If you agree   the daughters of the Canaanites, among
that I may bury my dead, then hear me      whom I am living. 24:4 You must go in-
out. Ask Ephron the son of Zohar 23:9 if   stead to my country and to my relatives
he will sell me the cave of Machpelah      to find a wife for my son Isaac.”
that belongs to him; it is at the end of       24:5 The servant asked him, “What if
                                           the woman is not willing to come back
his field. Let him sell it to me publicly for
the full price, so that I may own it as a  with me to this land? Must I then take
burial site.”                              your son back to the land from which you
    23:10 (Now Ephron was sitting among    came?”
the sons of Heth.) Ephron the Hethite          24:6 “Be careful never to take my son
replied to                                 back there!” Abraham told him. 24:7 “The
Abraham in the hearing of the sons of      LORD, the God of heaven, who took me
Heth – before all who entered the gate     from my father’s house and the land of
of his city – 23:11 “No, my lord! Hear me  my relatives, promised me with a solemn
out. I sell you both the field and the caveoath, ‘To your descendants I will give this
that is in it. In the presence of my peopleland.’ He will send his angel before you so
I sell it to you. Bury your dead.”         that you may find a wife for my son from
    23:12 Abraham bowed before the lo-     there. 24:8 But if the woman is not will-
cal people 23:13 and said to Ephron in     ing to come back with you, you will be
their hearing, “Hear me, if you will. I payfree from this oath of mine. But you
to you the price of the field. Take it     must not take my son back there!” 24:9
from me so that I may bury my dead         So the servant placed his hand under the
there.”                                    thigh of his master Abraham and gave his
    23:14 Ephron answered Abraham, say-    solemn promise he would carry out his
ing to him, 23:15 “Hear me, my lord. The   wishes.
land is worth 400 pieces of silver, but        24:10 Then the servant took ten of
what is that between me and you? So        his master’s camels and departed with all
bury your dead.”                           kinds of gifts from his master at his dis-
    23:16 So Abraham agreed to Ephron’s    posal. He journeyed to the region of
price and weighed out for him the price    Aram Naharaim and the city of Nahor.
that Ephron had quoted in the hearing of   24:11 He made the camels kneel down by
the sons of Heth – 400 pieces of silver,   the well outside the city. It was evening,
according to the standard measurement      the time when the women would go out to
at the time.                               draw water. 24:12 He prayed, “O LORD,
    23:17 So Abraham secured Ephron’s      God of my master Abraham, guide me
field in Machpelah, next to Mamre, in-     today. Be faithful to my master Abra-
cluding the field, the cave that was in it,ham. 24:13 Here I am, standing by the
and all the trees that were in the field   spring, and the daughters of the people
and all around its border, 23:18 as his    who live in the town are coming out to
property in the presence of the sons of    draw water. 24:14 I will say to a young
Heth before all who entered the gate of    woman, ‘Please lower your jar so I may
Ephron’s city.                             drink.’ May the one you have chosen for
    23:19 After this Abraham buried his    your servant Isaac reply, ‘Drink, and I’ll
wife Sarah in the cave in the field of     give your camels water too.’ In this way I
Machpelah next to Mamre (that is, He-      will know that you have been faithful to
bron) in the land of Canaan. 23:20 So      my master.”
Abraham secured the field and the cave         24:15 Before he had finished praying,
that was in it as a burial site from the   there came Rebekah with her water jug
sons of Heth.                              on her shoulder. She was the daughter of
                                           Bethuel son of Milcah (Milcah was the
The Wife for Isaac                         wife of Abraham’s brother Nahor). 24:16
                                           Now the young woman was very beautiful.
   24:1 Now Abraham was old, well ad-
                                           She was a virgin; no man had ever had
vanced in years, and the LORD had sexual relations with her. She went down
blessed him in everything. 24:2 Abraham to the spring, filled her jug, and came
said to his servant, the senior one in his
GENESIS 24:17                             20
back up. 24:17 Abraham’s servant ran to       blessed my master and he has become
meet her and said, “Please give me a sip      very wealthy. The LORD has given him
of water from your jug.” 24:18 “Drink, my     sheep and cattle, silver and gold, male
lord,” she replied, and quickly lowering      and female servants, and camels and don-
her jug to her hands, she gave him a          keys. 24:36 My master’s wife Sarah bore
drink. 24:19 When she had done so, she        a son to him when she was old, and my
said, “I’ll draw water for your camels too,   master has given him everything he owns.
until they have drunk as much as they         24:37 My master made me swear an oath.
want.” 24:20 She quickly emptied her jug      He said, ‘You must not acquire a wife for
into the watering trough and ran back to      my son from the daughters of the Ca-
the well to draw more water until she had     naanites, among whom I am living, 24:38
drawn enough for all his camels. 24:21        but you must go to the family of my fa-
Silently the man watched her with inter-      ther and to my relatives to find a wife
est to determine if the LORD had made         for my son.’ 24:39 But I said to my mas-
his journey successful or not.                ter, ‘What if the woman does not want to
    24:22 After the camels had finished       go with me?’ 24:40 He answered, ‘The
drinking, the man took out a gold nose        LORD, before whom I have walked, will
ring weighing a beka and two gold brace-      send his angel with you. He will make your
lets weighing ten shekels and gave them       journey a success and you will find a wife
to her. 24:23 “Whose daughter are you?”       for my son from among my relatives,
he asked. “Tell me, is there room in your     from my father’s family. 24:41 You will be
father’s house for us to spend the            free from your oath if you go to my rela-
night?”                                       tives and they will not give her to you.
    24:24 She said to him, “I am the          Then you will be free from your oath.’
daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah,        24:42 When I came to the spring today,
whom Milcah bore to Nahor. 24:25 We           I prayed, ‘O LORD, God of my master
have plenty of straw and feed,” she           Abraham, if you have decided to make my
added, “and room for you to spend the         journey successful, may events unfold as
night.”                                       follows: 24:43 Here I am, standing by the
    24:26 The man bowed his head and          spring. When the young woman goes out
worshiped the LORD, 24:27 saying              to draw water, I’ll say, “Give me a little
“Praised be the LORD, the God of my mas-      water to drink from your jug.” 24:44
ter Abraham, who has not abandoned his        Then she will reply to me, “Drink, and I’ll
faithful love for my master! The LORD         draw water for your camels too.” May
has led me to the house of my master’s        that woman be the one whom the LORD
relatives!”                                   has chosen for my master’s son.’
    24:28 The young woman ran and told            24:45 “Before I finished praying in my
her mother’s household all about these        heart, along came Rebekah with her wa-
things. 24:29 (Now Rebekah had a              ter jug on her shoulder! She went down
brother named Laban.) Laban rushed out        to the spring and drew water. So I said
to meet the man at the spring. 24:30          to her, ‘Please give me a drink.’ 24:46 She
When he saw the bracelets on his sister’s     quickly lowered her jug from her shoul-
wrists and the nose ring and heard his        der and said, ‘Drink, and I’ll give your
sister Rebekah say, “This is what the man     camels water too.’ So I drank, and she
said to me,” he went out to meet the man.     also gave the camels water. 24:47 Then I
There he was, standing by the camels          asked her, ‘Whose daughter are you?’
near the spring. 24:31 Laban said to him,     She replied, ‘The daughter of Bethuel
“Come, you who are blessed by the LORD!       the son of Nahor, whom Milcah bore to
Why are you standing out here when I          Nahor.’ I put the ring in her nose and the
have prepared the house and a place for       bracelets on her wrists. 24:48 Then I
the camels?”                                  bowed down and worshiped the LORD. I
    24:32 So Abraham’s servant went to        praised the LORD, the God of my master
the house and unloaded the camels.            Abraham, who had led me on the right
Straw and feed were given to the camels,      path to find the granddaughter of my
and water was provided so that he and         master’s brother for his son. 24:49 Now,
the men who were with him could wash          if you will show faithful love to my mas-
their feet. 24:33 When food was served,       ter, tell me. But if not, tell me as well, so
he said, “I will not eat until I have said    that I may go on my way.”
what I want to say.” “Tell us,” Laban said.       24:50 Then Laban and Bethuel replied,
    24:34 “I am the servant of Abraham,”      “This is the LORD’s doing. Our wishes are
he began. 24:35 “The LORD has richly          of no concern. 24:51 Rebekah stands here
                                          21                            GENESIS 25:20
before you. Take her and go so that she       The Death of Abraham
may become the wife of your master’s
son, just as the LORD has decided.”               25:1 Abraham had taken another wife,
    24:52 When Abraham’s servant heard        named Keturah. 25:2 She bore him Zim-
their words, he bowed down to the             ran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and
ground before the LORD. 24:53 Then he         Shuah. 25:3 Jokshan became the father
brought out gold, silver jewelry, and         of Sheba and Dedan. The descendants of
clothing and gave them to Rebekah. He         Dedan were the Asshurites, Letushites,
also gave valuable gifts to her brother       and Leummites. 25:4 The sons of Midian
and to her mother. 24:54 After this, he       were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and
and the men who were with him ate a           Eldaah. All these were descendants of
meal and stayed there overnight.              Keturah.
    When they got up in the morning, he           25:5 Everything he owned Abraham
said, “Let me leave now so I can return to    left to his son Isaac. 25:6 But while he
my                                            was still alive, Abraham gave gifts to the
master.” 24:55 But Rebekah’s brother          sons of his concubines and sent them off
and her mother replied, “Let the girl stay    to the east, away from his son Isaac.
with us a few more days, perhaps ten.             25:7 Abraham lived a total of 175
Then she can go.” 24:56 But he said to        years. 25:8 Then Abraham breathed his
them, “Don’t detain me – the LORD has         last and died at a good old age, an old
granted me success on my journey. Let         man who had lived a full life. He joined
me leave now so I may return to my mas-       his ancestors. 25:9 His sons Isaac and
ter.” 24:57 Then they said, “We’ll call the   Ishmael buried him in the cave of Mach-
girl and find out what she wants to do.”      pelah near Mamre, in the field of Ephron
24:58 So they called Rebekah and asked        the son of Zohar, the Hethite. 25:10 This
her, “Do you want to go with this man?”       was the field Abraham had purchased
She replied, “I want to go.”                  from the sons of Heth. There Abraham
    24:59 So they sent their sister Re-       was buried with his wife Sarah. 25:11
bekah on her way, accompanied by her          After Abraham’s death, God blessed his
female attendant, with Abraham’s ser-         son Isaac. Isaac lived near Beer Lahai
vant and his men. 24:60 They blessed          Roi.
Rebekah with these words:
      “Our sister, may you become the         The Sons of Ishmael
      mother of thousands of ten
      thousands!                                  25:12 This is the account of Abra-
      May your descendants possess the        ham’s son Ishmael, whom Hagar the
      strongholds of their enemies.”          Egyptian, Sarah’s servant, bore to Abra-
    24:61 Then Rebekah and her female         ham.
servants mounted the camels and rode              25:13 These are the names of Ish-
away with the man. So Abraham’s servant       mael’s sons, by their names according to
took Rebekah and left.                        their records: Nebaioth (Ishmael’s first-
    24:62 Now Isaac came from Beer La-        born), Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 25:14
hai Roi, for he was living in the Negev.      Mishma, Dumah, Massa, 25:15 Hadad,
24:63 He went out to relax in the field in    Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah.
the early evening. Then he looked up and      25:16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and
saw that there were camels approaching.       these are their names by their settle-
24:64 Rebekah looked up and saw Isaac.        ments and their camps – twelve princes
She got down from her camel 24:65 and         according to their clans.
asked Abraham’s servant, “Who is that             25:17 Ishmael lived a total of 137
man walking in the field toward us?”          years. He breathed his last and died;
“That is my master,” the servant replied.     then he joined his ancestors. 25:18 His
So she took her veil and covered herself.     descendants settled from Havilah to
    24:66 The servant told Isaac every-       Shur, which runs next to Egypt all the
thing that had happened. 24:67 Then           way to Asshur. They settled away from
Isaac brought Rebekah into his mother         all their relatives.
Sarah’s tent. He took her as his wife and
loved her. So Isaac was comforted after       Jacob and Esau
his mother’s death.                              25:19 This is the account of Isaac,
                                              the son of Abraham.
                                                 Abraham became the father of Isaac.
                                              25:20 When Isaac was forty years old,
                                              he married Rebekah, the daughter of
GENESIS 25:21                                22
Bethuel the Aramean from Paddan Aram             will give all these lands to you and to your
and sister of Laban the Aramean.                 descendants, and I will fulfill the solemn
    25:21 Isaac prayed to the LORD on            promise I made to your father Abraham.
behalf of his wife because she was child-        26:4 I will multiply your descendants so
less. The LORD answered his prayer, and          they will be as numerous as the stars in
his wife Rebekah became pregnant. 25:22          the sky, and I will give them all these
But the children struggled inside her, and       lands. All the nations of the earth will
she said, “If it is going to be like this, I’m   pronounce blessings on one another using
not so sure I want to be pregnant!” So           the name of your descendants. 26:5 All
she asked the LORD, 25:23 and the LORD           this will come to pass because Abraham
said to her,                                     obeyed me and kept my charge, my com-
      “Two nations are in your womb,             mandments, my statutes, and my laws.”
      and two peoples will be separated          26:6 So Isaac settled in Gerar.
      from within you.                               26:7 When the men of that place
      One people will be stronger than the       asked him about his wife, he replied,
      other,                                     “She is my sister.” He was afraid to say,
      and the older will serve the               “She is my wife,” for he thought to him-
      younger.”                                  self, “The men of this place will kill me to
    25:24 When the time came for Re-             get Rebekah because she is very beauti-
bekah to give birth, there were twins in         ful.”
her womb. 25:25 The first came out red-              26:8 After Isaac had been there a
dish all over, like a hairy garment, so they     long time, Abimelech king of the Philisti-
named him Esau. 25:26 When his brother           nes happened to look out a window and
came out with his hand clutching Esau’s          observed Isaac caressing his wife Re-
heel, they named him Jacob. Isaac was            bekah. 26:9 So Abimelech summoned
sixty years old when they were born.             Isaac and said, “She is really your wife!
    25:27 When the boys grew up, Esau            Why did you say, ‘She is my sister’?”
became a skilled hunter, a man of the            Isaac replied, “Because I thought some-
open fields, but Jacob was an even-              one might kill me to get her.”
tempered man, living in tents. 25:28 Isaac           26:10 Then Abimelech exclaimed,
loved Esau because he had a taste for            “What in the world have you done to us?
fresh game, but Rebekah loved Jacob.             One of the men might easily have had
    25:29 Now Jacob cooked some stew,            sexual relations with your wife, and you
and when Esau came in from the open              would have brought guilt on us!” 26:11 So
fields, he was famished. 25:30 So Esau           Abimelech commanded all the people,
said to Jacob, “Feed me some of the red          “Whoever touches this man or his wife
stuff – yes, this red stuff – because I’m        will surely be put to death.”
starving!” (That is why he was also called           26:12 When Isaac planted in that
Edom.)                                           land, he reaped in the same year a hun-
    25:31 But Jacob replied, “First sell me      dred times what he had sown, because
your birthright.” 25:32 “Look,” said Esau,       the LORD blessed him. 26:13 The man be-
“I’m about to die! What use is the birth-        came wealthy. His influence continued to
right to me?” 25:33 But Jacob said,              grow until he became very prominent.
“Swear an oath to me now.” So Esau               26:14 He had so many sheep and cattle
swore an oath to him and sold his birth-         and such a great household of servants
right to Jacob.                                  that the Philistines became jealous of
    25:34 Then Jacob gave Esau some              him. 26:15 So the Philistines took dirt
bread and lentil stew; Esau ate and              and filled up all the wells that his fa-
drank, then got up and went out. So Esau         ther’s servants had dug back in the days
despised his birthright.                         of his father Abraham.
                                                     26:16 Then Abimelech said to Isaac,
Isaac and Abimelech
                                                 “Leave us and go elsewhere, for you have
    26:1 There was a famine in the land,         become much more powerful than we
subsequent to the earlier famine that            are.” 26:17 So Isaac left there and set-
occurred in the days of Abraham. Isaac           tled in the Gerar Valley. 26:18 Isaac re-
went to Abimelech king of the Philistines        opened the wells that had been dug back
at Gerar. 26:2 The LORD appeared to              in the days of his father Abraham, for
Isaac and said, “Do not go down to Egypt;        the Philistines had stopped them up after
settle down in the land that I will point        Abraham died. Isaac gave these wells the
out to you. 26:3 Stay in this land. Then I       same names his father had given them.
will be with you and will bless you, for I
                                        23                             GENESIS 27:27
   26:19 When Isaac’s servants dug in       him, “My son!” “Here I am!” Esau replied.
the valley and discovered a well with       27:2 Isaac said, “Since I am so old, I
fresh flowing water there, 26:20 the        could die at any time. 27:3 Therefore,
herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with            take your weapons – your quiver and your
Isaac’s herdsmen, saying, “The water        bow – and go out into the open fields and
belongs to us!” So Isaac named the well     hunt down some wild game for me. 27:4
Esek because they argued with him about     Then prepare for me some tasty food,
it. 26:21 His servants dug another well,    the kind I love, and bring it to me. Then I
but they quarreled over it too, so Isaac    will eat it so that I may bless you before
named it Sitnah. 26:22 Then he moved        I die.”
away from there and dug another well.           27:5 Now Rebekah had been listening
They did not quarrel over it, so Isaac      while Isaac spoke to his son Esau. When
named it Rehoboth, saying, “For now the     Esau went out to the open fields to hunt
LORD has made room for us, and we will      down some wild game and bring it back,
prosper in the land.”                       27:6 Rebekah said to her son Jacob,
    26:23 From there Isaac went up to       “Look, I overheard your father tell your
Beer Sheba. 26:24 The LORD appeared to      brother Esau, 27:7 ‘Bring me some wild
him that night and said, “I am the God of   game and prepare for me some tasty
your father Abraham. Do not be afraid,      food. Then I will eat it and bless you in
for I am with you. I will bless you and     the presence of the LORD before I die.’
multiply your descendants for the sake      27:8 Now then, my son, do exactly what I
of my servant Abraham.” 26:25 Then          tell you! 27:9 Go to the flock and get me
Isaac built an altar there and worshiped    two of the best young goats. I’ll prepare
the LORD. He pitched his tent there, and    them in a tasty way for your father, just
his servants dug a well.                    the way he loves them. 27:10 Then you
    26:26 Now Abimelech had come to him     will take it to your father. Thus he will
from Gerar along with Ahuzzah his friend    eat it and bless you before he dies.”
and Phicol the commander of his army.           27:11 “But Esau my brother is a hairy
26:27 Isaac asked them, “Why have you       man,” Jacob protested to his mother Re-
come to me? You hate me and sent me         bekah, “and I have smooth skin! 27:12 My
away from you.” 26:28 They replied, “We     father may touch me! Then he’ll think I’m
could plainly see that the LORD is with     mocking him and I’ll bring a curse on my-
you. So we decided there should be a        self instead of a blessing.” 27:13 So his
pact between us – between us and you.       mother told him, “Any curse against you
Allow us to make a treaty with you 26:29    will fall on me, my son! Just obey me! Go
so that you will not do us any harm, just   and get them for me!”
as we have not harmed you, but have al-         27:14 So he went and got the goats
ways treated you well before sending you    and brought them to his mother. She
away in peace. Now you are blessed by       prepared some tasty food, just the way
the LORD.”                                  his father loved it. 27:15 Then Rebekah
    26:30 So Isaac held a feast for them    took her older son Esau’s best clothes,
and they celebrated. 26:31 Early in the     which she had with her in the house, and
morning the men made a treaty with each     put them on her younger son Jacob. 27:16
other. Isaac sent them off; they sepa-      She put the skins of the young goats on
rated on good terms.                        his hands and the smooth part of his
    26:32 That day Isaac’s servants came    neck. 27:17 Then she handed the tasty
and told him about the well they had dug.   food and the bread she had made to her
“We’ve found water,” they reported.         son Jacob.
26:33 So he named it Shibah; that is why        27:18 He went to his father and said,
the name of the city has been Beer          “My father!” Isaac replied, “Here I am.
Sheba to this day.                          Which are you, my son?” 27:19 Jacob said
    26:34 When Esau was forty years old,    to his father, “I am Esau, your firstborn.
he married Judith the daughter of Beeri     I’ve done as you told me. Now sit up and
the Hittite, as well as Basemath the        eat some of my wild game so that you can
daughter of Elon the Hittite. 26:35 They    bless me.” 27:20 But Isaac asked his son,
caused Isaac and Rebekah great anxiety.     “How in the world did you find it so
                                            quickly, my son?” “Because the LORD your
Jacob Cheats Esau out of the Blessing       God brought it to me,” he replied. 27:21
                                            Then Isaac said to Jacob, “Come closer
   27:1 When Isaac was old and his eyes
                                            so I can touch you, my son, and know for
were so weak that he was almost blind,      certain if you really are my son Esau.”
he called his older son Esau and said to
GENESIS 27:22                             24
27:22 So Jacob went over to his father        that I can do for you, my son?” 27:38
Isaac, who felt him and said, “The voice      Esau said to his father, “Do you have only
is Jacob’s, but the hands are Esau’s.”        that one blessing, my father? Bless me
27:23 He did not recognize him because        too!” Then Esau wept loudly.
his hands were hairy, like his brother           27:39 So his father Isaac said to him,
Esau’s hands. So Isaac blessed Jacob.               “Indeed, your home will be
27:24 Then he asked, “Are you really my             away from the richness of the
son Esau?” “I am,” Jacob replied. 27:25             earth,
Isaac said, “Bring some of the wild game            and away from the dew of the sky
for me to eat, my son. Then I will bless            above.
you.” So Jacob brought it to him, and he            27:40 You will live by your sword
ate it. He also brought him wine, and               but you will serve your brother.
Isaac drank. 27:26 Then his father Isaac            When you grow restless,
said to him, “Come here and kiss me, my             you will tear off his yoke
                                                    from your neck.”
son.” 27:27 So Jacob went over and               27:41 So Esau hated Jacob because
kissed him. When Isaac caught the scent
                                              of the blessing his father had given to
of his clothing, he blessed him, saying,      his brother. Esau said privately, “The
      “Yes, my son smells
      like the scent of an open field         time of mourning for my father is near;
      which the LORD has blessed.             then I will kill my brother Jacob!”
      27:28 May God give you                     27:42 When Rebekah heard what her
      the dew of the sky                      older son Esau had said, she quickly sum-
      and the richness of the earth,          moned her younger son Jacob and told
      and plenty of grain and new wine.       him, “Look, your brother Esau is planning
      27:29 May peoples serve you             to get revenge by killing you. 27:43 Now
      and nations bow down to you.            then, my son, do what I say. Run away
      You will be lord over your brothers,    immediately to my brother Laban in Ha-
      and the sons of your mother will bow    ran. 27:44 Live with him for a little while
      down to you.                            until your brother’s rage subsides. 27:45
      May those who curse you be cursed,      Stay there until your brother’s anger
      and those who bless you be blessed.”    against you subsides and he forgets what
    27:30 Isaac had just finished blessing    you did to him. Then I’ll send someone to
Jacob, and Jacob had scarcely left his        bring you back from there. Why should I
father’s presence, when his brother Esau      lose both of you in one day?”
returned from the hunt. 27:31 He also            27:46 Then Rebekah said to Isaac, “I
prepared some tasty food and brought it       am deeply depressed because of these
to his father. Esau said to him, “My fa-      daughters of Heth. If Jacob were to
ther, get up and eat some of your son’s       marry one of these daughters of Heth
wild game. Then you can bless me.” 27:32      who live in this land, I would want to die!”
His father Isaac asked, “Who are you?”           28:1 So Isaac called for Jacob and
“I am your firstborn son,” he replied,        blessed him. Then he commanded him,
“Esau!” 27:33 Isaac began to shake vio-       “You must not marry a Canaanite woman!
lently and asked, “Then who else hunted       28:2 Leave immediately for Paddan Aram!
game and brought it to me? I ate all of it    Go to the house of Bethuel, your
just before you arrived, and I blessed        mother’s father, and find yourself a wife
him. He will indeed be blessed!”              there, among the daughters of Laban,
    27:34 When Esau heard his father’s        your mother’s brother. 28:3 May the sov-
words, he wailed loudly and bitterly. He      ereign God bless you! May he make you
said to his father, “Bless me too, my fa-     fruitful and give you a multitude of de-
ther!” 27:35 But Isaac replied, “Your         scendants! Then you will become a large
brother came in here deceitfully and          nation. 28:4 May he give you and your
took away your blessing.” 27:36 Esau ex-      descendants the blessing he gave to
claimed, “‘Jacob’ is the right name for       Abraham so that you may possess the
him! He has tripped me up two times! He       land God gave to Abraham, the land
took away my birthright, and now, look,       where you have been living as a tempo-
he has taken away my blessing!” Then he       rary resident.” 28:5 So Isaac sent Jacob
asked, “Have you not kept back a blessing     on his way, and he went to Paddan Aram,
for me?”                                      to Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean and
    27:37 Isaac replied to Esau, “Look! I     brother of Rebekah, the mother of Ja-
have made him lord over you. I have made      cob and Esau.
all his relatives his servants and provided      28:6 Esau saw that Isaac had blessed
him with grain and new wine. What is left     Jacob and sent him off to Paddan Aram
                                          25                            GENESIS 29:20
to find a wife there. As he blessed him,      The Marriages of Jacob
Isaac commanded him, “You must not
marry a Canaanite woman.” 28:7 Jacob              29:1 So Jacob moved on and came to
obeyed his father and mother and left         the land of the eastern people. 29:2 He
for Paddan Aram. 28:8 Then Esau real-         saw in the field a well with three flocks
ized that the Canaanite women were dis-       of sheep lying beside it, because the
pleasing to his father Isaac. 28:9 So Esau    flocks were watered from that well. Now
went to Ishmael and married Mahalath,         a large stone covered the mouth of the
the sister of Nebaioth and daughter of        well. 29:3 When all the flocks were gath-
Abraham’s son Ishmael, along with the         ered there, the shepherds would roll the
wives he already had.                         stone off the mouth of the well and wa-
                                              ter the sheep. Then they would put the
Jacob’s Dream at Bethel                       stone back in its place over the well’s
                                              mouth.
    28:10 Meanwhile Jacob left Beer               29:4 Jacob asked them, “My brothers,
Sheba and set out for Haran. 28:11 He         where are you from?” They replied,
reached a certain place where he decided      “We’re from Haran.” 29:5 So he said to
to camp because the sun had gone down.        them, “Do you know Laban, the grandson
He took one of the stones and placed it       of Nahor?” “We know him,” they said.
near his head. Then he fell asleep in that    29:6 “Is he well?” Jacob asked. They re-
place 28:12 and had a dream. He saw a         plied, “He is well. Now look, here comes
stairway erected on the earth with its        his daughter Rachel with the sheep.” 29:7
top reaching to the heavens. The angels       Then Jacob said, “Since it is still the
of God were going up and coming down it       middle of the day, it is not time for the
28:13 and the LORD stood at its top. He       flocks to be gathered. You should water
said, “I am the LORD, the God of your         the sheep and then go and let them graze
grandfather Abraham and the God of            some more.” 29:8 “We can’t,” they said,
your father Isaac. I will give you and        “until all the flocks are gathered and the
your descendants the ground you are ly-       stone is rolled off the mouth of the well.
ing on. 28:14 Your descendants will be        Then we water the sheep.”
like the dust of the earth, and you will          29:9 While he was still speaking with
spread out to the west, east, north, and      them, Rachel arrived with her father’s
south. All the families of the earth will     sheep, for she was tending them. 29:10
pronounce blessings on one another using      When Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of
your name and that of your descendants.       his uncle Laban, and the sheep of his un-
28:15 I am with you! I will protect you       cle Laban, he went over and rolled the
wherever you go and will bring you back       stone off the mouth of the well and wa-
to this land. I will not leave you until I    tered the sheep of his uncle Laban. 29:11
have done what I promised you!”               Then Jacob kissed Rachel and began to
    28:16 Then Jacob woke up and              weep loudly. 29:12 When Jacob explained
thought, “Surely the LORD is in this place,   to Rachel that he was a relative of her
but I did not realize it!” 28:17 He was       father and the son of Rebekah, she ran
afraid and said, “What an awesome place       and told her father. 29:13 When Laban
this is! This is nothing else than the        heard this news about Jacob, his sister’s
house of God! This is the gate of heaven!”    son, he rushed out to meet him. He em-
    28:18 Early in the morning Jacob took     braced him and kissed him and brought
the stone he had placed near his head         him to his house. Jacob told Laban how
and set it up as a sacred stone. Then he      he was related to him. 29:14 Then Laban
poured oil on top of it. 28:19 He called      said to him, “You are indeed my own flesh
that place Bethel, although the former        and blood.” So Jacob stayed with him for
name of the town was Luz. 28:20 Then          a month.
Jacob made a vow, saying, “If God is with         29:15 Then Laban said to Jacob,
me and protects me on this journey I am       “Should you work for me for nothing be-
taking and gives me food to eat and           cause you are my relative? Tell me what
clothing to wear, 28:21 and I return          your wages should be.” 29:16 (Now Laban
safely to my father’s home, then the          had two daughters; the older one was
LORD will become my God. 28:22 Then this      named Leah, and the younger one Rachel.
stone that I have set up as a sacred          29:17 Leah’s eyes were tender, but Ra-
stone will be the house of God, and I will    chel had a lovely figure and beautiful
surely give you back a tenth of every-        appearance.) 29:18 Since Jacob had
thing you give me.”                           fallen in love with Rachel, he said, “I’ll
                                              serve you seven years in exchange for
GENESIS 29:19                            26
your younger daughter Rachel.” 29:19         will praise the LORD.” That is why she
Laban replied, “I’d rather give her to you   named him Judah. Then she stopped hav-
than to another man. Stay with me.”          ing children.
29:20 So Jacob worked for seven years            30:1 When Rachel saw that she could
to acquire Rachel. But they seemed like      not give Jacob children, she became jeal-
only a few days to him because his love      ous of her sister. She said to Jacob,
for her was so great.                        “Give me children or I’ll die!” 30:2 Jacob
    29:21 Finally Jacob said to Laban,       became furious with Rachel and ex-
“Give me my wife, for my time of service     claimed, “Am I in the place of God, who
is up. I want to have marital relations      has kept you from having children?” 30:3
with her.” 29:22 So Laban invited all the    She replied, “Here is my servant Bilhah!
people of that place and prepared a          Have sexual relations with her so that
feast. 29:23 In the evening he brought       she can bear children for me and I can
his daughter Leah to Jacob, and Jacob        have a family through her.”
had marital relations with her. 29:24 (La-       30:4 So Rachel gave him her servant
ban gave his female servant Zilpah to his    Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob had marital
daughter Leah to be her servant.)            relations with her. 30:5 Bilhah became
    29:25 In the morning Jacob discov-       pregnant and gave Jacob a son. 30:6 Then
ered it was Leah! So Jacob said to Laban,    Rachel said, “God has vindicated me. He
“What in the world have you done to me!      has responded to my prayer and given me
Didn’t I work for you in exchange for        a son.” That is why she named him Dan.
Rachel? Why have you tricked me?” 29:26          30:7 Bilhah, Rachel’s servant, became
“It is not our custom here,” Laban re-       pregnant again and gave Jacob another
plied, “to give the younger daughter in      son. 30:8 Then Rachel said, “I have
marriage before the firstborn. 29:27         fought a desperate struggle with my sis-
Complete my older daughter’s bridal          ter, but I have won.” So she named him
week. Then we will give you the younger      Naphtali.
one too, in exchange for seven more              30:9 When Leah saw that she had
years of work.”                              stopped having children, she gave her
    29:28 Jacob did as Laban said. When      servant Zilpah to Jacob as a wife. 30:10
Jacob completed Leah’s bridal week, La-      Soon Leah’s servant Zilpah gave Jacob a
ban gave him his daughter Rachel to be       son. 30:11 Leah said, “How fortunate!” So
his wife. 29:29 (Laban gave his female       she named him Gad.
servant Bilhah to                                30:12 Then Leah’s servant Zilpah gave
his daughter Rachel to be her servant.)      Jacob another son. 30:13 Leah said, “How
29:30 Jacob had marital relations with       happy I am, for women will call me
Rachel as well. He loved Rachel more than    happy!” So she named him Asher.
Leah, so he worked for Laban for seven           30:14 At the time of the wheat har-
more years.                                  vest Reuben went out and found some
                                             mandrake plants in a field and brought
The Family of Jacob                          them to his mother Leah. Rachel said to
                                             Leah, “Give me some of your son’s man-
   29:31 When the LORD saw that Leah
                                             drakes.” 30:15 But Leah replied, “Wasn’t
was unloved, he enabled her to become        it enough that you’ve taken away my hus-
pregnant while Rachel remained childless.    band? Would you take away my son’s man-
29:32 So Leah became pregnant and gave
                                             drakes too?” “All right,” Rachel said, “he
birth to a son. She named him Reuben,        may sleep with you tonight in exchange
for she said, “The LORD has looked with      for your son’s mandrakes.” 30:16 When
pity on my oppressed condition. Surely       Jacob came in from the fields that
my husband will love me now.”                evening, Leah went out to meet him and
   29:33 She became pregnant again and
                                             said, “You must sleep with me because I
had another son. She said, “Because the      have paid for your services with my son’s
LORD heard that I was unloved, he gave       mandrakes.” So he had marital relations
me this one too.” So she named him           with her that night. 30:17 God paid at-
Simeon.                                      tention to Leah; she became pregnant
   29:34 She became pregnant again and
                                             and gave Jacob a son for the fifth time.
had another son. She said, “Now this time    30:18 Then Leah said, “God has granted
my husband will show me affection, be-       me a reward because I gave my servant
cause I have given birth to three sons       to my husband as a wife.” So she named
for him.” That is why he was named Levi.     him Issachar.
   29:35 She became pregnant again and
had another son. She said, “This time I
                                          27                              GENESIS 31:9
   30:19 Leah became pregnant again speckled or spotted (all that had any
and gave Jacob a son for the sixth time.      white on them), and all the dark-colored
30:20 Then Leah said, “God has given me       lambs, and put them in the care of his
a good gift. Now my husband will honor        sons. 30:36 Then he separated them
me because I have given him six sons.” So     from Jacob by a
she named him Zebulun.                        three-day journey, while Jacob was tak-
   30:21 After that she gave birth to a       ing care of the rest of Laban’s flocks.
daughter and named her Dinah.                     30:37 But Jacob took fresh-cut
   30:22 Then God took note of Rachel.        branches from poplar, almond, and plane
He paid attention to her and enabled her      trees. He made white streaks by peeling
to become pregnant. 30:23 She became          them, making the white inner wood in the
pregnant and gave birth to a son. Then        branches visible. 30:38 Then he set up
she said, “God has taken away my shame.”      the peeled branches in all the watering
30:24 She named him Joseph, saying,           troughs where the flocks came to drink.
“May the LORD give me yet another son.”       He set up the branches in front of the
                                              flocks when they were in heat and came
The Flocks of Jacob                           to drink. 30:39 When the sheep mated in
                                              front of the branches, they gave birth to
    30:25 After Rachel had given birth to
                                              young that were streaked or speckled or
Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, “Send me         spotted. 30:40 Jacob removed these
on my way so that I can go home to my         lambs, but he made the rest of the flock
own country. 30:26 Let me take my wives       face the streaked and completely dark-
and my children whom I have acquired by       colored animals in Laban’s flock. So he
working for you. Then I’ll depart, because    made separate flocks for himself and did
you know how hard I’ve worked for you.”       not mix them with Laban’s flocks. 30:41
    30:27 But Laban said to him, “If I
                                              When the stronger females were in heat,
have found favor in your sight, please        Jacob would set up the branches in the
stay here, for I have learned by divina-      troughs in front of the flock, so they
tion that the LORD has blessed me on          would mate near the branches. 30:42 But
account of you.” 30:28 He added, “Just        if the animals were weaker, he did not set
name your wages – I’ll pay whatever you       the branches there. So the weaker ani-
want.”                                        mals ended up belonging to Laban and the
    30:29 “You know how I have worked
                                              stronger animals to Jacob. 30:43 In this
for you,” Jacob replied, “and how well        way Jacob became extremely prosperous.
your livestock have fared under my care.      He owned large flocks, male and female
30:30 Indeed, you had little before I
                                              servants, camels, and donkeys.
arrived, but now your possessions have
increased many times over. The LORD has       Jacob’s Flight from Laban
blessed you wherever I worked. But now,
how long must it be before I do some-             31:1 Jacob heard that Laban’s sons
thing for my own family too?”                 were complaining, “Jacob has taken eve-
    30:31 So Laban asked, “What should I      rything that belonged to our father! He
give you?” “You don’t need to give me a       has gotten rich at our father’s expense!”
thing,” Jacob replied, “but if you agree to   31:2 When Jacob saw the look on Laban’s
this one condition, I will continue to care   face, he could tell his attitude toward
for your flocks and protect them: 30:32       him had changed.
Let me walk among all your flocks today           31:3 The LORD said to Jacob, “Return
and remove from them every speckled or        to the land of your fathers and to your
spotted sheep, every dark-colored lamb,       relatives. I will be with you.” 31:4 So Ja-
and the spotted or speckled goats. These      cob sent a message for Rachel and Leah
animals will be my wages. 30:33 My integ-     to come to the field where his flocks
rity will testify for me later on. When       were. 31:5 There he said to them, “I can
you come to verify that I’ve taken only       tell that your father’s attitude toward
the wages we agreed on, if I have in my       me has changed, but the God of my fa-
possession any goat that is not speckled      ther has been with me. 31:6 You know
or spotted or any sheep that is not dark-     that I’ve worked for your father as hard
colored, it will be considered stolen.”       as I could, 31:7 but your father has hu-
30:34 “Agreed!” said Laban, “It will be as    miliated me and changed my wages ten
you say.”                                     times. But God has not permitted him to
    30:35 So that day Laban removed the       do me any harm. 31:8 If he said, ‘The
male goats that were streaked or spot-        speckled animals will be your wage,’ then
ted, all the female goats that were           the entire flock gave birth to speckled
GENESIS 31:9                              28
offspring. But if he said, ‘The streaked      deceive me? Why didn’t you tell me so I
animals will be your wage,’ then the entire   could send you off with a celebration
flock gave birth to streaked offspring.       complete with singing, tambourines, and
31:9 In this way God has snatched away        harps? 31:28 You didn’t even allow me to
your father’s livestock and given them to     kiss my daughters and my grandchildren
me.                                           good-bye. You have acted foolishly! 31:29
    31:10 “Once during breeding season I      I have the power to do you harm, but the
saw in a dream that the male goats mat-       God of your father told me last night, ‘Be
ing with the flock were streaked, speck-      careful that you neither bless nor curse
led, and spotted. 31:11 In the dream the      Jacob.’ 31:30 Now I understand that you
angel of God said to me, ‘Jacob!’ ‘Here I     have gone away because you longed des-
am!’ I replied. 31:12 Then he said, ‘Ob-      perately for your father’s house. Yet why
serve that all the male goats mating with     did you steal my gods?”
the flock are streaked, speckled, or              31:31 “I left secretly because I was
spotted, for I have observed all that La-     afraid!” Jacob replied to Laban. “I
ban has done to you. 31:13 I am the God       thought you might take your daughters
of Bethel, where you anointed the sacred      away from me by force. 31:32 Whoever
stone and made a vow to me. Now leave         has taken your gods will be put to death!
this land immediately and return to your      In the presence of our relatives identify
native land.’”                                whatever is yours and take it.” (Now Ja-
    31:14 Then Rachel and Leah replied to     cob did not know that Rachel had stolen
him, “Do we still have any portion or in-     them.)
heritance in our father’s house? 31:15            31:33 So Laban entered Jacob’s tent,
Hasn’t he treated us like foreigners? He      and Leah’s tent, and the tent of the two
not only sold us, but completely wasted       female servants, but he did not find the
the money paid for us! 31:16 Surely all       idols. Then he left Leah’s tent and en-
the wealth that God snatched away from        tered Rachel’s. 31:34 (Now Rachel had
our father belongs to us and to our chil-     taken the idols and put them inside her
dren. So now do everything God has told       camel’s saddle and sat on them.) Laban
you.”                                         searched the whole tent, but did not find
    31:17 So Jacob immediately put his        them. 31:35 Rachel said to her father,
children and his wives on the camels.         “Don’t be angry, my lord. I cannot stand
31:18 He took away all the livestock he       up in your presence because I am having
had acquired in Paddan Aram and all his       my period.” So he searched thoroughly,
moveable property that he had accumu-         but did not find the idols.
lated. Then he set out toward the land of         31:36 Jacob became angry and argued
Canaan to return to his father Isaac.         with Laban. “What did I do wrong?” he
    31:19 While Laban had gone to shear       demanded of Laban. “What sin of mine
his sheep, Rachel stole the household         prompted you to chase after me in hot
idols that belonged to her father. 31:20      pursuit? 31:37 When you searched
Jacob also deceived Laban the Aramean         through all my goods, did you find any-
by not telling him that he was leaving.       thing that belonged to you? Set it here
31:21 He left with all he owned. He           before my relatives and yours, and let
quickly crossed the Euphrates River and       them settle the dispute between the two
headed for the hill country of Gilead.        of us!
    31:22 Three days later Laban discov-          31:38 “I have been with you for the
ered Jacob had left. 31:23 So he took his     past twenty years. Your ewes and female
relatives with him and pursued Jacob for      goats have not miscarried, nor have I
seven days. He caught up with him in the      eaten rams from your flocks. 31:39 Ani-
hill country of Gilead. 31:24 But God         mals torn by wild beasts I never brought
came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at       to you; I always absorbed the loss my-
night and warned him, “Be careful that        self. You always made me pay for every
you neither bless nor curse Jacob.”           missing animal, whether it was taken by
    31:25 Laban overtook Jacob, and when      day or at night. 31:40 I was consumed by
Jacob pitched his tent in the hill country    scorching heat during the day and by
of Gilead, Laban and his relatives set up     piercing cold at night, and I went without
camp there too. 31:26 “What have you          sleep. 31:41 This was my lot for twenty
done?” Laban demanded of Jacob. “You’ve       years in your house: I worked like a slave
deceived me and carried away my daugh-        for you – fourteen years for your two
ters as if they were captives of war!         daughters and six years for your flocks,
31:27 Why did you run away secretly and       but you changed my wages ten times!
                                          29                            GENESIS 32:20
31:42 If the God of my father – the God          32:3 Jacob sent messengers on ahead
of Abraham, the one whom Isaac fears –        to his brother Esau in the land of Seir,
had not been with me, you would certainly     the region of Edom. 32:4 He commanded
have sent me away empty-handed! But           them, “This is what you must say to my
God saw how I was oppressed and how           lord Esau: ‘This is what your servant Ja-
hard I worked, and he rebuked you last        cob says: I have been staying with Laban
night.”                                       until now. 32:5 I have oxen, donkeys,
    31:43 Laban replied to Jacob, “These      sheep, and male and female servants. I
women are my daughters, these children        have sent this message to inform my
are my grandchildren, and these flocks        lord, so that I may find favor in your
are my flocks. All that you see belongs to    sight.’”
me. But how can I harm these daughters            32:6 The messengers returned to Ja-
of mine today or the children to whom         cob and said, “We went to your brother
they have given birth? 31:44 So now,          Esau. He is coming to meet you and has
come, let’s make a formal agreement, you      four hundred men with him.” 32:7 Jacob
and I, and it will be proof that we have      was very afraid and upset. So he divided
made peace.”                                  the people who were with him into two
    31:45 So Jacob took a stone and set       camps, as well as the flocks, herds, and
it up as a memorial pillar. 31:46 Then he     camels. 32:8 “If Esau attacks one camp,”
said to his relatives, “Gather stones.” So    he thought, “then the other camp will be
they brought stones and put them in a         able to escape.”
pile. They ate there by the pile of stones.       32:9 Then Jacob prayed, “O God of
31:47 Laban called it Jegar Sahadutha,        my father Abraham, God of my father
but Jacob called it Galeed.                   Isaac, O LORD, you said to me, ‘Return to
    31:48 Laban said, “This pile of stones    your land and to your relatives and I will
is a witness of our agreement today.”         make you prosper.’ 32:10 I am not worthy
That is why it was called Galeed. 31:49 It    of all the faithful love you have shown
was also called Mizpah because he said,       your servant. With only my walking stick
“May the LORD watch between us when           I crossed the Jordan, but now I have
we are out of sight of one another. 31:50     become two camps. 32:11 Rescue me, I
If you mistreat my daughters or if you        pray, from the hand of my brother Esau,
take wives besides my daughters, al-          for I am afraid he will come and attack
though no one else is with us, realize that   me, as well as the mothers with their
God is witness to your actions.”              children. 32:12 But you said, ‘I will cer-
    31:51 “Here is this pile of stones and    tainly make you prosper and will make
this pillar I have set up between me and      your descendants like the sand on the
you,” Laban said to Jacob. 31:52 “This        seashore, too numerous to count.’”
pile of stones and the pillar are remind-         32:13 Jacob stayed there that night.
ers that I will not pass beyond this pile     Then he sent as a gift to his brother
to come to harm you and that you will not     Esau 32:14 two hundred female goats and
pass beyond this pile and this pillar to      twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and
come to harm me. 31:53 May the God of         twenty rams, 32:15 thirty female camels
Abraham and the god of Nahor, the gods        with their young, forty cows and ten
of their father, judge between us.” Ja-       bulls, and twenty female donkeys and ten
cob took an oath by the God whom his          male donkeys. 32:16 He entrusted them
father Isaac feared. 31:54 Then Jacob         to his servants, who divided them into
offered a sacrifice on the mountain and       herds. He told his servants, “Pass over
invited his relatives to eat the meal.        before me, and keep some distance be-
They ate the meal and spent the night on      tween one herd and the next.” 32:17 He
the mountain.                                 instructed the servant leading the first
    31:55 (32:1) Early in the morning Laban   herd, “When my brother Esau meets you
kissed his grandchildren and his daugh-       and asks, ‘To whom do you belong? Where
ters goodbye and blessed them. Then           are you going? Whose herds are you driv-
Laban left and returned home.                 ing?’ 32:18 then you must say, ‘They be-
                                              long to your servant Jacob. They have
Jacob Wrestles at Peniel                      been sent as a gift to my lord Esau. In
                                              fact Jacob himself is behind us.’”
   32:1 So Jacob went on his way and
                                                  32:19 He also gave these instructions
the angels of God met him. 32:2 When          to the second and third servants, as well
Jacob saw them, he exclaimed, “This is        as all those who were following the
the camp of God!” So he named that            herds, saying, “You must say the same
place Mahanaim.
GENESIS 32:20                             30
thing to Esau when you meet him. 32:20        replied, “The children whom God has gra-
You must also say, ‘In fact your servant      ciously given your servant.” 33:6 The fe-
Jacob is behind us.’” Jacob thought,          male servants came forward with their
    “I will first appease him by sending a    children and bowed down. 33:7 Then Leah
gift ahead of me. After that I will meet      came forward with her children and they
him. Perhaps he will accept me.” 32:21 So     bowed down. Finally Joseph and Rachel
the gifts were sent on ahead of him while     came forward and bowed down.
he spent that night in the camp.                  33:8 Esau then asked, “What did you
    32:22 During the night Jacob quickly      intend by sending all these herds to meet
took his two wives, his two female ser-       me?” Jacob replied, “To find favor in
vants, and his eleven sons and crossed        your sight, my lord.” 33:9 But Esau said,
the ford of the Jabbok. 32:23 He took         “I have plenty, my brother. Keep what
them and sent them across the stream          belongs to you.” 33:10 “No, please take
along with all his possessions. 32:24 So      them,” Jacob said. “If I have found favor
Jacob was left alone. Then a man wres-        in your sight, accept my gift from my
tled with him until daybreak. 32:25 When      hand. Now that I have seen your face and
the man saw that he could not defeat          you have accepted me, it is as if I have
Jacob, he struck the socket of his hip so     seen the face of God. 33:11 Please take
the socket of Jacob’s hip was dislocated      my present that was brought to you, for
while he wrestled with him.                   God has been generous to me and I have
    32:26 Then the man said, “Let me go,      all I need.” When Jacob urged him, he
for                                           took it.
the dawn is breaking.” “I will not let you        33:12 Then Esau said, “Let’s be on our
go,” Jacob replied, “unless you bless me.”    way! I will go in front of you.” 33:13 But
32:27 The man asked him, “What is your        Jacob said to him, “My lord knows that
name?” He answered, “Jacob.” 32:28 “No        the children are young, and that I have
longer will your name be Jacob,” the man      to look after the sheep and cattle that
told him, “but Israel, because you have       are nursing their young. If they are
fought with God and with men and have         driven too hard for even a single day, all
prevailed.”                                   the animals will die. 33:14 Let my lord go
    32:29 Then Jacob asked, “Please tell      on ahead of his servant. I will travel more
me your name.” “Why do you ask my             slowly, at the pace of the herds and the
name?” the man replied. Then he blessed       children, until I come to my lord at Seir.”
Jacob there. 32:30 So Jacob named the             33:15 So Esau said, “Let me leave
place Peniel, explaining, “Certainly I have   some of my men with you.” “Why do
seen God face to face and have survived.”     that?” Jacob replied. “My lord has al-
    32:31 The sun rose over him as he         ready been kind enough to me.”
crossed over Penuel, but he was limping           33:16 So that same day Esau made his
because of his hip. 32:32 That is why to      way back to Seir. 33:17 But Jacob trav-
this day the Israelites do not eat the        eled to Succoth where he built himself a
sinew which is attached to the socket of      house and made shelters for his live-
the hip, because he struck the socket of      stock. That is why the place was called
Jacob’s hip near the attached sinew.          Succoth.
                                                  33:18 After he left Paddan Aram, Ja-
Jacob Meets Esau                              cob came safely to the city of Shechem
                                              in the land of Canaan, and he camped
    33:1 Jacob looked up and saw that
                                              near the city. 33:19 Then he purchased
Esau was coming along with four hundred       the portion of the field where he had
men. So he divided the children among         pitched his tent; he bought it from the
Leah, Rachel, and the two female ser-         sons of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for a
vants. 33:2 He put the servants and their     hundred pieces of money. 33:20 There he
children in front, with Leah and her chil-    set up an altar and called it “The God of
dren behind them, and Rachel and Joseph       Israel is God.”
behind them. 33:3 But Jacob himself
went on ahead of them, and he bowed           Dinah and the Shechemites
toward the ground seven times as he ap-
proached his brother. 33:4 But Esau ran          34:1 Now Dinah, Leah’s daughter
to meet him, embraced him, hugged his         whom she bore to Jacob, went to meet
neck, and kissed him. Then they both          the young women of the land. 34:2 When
wept. 33:5 When Esau looked up and saw        Shechem son of Hamor the Hivite, who
the women and the children, he asked,         ruled that area, saw her, he grabbed her,
“Who are these people with you?” Jacob        forced himself on her, and sexually as-
                                           31                               GENESIS 35:5
saulted her. 34:3 Then he became very          in the land and travel freely in it, for the
attached to Dinah, Jacob’s daughter. He        land is wide enough for them. We will
fell in love with the young woman and          take their daughters for wives, and we
spoke romantically to her. 34:4 Shechem        will give them our daughters to marry.
said to his father Hamor, “Acquire this        34:22 Only on this one condition will
young girl as my wife.” 34:5 When Jacob        these men consent to live with us and
heard that Shechem had violated his            become one people: They demand that
daughter Dinah, his sons were with the         every male among us be circumcised just
livestock in the field. So Jacob remained      as they are circumcised. 34:23 If we do
silent until they came in.                     so, won’t their livestock, their property,
    34:6 Then Shechem’s father Hamor           and all their animals become ours? So
went to speak with Jacob about Dinah.          let’s consent to their demand, so they will
34:7 Now Jacob’s sons had come in from         live among us.”
the field when they heard the news.                34:24 All the men who assembled at
They were offended and very angry be-          the city gate agreed with Hamor and his
cause Shechem had disgraced Israel by          son Shechem. Every male who assembled
sexually assaulting Jacob’s daughter, a        at the city gate was circumcised. 34:25
crime that should not be committed.            In three days, when they were still in
    34:8 But Hamor made this appeal to         pain, two of Jacob’s sons, Simeon and
them: “My son Shechem is in love with          Levi, Dinah’s brothers, each took his
your daughter. Please give her to him as       sword and went to the unsuspecting city
his wife. 34:9 Intermarry with us. Let us      and slaughtered every male. 34:26 They
marry your daughters, and take our             killed Hamor and his son Shechem with
daughters as wives for yourselves. 34:10       the sword, took Dinah from Shechem’s
You may live among us, and the land will       house, and left. 34:27 Jacob’s sons killed
be open to you. Live in it, travel freely in   them and looted the city because their
it, and acquire property in it.”               sister had been violated. 34:28 They took
    34:11 Then Shechem said to Dinah’s         their flocks, herds, and donkeys, as well
father and brothers, “Let me find favor        as everything in the city and in the sur-
in your sight, and whatever you require        rounding fields. 34:29 They captured as
of me I’ll give. 34:12 You can make the        plunder all their wealth, all their little
bride price and the gift I must bring          ones, and their wives, including every-
very expensive, and I’ll give whatever you     thing in the houses.
ask of me. Just give me the young woman            34:30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and
as my wife!”                                   Levi, “You have brought ruin on me by
    34:13 Jacob’s sons answered Shechem        making me a foul odor among the inhabi-
and his father Hamor deceitfully when          tants of the land – among the Canaanites
they spoke because Shechem had vio-            and the Perizzites. I am few in number;
lated their sister Dinah. 34:14 They said      they will join forces against me and at-
to them, “We cannot give our sister to a       tack me, and both I and my family will be
man who is not circumcised, for it would       destroyed!” 34:31 But Simeon and Levi
be a disgrace to us. 34:15 We will give        replied, “Should he treat our sister like a
you our consent on this one condition: You     common prostitute?”
must become like us by circumcising all
your males. 34:16 Then we will give you        The Return to Bethel
our daughters to marry, and we will take
                                                   35:1 Then God said to Jacob, “Go up
your daughters as wives for ourselves,
and we will live among you and become          at once to Bethel and live there. Make an
one people. 34:17 But if you do not agree      altar there to God, who appeared to you
to our terms by being circumcised, then        when you fled from your brother Esau.”
                                               35:2 So Jacob told his household and all
we will take our sister and depart.”
    34:18 Their offer pleased Hamor and
                                               who were with him, “Get rid of the for-
his son Shechem. 34:19 The young man           eign gods you have among you. Purify
did not delay in doing what they asked         yourselves and change your clothes. 35:3
because he wanted Jacob’s daughter             Let us go up at once to Bethel. Then I will
Dinah badly. (Now he was more important        make an altar there to God, who re-
than anyone in his father’s household.)        sponded to me in my time of distress and
34:20 So Hamor and his son Shechem
                                               has been with me wherever I went.”
                                                   35:4 So they gave Jacob all the for-
went to the gate of their city and spoke
to the men of their city, 34:21 “These         eign gods that were in their possession
men are at peace with us. So let them live     and the rings that were in their ears.
                                               Jacob buried them under the oak near
GENESIS 35:5                              32
Shechem 35:5 and they started on their             35:25 The sons of Bilhah, Rachel’s
journey. The surrounding cities were                servant, were Dan and Naphtali.
afraid of God, and they did not pursue              35:26 The sons of Zilpah, Leah’s
the sons of Jacob.                                  servant, were Gad and Asher.
    35:6 Jacob and all those who were             These were the sons of Jacob who
with him arrived at Luz (that is, Bethel)     were born to him in Paddan Aram.
in the land of Canaan. 35:7 He built an           35:27 So Jacob came back to his fa-
altar there and named the place El            ther Isaac in Mamre, to Kiriath Arba
Bethel because there God had revealed         (that is, Hebron), where Abraham and
himself to him when he was fleeing from       Isaac had stayed. 35:28 Isaac lived to be
his brother. 35:8 (Deborah, Rebekah’s         180 years old. 35:29 Then Isaac breathed
nurse, died and was buried under the oak      his last and joined his ancestors. He died
below Bethel; thus it was named Oak of        an old man who had lived a full life. His
Weeping.)                                     sons Esau and Jacob buried him.
    35:9 God appeared to Jacob again af-
ter he returned from Paddan Aram and          The Descendants of Esau
blessed him. 35:10 God said to him, “Your         36:1 What follows is the account of
name is Jacob, but your name will no          Esau (also known as Edom).
longer be called Jacob; Israel will be            36:2 Esau took his wives from the Ca-
your name.” So God named him Israel.          naanites: Adah the daughter of Elon the
35:11 Then God said to him, “I am the         Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of
sovereign God. Be fruitful and multiply! A    Anah and granddaughter of Zibeon the
nation – even a company of nations – will     Hivite, 36:3 in addition to Basemath the
descend from you; kings will be among         daughter of Ishmael and sister of Ne-
your descendants! 35:12 The land I gave       baioth.
to Abraham and Isaac I will give to you.          36:4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau,
To your descendants I will also give this     Basemath bore Reuel, 36:5 and Oholiba-
land.” 35:13 Then God went up from the        mah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These
place where he spoke with him. 35:14 So       were the sons of Esau who were born to
Jacob set up a sacred stone pillar in the     him in the land of Canaan.
place where God spoke with him. He                36:6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his
poured out a drink offering on it, and        daughters, all the people in his household,
then he poured oil on it. 35:15 Jacob         his livestock, his animals, and all his pos-
named the place where God spoke with          sessions which he had acquired in the
him Bethel.                                   land of Canaan and went to a land some
    35:16 They traveled on from Bethel,       distance away from Jacob his brother
and when Ephrath was still some distance      36:7 because they had too many posses-
away, Rachel went into labor – and her        sions to be able to stay together and the
labor was hard. 35:17 When her labor          land where they had settled was not able
was at its hardest, the midwife said to       to support them because of their live-
her, “Don’t be afraid, for you are having     stock. 36:8 So Esau (also known as Edom)
another son.” 35:18 With her dying            lived in the hill country of Seir.
breath, she named him Ben-Oni. But his            36:9 This is the account of Esau, the
father called him Benjamin instead. 35:19     father of the Edomites, in the hill coun-
So Rachel died and was buried on the way      try of Seir.
to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem). 35:20            36:10 These were the names of Esau’s
Jacob set up a marker over her grave; it      sons:
is the Marker of Rachel’s Grave to this           Eliphaz, the son of Esau’s wife Adah,
day.                                          and Reuel, the son of Esau’s wife Base-
    35:21 Then Israel traveled on and         math.
pitched his tent beyond Migdal Eder.              36:11 The sons of Eliphaz were:
35:22 While Israel was living in that land,       Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Ke-
Reuben had sexual relations with Bilhah,      naz.
his father’s concubine, and Israel heard          36:12 Timna, a concubine of Esau’s son
about it.                                     Eliphaz, bore Amalek to Eliphaz. These
    Jacob had twelve sons:                    were the sons of Esau’s wife Adah.
     35:23 The sons of Leah were                  36:13 These were the sons of Reuel:
     Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, as well as    Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.
     Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and       These were the sons of Esau’s wife
     Zebulun.
     35:24 The sons of Rachel were
                                              Basemath.
     Joseph and Benjamin.
                                        33                              GENESIS 37:8
   36:14 These were the sons of Esau’s         36:33 When Bela died, Jobab the son
wife Oholibamah the daughter of Anah        of Zerah from Bozrah reigned in his
and granddaughter of Zibeon: She bore       place.
Jeush, Jalam, and Korah to Esau.                36:34 When Jobab died, Husham from
    36:15 These were the chiefs among       the land of the Temanites reigned in his
the descendants of Esau, the sons of        place.
Eliphaz, Esau’s firstborn: chief Teman,         36:35 When Husham died, Hadad the
chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz,       son of Bedad, who defeated the Midian-
36:16 chief Korah, chief Gatam, chief       ites in the land of Moab, reigned in his
Amalek. These were the chiefs de-           place; the name of his city was Avith.
scended from Eliphaz in the land of             36:36 When Hadad died, Samlah from
Edom; these were the sons of Adah.          Masrekah reigned in his place.
    36:17 These were the sons of Esau’s         36:37 When Samlah died, Shaul from
son Reuel: chief Nahath, chief Zerah,       Rehoboth by the River reigned in his
chief Shammah, chief Mizzah. These          place.
were the chiefs descended from Reuel in         36:38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan
the land of Edom; these were the sons of    the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
Esau’s wife Basemath.                           36:39 When Baal-Hanan the son of
    36:18 These were the sons of Esau’s     Achbor died, Hadad reigned in his place;
wife Oholibamah: chief Jeush, chief         the name of his city was Pau. His wife’s
Jalam, chief Korah. These were the          name was Mehetabel, the daughter of
chiefs descended from Esau’s wife           Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.
Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.               36:40 These were the names of the
    36:19 These were the sons of Esau       chiefs of Esau, according to their fami-
(also known as Edom), and these were        lies, according to their places, by their
their chiefs.                               names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief
    36:20 These were the sons of Seir       Jetheth, 36:41 chief Oholibamah, chief
the Horite, who were living in the land:    Elah, chief Pinon, 36:42 chief Kenaz,
Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 36:21 Dis-     chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 36:43 chief
hon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the       Magdiel, chief Iram. These were the
chiefs of the Horites, the descendants      chiefs of Edom, according to their set-
of Seir in the land of Edom.                tlements in the land they possessed. This
    36:22 The sons of Lotan were Hori       was Esau, the father of the Edomites.
and Homam; Lotan’s sister was Timna.
    36:23 These were the sons of Shobal:    Joseph’s Dreams
Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and
                                                37:1 But Jacob lived in the land where
Onam.
    36:24 These were the sons of Zibeon:
                                            his father had stayed, in the land of Ca-
Aiah and Anah (who discovered the hot       naan.
                                                37:2 This is the account of Jacob.
springs in the wilderness as he pastured
the donkeys of his father Zibeon).              Joseph, his seventeen-year-old son,
    36:25 These were the children of
                                            was taking care of the flocks with his
Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daugh-     brothers. Now he was a youngster work-
ter of Anah.                                ing with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his
    36:26 These were the sons of Dishon:
                                            father’s wives. Joseph brought back a
Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.          bad report about them to their father.
                                                37:3 Now Israel loved Joseph more
    36:27 These were the sons of Ezer:
Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.                   than all his sons because he was a son
    36:28 These were the sons of Dishan:
                                            born to him late in life, and he made a
Uz and Aran.                                special tunic for him. 37:4 When Jo-
    36:29 These were the chiefs of the
                                            seph’s brothers saw that their father
Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief   loved him more than any of them, they
Zibeon, chief Anah, 36:30 chief Dishon,     hated Joseph and were not able to speak
chief Ezer, chief Dishan. These were the    to him kindly.
                                                37:5 Joseph had a dream, and when he
chiefs of the Horites, according to their
chief lists in the land of Seir.            told his brothers about it, they hated
    36:31 These were the kings who
                                            him even more. 37:6 He said to them,
reigned in the land of Edom before any      “Listen to this dream I had: 37:7 There
king ruled over the Israelites:             we were, binding sheaves of grain in the
    36:32 Bela the son of Beor reigned in
                                            middle of the field. Suddenly my sheaf
Edom; the name of his city was Dinhabah.    rose up and stood upright and your
                                            sheaves surrounded my sheaf and bowed
GENESIS 37:8                               34
down to it!” 37:8 Then his brothers asked           37:25 When they sat down to eat
him, “Do you really think you will rule over   their food, they looked up and saw a
us or have dominion over us?” They hated       caravan of Ishmaelites coming from
him even more because of his dream and         Gilead. Their camels were carrying
because of what he said.                       spices, balm, and myrrh down to Egypt.
    37:9 Then he had another dream, and        37:26 Then Judah said to his brothers,
told it to his brothers. “Look,” he said. “I   “What profit is there if we kill our
had another dream. The sun, the moon,          brother and cover up his blood? 37:27
and eleven stars were bowing down to           Come, let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites,
me.” 37:10 When he told his father and         but let’s not lay a hand on him, for after
his brothers, his father rebuked him,          all, he is our brother, our own flesh.” His
saying, “What is this dream that you           brothers agreed. 37:28 So when the
had? Will I, your mother, and your             Midianite merchants passed by, Joseph’s
brothers really come and bow down to           brothers pulled him out of the cistern
you?” 37:11 His brothers were jealous of       and sold him to the Ishmaelites for
him, but his father kept in mind what          twenty pieces of silver. The Ishmaelites
Joseph said.                                   then took Joseph to Egypt.
    37:12 When his brothers had gone to             37:29 Later Reuben returned to the
graze their father’s flocks near She-          cistern to find that Joseph was not in it!
chem, 37:13 Israel said to Joseph, “Your       He tore his clothes, 37:30 returned to
brothers are grazing the flocks near           his brothers, and said, “The boy isn’t
Shechem. Come, I will send you to them.”       there! And I, where can I go?” 37:31 So
“I’m ready,” Joseph replied. 37:14 So          they took Joseph’s tunic, killed a young
Jacob said to him, “Go now and check on        goat, and dipped the tunic in the blood.
the welfare of your brothers and of the        37:32 Then they brought the special tu-
flocks, and bring me word.” So Jacob           nic to their father and said, “We found
sent him from the valley of Hebron.            this. Determine now whether it is your
    37:15 When Joseph reached She-             son’s tunic or not.”
chem, a man found him wandering in the              37:33 He recognized it and exclaimed,
field, so the man asked him, “What are         “It is my son’s tunic! A wild animal has
you looking for?” 37:16 He replied, “I’m       eaten him! Joseph has surely been torn
looking for my brothers. Please tell me        to pieces!” 37:34 Then Jacob tore his
where they are grazing their flocks.”          clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned
37:17 The man said, “They left this area,      for his son many days. 37:35 All his sons
for I heard them say, ‘Let’s go to             and daughters stood by him to console
Dothan.’” So Joseph went after his             him, but he refused to be consoled. “No,”
brothers and found them at Dothan.             he said, “I will go to the grave mourning
    37:18 Now Joseph’s brothers saw him        my son.” So Joseph’s father wept for
from a distance, and before he reached         him.
them, they plotted to kill him. 37:19 They          37:36 Now in Egypt the Midianites
said to one another, “Here comes this          sold Joseph to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh’s
master of dreams! 37:20 Come now, let’s        officials, the captain of the guard.
kill him, throw him into one of the cis-
terns, and then say that a wild animal ate     Judah and Tamar
him. Then we’ll see how his dreams turn
                                                   38:1 At that time Judah left his
out!”
    37:21 When Reuben heard this, he
                                               brothers and stayed with an Adullamite
rescued Joseph from their hands, saying,       man named Hirah.
                                               38:2 There Judah saw the daughter of a
“Let’s not take his life!” 37:22 Reuben
continued, “Don’t shed blood! Throw him        Canaanite man named Shua. Judah ac-
into this cistern that is here in the wil-     quired her as a wife and had marital rela-
derness, but don’t lay a hand on him.”         tions with her. 38:3 She became preg-
(Reuben said this so he could rescue Jo-       nant and had a son. Judah named him Er.
                                               38:4 She became pregnant again and had
seph from them and take him back to his
father.)                                       another son, whom she named Onan. 38:5
    37:23 When Joseph reached his
                                               Then she had yet another son, whom she
brothers, they stripped him of his tunic,      named Shelah. She gave birth to him in
the special tunic that he wore. 37:24          Kezib.
                                                   38:6 Judah acquired a wife for Er his
Then they took him and threw him into
the cistern. (Now the cistern was empty;       firstborn; her name was Tamar. 38:7 But
there was no water in it.)                     Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the
                                               LORD’s sight, so the LORD killed him.
                                          35                               GENESIS 39:6
   38:8 Then Judah said to Onan, “Have Moreover, the men of the place said,
sexual relations with your brother’s wife     ‘There has been no cult prostitute here.’”
and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to   38:23 Judah said, “Let her keep the
her so that you may raise up a descen-        things for herself. Otherwise we will ap-
dant for your brother.” 38:9 But Onan         pear to be dishonest. I did indeed send
knew that the child would not be consid-      this young goat, but you couldn’t find
ered his. So whenever he had sexual re-       her.”
lations with his brother’s wife, he with-         38:24 After three months Judah was
drew prematurely so as not to give his        told, “Your daughter-in-law Tamar has
brother a descendant. 38:10 What he did       turned to prostitution, and as a result
was evil in the LORD’s sight, so the LORD     she has become pregnant.” Judah said,
killed him too.                               “Bring her out and let her be burned!”
    38:11 Then Judah said to his daugh-       38:25 While they were bringing her out,
ter-in-law Tamar, “Live as a widow in your    she sent word to her father-in-law: “I am
father’s house until Shelah my son grows      pregnant by the man to whom these be-
up.” For he thought, “I don’t want him to     long.” Then she said, “Identify the one to
die like his brothers.” So Tamar went and     whom the seal, cord, and staff belong.”
lived in her father’s house.                  38:26 Judah recognized them and said,
    38:12 After some time Judah’s wife,       “She is more upright than I am, because
the daughter of Shua, died. After Judah       I wouldn’t give her to Shelah my son.” He
was consoled, he left for Timnah to visit     did not have sexual relations with her
his sheepshearers, along with his friend      again.
Hirah the Adullamite. 38:13 Tamar was             38:27 When it was time for her to
told, “Look, your father-in-law is going up   give birth, there were twins in her womb.
to Timnah to shear his sheep.” 38:14 So       38:28 While she was giving birth, one
she removed her widow’s clothes and cov-      child put out his hand, and the midwife
ered herself with a veil. She wrapped         took a scarlet thread and tied it on his
herself and sat at the entrance to Enaim      hand, saying, “This one came out first.”
which is on the way to Timnah. (She did       38:29 But then he drew back his hand,
this because she saw that she had not         and his brother came out before him.
been given to Shelah as a wife, even          She said, “How you have broken out of
though he had now grown up.)                  the womb!” So he was named Perez. 38:30
    38:15 When Judah saw her, he              Afterward his brother came out – the
thought she was a prostitute because she      one who had the scarlet thread on his
had covered her face. 38:16 He turned         hand – and he was named Zerah.
aside to her along the road and said,
“Come on! I want to have sex with you.”       Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife
(He did not realize it was his daughter-
                                                  39:1 Now Joseph had been brought
in-law.) She asked, “What will you give me
in exchange for having sex with you?”         down to Egypt. An Egyptian named Poti-
38:17 He replied, “I’ll send you a young
                                              phar, an official of Pharaoh and the cap-
goat from the flock.” She asked, “Will        tain of the guard, purchased him from
you give me a pledge until you send it?”      the Ishmaelites who had brought him
38:18 He said, “What pledge should I give
                                              there. 39:2 The LORD was with Joseph.
you?” She replied, “Your seal, your cord,     He was successful and lived in the house-
and the staff that’s in your hand.” So he     hold of his Egyptian master. 39:3 His
gave them to her and had sex with her.        master observed that the LORD was with
She                                           him and that the LORD made everything
became pregnant by him. 38:19 She left        he was doing successful. 39:4 So Joseph
immediately, removed her veil, and put on     found favor in his sight and became his
her widow’s clothes.                          personal attendant. Potiphar appointed
    38:20 Then Judah had his friend
                                              Joseph overseer of his household and put
Hirah the Adullamite take a young goat        him in charge of everything he owned.
                                              39:5 From the time Potiphar appointed
to get back from the woman the items he
had given in pledge, but Hirah could not      him over his household and over all that
find her. 38:21 He asked the men who          he owned, the LORD blessed the Egyp-
were there, “Where is the cult prosti-        tian’s household for Joseph’s sake. The
tute who was at Enaim by the road?” But       blessing of the LORD was on everything
they replied, “There has been no cult         that he had, both in his house and in his
prostitute here.” 38:22 So he returned to     fields. 39:6 So Potiphar left everything
Judah and said, “I couldn’t find her.         he had in Joseph’s care; he gave no
GENESIS 39:7                             36
thought to anything except the food he       The Cupbearer and the Baker
ate.
    Now Joseph was well built and good-         40:1 After these things happened,
looking. 39:7 Soon after these things, his   the cupbearer to the king of Egypt and
master’s wife took notice of Joseph and      the royal baker offended their master,
said, “Have sex with me.” 39:8 But he        the king of Egypt. 40:2 Pharaoh was en-
refused, saying to his master’s wife,        raged with his two officials, the cup-
“Look, my master does not give any           bearer and the baker, 40:3 so he impris-
thought to his household with me here,       oned them in the house of the captain of
and everything that he owns he has put       the guard in the same facility where Jo-
into my care. 39:9 There is no one           seph was confined. 40:4 The captain of
greater in this household than I am. He      the guard appointed Joseph to be their
has withheld nothing from me except you      attendant, and he served them.
because you are his wife. So how could I        They spent some time in custody. 40:5
do such a great evil and sin against God?”   Both of them, the cupbearer and the
39:10 Even though she continued to speak     baker of the king of Egypt, who were
to Joseph day after day, he did not re-      confined in the prison, had a dream the
spond to her invitation to have sex with     same night. Each man’s dream had its own
her.                                         meaning. 40:6 When Joseph came to
    39:11 One day he went into the house     them in the morning, he saw that they
to do his work when none of the house-       were looking depressed. 40:7 So he asked
hold servants were there in the house.       Pharaoh’s officials, who were with him in
39:12 She grabbed him by his outer gar-      custody in his master’s house, “Why do
ment, saying, “Have sex with me!” But he     you look so sad today?” 40:8 They told
left his outer garment in her hand and       him, “We both had dreams, but there is
ran outside. 39:13 When she saw that he      no one to interpret them.” Joseph re-
had left his outer garment in her hand       sponded, “Don’t interpretations belong to
and had run outside, 39:14 she called for    God? Tell them to me.”
her household servants and said to them,        40:9 So the chief cupbearer told his
“See, my husband brought in a Hebrew         dream to Joseph: “In my dream, there
man to us to humiliate us. He tried to       was a vine in front of me. 40:10 On the
have sex with me, but I screamed loudly.     vine there were three branches. As it
39:15 When he heard me raise my voice        budded, its blossoms opened and its clus-
and scream, he left his outer garment        ters ripened into grapes. 40:11 Now
beside me and ran outside.”                  Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, so I took
    39:16 So she laid his outer garment      the grapes, squeezed them into his cup,
beside her until his master came home.       and put the cup in Pharaoh’s hand.”
39:17 This is what she said to him: “That       40:12 “This is its meaning,” Joseph
Hebrew slave you brought to us tried to      said to him. “The three branches repre-
humiliate me, 39:18 but when I raised my     sent three days. 40:13 In three more
voice and screamed, he left his outer        days Pharaoh will reinstate you and re-
garment and ran outside.”                    store you to your office. You will put
    39:19 When his master heard his wife     Pharaoh’s cup in his hand, just as you did
say, “This is the way your slave treated     before when you were cupbearer. 40:14
me,” he became furious. 39:20 Joseph’s       But remember me when it goes well for
master took him and threw him into the       you, and show me kindness. Make mention
prison, the place where the king’s prison-   of me to Pharaoh and bring me out of
ers were confined. So he was there in        this prison, 40:15 for I really was kid-
the prison.                                  napped from the land of the Hebrews
    39:21 But the LORD was with Joseph       and I have done nothing wrong here for
and showed him kindness. He granted him      which they should put me in a dungeon.”
favor in the sight of the prison warden.        40:16 When the chief baker saw that
39:22 The warden put all the prisoners       the interpretation of the first dream
under Joseph’s care. He was in charge of     was favorable, he said to Joseph, “I also
whatever they were doing. 39:23 The          appeared in my dream and there were
warden did not concern himself with any-     three baskets of white bread on my
thing that was in Joseph’s care because      head. 40:17 In the top basket there were
the LORD was with him and whatever he        baked goods of every kind for Pharaoh,
was doing the LORD was making success-       but the birds were eating them from the
ful.                                         basket that was on my head.”
                                                40:18 Joseph replied, “This is its
                                             meaning: The three baskets represent
                                          37                            GENESIS 41:36
three days. 40:19 In three more days          his clothes, and came before Pharaoh.
Pharaoh will decapitate you and impale        41:15 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I had a
you on a pole. Then the birds will eat your   dream, and there is no one who can inter-
flesh from you.”                              pret it. But I have heard about you, that
    40:20 On the third day it was Phar-       you can interpret dreams.” 41:16 Joseph
aoh’s birthday, so he gave a feast for all    replied to Pharaoh, “It is not within my
his servants.                                 power, but God will speak concerning the
He “lifted up” the head of the chief cup-     welfare of Pharaoh.”
bearer and the head of the chief baker            41:17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph,
in the midst of his servants. 40:21 He        “In my dream I was standing by the edge
restored the chief cupbearer to his for-      of the Nile. 41:18 Then seven fat and
mer position so that he placed the cup in     fine-looking cows were coming up out of
Pharaoh’s hand, 40:22 but the chief baker     the Nile, and they grazed in the reeds.
he impaled, just as Joseph had predicted.     41:19 Then seven other cows came up
40:23 But the chief cupbearer did not         after them; they were scrawny, very
remember Joseph – he forgot him.              bad-looking, and lean. I had never seen
                                              such bad-looking cows as these in all the
Joseph’s Rise to Power                        land of Egypt! 41:20 The lean, bad-looking
                                              cows ate up the seven fat cows. 41:21
    41:1 At the end of two full years
                                              When they had eaten them, no one would
Pharaoh had a dream. As he was standing       have known that they had done so, for
by the Nile, 41:2 seven fine-looking, fat     they were just as bad-looking as before.
cows were coming up out of the Nile, and      Then I woke up. 41:22 I also saw in my
they grazed in the reeds. 41:3 Then           dream seven heads of grain growing on
seven bad-looking, thin cows were coming      one stalk, full and good. 41:23 Then seven
up after them from the Nile, and they         heads of grain, withered and thin and
stood beside the other cows at the edge       burned with the east wind, were sprout-
of the river. 41:4 The bad-looking, thin      ing up after them. 41:24 The thin heads
cows ate the seven fine-looking, fat cows.    of grain swallowed up the seven good
Then Pharaoh woke up.                         heads of grain. So I told all this to the
    41:5 Then he fell asleep again and had
                                              diviner-priests, but no one could tell me
a second dream: There were seven heads        its meaning.”
of grain growing on one stalk, healthy and        41:25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh,
good. 41:6 Then seven heads of grain,         “Both dreams of Pharaoh have the same
thin and burned by the east wind, were        meaning. God has revealed to Pharaoh
sprouting up after them. 41:7 The thin        what he is about to do. 41:26 The seven
heads swallowed up the seven healthy and      good cows represent seven years, and the
full heads. Then Pharaoh woke up and          seven good heads of grain represent
realized it was a dream.                      seven years. Both dreams have the same
    41:8 In the morning he was troubled,
                                              meaning. 41:27 The seven lean, bad-
so he called for all the diviner-priests of   looking cows that came up after them
Egypt and all its wise men. Pharaoh told      represent seven years, as do the seven
them his dreams, but no one could inter-      empty heads of grain burned with the
pret them for him. 41:9 Then the chief        east wind. They represent seven years of
cupbearer said to Pharaoh, “Today I re-       famine. 41:28 This is just what I told
call my failures. 41:10 Pharaoh was en-       Pharaoh: God has shown Pharaoh what he
raged with his servants, and he put me in     is about to do. 41:29 Seven years of
prison in the house of the captain of the     great abundance are coming throughout
guards – me and the chief baker. 41:11        the whole land of Egypt. 41:30 But seven
We each had a dream one night; each of        years of famine will occur after them,
us had a dream with its own meaning.          and all the abundance will be forgotten in
41:12 Now a young man, a Hebrew, a ser-
                                              the land of Egypt. The famine will devas-
vant of the captain of the guards, was        tate the land. 41:31 The previous abun-
with us there. We told him our dreams,        dance of the land will not be remembered
and he interpreted the meaning of each        because of the famine that follows, for
of our respective dreams for us. 41:13 It     the famine will be very severe. 41:32 The
happened just as he had said to us –          dream was repeated to Pharaoh because
Pharaoh restored me to my office, but he      the matter has been decreed by God, and
impaled the baker.”                           God will make it happen soon.
    41:14 Then Pharaoh summoned Jo-
                                                  41:33 “So now Pharaoh should look for
seph. So they brought him quickly out of      a wise and discerning man and give him
the dungeon; he shaved himself, changed
GENESIS 41:34                             38
authority over all the land of Egypt.            41:50 Two sons were born to Joseph
41:34 Pharaoh should do this – he should      before the famine came. Asenath daugh-
appoint officials throughout the land to      ter of Potiphera, priest of On, was their
collect one-fifth of the produce of the       mother. 41:51 Joseph named the first-
land of Egypt during the seven years of       born Manasseh, saying, “Certainly God
abundance. 41:35 They should gather all       has made me forget all my trouble and all
the excess food during these good years       my father’s house.” 41:52 He named the
that are coming. By Pharaoh’s authority       second child Ephraim, saying, “Certainly
they should store up grain so the cities      God has made me fruitful in the land of
will have food, and they should preserve      my suffering.”
it. 41:36 This food should be held in stor-      41:53 The seven years of abundance
age for the land in preparation for the       in the land of Egypt came to an end.
seven years of famine that will occur         41:54 Then the seven years of famine
throughout the land of Egypt. In this way     began, just as Joseph had predicted.
the land will survive the famine.”            There was famine in all the other lands,
    41:37 This advice made sense to Phar-     but throughout the land of Egypt there
aoh and all his officials. 41:38 So Pharaoh   was food. 41:55 When all the land of
asked his officials, “Can we find a man       Egypt experienced the famine, the peo-
like Joseph, one in whom the Spirit of        ple cried out to Pharaoh for food. Phar-
God is present?” 41:39 So Pharaoh said        aoh said to all the people of Egypt, “Go to
to Joseph, “Because God has enabled you       Joseph and do whatever he tells you.”
to know all this, there is no one as wise        41:56 While the famine was over all
and discerning as you are! 41:40 You will     the earth, Joseph opened the store-
oversee my household, and all my people       houses and sold grain to the Egyptians.
will submit to your commands. Only I, the     The famine was severe throughout the
king, will be greater than you.               land of Egypt. 41:57 People from every
    41:41 “See here,” Pharaoh said to Jo-     country came to Joseph in Egypt to buy
seph, “I place you in authority over all      grain because the famine was severe
the land of Egypt.” 41:42 Then Pharaoh        throughout the earth.
took his signet ring from his own hand
and put it on Joseph’s. He clothed him        Joseph’s Brothers in Egypt
with fine linen clothes and put a gold
                                                  42:1 When Jacob heard there was
chain around his neck. 41:43 Pharaoh had
him ride in the chariot used by his sec-      grain in Egypt, he said to his sons, “Why
ond-in-command, and they cried out be-        are you looking at each other?” 42:2 He
fore him, “Kneel down!” So he placed him      then said, “Look, I hear that there is
over all the land of Egypt. 41:44 Pharaoh     grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy
also said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, but       grain for us so that we may live and not
without your permission no                    die.”
                                                  42:3 So ten of Joseph’s brothers
one will move his hand or his foot in all
the land of Egypt.” 41:45 Pharaoh gave        went down to buy grain from Egypt. 42:4
Joseph the name Zaphenath-Paneah. He          But Jacob did not send Joseph’s brother
also gave him Asenath daughter of Po-         Benjamin with his brothers, for he said,
tiphera, priest of On, to be his wife. So     “What if some accident happens to him?”
                                              42:5 So Israel’s sons came to buy grain
Joseph took charge of all the land of
Egypt.                                        among the other travelers, for the fam-
    41:46 Now Joseph was 30 years old
                                              ine was severe in the land of Canaan.
                                                  42:6 Now Joseph was the ruler of the
when he began serving Pharaoh king of
Egypt. Joseph was commissioned by             country, the one who sold grain to all the
Pharaoh and was in charge of all the land     people of the country. Joseph’s brothers
of Egypt. 41:47 During the seven years of     came and bowed down before him with
abundance the land produced large, boun-      their faces to the ground. 42:7 When
tiful harvests. 41:48 Joseph collected all    Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized
the excess food in the land of Egypt dur-     them, but he pretended to be a stranger
ing the seven years and stored it in the      to them and spoke to them harshly. He
cities. In every city he put the food         asked, “Where do you come from?” They
gathered from the fields around it. 41:49     answered, “From the land of Canaan, to
Joseph stored up a vast amount of grain,      buy grain for food.”
                                                  42:8 Joseph recognized his brothers,
like the sand of the sea, until he stopped
measuring it because it was impossible to     but they did not recognize him. 42:9
measure.                                      Then Joseph remembered the dreams he
                                              had dreamed about them, and he said to
                                          39                              GENESIS 43:5
them, “You are spies; you have come to        mouth of his sack. 42:28 He said to his
see if our land is vulnerable!”               brothers, “My money was returned! Here
    42:10 But they exclaimed, “No, my         it is in my sack!” They were dismayed;
lord! Your servants have come to buy          they turned trembling one to another and
grain for food! 42:11 We are all the sons     said, “What in the world has God done to
of one man; we are honest men! Your ser-      us?”
vants are not spies.”                             42:29 They returned to their father
    42:12 “No,” he insisted, “but you have    Jacob in the land of Canaan and told him
come to see if our land is vulnerable.”       all the things that had happened to them,
42:13 They replied, “Your servants are        saying, 42:30 “The man, the lord of the
from a family of twelve brothers. We are      land, spoke harshly to us and treated us
the sons of one man in the land of Ca-        as if we were spying on the land. 42:31
naan. The youngest is with our father at      But we said to him, ‘We are honest men;
this time, and one is no longer alive.”       we are not spies! 42:32 We are from a
    42:14 But Joseph told them, “It is        family of twelve brothers; we are the
just as I said to you: You are spies! 42:15   sons of one father. One is no longer alive,
You will be tested in this way: As surely     and the youngest is with our father at
as Pharaoh lives, you will not depart from    this time in the land of Canaan.’
this place unless your youngest brother           42:33 “Then the man, the lord of the
comes here. 42:16 One of you must go          land, said to us, ‘This is how I will find
and get your brother, while the rest of       out if you are honest men. Leave one of
you remain in prison. In this way your        your brothers with me, and take grain for
words may be tested to see if you are         your hungry households and go. 42:34 But
telling the truth. If not, then, as surely    bring your youngest brother back to me
as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!” 42:17 He    so I will know that you are honest men
imprisoned them all for three days. 42:18     and not spies. Then I will give your
On the third day Joseph said to them,         brother back to you and you may move
“Do as I say and you will live, for I fear    about freely in the land.’”
God. 42:19 If you are honest men, leave           42:35 When they were emptying their
one of your brothers confined here in         sacks, there was each man’s bag of money
prison while the rest of you go and take      in his sack! When they and their father
grain back for your hungry families. 42:20    saw the bags of money, they were afraid.
But you must bring your youngest              42:36 Their father Jacob said to them,
brother to me. Then your words will be        “You are making me childless! Joseph is
verified and you will not die.” They did as   gone. Simeon is gone. And now you want
he said.                                      to take Benjamin! Everything is against
    42:21 They said to one other, “Surely     me.”
we’re being punished because of our               42:37 Then Reuben said to his father,
brother, because we saw how distressed        “You may put my two sons to death if I
he was when he cried to us for mercy,         do not bring him back to you. Put him in
but we refused to listen. That is why this    my care and I will bring him back to you.”
distress has come on us!” 42:22 Reuben        42:38 But Jacob replied, “My son will not
said to them, “Didn’t I say to you, ‘Don’t    go down there with you, for his brother
sin against the boy,’ but you wouldn’t lis-   is dead and he alone is left. If an acci-
ten? So now we must pay for shedding          dent happens to him on the journey you
his blood!” 42:23 (Now they did not know      have to make, then you will bring down my
that Joseph could understand them, for        gray hair in sorrow to the grave.”
he was speaking through an interpreter.)
42:24 He turned away from them and            The Second Journey to Egypt
wept. When he turned around and spoke
                                                 43:1 Now the famine was severe in
to them again, he had Simeon taken from
them and tied up before their eyes.           the land. 43:2 When they finished eating
    42:25 Then Joseph gave orders to fill
                                              the grain they had brought from Egypt,
their bags with grain, to return each         their father said to them, “Return, buy
man’s money to his sack, and to give them     us a little more food.”
                                                 43:3 But Judah said to him, “The man
provisions for the journey. His orders
were carried out. 42:26 So they loaded        solemnly warned us, ‘You will not see my
their grain on their donkeys and left.        face unless your brother is with you.’
                                              43:4 If you send our brother with us,
    42:27 When one of them opened his
sack to get feed for his donkey at their      we’ll go down and buy food for you. 43:5
resting place, he saw his money in the        But if you will not send him, we won’t go
                                              down there because the man said to us,
GENESIS 43:6                              40
‘You will not see my face unless your         indeed come down the first time to buy
brother is with you.’”                        food. 43:21 But when we came to the
    43:6 Israel said, “Why did you bring      place where we spent the night, we
this trouble on me by telling the man you     opened our sacks and each of us found
had one more brother?”                        his money – the full amount – in the
    43:7 They replied, “The man ques-         mouth of his sack. So we have returned
tioned us thoroughly about ourselves and      it. 43:22 We have brought additional
our family, saying, ‘Is your father still     money with us to buy food. We do not
alive? Do you have another brother?’ So       know who put the money in our sacks!”
we answered him in this way. How could            43:23 “Everything is fine,” the man in
we possibly know that he would say,           charge of Joseph’s household told them.
‘Bring your brother down’?”                   “Don’t be afraid. Your God and the God
    43:8 Then Judah said to his father        of your father has given you treasure in
Israel, “Send the boy with me and we will     your sacks. I had your money.” Then he
go immediately. Then we will live and not     brought Simeon out to them.
die – we and you and our little ones. 43:9        43:24 The servant in charge brought
I myself pledge security for him; you may     the men into Joseph’s house. He gave
hold me liable. If I do not bring him back    them water, and they washed their feet.
to you and place him here before you, I       Then he gave food to their donkeys.
will bear the blame before you all my life.   43:25 They got their gifts ready for Jo-
43:10 But if we had not delayed, we could     seph’s arrival at noon, for they had heard
have traveled there and back twice by         that they were to have a meal there.
now!”                                             43:26 When Joseph came home, they
    43:11 Then their father Israel said to    presented him with the gifts they had
them, “If it must be so, then do this:        brought inside, and they bowed down to
Take some of the best products of the         the ground before him. 43:27 He asked
land in your bags, and take a gift down to    them how they were doing. Then he said,
the man – a little balm and a little honey,   “Is your aging father well, the one you
spices and myrrh, pistachios and almonds.     spoke about? Is he still alive?” 43:28
43:12 Take double the money with you;         “Your servant our father is well,” they
you must take back the money that was         replied. “He is still alive.” They bowed
returned in the mouths of your sacks –        down in humility.
perhaps it was an oversight. 43:13 Take           43:29 When Joseph looked up and saw
your brother too, and go right away to        his brother Benjamin, his mother’s son,
the man. 43:14 May the sovereign God          he said, “Is this your youngest brother,
grant you mercy before the man so that        whom you told me about?” Then he said,
he may release your other brother and         “May God be gracious to you, my son.”
Benjamin! As for me, if I lose my children    43:30 Joseph hurried out, for he was
I lose them.”                                 overcome by affection for his brother
    43:15 So the men took these gifts,        and was at the point of tears. So he went
and they took double the money with           to his room and wept there.
them, along with Benjamin. Then they              43:31 Then he washed his face and
hurried down to Egypt and stood before        came out. With composure he said, “Set
Joseph. 43:16 When Joseph saw Benja-          out the food.” 43:32 They set a place for
min with them, he said to the servant who     him, a separate place for his brothers,
was over his household, “Bring the men to     and another for the Egyptians who were
the house. Slaughter an animal and pre-       eating with him. (The Egyptians are not
pare it, for the men will eat with me at      able to eat with Hebrews, for the Egyp-
noon.” 43:17 The man did just as Joseph       tians think it is disgusting to do so.)
said; he brought the men into Joseph’s        43:33 They sat before him, arranged by
house.                                        order of birth, beginning with the first-
    43:18 But the men were afraid when        born and ending with the youngest. The
they were brought to Joseph’s house.          men looked at each other in astonish-
They said, “We are being brought in be-       ment. 43:34 He gave them portions of the
cause of the money that was returned in       food set before him, but the portion for
our sacks last time. He wants to capture      Benjamin was five times greater than the
us, make us slaves, and take our donkeys!”    portions for any of the others. They
43:19 So they approached the man who          drank with Joseph until they all became
was in charge of Joseph’s household and       drunk.
spoke to him at the entrance to the
house. 43:20 They said, “My lord, we did
                                         41                              GENESIS 45:2
The Final Test                                  44:18 Then Judah approached him and
                                             said, “My lord, please allow your servant
   44:1 He instructed the servant who to speak a word with you. Please do not
was over his household, “Fill the sacks of   get angry with your servant, for you are
the men with as much food as they can        just like Pharaoh. 44:19 My lord asked his
carry and put each man’s money in the        servants, ‘Do you have a father or a
mouth of his sack. 44:2 Then put my cup –    brother?’ 44:20 We said to my lord, ‘We
the silver cup – in the mouth of the         have an aged father, and there is a young
youngest one’s sack, along with the money    boy who was born when our father was
for his grain.” He did as Joseph in-         old. The boy’s brother is dead. He is the
structed.                                    only one of his mother’s sons left, and his
    44:3 When morning came, the men and      father loves him.’
their donkeys were sent off. 44:4 They           44:21 “Then you told your servants,
had not gone very far from the city when     ‘Bring him down to me so I can see him.’
Joseph said to the servant who was over      44:22 We said to my lord, ‘The boy can-
his household, “Pursue the men at once!      not leave his father. If he leaves his fa-
When you overtake them, say to them,         ther, his father will die.’ 44:23 But you
‘Why have you repaid good with evil? 44:5    said to your servants, ‘If your youngest
Doesn’t my master drink from this cup        brother does not come down with you,
and use it for divination? You have done     you will not see my face again.’ 44:24
wrong!’”                                     When we returned to your servant my
    44:6 When the man overtook them, he      father, we told him the words of my lord.
spoke these words to them. 44:7 They             44:25 “Then our father said, ‘Go back
answered him, “Why does my lord say          and buy us a little food.’ 44:26 But we
such things? Far be it from your servants    replied, ‘We cannot go down there. If our
to do such a thing! 44:8 Look, the money     youngest brother is with us, then we will
that we found in the mouths of our sacks     go, for we won’t be permitted to see the
we brought back to you from the land of      man’s face if our youngest brother is not
Canaan. Why then would we steal silver       with us.’
or gold from your master’s house? 44:9           44:27 “Then your servant my father
If one of us has it, he will die, and the    said to us, ‘You know that my wife gave
rest of us will become my lord’s slaves!”    me two sons. 44:28 The first disappeared
    44:10 He replied, “You have suggested    and I said, “He has surely been torn to
your own punishment! The one who has it      pieces.” I have not seen him since. 44:29
will become my slave, but the rest of you    If you take this one from me too and an
will go free.” 44:11 So each man quickly     accident happens to him, then you will
lowered his sack to the ground and           bring down my gray hair in tragedy to the
opened it. 44:12 Then the man searched.      grave.’
He began with the oldest and finished            44:30 “So now, when I return to your
with the youngest. The cup was found in      servant my father, and the boy is not
Benjamin’s sack! 44:13 They all tore their   with us – his very life is bound up in his
clothes! Then each man loaded his don-       son’s life. 44:31 When he sees the boy is
key, and they returned to the city.          not with us, he will die, and your servants
    44:14 So Judah and his brothers came     will bring down the gray hair of your ser-
back to Joseph’s house. He was still         vant our father in sorrow to the grave.
there, and they threw themselves to the      44:32 Indeed, your servant pledged secu-
ground before him. 44:15 Joseph said to      rity for the boy with my father, saying,
them, “What did you think you were do-       ‘If I do not bring him back to you, then I
ing? Don’t you know that a man like me       will bear the blame before my father all
can find out things like this by divina-     my life.’
tion?”                                           44:33 “So now, please let your servant
    44:16 Judah replied, “What can we        remain as my lord’s slave instead of the
say to my lord? What can we speak? How       boy. As for the boy, let him go back with
can we clear ourselves? God has exposed      his brothers. 44:34 For how can I go back
the sin of your servants! We are now my      to my father if the boy is not with me? I
lord’s slaves, we and the one in whose       couldn’t bear to see my father’s pain.”
possession the cup was found.”
    44:17 But Joseph said, “Far be it from   The Reconciliation of the Brothers
me to do this! The man in whose hand the
cup was found will become my slave, but         45:1 Joseph was no longer able to
the rest of you may go back to your fa-      control himself before all his attendants,
ther in peace.”                              so he cried out, “Make everyone go out
GENESIS 45:2                                42
from my presence!” No one remained with         also commanded to say, ‘Do this: Take for
Joseph when he made himself known to            yourselves wagons from the land of Egypt
his brothers. 45:2 He wept loudly; the          for your little ones and for your wives.
Egyptians heard it and Pharaoh’s house-         Bring your father and come. 45:20 Don’t
hold heard about it.                            worry about your belongings, for the
    45:3 Joseph said to his brothers, “I        best of all the land of Egypt will be
am Joseph! Is my father still alive?” His       yours.’”
brothers could not answer him because               45:21 So the sons of Israel did as he
they were dumbfounded before him. 45:4          said. Joseph gave them wagons as Phar-
Joseph said to his brothers, “Come              aoh had instructed, and he gave them
closer to me,” so they came near. Then          provisions for the journey. 45:22 He gave
he said, “I am Joseph your brother,             sets of clothes to each one of them, but
whom you sold into Egypt. 45:5 Now, do          to Benjamin he gave three hundred
not be upset and do not be angry with           pieces of silver and five sets of clothes.
yourselves because you sold me here, for        45:23 To his father he sent the following:
God sent me ahead of you to preserve            ten donkeys loaded with the best prod-
life! 45:6 For these past two years there       ucts of Egypt and ten female donkeys
has been famine in the land and for five        loaded with grain, food, and provisions
more years there will be neither plowing        for his father’s journey. 45:24 Then he
nor harvesting. 45:7 God sent me ahead          sent his brothers on their way and they
of you to preserve you on the earth and         left. He said to them, “As you travel
to save your lives by a great deliverance.      don’t be overcome with fear.”
45:8 So now, it is not you who sent me              45:25 So they went up from Egypt and
here, but God. He has made me an ad-            came to their father Jacob in the land of
viser to Pharaoh, lord over all his house-      Canaan. 45:26 They told him, “Joseph is
hold, and ruler over all the land of Egypt.     still alive and he is ruler over all the land
45:9 Now go up to my father quickly and         of Egypt!” Jacob was stunned, for he did
tell him, ‘This is what your son Joseph         not believe them. 45:27 But when they
says: “God has made me lord of all Egypt.       related to him everything Joseph had
Come down to me; do not delay! 45:10 You        said to them, and when he saw the wag-
will live in the land of Goshen, and you will   ons that Joseph had sent to transport
be near me – you, your children, your           him, their father Jacob’s spirit revived.
grandchildren, your flocks, your herds,         45:28 Then Israel said, “Enough! My son
and everything you have. 45:11 I will pro-      Joseph is still alive! I will go and see him
vide you with food there because there          before I die.”
will be five more years of famine. Other-
wise you would become poor – you, your          The Family of Jacob goes to Egypt
household, and everyone who belongs to
                                                    46:1 So Israel began his journey, tak-
you.”’ 45:12 You and my brother Benjamin
can certainly see with your own eyes that       ing with him all that he had. When he
I really am the one who speaks to you.          came to Beer Sheba he offered sacri-
45:13 So tell my father about all my
                                                fices to the God of his father Isaac. 46:2
honor in Egypt and about everything you         God spoke to Israel in a vision during the
have seen. But bring my father down             night and said, “Jacob, Jacob!” He re-
here quickly!”                                  plied, “Here I am!” 46:3 He said, “I am
    45:14 Then he threw himself on the
                                                God, the God of your father. Do not be
neck of his brother Benjamin and wept,          afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will
and Benjamin wept on his neck. 45:15 He         make you into a great nation there. 46:4 I
kissed all his brothers and wept over           will go down with you to Egypt and I my-
them. After this his brothers talked with       self will certainly bring you back from
him.                                            there. Joseph will close your eyes.”
                                                    46:5 Then Jacob started out from
    45:16 Now it was reported in the
household of Pharaoh, “Joseph’s brothers        Beer Sheba, and the sons of Israel car-
have arrived.” It pleased Pharaoh and his       ried their father Jacob, their little chil-
servants. 45:17 Pharaoh said to Joseph,         dren, and their wives in the wagons that
“Say to your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your      Pharaoh had sent along to transport him.
                                                46:6 Jacob and all his descendants took
animals and go to the land of Canaan!
45:18 Get your father and your house-
                                                their livestock and the possessions they
holds and come to me! Then I will give          had acquired in the land of Canaan, and
you the best land in Egypt and you will         they went to Egypt. 46:7 He brought
eat the best of the land.’ 45:19 You are        with him to Egypt his sons and grandsons,
                                        43                             GENESIS 47:10
his daughters and granddaughters – all      not include the wives of Jacob’s sons.)
his descendants.                            46:27 Counting the two sons of Joseph
    46:8 These are the names of the sons    who were born to him in Egypt, all the
of Israel who went to Egypt – Jacob and     people of the household of Jacob who
his sons:                                   were in Egypt numbered seventy.
     Reuben, the firstborn of Jacob.           46:28 Jacob sent Judah before him
     46:9 The sons of Reuben:               to Joseph to accompany him to Goshen.
     Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.      So they came to the land of Goshen.
     46:10 The sons of Simeon:              46:29 Joseph harnessed his chariot and
     Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar,     went up to meet his father Israel in
     and Shaul (the son of a Canaanite      Goshen. When he met him, he hugged his
     woman).                                neck and wept on his neck for quite some
     46:11 The sons of Levi:                time.
     Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.              46:30 Israel said to Joseph, “Now let
     46:12 The sons of Judah:
     Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah     me die since I have seen your face and
     (but Er and Onan died in the land of   know that you are still alive.” 46:31 Then
     Canaan).                               Joseph said to his brothers and his fa-
     The sons of Perez were Hezron and      ther’s household, “I will go up and tell
     Hamul.                                 Pharaoh, ‘My brothers and my father’s
     46:13 The sons of Issachar:            household who were in the land of Canaan
     Tola, Puah, Jashub, and Shimron.       have come to me. 46:32 The men are
     46:14 The sons of Zebulun:             shepherds; they take care of livestock.
     Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.              They have brought their flocks and their
     46:15 These were the sons of Leah,     herds and all that they have.’ 46:33 Phar-
     whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan       aoh will summon you and say, ‘What is
     Aram, along with Dinah his daughter.   your occupation?’ 46:34 Tell him, ‘Your
     His sons and daughters numbered        servants have taken care of cattle from
     thirty-three in all.                   our youth until now, both we and our fa-
     46:16 The sons of Gad:                 thers,’ so that you may live in the land of
     Zephon, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri,      Goshen, for everyone who takes care of
     Arodi, and Areli.                      sheep is disgusting to the Egyptians.”
     46:17 The sons of Asher:
     Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and      Joseph’s Wise Administration
     Serah their sister.
     The sons of Beriah were Heber and          47:1 Joseph went and told Pharaoh,
     Malkiel.                               “My father, my brothers, their flocks
     46:18 These were the sons of           and herds, and all that they own have
     Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his    arrived from the land of
     daughter. She bore these to Jacob,     Canaan. They are now in the land of
     sixteen in all.                        Goshen.” 47:2 He took five of his broth-
     46:19 The sons of Rachel the wife      ers and introduced them to Pharaoh.
     of Jacob:                                  47:3 Pharaoh said to Joseph’s broth-
     Joseph and Benjamin.
     46:20 Manasseh and Ephraim were        ers, “What is your occupation?” They said
     born to Joseph in the land of Egypt.   to Pharaoh, “Your servants take care of
     Asenath daughter of Potiphera,         flocks, just as our ancestors did.” 47:4
     priest of On, bore them to him.        Then they said to Pharaoh, “We have
     46:21 The sons of Benjamin:            come to live as temporary residents in
     Bela, Beker, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman,     the land. There is no pasture for your
     Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim and Ard.     servants’ flocks because the famine is
     46:22 These were the sons of           severe in the land of Canaan. So now,
     Rachel who were born to Jacob,         please let your servants live in the land
     fourteen in all.                       of Goshen.”
     46:23 The son of Dan: Hushim.              47:5 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Your
     46:24 The sons of Naphtali:            father and your brothers have come to
     Jahziel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.     you. 47:6 The land of Egypt is before
     46:25 These were the sons of           you; settle your father and your brothers
     Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel      in the best region of the land. They may
     his daughter. She bore these to        live in the land of Goshen. If you know of
     Jacob, seven in all.                   any highly capable men among them, put
    46:26 All the direct descendants of     them in charge of my livestock.”
Jacob who went to Egypt with him were           47:7 Then Joseph brought in his fa-
sixty-six in number. (This number does      ther Jacob and presented him before
GENESIS 47:8                              44
Pharaoh. Jacob blessed Pharaoh. 47:8          from one end of Egypt’s border to the
Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How long have         other end of it. 47:22 But he did not pur-
you lived?” 47:9 Jacob said to Pharaoh,       chase the land of the priests because
“All the years of my travels are 130. All     the priests had an allotment from Phar-
the years of my life have been few and        aoh and they ate from their allotment
painful; the years of my travels are not      that Pharaoh gave them. That is why they
as long as those of my ancestors.” 47:10      did not sell their land.
Then Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went               47:23 Joseph said to the people,
out from his presence.                        “Since I have bought you and your land
    47:11 So Joseph settled his father        today for Pharaoh, here is seed for you.
and his brothers. He gave them territory      Cultivate the land. 47:24 When you
in the land of Egypt, in the best region of   gather in the crop, give one-fifth of it to
the land, the land of Rameses, just as        Pharaoh, and the rest will be yours for
Pharaoh had commanded. 47:12 Joseph           seed for the fields and for you to eat,
also provided food for his father, his        including those in your households and
brothers, and all his father’s household,     your little children.” 47:25 They replied,
according to the number of their little       “You have saved our lives! You are show-
children.                                     ing us favor, and we will be Pharaoh’s
    47:13 But there was no food in all the    slaves.”
land because the famine was very severe;          47:26 So Joseph made it a statute,
the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan      which is in effect to this day throughout
wasted away because of the famine.            the land of Egypt: One-fifth belongs to
47:14 Joseph collected all the money          Pharaoh. Only the land of the priests did
that could be found in the land of Egypt      not become Pharaoh’s.
and in the land of Canaan as payment for          47:27 Israel settled in the land of
the grain they were buying. Then Joseph       Egypt, in the land of Goshen, and they
brought the money into Pharaoh’s palace.      owned land there. They were fruitful and
47:15 When the money from the lands of        increased rapidly in number.
Egypt and Canaan was used up, all the             47:28 Jacob lived in the land of Egypt
Egyptians came to Joseph and said, “Give      seventeen years; the years of Jacob’s
us food! Why should we die before your        life were 147 in all. 47:29 The time for
very eyes because our money has run           Israel to die approached, so he called for
out?”                                         his son Joseph and said to him, “If now I
    47:16 Then Joseph said, “If your          have found favor in your sight, put your
money is gone, bring your livestock, and I    hand under my thigh and show me kind-
will give you food in exchange for your       ness and faithfulness. Do not bury me in
livestock.” 47:17 So they brought their       Egypt, 47:30 but when I rest with my
livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave          fathers, carry me out of Egypt and bury
them food in exchange for their horses,       me in their burial place.” Joseph said, “I
the livestock of their flocks and herds,      will do as you say.”
and their donkeys. He got them through            47:31 Jacob said, “Swear to me that
that year by giving them food in ex-          you will do so.” So Joseph gave him his
change for livestock.                         word. Then Israel bowed down at the
    47:18 When that year was over, they       head of his bed.
came to him the next year and said to
him, “We cannot hide from our lord that       Manasseh and Ephraim
the money is used up and the livestock
                                                  48:1 After these things Joseph was
and the animals belong to our lord. Noth-
ing remains before our lord except our        told, “Your father is weakening.” So he
bodies and our land. 47:19 Why should we      took his two sons Manasseh and Ephraim
die before your very eyes, both we and        with him. 48:2 When Jacob was told,
our land? Buy us and our land in exchange     “Your son Joseph has just come to you,”
for food, and we, with our land, will be-     Israel regained strength and sat up on
come Pharaoh’s slaves. Give us seed that      his bed. 48:3 Jacob said to Joseph, “The
we may live and not die. Then the land will   sovereign God appeared to me at Luz in
not become desolate.”                         the land of Canaan and blessed me. 48:4
    47:20 So Joseph bought all the land
                                              He said to me, ‘I am going to make you
of Egypt for Pharaoh. Each of the Egyp-       fruitful and will multiply you. I will make
tians sold his field, for the famine was      you into a group of nations, and I will give
severe. So the land became Pharaoh’s.         this land to your descendants as an ever-
47:21 Joseph made all the people slaves
                                              lasting possession.’
                                        45                            GENESIS 49:9
   48:5 “Now, as for your two sons, who   for this is the firstborn. Put your right
were born to you in the land of Egypt     hand on his head.”
before I came to you in Egypt, they will     48:19 But his father refused and said,
be mine. Ephraim and Manasseh will be     “I know, my son, I know. He too will be-
mine just as Reuben and Simeon are. 48:6  come a nation and he too will become
Any children that you father after them   great. In spite of this, his younger
will be yours; they will be listed under  brother will be even greater and his de-
the names of their brothers in their in-  scendants will become a multitude of na-
heritance. 48:7 But as for me, when I     tions.” 48:20 So he blessed them that
was returning from Paddan, Rachel died –  day, saying,
to my sorrow – in the land of Canaan. It       “By you will Israel bless, saying,
happened along the way, some distance          ‘May God make you like Ephraim and
from Ephrath. So I buried her there on         Manasseh.’”
the way to Ephrath” (that is, Bethlehem).    So he put Ephraim before Manasseh.
    48:8 When Israel saw Joseph’s sons,      48:21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “I
he asked, “Who are these?” 48:9 Joseph    am about to die, but God will be with you
said to his father, “They are the sons    and will bring you back to the land of
God has given me in this place.” His fa-  your fathers. 48:22 As one who is above
ther said, “Bring them to me so I may     your brothers, I give to you the mountain
bless them.” 48:10 Now Israel’s eyes      slope, which I took from the Amorites
were failing because of his age; he was   with my sword and my bow.”
not able to see well. So Joseph brought
his sons near to him, and his father The Blessing of Jacob
kissed them and embraced them. 48:11        49:1 Jacob called for his sons and
Israel said to Joseph, “I never expected said, “Gather together so I can tell you
to see you again, but now God has allowed what will happen to you in the future.
me to see your children too.”                 49:2 “Assemble and listen, you sons
    48:12 So Joseph moved them from           of Jacob;
Israel’s knees and bowed down with his        listen to Israel, your father.
face to the ground. 48:13 Joseph posi-        49:3 Reuben, you are my firstborn,
tioned them; he put Ephraim on his right      my might and the beginning of my
hand across from Israel’s left hand, and      strength,
Manasseh on his left hand across from         outstanding in dignity, outstanding in
Israel’s right hand. Then Joseph brought      power.
them closer to his father. 48:14 Israel       49:4 You are destructive like water
stretched out his right hand and placed       and will not excel,
it on Ephraim’s head, although he was the     for you got on your father’s bed,
younger. Crossing his hands, he put his       then you defiled it – he got on my
left hand on Manasseh’s head, for Ma-         couch!
nasseh was the firstborn.                     49:5 Simeon and Levi are brothers,
      48:15 Then he blessed Joseph and        weapons of violence are their knives!
      said,                                   49:6 O my soul, do not come into
      “May the God before whom my             their council,
      fathers                                 do not be united to their assembly,
      Abraham and Isaac walked –              my heart,
      the God who has been my shepherd        for in their anger they have killed
      all my life long to this day,           men,
      48:16 the Angel who has protected       and for pleasure they have
      me                                      hamstrung oxen.
      from all harm –                         49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it
      bless these boys.                       was fierce,
      May my name be named in them,           and their fury, for it was cruel.
      and the name of my fathers              I will divide them in Jacob,
      Abraham and Isaac.                      and scatter them in Israel!
      May they grow into a multitude on       49:8 Judah, your brothers will
      the earth.”                             praise you.
    48:17 When Joseph saw that his fa-        Your hand will be on the neck of
ther placed his right hand on Ephraim’s       your enemies,
head, it displeased him. So he took his       your father’s sons will bow down
                                              before you.
father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s       49:9 You are a lion’s cub, Judah,
head to Manasseh’s head. 48:18 Joseph         from the prey, my son, you have
said to his father, “Not so, my father,       gone up.
GENESIS 49:10                               46
    He crouches and lies down like a              with blessings from the sky above,
    lion;                                         blessings from the deep that lies
    like a lioness – who will rouse him?          below,
    49:10 The scepter will not depart             and blessings of the breasts and
    from Judah,                                   womb.
    nor the ruler’s staff from between            49:26 The blessings of your father
    his feet,                                     are greater
    until he comes to whom it belongs;            than the blessings of the eternal
    the nations will obey him.                    mountains
    49:11 Binding his foal to the vine,           or the desirable things of the age-
    and his colt to the choicest vine,            old hills.
    he will wash his garments in wine,            They will be on the head of Joseph
    his robes in the blood of grapes.             and on the brow of the prince of his
    49:12 His eyes will be dark from              brothers.
    wine,                                         49:27 Benjamin is a ravenous wolf;
    and his teeth white from milk.                in the morning devouring the prey,
    49:13 Zebulun will live by the haven          and in the evening dividing the
    of the sea                                    plunder.”
    and become a haven for ships;                49:28 These are the twelve tribes of
    his border will extend to Sidon.         Israel. This is what their father said to
    49:14 Issachar is a strong-boned         them when he blessed them. He gave
    donkey                                   each of them an appropriate blessing.
    lying down between two saddlebags.           49:29 Then he instructed them, “I am
    49:15 When he sees a good resting        about to go to my people. Bury me with
    place,                                   my fathers in the cave in the field of
    and the pleasant land,                   Ephron the Hittite. 49:30 It is the cave
    he will bend his shoulder to the         in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre in
    burden
    and become a slave laborer.              the land of Canaan, which Abraham
    49:16 Dan will judge his people          bought for a burial plot from Ephron the
    as one of the tribes of Israel.          Hittite. 49:31 There they buried Abra-
    49:17 May Dan be a snake beside          ham and his wife Sarah; there they bur-
    the road,                                ied Isaac and his wife Rebekah; and
    a viper by the path,                     there I buried Leah. 49:32 The field and
    that bites the heels of the horse        the cave in it were acquired from the
    so that its rider falls backward.        sons of Heth.”
    49:18 I wait for your deliverance, O         49:33 When Jacob finished giving
    LORD.                                    these instructions to his sons, he pulled
    49:19 Gad will be raided by              his feet up onto the bed, breathed his
    marauding bands,                         last breath, and went to his people.
    but he will attack them at their
    heels.                                   The Burials of Jacob and Joseph
    49:20 Asher’s food will be rich,
    and he will provide delicacies to           50:1 Then Joseph hugged his father’s
    royalty.                                 face. He wept over him and kissed him.
    49:21 Naphtali is a free running doe,    50:2 Joseph instructed the physicians in
    he speaks delightful words.              his service to embalm his father, so the
    49:22 Joseph is a fruitful bough,        physicians embalmed Israel. 50:3 They
    a fruitful bough near a spring           took forty days, for that is the full time
    whose branches climb over the wall.      needed for embalming. The Egyptians
    49:23 The archers will attack him,       mourned for him seventy days.
    they will shoot at him and oppose           50:4 When the days of mourning had
    him.                                     passed, Joseph said to Pharaoh’s royal
    49:24 But his bow will remain            court, “If I have found favor in your
    steady,                                  sight, please say to Pharaoh, 50:5 ‘My
    and his hands will be skillful;          father made me swear an oath. He said,
    because of the hands of the Mighty
    One of Jacob,                            “I am about to die. Bury me in my tomb
    because of the Shepherd, the Rock        that I dug for myself there in the land
    of Israel,                               of Canaan.” Now let me go and bury my
    49:25 because of the God of your         father; then I will return.’” 50:6 So Phar-
    father,                                  aoh said, “Go and bury your father, just
    who will help you,                       as he made you swear to do.”
    because of the sovereign God,               50:7 So Joseph went up to bury his
    who will bless you                       father; all Pharaoh’s officials went with
                                          47                            GENESIS 50:26
him – the senior courtiers of his house-      also saw the children of Makir the son of
hold, all the senior officials of the land    Manasseh; they were given special inheri-
of Egypt, 50:8 all Joseph’s household, his    tance rights by Joseph.
brothers, and his father’s household. But        50:24 Then Joseph said to his broth-
they left their little children and their     ers, “I am about to die. But God will
flocks and herds in the land of Goshen.       surely come to you and lead you up from
50:9 Chariots and horsemen also went up       this land to the land he swore on oath to
with him, so it was a very large entou-       give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.”
rage.                                         50:25 Joseph made the sons of Israel
    50:10 When they came to the thresh-       swear an oath. He said, “God will surely
ing floor of Atad on the other side of the    come to you. Then you must carry my
Jordan, they mourned there with very          bones up from this place.” 50:26 So Jo-
great and bitter sorrow. There Joseph         seph died at the age of 110. After they
observed a seven day period of mourning       embalmed him, his body was placed in a
for his father. 50:11 When the Canaan-        coffin in Egypt.
ites who lived in the land saw them
mourning at the threshing floor of Atad,
they said, “This is a very sad occasion for
the Egyptians.” That is why its name was
called Abel Mizraim, which is beyond the
Jordan.
    50:12 So the sons of Jacob did for
him just as he had instructed them. 50:13
His sons carried him to the land of Ca-
naan and buried him in the cave of the
field of Machpelah, near Mamre. This is
the field Abraham purchased as a burial
plot from Ephron the Hittite. 50:14 Af-
ter he buried his father, Joseph re-
turned to Egypt, along with his brothers
and all who had accompanied him to bury
his father.
    50:15 When Joseph’s brothers saw
that their father was dead, they said,
“What if Joseph bears a grudge and
wants to repay us in full for all the harm
we did to him?” 50:16 So they sent word
to Joseph, saying, “Your father gave
these instructions before he died: 50:17
‘Tell Joseph this: Please forgive the sin
of your brothers and the wrong they did
when they treated you so badly.’ Now
please forgive the sin of the servants of
the God of your father.” When this mes-
sage was reported to him, Joseph wept.
50:18 Then his brothers also came and
threw themselves down before him; they
said, “Here we are; we are your slaves.”
50:19 But Joseph answered them, “Don’t
be afraid. Am I in the place of God?
50:20 As for you, you meant to harm me,
but God intended it for a good purpose,
so he could preserve the lives of many
people, as you can see this day. 50:21 So
now, don’t be afraid. I will provide for
you and your little children.” Then he
consoled them and spoke kindly to them.
    50:22 Joseph lived in Egypt, along
with his father’s family. Joseph lived 110
years. 50:23 Joseph saw the descendants
of Ephraim to the third generation. He
                           Exodus
Blessing during Bondage in Egypt               “Because the Hebrew women are not like
                                               the Egyptian women – for the Hebrew
    1:1 These are the names of the sons        women are vigorous; they give birth be-
of Israel who entered Egypt – each man         fore the midwife gets to them!” 1:20 So
with his household entered with Jacob:         God treated the midwives well, and the
1:2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 1:3       people multiplied and became very strong.
Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 1:4 Dan       1:21 And because the midwives feared
and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 1:5 All the       God, he made households for them.
people who were directly descended from           1:22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his
Jacob numbered seventy. But Joseph was         people, “All sons that are born you must
already in Egypt, 1:6 and in time Joseph       throw into the river, but all daughters
and his brothers and all that generation       you may let live.”
died. 1:7 The Israelites, however, were
fruitful, increased greatly, multiplied,       The Birth of the Deliverer
and became extremely strong, so that
the land was filled with them.                     2:1 A man from the household of Levi
    1:8 Then a new king, who did not know      married a woman who was a descendant
about Joseph, came to power over Egypt.        of Levi. 2:2 The woman became pregnant
1:9 He said to his people, “Look at the        and gave birth to a son. When she saw
Israelite people, more numerous and            that he was a healthy child, she hid him
stronger than we are! 1:10 Come, let’s         for three months. 2:3 But when she was
deal wisely with them. Otherwise they          no longer able to hide him, she took a
will continue to multiply, and if a war        papyrus basket for him and sealed it with
breaks out, they will ally themselves with     bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it
our enemies and fight against us and           and set it among the reeds along the
leave the country.”                            edge of the Nile. 2:4 His sister stationed
    1:11 So they put foremen over the          herself at a distance to find out what
Israelites to oppress them with hard           would happen to him.
labor. As a result they built Pithom and           2:5 Then the daughter of Pharaoh
Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh. 1:12      came down to wash herself by the Nile,
But the more the Egyptians oppressed           while her attendants were walking along-
them, the more they multiplied and             side the river, and she saw the basket
spread. As a result the Egyptians loathed      among the reeds. She sent one of her
the Israelites, 1:13 and they made the         attendants, took it, 2:6 opened it, and
Israelites serve rigorously. 1:14 They         saw the child – a boy, crying! – and she
made their lives bitter by hard service        felt compassion for him and said, “This is
with mortar and bricks and by all kinds of     one of the Hebrews’ children.”
service in the fields. Every kind of serv-         2:7 Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s
ice the Israelites were required to give       daughter, “Shall I go and get a nursing
was rigorous.                                  woman for you from the Hebrews, so
    1:15 The king of Egypt said to the         that she may nurse the child for you?”
Hebrew midwives, one of whom was               2:8 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Yes,
named Shiphrah and the other Puah, 1:16        do so.” So the young girl went and got the
“When you assist the Hebrew women in           child’s mother. 2:9 Pharaoh’s daughter
childbirth, observe at the delivery: If it     said to her, “Take this child and nurse
is a son, kill him, but if it is a daughter,   him for me, and I will pay your wages.” So
she may live.” 1:17 But the midwives           the woman took the child and nursed him.
feared God and did not do what the king            2:10 When the child grew older she
of Egypt had told them; they let the boys      brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and
live.                                          he became her son. She named him
    1:18 Then the king of Egypt sum-           Moses, saying, “Because I drew him from
moned the midwives and said to them,           the water.”
“Why have you done this and let the boys
live?” 1:19 The midwives said to Pharaoh,

                                           113
EXODUS 2:11                              114
The Presumption of the Deliverer             priest of Midian, and he led the flock to
                                             the far side of the desert and came to
    2:11 In those days, when Moses had       the mountain of God, to Horeb. 3:2 The
grown up, he went out to his people and      angel of the LORD appeared to him in a
observed their hard labor, and he saw an     flame of fire from within a bush. He
Egyptian man attacking a Hebrew man,         looked – and the bush was ablaze with
one of his own people. 2:12 He looked this   fire, but it was not being consumed! 3:3
way and that and saw that no one was         So Moses thought, “I will turn aside to
there, and then he attacked the Egyptian     see this amazing sight. Why does the
and concealed the body in the sand. 2:13     bush not burn up?” 3:4 When the LORD
When he went out the next day, there         saw that he had turned aside to look, God
were two Hebrew men fighting. So he          called to him from within the bush and
said to the one who was in the wrong,        said, “Moses, Moses!” And Moses said,
“Why are you attacking your fellow He-       “Here I am.” 3:5 God said, “Do not ap-
brew?”                                       proach any closer! Take your sandals off
    2:14 The man replied, “Who made you      your feet, for the place where you are
a ruler and a judge over us? Are you         standing is holy ground.” 3:6 He added, “I
planning to kill me like you killed that     am the God of your father, the God of
Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid, think-     Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God
ing, “Surely what I did has become           of Jacob.” Then Moses hid his face, be-
known.” 2:15 When Pharaoh heard about        cause he was afraid to look at God.
this event, he sought to kill Moses. So          3:7 The LORD said, “I have surely seen
Moses fled from Pharaoh and                  the affliction of my people who are in
settled in the land of Midian, and he set-   Egypt. I have heard their cry because of
tled by a certain well.                      their taskmasters, for I know their sor-
    2:16 Now a priest of Midian had seven    rows. 3:8 I have come down to deliver
daughters, and they came and began to        them from the hand of the Egyptians and
draw water and fill the troughs in order     to bring them up from that land to a land
to water their father’s flock. 2:17 When     that is both good and spacious, to a land
some shepherds came and drove them           flowing with milk and honey, to the region
away, Moses came up and defended them        of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites,
and then watered their flock. 2:18 So        Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites. 3:9
when they came home to their father          And now indeed the cry of the Israelites
Reuel, he asked, “Why have you come          has come to me, and I have also seen how
home so early today?” 2:19 They said,        severely the Egyptians oppress them.
“An Egyptian man rescued us from the         3:10 So now go, and I will send you to
shepherds, and he actually drew water        Pharaoh to bring my people, the Israel-
for us and watered the flock!” 2:20 He       ites, out of Egypt.”
said to his daughters, “So where is he?          3:11 Moses said to God, “Who am I,
Why in the world did you leave the man?      that I should go to Pharaoh, or that I
Call him, so that he may eat a meal with     should bring the Israelites out of
us.”                                         Egypt?” 3:12 He replied, “Surely I will be
    2:21 Moses agreed to stay with the       with you, and this will be the sign to you
man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah       that I have sent you: When you bring the
to Moses in marriage. 2:22 When she          people out of Egypt, you and they will
bore a son, Moses named him Gershom,         serve God on this mountain.”
for he said, “I have become a resident           3:13 Moses said to God, “If I go to
foreigner in a foreign land.”                the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of
                                             your fathers has sent me to you,’ and
The Call of the Deliverer                    they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ – what
   2:23 During that long period of time
                                             should I say to them?”
                                                 3:14 God said to Moses, “I AM that I
the king of Egypt died, and the Israelites
                                             AM.” And he said, “You must say this to
groaned because of the slave labor. They
cried out, and their desperate cry be-       the Israelites, ‘I AM has sent me to you.’”
                                             3:15 God also said to Moses, “You must
cause of their slave labor went up to God.
2:24 God heard their groaning, God re-
                                             say this to the Israelites, ‘The LORD –
membered his covenant with Abraham,          the God of your fathers, the God of
with Isaac, and with Jacob, 2:25 God saw     Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God
the Israelites, and God understood….         of Jacob – has sent me to you. This is my
   3:1 Now Moses was shepherding the         name forever, and this is my memorial
flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the       from generation to generation.’
                                           115                               EXODUS 4:23
   3:16 “Go and bring together the eld-        former sign, then they may believe the
ers of Israel and tell them, ‘The LORD,        latter sign. 4:9 And if they do not believe
the God of your fathers, appeared to me        even these two signs or listen to you,
– the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob –       then take some water from the Nile and
saying, “I have attended carefully to you      pour it out on the dry ground. The water
and to what has been done to you in            you take out of the Nile will become
Egypt, 3:17 and I have promised that I         blood on the dry ground.”
will bring you up out of the affliction of         4:10 Then Moses said to the LORD, “O
Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, Hit-      my Lord, I am not an eloquent man, nei-
tites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and      ther in the past nor since you have spo-
Jebusites, to a land flowing with milk and     ken to your servant, for I am slow of
honey.”’                                       speech and slow of tongue.”
    3:18 “The elders will listen to you, and       4:11 The LORD said to him, “Who gave
then you and the elders of Israel must go      a mouth to man, or who makes a person
to the king of Egypt and tell him, ‘The        mute or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not
LORD, the God of the Hebrews, has met          I, the LORD? 4:12 So now go, and I will be
with us. So now, let us go three days’         with your mouth and will teach you what
journey into the wilderness, so that we        you must say.”
may sacrifice to the LORD our God.’ 3:19           4:13 But Moses said, “O my Lord,
But I know that the king of Egypt will not     please send anyone else whom you wish to
let you go, not even under force. 3:20 So      send!”
I will extend my hand and strike Egypt             4:14 Then the LORD became angry
with all my wonders that I will do among       with Moses, and he said, “What about
them, and after that he will release you.      your brother Aaron the Levite? I know
    3:21 “I will grant this people favor       that he can speak very well. Moreover, he
with the Egyptians, so that when you de-       is coming to meet you, and when he sees
part you will not leave empty-handed.          you he will be glad in his heart.
3:22 Every woman will ask her neighbor             4:15 “So you are to speak to him and
and the one who happens to be staying in       put the words in his mouth. And as for
her house for items of silver and gold         me, I will be with your mouth and with his
and for clothing. You will put these arti-     mouth, and I will teach you both what you
cles on your sons and daughters – thus         must do. 4:16 He will speak for you to the
you will plunder Egypt!”                       people, and it will be as if he were your
                                               mouth and as if you were his God. 4:17
The Source of Sufficiency                      You will also take in your hand this staff,
                                               with which you will do the signs.”
    4:1 Moses answered again, “And if
they do not believe me or pay attention        The Return of Moses
to me, but say, ‘The LORD has not ap-
peared to you’?” 4:2 The LORD said to              4:18 So Moses went back to his fa-
him, “What is that in your hand?” He           ther-in-law Jethro and said to him, “Let
said, “A staff.” 4:3 The LORD said,            me go, so that I may return to my rela-
“Throw it to the ground.” So he threw it       tives in Egypt and see if they are still
to the ground, and it became a snake, and      alive.” Jethro said to Moses, “Go in
Moses ran from it. 4:4 But the LORD said       peace.” 4:19 The LORD said to Moses in
to Moses, “Put out your hand and grab it       Midian, “Go back to Egypt, because all
by the tail” – so he put out his hand and      the men who were seeking your life are
caught it, and it became a staff in his        dead.” 4:20 Then Moses took his wife and
hand – 4:5 “that they may believe that         sons and put them on a donkey and
the LORD, the God of their fathers, the        headed back to the land of Egypt, and
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and          Moses took the staff of God in his hand.
the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”        4:21 The LORD said to Moses, “When you
    4:6 The LORD also said to him, “Put        go back to Egypt, see that you do before
your hand into your robe.” So he put his       Pharaoh all the wonders I have put under
hand into his robe, and when he brought        your control. But I will harden his heart
it out – there was his hand, leprous like      and he will not let the people go. 4:22 You
snow! 4:7 He said, “Put your hand back         must say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD,
into your robe.” So he put his hand back       “Israel is my son, my firstborn, 4:23 and
into his robe, and when he brought it out      I said to you, ‘Let my son go that he may
from his robe – there it was, restored         serve me,’ but since you have refused to
like the rest of his skin! 4:8 “If they do     let him go, I will surely kill your son, your
not believe you or pay attention to the        firstborn!”’”
EXODUS 4:24                              116
   4:24 Now on the way, at a place where         5:10 So the slave masters of the peo-
they stopped for the night, the LORD met     ple and their foremen went to the Israel-
Moses and sought to kill him. 4:25 But       ites and said, “Thus says Pharaoh: ‘I am
Zipporah took a flint knife, cut off the     not giving you straw. 5:11 You go get
foreskin of her son and touched it to        straw for yourselves wherever you can
Moses’ feet, and said, “Surely you are a     find it, because there will be no reduc-
bridegroom of blood to me.” 4:26 So the      tion at all in your workload.’” 5:12 So the
LORD let him alone. (At that time she        people spread out through all the land of
said, “A bridegroom of blood,” referring     Egypt to collect stubble for straw. 5:13
to the circumcision.)                        The slave masters were pressuring them,
   4:27 The LORD said to Aaron, “Go to       saying, “Complete your work for each day,
the wilderness to meet Moses. So he          just like when there was straw!” 5:14 The
went and met him at the mountain of God      Israelite foremen whom Pharaoh’s slave
and greeted him with a kiss. 4:28 Moses      masters had set over them were beaten
told Aaron all the words of the LORD who     and were asked, “Why did you not com-
had sent him and all the signs that he had   plete your requirement for brickmaking
commanded him. 4:29 Then Moses and           as in the past – both yesterday and to-
Aaron went and brought together all the      day?”
Israelite elders. 4:30 Aaron spoke all the       5:15 The Israelite foremen went and
words that the LORD had spoken to            cried out to Pharaoh, “Why are you
Moses and did the signs in the sight of      treating your servants this way? 5:16 No
the people, 4:31 and the people believed.    straw is given to your servants, but we
When they heard that the LORD had at-        are told, ‘Make bricks!’ Your servants are
tended to the Israelites and that he had     even being beaten, but the fault is with
seen their affliction, they bowed down       your people.”
close to the ground.                             5:17 But Pharaoh replied, “You are
                                             slackers! Slackers! That is why you are
Opposition to the Plan of God                saying, ‘Let us go sacrifice to the LORD.’
                                             5:18 So now, get back to work! You will
    5:1 Afterward Moses and Aaron went
                                             not be given straw, but you must still
to Pharaoh and said, “Thus says the LORD,    produce your quota of bricks!” 5:19 The
the God of Israel, ‘Release my people so     Israelite foremen saw that they were in
that they may hold a pilgrim feast to me     trouble when they were told, “You must
in the desert.’” 5:2 But Pharaoh said,       not reduce the daily quota of your
“Who is the LORD that I should obey him      bricks.”
by releasing Israel? I do not know the           5:20 When they went out from Phar-
LORD, and I will not release Israel!” 5:3    aoh, they encountered Moses and Aaron
And they said, “The God of the Hebrews       standing there to meet them, 5:21 and
has met with us. Let us go a three-day       they said to them, “May the LORD look on
journey into the desert so that we may       you and judge, because you have made us
sacrifice to the LORD our God, so that he    stink in the opinion of Pharaoh
does not strike us with plague or the        and his servants, so that you have given
sword.” 5:4 The king of Egypt said to        them an excuse to kill us!”
them, “Moses and Aaron, why do you
cause the people to refrain from their       The Assurance of Deliverance
work? Return to your labor!” 5:5 Pharaoh
was thinking, “The people of the land are        5:22 Moses returned to the LORD, and
now many, and you are giving them rest       said, “Lord, why have you caused trouble
from their labor.”                           for this people? Why did you ever send
    5:6 That same day Pharaoh com-           me? 5:23 From the time I went to speak
manded the slave masters and foremen         to Pharaoh in your name, he has caused
who were over the people: 5:7 “You must      trouble for this people, and you have cer-
no longer give straw to the people for       tainly not rescued them!”
making bricks as before. Let them go and         6:1 Then the LORD said to Moses,
collect straw for themselves. 5:8 But you    “Now you will see what I will do to Phar-
must require of them the same quota of       aoh, for compelled by my strong hand he
bricks that they were making before. Do      will release them, and by my strong hand
not reduce it, for they are slackers. That   he will drive them out of his land.”
is why they are crying, ‘Let us go sacri-        6:2 God spoke to Moses and said to
fice to our God.’ 5:9 Make the work          him, “I am the LORD. 6:3 I appeared to
harder for the men so they will keep at it   Abraham, to
and pay no attention to lying words!”
                                          117                              EXODUS 7:7
Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty, but         6:19 The sons of Merari were Mahli
by my name ‘the LORD’ I was not known to      and Mushi. These were the clans of Levi,
them. 6:4 I also established my covenant      according to their records.
with them to give them the land of Ca-           6:20 Amram married his father’s sis-
naan, where they were living as resident      ter Jochebed, and she bore him Aaron
foreigners. 6:5 I have also heard the         and Moses. (The length of Amram’s life
groaning of the Israelites, whom the          was 137 years.)
Egyptians are enslaving, and I have re-          6:21 The sons of Izhar were Korah,
membered my covenant. 6:6 Therefore,          Nepheg, and Zikri.
tell the Israelites, ‘I am the LORD. I will      6:22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael,
bring you out from your enslavement to        Elzaphan, and Sithri.
the Egyptians, I will rescue you from the        6:23 Aaron married Elisheba, the
hard labor they impose, and I will redeem     daughter of Amminadab and sister of
you with an outstretched arm and with         Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and
great judgments. 6:7 I will take you to       Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
myself for a people, and I will be your          6:24 The sons of Korah were Assir,
God. Then you will know that I am the         Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the
LORD your God, who brought you out from       Korahite clans.
your enslavement to the Egyptians. 6:8 I         6:25 Now Eleazar son of Aaron mar-
will bring you to the land I swore to give    ried one of the daughters of Putiel and
to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob – and      she bore him Phinehas.
I will give it to you as a possession. I am      These are the heads of the fathers’
the LORD!’”                                   households of Levi according to their
    6:9 Moses told this to the Israelites,    clans.
but they did not listen to him because of        6:26 It was the same Aaron and
their discouragement and hard labor.          Moses to whom the LORD said, “Bring the
6:10 Then the LORD said to Moses, 6:11        Israelites out of the land of Egypt by
“Go, tell Pharaoh king of Egypt that he       their regiments.” 6:27 They were the
must release the Israelites from his          men who were speaking to Pharaoh king
land.” 6:12 But Moses replied to the          of Egypt, in order to bring the Israelites
LORD, “If the Israelites did not listen to    out of Egypt. It was the same Moses and
me, then how will Pharaoh listen to me,       Aaron.
since I speak with difficulty?”
    6:13 The LORD spoke to Moses and          The Authentication of the Word
Aaron and gave them a charge for the
                                                  6:28 When the LORD spoke to Moses
Israelites and Pharaoh king of Egypt to
bring the Israelites out of the land of       in the land of Egypt, 6:29 he said to him,
Egypt.                                        “I am the LORD. Tell Pharaoh king of
                                              Egypt all that I am telling you.” 6:30 But
The Ancestry of the Deliverer                 Moses said before the LORD, “Since I
                                              speak with difficulty, why should Pharaoh
   6:14 These are the heads of their fa-      listen to me?”
thers’ households:                                7:1 So the LORD said to Moses, “See,
   The sons of Reuben, the firstborn son      I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and
of Israel, were Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron      your brother Aaron will be your prophet.
and Carmi. These were the clans of            7:2 You are to speak everything I com-
Reuben.                                       mand you, and your brother Aaron is to
   6:15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel,       tell Pharaoh that he must release the
Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar, and Shaul,         Israelites from his land. 7:3 But I will
the son of a Canaanite woman. These           harden Pharaoh’s heart, and although I
were the clans of Simeon.                     will multiply my signs and my wonders in
   6:16 Now these are the names of the        the land of Egypt, 7:4 Pharaoh will not
sons of Levi, according to their records:     listen to you. I will reach into Egypt and
Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (The length      bring out my regiments, my people the
of Levi’s life was 137 years.)                Israelites, from the land of Egypt with
   6:17 The sons of Gershon, by their         great acts of judgment. 7:5 Then the
families, were Libni and Shimei.              Egyptians will know that I am the LORD,
   6:18 The sons of Kohath were Amram,        when I extend my hand over Egypt and
Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. (The length of     bring the Israelites out from among
Kohath’s life was 133 years.)                 them.
                                                  7:6 And Moses and Aaron did so; they
                                              did just as the LORD commanded them.
EXODUS 7:7                                118
7:7 Now Moses was eighty years old and magicians of Egypt did the same by their
Aaron was eighty-three years old when         secret arts, and so Pharaoh’s heart re-
they spoke to Pharaoh.                        mained hard, and he refused to listen to
   7:8 The LORD said to Moses and             Moses and Aaron – just as the LORD had
Aaron, 7:9 “When Pharaoh says to you,         predicted. 7:23 And Pharaoh turned and
‘Do a miracle,’ and you say to Aaron, ‘Take   went into his house. He did not pay any
your staff and throw it down before           attention to this. 7:24 All the Egyptians
Pharaoh,’ it will become a snake.” 7:10       dug around the Nile for water to drink,
When Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh,         because they could not drink the water
they did so, just as the LORD had com-        of the Nile.
manded them – Aaron threw down his
staff before Pharaoh and his servants         The Second Blow: Frogs
and it became a snake. 7:11 Then Pharaoh
                                                  7:25 Seven full days passed after the
also summoned wise men and sorcerers,
and the magicians of Egypt by their se-       LORD struck the Nile. 8:1 (7:26) Then the
cret arts did the same thing. 7:12 Each       LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and
man threw down his staff, and the staffs      tell him, ‘Thus says the LORD: “Release my
became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swal-        people in order that they may serve me!
                                              8:2 But if you refuse to release them,
lowed up their staffs. 7:13 Yet Pharaoh’s
heart became hard, and he did not listen      then I am going to plague all your terri-
to them, just as the LORD had predicted.      tory with frogs. 8:3 The Nile will swarm
                                              with frogs, and they will come up and go
The First Blow: Water to Blood                into your house, in your bedroom, and on
                                              your bed, and into the houses of your
    7:14 The LORD said to Moses, “Phar-       servants and your people, and into your
aoh’s heart is hard; he refuses to release    ovens and your kneading troughs. 8:4
the people. 7:15 Go to Pharaoh in the         Frogs will come up against you, your peo-
morning when he goes out to the water.        ple, and all your servants.”’”
Position yourself to meet him by the              8:5 The LORD spoke to Moses, “Tell
edge of the Nile, and take in your hand       Aaron, ‘Extend your hand with your staff
the staff that was turned into a snake.       over the rivers, over the canals, and over
7:16 Tell him, ‘The LORD, the God of the      the ponds, and bring the frogs up over
Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, “Re-      the land of Egypt.’” 8:6 So Aaron ex-
lease my people, that they may serve me       tended his hand over the waters of
in the desert!” But until now you have not    Egypt, and frogs came up and covered
listened. 7:17 Thus says the LORD: “By        the land of Egypt.
this you will know that I am the LORD: I          8:7 The magicians did the same with
am going to strike the water of the Nile      their secret arts and brought up frogs on
with the staff that is in my hand, and it     the land of Egypt too.
will be turned into blood. 7:18 Fish in the       8:8 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses
Nile will die, the Nile will stink, and the   and Aaron and said, “Pray to the LORD
Egyptians will be unable to drink water       that he may take the frogs away from me
from the Nile.”’” 7:19 Then the LORD said     and my people, and I will release the peo-
to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff       ple that they may sacrifice to the LORD.”
and stretch out your hand over Egypt’s        8:9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You may have
waters – over their rivers, over their        the honor over me – when shall I pray for
canals, over their ponds, and over all        you, your servants, and your people, for
their reservoirs – so that it becomes         the frogs to be removed from you and
blood.’ There will be blood everywhere in     your houses, so that they will be left only
the land of Egypt, even in wooden and         in the Nile?” 8:10 He said, “Tomorrow.”
stone containers.” 7:20 Moses and Aaron       And Moses said, “It will be as you say, so
did so, just as the LORD had commanded.       that you may know that there is no one
Moses raised the staff and struck the         like the LORD our God. 8:11 The frogs will
water that was in the Nile right before       depart from you, your houses, your ser-
the eyes of Pharaoh and his servants, and     vants, and your people; they will be left
all the water that was in the Nile was        only in the Nile.”
turned to                                         8:12 Then Moses and Aaron went out
blood. 7:21 When the fish that were in        from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to the
the Nile died, the Nile began to stink, so    LORD because of the frogs that he had
that the Egyptians could not drink water      brought on Pharaoh. 8:13 The LORD did as
from the Nile. There was blood every-         Moses asked – the frogs died out of the
where in the land of Egypt! 7:22 But the      houses, the villages, and the fields. 8:14
                                         119                            EXODUS 9:10
The Egyptians piled them in countless      into the desert and sacrifice to the LORD
heaps, and the land stank. 8:15 But when   our God, just as he is telling us.”
Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he          8:28 Pharaoh said, “I will release you
hardened his heart and did not listen to   so that you may sacrifice to the LORD
them, just as the LORD had predicted.      your God in the desert. Only you must
                                           not go very far. Do pray for me.”
The Third Blow: Gnats                          8:29 Moses said, “I am going to go out
                                           from you and pray to the LORD, and the
    8:16 The LORD said to Moses, “Tell
                                           swarms of flies will go away from Phar-
Aaron, ‘Extend your staff and strike the   aoh, from his servants, and from his peo-
dust of the ground, and it will become     ple tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh
gnats throughout all the land of Egypt.’”  deal falsely again by not releasing the
8:17 They did so; Aaron extended his
                                           people to sacrifice to the LORD.” 8:30 So
hand with his staff, he struck the dust    Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed
of the ground, and it became gnats on      to the LORD, 8:31 and the LORD did as
people and on animals. All the dust of the Moses asked – he removed the swarms of
ground became gnats throughout all the     flies from Pharaoh, from his servants,
land of Egypt. 8:18 When the magicians     and from his people. Not one remained!
attempted to bring forth gnats by their    8:32 But Pharaoh hardened his heart this
secret arts, they could not. So there      time also and did not release the people.
were gnats on people and on animals. 8:19
The magicians said to Pharaoh, “It is the The Fifth Blow: Disease
finger of God!” But Pharaoh’s heart re-
mained hard, and he did not listen to          9:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go
them, just as the LORD had predicted.       to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘Thus says the
                                            LORD, the God of the Hebrews, “Release
The Fourth Blow: Flies                      my people that they may serve me! 9:2
                                            For if you refuse to release them and
    8:20 The LORD said to Moses, “Get up
                                            continue holding them, 9:3 then the hand
early in the morning and position yourself of the LORD will surely bring a very terri-
before Pharaoh as he goes out to the ble plague on your livestock in the field,
water, and tell him, ‘Thus says the LORD, on the horses, the donkeys, the camels,
“Release my people that they may serve the herds, and the flocks. 9:4 But the
me! 8:21 If you do not release my people, Lord will distinguish between the live-
then I am going to send swarms of flies stock of Israel and the livestock of
on you and on your servants and on your Egypt, and nothing will die of all that the
people and in your houses. The houses of Israelites have.”’”
the Egyptians will be full of flies, and       9:5 The LORD set an appointed time,
even the ground they stand on. 8:22 But saying, “Tomorrow the LORD will do this in
on that day I will mark off the land of the land.” 9:6 And the LORD did this on
Goshen, where my people are staying, so the next day; all the livestock of the
that no swarms of flies will be there, Egyptians died, but of the Israelites’
that you may know that I am the LORD in livestock not one died. 9:7 Pharaoh sent
the midst of this land. 8:23 I will put a representatives to investigate, and in-
division between my people and your peo- deed, not even one of the livestock of
ple. This sign will take place tomorrow.”’” Israel had died. But Pharaoh’s heart re-
8:24 The LORD did so; a thick swarm of
                                            mained hard, and he did not release the
flies came into Pharaoh’s house and into people.
the houses of his servants, and through-
out the whole land of Egypt the land was The Sixth Blow: Boils
ruined because of the swarms of flies.
    8:25 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses           9:8 Then the LORD said to Moses and
and Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from a
God within the land.” 8:26 But Moses furnace, and have Moses throw it into
said, “That would not be the right thing the air while Pharaoh is watching. 9:9 It
to do, for the sacrifices we make to the will become fine dust over the whole land
LORD our God would be an abomination to of Egypt and will cause boils to break out
the Egyptians. If we make sacrifices that and fester on both people and animals in
are an abomination to the Egyptians right all the land of Egypt.” 9:10 So they took
before their eyes, will they not stone us? soot from a furnace and stood before
8:27 We must go on a three-day journey Pharaoh, Moses threw it into the air, and
EXODUS 9:11                                 120
it caused festering boils to break out on       and animals, throughout all the land of
both people and animals.                        Egypt. The hail struck everything that
    9:11 The magicians could not stand          grows in the field, and it broke all the
before Moses because of the boils, for          trees of the field to pieces. 9:26 Only in
boils were on the magicians and on all the      the land of Goshen, where the Israelites
Egyptians. 9:12 But the LORD hardened           lived, was there no hail.
Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to           9:27 So Pharaoh sent and summoned
them, just as the LORD had predicted to         Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I
Moses.                                          have sinned this time! The LORD is right-
                                                eous, and I and my people are guilty. 9:28
The Seventh Blow: Hail                          Pray to the LORD, for the mighty thun-
                                                derings and hail are too much! I will re-
    9:13 The LORD said to Moses, “Get up
                                                lease you and you will stay no longer.”
early in the morning, stand before Phar-            9:29 Moses said to him, “When I
aoh, and tell him, ‘Thus says the LORD,         leave the city I will spread my hands to
the God of the Hebrews: “Release my             the LORD, the thunder will cease, and
people so that they may serve me! 9:14          there will be no more hail, so that you
For this time I will send all my plagues on     may know that the earth belongs to the
your very self and on your servants and         LORD. 9:30 But as for you and your ser-
your people, so that you may know that          vants, I know that you do not yet fear
there is no one like me in all the earth.       the LORD God.”
9:15 For by now I could have stretched
                                                    9:31 (Now the flax and the barley
out my hand and struck you and your peo-        were struck by the hail, for the barley
ple with plague, and you would have been        had ripened and the flax was in bud. 9:32
destroyed from the earth. 9:16 But for          But the wheat and the spelt were not
this purpose I have caused you to stand:        struck, for they are later crops.)
to show you my strength, and so that my             9:33 So Moses left Pharaoh, went out
name may be declared in all the earth.          of the city, and spread out his hands to
9:17 You are still exalting yourself
                                                the LORD, and the thunder and the hail
against my people by not releasing them.        ceased, and the rain stopped pouring on
9:18 I am going to cause very severe hail
                                                the earth. 9:34 When Pharaoh saw that
to rain down about this time tomorrow,          the rain and hail and thunder ceased, he
such hail as has never occurred in Egypt        sinned again: both he and his servants
from the day it was founded until now.          hardened their hearts. 9:35 So Pharaoh’s
9:19 So now, send instructions to gather
                                                heart remained hard, and he did not re-
your livestock and all your possessions in      lease the Israelites, as the LORD had
the fields to a safe place. Every person        predicted through Moses.
or animal caught in the field and not
brought into the house – the hail will          The Eighth Blow: Locusts
come down on them, and they will die!”’”
    9:20 Those of Pharaoh’s servants who           10:1 The LORD said to Moses, “Go to
feared the word of the LORD hurried to          Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart
bring their servants and livestock into         and the heart of his servants, in order to
the houses, 9:21 but those who did not          display these signs of mine before him,
take the word of the LORD seriously left        10:2 and in order that in the hearing of
their servants and their cattle in the          your son and your grandson you may tell
field.                                          how I made fools of the Egyptians and
    9:22 Then the LORD said to Moses,           about my signs that I displayed among
“Extend your hand toward the sky that           them, so that you may know that I am
there may be hail in all the land of Egypt,     the LORD.”
on people and on animals, and on every-            10:3 So Moses and Aaron came to
thing that grows in the field in the land       Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the
of Egypt.” 9:23 When Moses extended             LORD, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long
his staff toward the sky, the LORD sent         do you refuse to humble yourself before
thunder and hail, and fire fell to the          me? Release my people so that they may
earth; so the LORD caused hail to rain          serve me! 10:4 But if you refuse to re-
down on the land of Egypt. 9:24 Hail fell       lease my people, I am going to bring lo-
and fire mingled with the hail; the hail        custs into your territory tomorrow. 10:5
was so severe that there had not been           They will cover the surface of the earth,
any like it in all the land of Egypt since it   so that you will be unable to see the
had become a nation. 9:25 The hail struck       ground. They will eat the remainder of
everything in the open fields, both people      what escaped – what is left over for you
                                          121                             EXODUS 11:3
– from the hail, and they will eat every      Pharaoh and prayed to the LORD, 10:19
tree that grows for you from the field.       and the LORD turned a very strong west
10:6 They will fill your houses, the houses   wind, and it picked up the locusts and
of your servants, and all the houses of       blew them into the Red Sea. Not one lo-
Egypt, such as neither your fathers nor       cust remained in all the territory of
your grandfathers have seen since they        Egypt. 10:20 But the LORD hardened
have been in the land until this day!’”       Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not release
Then Moses turned and went out from           the Israelites.
Pharaoh.
    10:7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him,      The Ninth Blow: Darkness
“How long will this man be a menace to
                                                  10:21 The LORD said to Moses, “Ex-
us? Release the people so that they may
serve the LORD their God. Do you not          tend your hand toward heaven so that
know that Egypt is destroyed?”                there may be darkness over the land of
    10:8 So Moses and Aaron were
                                              Egypt, a darkness so thick it can be felt.”
                                                  10:22 So Moses extended his hand
brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to
them, “Go, serve the LORD your God. Ex-       toward heaven, and there was absolute
actly who is going with you?” 10:9 Moses      darkness throughout the land of Egypt
said, “We will go with our young and our      for three days. 10:23 No one could see
old, with our sons and our daughters, and     another person, and no one could rise
with our sheep and our cattle we will go,     from his place for three days. But the
because we are to hold a pilgrim feast        Israelites had light in the places where
for the LORD.”                                they lived.
                                                  10:24 Then Pharaoh summoned Moses
    10:10 He said to them, “The LORD will
need to be with you if I release you and      and said, “Go, serve the LORD – only your
your dependents! Watch out! Trouble is        flocks and herds will be detained. Even
right in front of you! 10:11 No! Go, you      your families may go with you.”
                                                  10:25 But Moses said, “Will you also
men only, and serve the LORD, for that is
what you want.” Then Moses and Aaron          provide us with sacrifices and burnt of-
were driven out of Pharaoh’s presence.        ferings that we may present them to the
    10:12 The LORD said to Moses, “Ex-
                                              LORD our God? 10:26 Our livestock must
tend your hand over the land of Egypt         also go with us! Not a hoof is to be left
for the locusts, that they may come up        behind! For we must take these animals
over the land of Egypt and eat every-         to serve the LORD our God. Until we ar-
thing that grows in the ground, every-        rive there, we do not know what we must
thing that the hail has left.” 10:13 So       use to serve the LORD.”
                                                  10:27 But the LORD hardened Phar-
Moses extended his staff over the land
of Egypt, and then the LORD brought an        aoh’s heart, and he was not willing to re-
east wind on the land all that day and all    lease them. 10:28 Pharaoh said to him,
night. The morning came, and the east         “Go from me! Watch out for yourself! Do
wind had brought up the locusts! 10:14        not appear before me again, for when you
The locusts went up over all the land of      see my face you will die!” 10:29 Moses
Egypt and settled down in all the terri-      said, “As you wish! I will not see your
tory of Egypt. It was very severe; there      face again.”
had been no locusts like them before, nor     The Tenth Blow: Death
will there be such ever again. 10:15 They
covered the surface of all the ground, so        11:1 The LORD said to Moses, “I will
that the ground became dark with them,        bring one more plague on Pharaoh and on
and they ate all the vegetation of the        Egypt; after that he will release you
ground and all the fruit of the trees that    from this place. When he releases you,
the hail had left. Nothing green remained     he will drive you out completely from this
on the trees or on anything that grew in      place. 11:2 Instruct the people that each
the fields throughout the whole land of       man and each woman is to request from
Egypt.                                        his or her neighbor items of silver and
    10:16 Then Pharaoh quickly summoned       gold.”
Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned         11:3 (Now the LORD granted the peo-
against the LORD your God and against         ple favor with the Egyptians. Moreover,
you! 10:17 So now, forgive my sin this        the man Moses was very great in the land
time only, and pray to the LORD your God      of Egypt, respected by Pharaoh’s ser-
that he would only take this death away       vants and by the Egyptian people.)
from me.” 10:18 Moses went out from
EXODUS 11:4                               122
   11:4 Moses said, “Thus says the LORD:      ing, but you must burn with fire whatever
‘About midnight I will go throughout          remains of it until morning. 12:11 This is
Egypt, 11:5 and all the firstborn in the      how you are to eat it – dressed to travel,
land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn    your sandals on your feet, and your staff
son of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, to     in your hand. You are to eat it in haste. It
the firstborn son of the slave girl who is    is the LORD’S Passover.
at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of        12:12 I will pass through the land of
the cattle. 11:6 There will be a great cry    Egypt in the same night, and I will attack
throughout the whole land of Egypt, such      all the firstborn in the land of Egypt,
as there has never been, nor ever will be     both of humans and of animals, and on all
again. 11:7 But against any of the Israel-    the gods of Egypt I will execute judg-
ites not even a dog will bark against ei-     ment. I am the LORD. 12:13 The blood will
ther people or animals, so that you may       be a sign for you on the houses where you
know that the LORD distinguishes be-          are, so that when I see the blood I will
tween Egypt and Israel.’ 11:8 All these       pass over you, and this plague will not fall
your servants will come down to me and        on you to destroy you when I attack the
bow down to me, saying, ‘Go, you and all      land of Egypt.
the people who follow you,’ and after that        12:14 This day will become a memorial
I will go out.” Then Moses went out from      for you, and you will celebrate it as a
Pharaoh in great anger.                       festival to the LORD – you will celebrate
    11:9 The LORD said to Moses, “Phar-       it perpetually as a lasting ordinance.
aoh will not listen to you, so that my won-   12:15 For seven days you must eat bread
ders may be multiplied in the land of         made without yeast. Surely on the first
Egypt.”                                       day you must put away yeast from your
    11:10 So Moses and Aaron did all          houses because anyone who eats bread
these wonders before Pharaoh, but the         made with yeast from the first day to
LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he         the seventh day will be cut off from Is-
did not release the Israelites from his       rael.
land.                                             12:16 On the first day there will be a
                                              holy convocation, and on the seventh day
The Institution of the Passover               there will be a holy convocation for you.
                                              You must do no work of any kind on them,
    12:1 The LORD said to Moses and
                                              only what every person will eat – that
Aaron in the land of Egypt, 12:2 “This        alone may be prepared for you. 12:17 So
month is to be your beginning of months;      you will keep the Feast of Unleavened
it will be your first month of the year.      Bread, because on this very day I
12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel,
                                              brought your regiments out from the
‘In the tenth day of this month they each     land of Egypt, and so you must keep this
must take a lamb for themselves accord-       day perpetually as a lasting ordinance.
ing to their families – a lamb for each       12:18 In the first month, from the four-
household. 12:4 If any household is too       teenth day of the month, in the evening,
small for a lamb, the man and his next-       you will eat bread made without yeast
door neighbor are to take a lamb accord-      until the twenty-first day of the month
ing to the number of people – you will        in the evening. 12:19 For seven days
make your count for the lamb according        yeast must not be found in your houses,
to how much each one can eat. 12:5 Your       for whoever eats what is made with
lamb must be perfect, a male, one year        yeast – that person will be cut off from
old; you may take it from the sheep or        the community of Israel, whether a for-
from the goats. 12:6 You must care for it     eigner or one born in the land. 12:20 You
until the fourteenth day of this month,       will not eat anything made with yeast; in
and then the whole community of Israel        all the places where you live you must eat
will kill it around sundown. 12:7 They will   bread made without yeast.’”
take some of the blood and put it on the          12:21 Then Moses summoned all the
two side posts and top of the doorframe       elders of Israel, and told them, “Go and
of the houses where they will eat it. 12:8    select for yourselves a lamb or young
They will eat the meat the same night;        goat for your families, and kill the Passo-
they will eat it roasted over the fire with   ver animals. 12:22 Take a branch of hys-
bread made without yeast and with bit-        sop, dip it in the blood that is in the ba-
ter herbs. 12:9 Do not eat it raw or          sin, and apply to the top of the door-
boiled in water, but roast it over the fire   frame and the two side posts some of
with its head, its legs, and its entrails.    the blood that is in the basin. Not one of
12:10 You must leave nothing until morn-
                                          123                                 EXODUS 13:4
you is to go out the door of his house        ants. 12:38 A mixed multitude also went
until morning. 12:23 For the LORD will        up with them, and flocks and herds – a
pass through to strike Egypt, and when        very large number of cattle. 12:39 They
he sees the blood on the top of the door-     baked cakes of bread without yeast using
frame and the two side posts, then the        the dough they had brought from Egypt,
LORD will pass over the door, and he will     for it was made without yeast – because
not permit the destroyer to enter your        they were thrust out of Egypt and were
houses to strike you. 12:24 You must ob-      not able to delay, they could not prepare
serve this event as an ordinance for you      food for themselves either.
and for your children forever. 12:25             12:40 Now the length of time the Is-
When you enter the land that the LORD         raelites lived in Egypt was 430 years.
will give to you, just as he said, you must   12:41 At the end of the 430 years, on
observe this ceremony. 12:26 When your        the very day, all the regiments of the
children ask you, ‘What does this cere-       LORD went out of the land of Egypt. 12:42
mony mean to you?’ – 12:27 then you will      It was a night of vigil for the LORD to
say, ‘It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s       bring them out from the land of Egypt,
Passover, when he passed over the             and so on this night all Israel is to keep
houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when       the vigil to the LORD for generations to
he struck Egypt and delivered our house-      come.
holds.’” The people bowed down low to
the ground, 12:28 and the Israelites went     Participation in the Passover
away and did exactly as the LORD had
                                                  12:43 The LORD said to Moses and
commanded Moses and Aaron.
                                              Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the
The Deliverance from Egypt                    Passover. No
                                              foreigner may share in eating it. 12:44
    12:29 It happened at midnight – the       But everyone’s servant who is bought for
LORD attacked all the firstborn in the        money, after you have circumcised him,
land of Egypt, from the firstborn of          may eat it. 12:45 A foreigner and a hired
Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the          worker must not eat it. 12:46 It must be
firstborn of the captive who was in the       eaten in one house; you must not bring
prison, and all the firstborn of the cat-     any of the meat outside the house, and
tle. 12:30 Pharaoh got up in the night,       you must not break a bone of it. 12:47
along with all his servants and all Egypt,    The whole community of Israel must ob-
and there was a great cry in Egypt, for       serve it.
there was no house in which there was             12:48 “When a foreigner lives with
not someone dead. 12:31 Pharaoh sum-          you and wants to observe the Passover to
moned Moses and Aaron in the night and        the LORD, all his males must be circum-
said, “Get up, get out from among my          cised, and then he may approach and ob-
people, both you and the Israelites! Go,      serve it, and he will be like one who is
serve the LORD as you have requested!         born in the land – but no uncircumcised
12:32 Also, take your flocks and your         person may eat of it. 12:49 The same law
herds, just as you have requested, and        will apply to the person who is native-
leave. But bless me also.”                    born and to the foreigner who lives
    12:33 The Egyptians were urging the       among you.”
people on, in order to send them out of           12:50 So all the Israelites did exactly
the land quickly, for they were saying,       as the LORD commanded Moses and
“We are all dead!” 12:34 So the people        Aaron. 12:51 And on this very day the
took their dough before the yeast was         LORD brought the Israelites out of the
added, with their kneading troughs bound      land of Egypt by their regiments.
up in their clothing on their shoulders.
12:35 Now the Israelites had done as          The Law of the Firstborn
Moses told them – they had requested
                                                  13:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 13:2
from the Egyptians silver and gold items
and clothing.                                 “Set apart to me every firstborn male –
12:36 The LORD gave the people favor in
                                              the first offspring of every womb among
the sight of the Egyptians, and they gave     the Israelites, whether human or animal;
them whatever they wanted, and so they        it is mine.”
                                                  13:3 Moses said to the people, “Re-
plundered Egypt.
    12:37 The Israelites journeyed from
                                              member this day on which you came out
Rameses to Sukkoth. There were about          from Egypt, from the place where you
600,000 men on foot, plus their depend-       were enslaved, for the LORD brought you
EXODUS 13:4                               124
out of there with a mighty hand – and no      people change their minds and return to
bread made with yeast may be eaten.           Egypt when they experience war.” 13:18
13:4 On this day, in the month of Abib,       So God brought the people around by the
you are going out.                            way of the desert to the Red Sea, and
    13:5 When the LORD brings you to the      the Israelites went up from the land of
land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amo-        Egypt prepared for battle.
rites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he           13:19 Moses took the bones of Jo-
swore to your fathers to give you, a land     seph with him, for Joseph had made the
flowing with milk and honey, then you will    Israelites solemnly swear, “God will
keep this ceremony in this month. 13:6        surely attend to you, and you will carry
For seven days you must eat bread made        my bones up from this place with you.”
without yeast, and on the seventh day             13:20 They journeyed from Sukkoth
there is to be a festival to the LORD. 13:7   and camped in Etham, on the edge of the
Bread made without yeast must be eaten        desert. 13:21 Now the LORD was going
for seven days; no bread made with yeast      before them by day in a pillar of cloud to
shall be seen among you, and you must         lead them in the way, and by night in a
have no yeast among you within any of         pillar of fire to give them light, so that
your borders.                                 they could travel day or night. 13:22 He
    13:8 You are to tell your son on that     did not remove the pillar of cloud by
day, ‘It is because of what the LORD did      day nor the pillar of fire by night from
for me when I came out of Egypt.’ 13:9 It     before the people.
will be a sign for you on your hand and a
memorial on your forehead, so that the        The Victory at the Red Sea
law of the LORD may be in your mouth,
                                                  14:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 14:2
for with a mighty hand the LORD brought
you out of Egypt. 13:10 So you must keep      “Tell the Israelites that they must turn
this ordinance at its appointed time from     and camp before Pi-hahiroth, between
year to year.                                 Migdol and the sea; you are to camp by
    13:11 When the LORD brings you into
                                              the sea before Baal Zephon opposite it.
                                              14:3 Pharaoh will think regarding the Is-
the land of the Canaanites, as he swore
to you and to your fathers, and gives it      raelites, ‘They are wandering around con-
to you, 13:12 then you must give over to      fused in the land – the desert has closed
the LORD the first offspring of every         in on them.’ 14:4 I will harden Pharaoh’s
womb. Every firstling of a beast that you     heart, and he will chase after them. I will
have – the males will be the LORD’s. 13:13    gain honor because of Pharaoh and be-
Every firstling of a donkey you must re-      cause of all his army, and the Egyptians
deem with a lamb, and if you do not re-       will know that I am the LORD.” So this is
deem it, then you must break its neck.        what they did.
                                                  14:5 When it was reported to the king
Every firstborn of your sons you must
redeem.                                       of Egypt that the people had fled, the
    13:14 In the future, when your son
                                              heart of Pharaoh and his servants was
asks you ‘What is this?’ you are to tell      turned against the people, and the king
him, ‘With a mighty hand the LORD             and his servants said, “What in the world
brought us out from Egypt, from the land      have we done? For we have released the
of slavery. 13:15 When Pharaoh stub-          people of Israel from serving us!” 14:6
bornly refused to release us, the LORD        Then he prepared his chariots and took
killed all the firstborn in the land of       his army with him. 14:7 He took six hun-
Egypt, from the firstborn of people to        dred select chariots, and all the rest of
the firstborn of animals. That is why I       the chariots of Egypt, and officers on all
am sacrificing to the LORD the first male     of them.
                                                  14:8 But the LORD hardened the heart
offspring of every womb, but all my
firstborn sons I redeem.’ 13:16 It will be    of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased
for a sign on your hand and for frontlets     after the Israelites. Now the Israelites
on your forehead, for with a mighty hand      were going out defiantly. 14:9 The Egyp-
the LORD brought us out of Egypt.”            tians chased after them, and all the
                                              horses and chariots of Pharaoh and his
The Leading of God                            horsemen and his army overtook them
                                              camping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth,
   13:17 When Pharaoh released the            before Baal-Zephon. 14:10 When Pharaoh
people, God did not lead them by the way      got closer, the Israelites looked up, and
to the land of the Philistines, although      there were the Egyptians marching after
that was nearby, for God said, “Lest the      them, and they were terrified. The Isra-
                                          125                             EXODUS 15:7
elites cried out to the LORD, 14:11 and       flee from Israel, for the LORD fights for
they said to Moses, “Is it because there      them against Egypt!”
are no graves in Egypt that you have              14:26 The LORD said to Moses, “Ex-
taken us away to die in the desert? What      tend your hand toward the sea, so that
in the world have you done to us by bring-    the waters may flow back on the Egyp-
ing us out of Egypt? 14:12 Isn’t this what    tians, on their chariots, and on their
we told you in Egypt, ‘Leave us alone so      horsemen!” 14:27 So Moses extended his
that we can serve the Egyptians, because      hand toward the sea, and the sea re-
it is better for us to serve the Egyptians    turned to its normal state when the sun
than to die in the desert!’”                  began to rise. Now the Egyptians were
    14:13 Moses said to the people, “Do       fleeing before it, but the LORD over-
not fear! Stand firm and see the salva-       threw the Egyptians in the middle of the
tion of the LORD that he will provide for     sea. 14:28 The water returned and cov-
you today; for the Egyptians that you see     ered the chariots and the horsemen and
today you will                                all the army of Pharaoh that was coming
never, ever see again. 14:14 The LORD will    after the Israelites into the sea – not so
fight for you, and you can be still.”         much as one of them survived! 14:29 But
    14:15 The LORD said to Moses, “Why        the Israelites walked on dry ground in
do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites     the middle of the sea, the water forming
to move on. 14:16 And as for you, lift up     a wall for them on their right and on
your staff and extend your hand toward        their left. 14:30 So the LORD saved Is-
the sea and divide it, so that the Israel-    rael on that day from the power of the
ites may go through the middle of the         Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians
sea on dry ground. 14:17 And as for me, I     dead on the shore of the sea. 14:31
am going to harden the hearts of the          When Israel saw the great power that
Egyptians so that they will come after        the LORD had exercised over the Egyp-
them, that I may be honored because of        tians, they feared the LORD, and they
Pharaoh and his army and his chariots         believed in the LORD and in his servant
and his horsemen. 14:18 And the Egyp-         Moses.
tians will know that I am the LORD when I
have gained my honor because of Phar-         The Song of Triumph
aoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.”
                                                 15:1 Then Moses and the Israelites
    14:19 The angel of God, who was going
before the camp of Israel, moved and          sang this song to the LORD. They said,
                                                   “I will sing to the LORD, for he has
went behind them, and the pillar of cloud          triumphed gloriously,
moved from before them and stood be-               the horse and its rider he has
hind them. 14:20 It came between the               thrown into the sea.
Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp; it           15:2 The LORD is my strength and
was a dark cloud and it lit up the night so        my song,
that one camp did not come near the                and he has become my salvation.
other the whole night. 14:21 Moses                 This is my God, and I will praise him,
stretched out his hand toward the sea,             my father’s God, and I will exalt
and the LORD drove the sea apart by a              him.
strong east wind all that night, and he            15:3 The LORD is a warrior,
made the sea into dry land, and the water          the LORD is his name.
was divided. 14:22 So the Israelites went          15:4 The chariots of Pharaoh and
through the middle of the sea on dry               his army he has thrown into the sea,
ground, the water forming a wall for               and his chosen officers were
them on their right and on their left.             drowned in the Red Sea.
    14:23 The Egyptians chased them and            15:5 The depths have covered them,
followed them into the middle of the sea           they went down to the bottom like a
– all the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots,         stone.
                                                   15:6 Your right hand, O LORD, was
and his                                            majestic in power,
horsemen. 14:24 In the morning watch               your right hand, O LORD, shattered
the LORD looked down on the Egyptian               the enemy.
army through the pillar of fire and cloud,         15:7 In the abundance of your
and he threw the Egyptian army into a              majesty you have overthrown
panic. 14:25 He jammed the wheels of               those who rise up against you.
their chariots so that they had difficulty         You sent forth your wrath;
driving, and the Egyptians said, “Let’s            it consumed them like stubble.
EXODUS 15:8                               126
     15:8 By the blast of your nostrils       her with hand-drums and with dances.
     the waters were piled up,                15:21 Miriam sang in response to them,
     the flowing water stood upright like     “Sing to the LORD, for he has triumphed
     a heap,                                  gloriously; the horse and its rider he has
     and the deep waters were solidified      thrown into the sea.”
     in the heart of the sea.
     15:9 The enemy said, ‘I will chase, I    The Bitter Water
     will overtake,
     I will divide the spoil;                     15:22 Then Moses led Israel to jour-
     my desire will be satisfied on them.     ney away from the Red Sea. They went
     I will draw my sword, my hand will       out to the Desert of Shur, walked for
     destroy them.’                           three days into the desert, and found no
     15:10 But you blew with your breath,     water. 15:23 Then they came to Marah,
     and the sea covered them.                but they were not able to drink the wa-
     They sank like lead in the mighty        ters of Marah, because they were bitter.
     waters.                                  (That is why its name was Marah.)
     15:11 Who is like you, O LORD,               15:24 So the people murmured against
     among the gods?                          Moses, saying, “What can we drink?”
     Who is like you? – majestic in
                                              15:25 He cried out to the LORD, and the
     holiness, fearful in praises, working
     wonders?                                 LORD showed him a tree. When Moses
     15:12 You stretched out your right       threw it into the water, the water be-
     hand,                                    came safe to drink. There the LORD made
     the earth swallowed them.                for them a binding ordinance, and there
     15:13 By your loyal love you will lead   he tested them. 15:26 He said, “If you
     the people whom you have                 will diligently obey the LORD your God,
     redeemed;                                and do what is right in his sight, and pay
     you will guide them by your strength     attention to his commandments, and keep
     to your holy dwelling place.             all his statutes, then all the diseases that
     15:14 The nations will hear and          I brought on the Egyptians I will not
     tremble;                                 bring on you, for I, the LORD, am your
     anguish will seize the inhabitants of    healer.”
     Philistia.                                   15:27 Then they came to Elim, where
     15:15 Then the chiefs of Edom will       there were twelve wells of water and
     be terrified,                            seventy palm trees, and they camped
     trembling will seize the leaders of      there by the water.
     Moab,
     and the inhabitants of Canaan will       The Provision of Manna
     shake.
     15:16 Fear and dread will fall on           16:1 When they journeyed from Elim,
     them;                                    the entire company of Israelites came to
     by the greatness of your arm they        the Desert of Sin, which is between Elim
     will be as still as stone                and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the
     until your people pass by, O LORD,       second month after their exodus from
     until the people whom you have           the land of Egypt. 16:2 The entire com-
     bought pass by.                          pany of Israelites murmured against
     15:17 You will bring them in and
                                              Moses and Aaron in the desert. 16:3 The
     plant them in the mountain of your
     inheritance,                             Israelites said to them, “If only we had
     in the place you made for your           died by the hand of the LORD in the land
     residence, O LORD,                       of Egypt, when we sat by the pots of
     the sanctuary, O LORD, that your         meat, when we ate bread to the full, for
     hands have established.                  you have brought us out into this desert
     15:18 The LORD will reign forever        to kill this whole assembly with hunger!”
     and ever!                                   16:4 Then the LORD said to Moses, “I
     15:19 For the horses of Pharaoh          am going to rain bread from heaven for
     came with his chariots and his           you, and the people will go out and gather
     footmen into the sea,                    the amount for each day, so that I may
     and the LORD brought back the            test them. Will they will walk in my law or
     waters of the sea on them,               not? 16:5 On the sixth day they will pre-
     but the Israelites walked on dry         pare what they bring in, and it will be
     land in the middle of the sea.”          twice as much as they gather every other
   15:20 Miriam the prophetess, the sis-      day.”
ter of Aaron, took a hand-drum in her
hand, and all the women went out after
                                           127                             EXODUS 17:3
   16:6 Moses and Aaron said to all the it each morning, each person according to
Israelites, “In the evening you will know      what he could eat, and when the sun got
that the LORD has brought you out of the       hot, it would melt. 16:22 And on the sixth
land of Egypt, 16:7 and in the morning         day they gathered twice as much food,
you will see the glory of the LORD, be-        two omers per person; and all the leaders
cause he has heard your murmurings             of the community came and told Moses.
against the LORD. As for us, what are we,      16:23 He said to them, “This is what the
that you should murmur against us?”            LORD has said: ‘Tomorrow is a time of
    16:8 Moses said, “You will know this       cessation from work, a holy Sabbath to
when the LORD gives you meat to eat in         the LORD. Whatever you want to bake,
the evening and bread in the morning to        bake today; whatever you want to boil,
satisfy you, because the LORD has heard        boil today; whatever is left put aside for
your murmurings that you are murmuring         yourselves to be kept until morning.’”
against him. As for us, what are we? Your          16:24 So they put it aside until the
murmurings are not against us, but             morning, just as Moses had commanded,
against the LORD.”                             and it did not stink, nor were there any
    16:9 Then Moses said to Aaron, “Tell       worms in it. 16:25 Moses said, “Eat it to-
the whole community of the Israelites,         day, for today is a Sabbath to the LORD;
‘Come before the LORD, because he has          today you will not find it in the area.
heard your murmurings.’”                       16:26 Six days you will gather it, but on
    16:10 As Aaron spoke to the whole          the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will
community of the Israelites and they           not be any.”
looked toward the desert, there the                16:27 On the seventh day some of the
glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud,       people went out to gather it, but they
16:11 and the LORD spoke to Moses:             found nothing. 16:28 So the LORD said to
16:12 “I have heard the murmurings of          Moses, “How long do you refuse to obey
the Israelites. Tell them, ‘During the         my commandments and my instructions?
evening you will eat meat, and in the          16:29 See, because the LORD has given
morning you will be satisfied with bread,      you the Sabbath, that is why he is giving
so that you may know that I am the LORD        you food for two days on the sixth day.
your God.’”                                    Each of you stay where you are; let no
    16:13 In the evening the quail came up     one go out of his place on the seventh
and covered the camp, and in the morning       day.” 16:30 So the people rested on the
a layer of dew was all around the camp.        seventh day.
16:14 When the layer of dew had evapo-             16:31 The house of Israel called its
rated, there on the surface of the de-         name “manna.” It was like coriander seed
sert was a thin flaky substance, thin like     and was white, and it tasted like wafers
frost on the earth. 16:15 When the Isra-       with honey.
elites saw it, they said to one another,           16:32 Moses said, “This is what the
“What is it?” because they did not know        LORD has commanded: ‘Fill an omer with it
what it was. Moses said to them, “It is        to be kept for generations to come, so
the bread that the LORD has given you          that they may see the food I fed you in
for food.                                      the desert when I brought you out from
    16:16 “This is what the LORD has com-      the land of Egypt.’” 16:33 Moses said to
manded: ‘Each person is to gather from it      Aaron, “Take a jar and put in it an omer
what he can eat, an omer per person            full of manna, and place it before the
according to the number of your people;        LORD to be kept for generations to
each one will pick it up for whoever lives     come.” 16:34 Just as the LORD com-
in his tent.’” 16:17 The Israelites did so,    manded Moses, so Aaron placed it before
and they gathered – some more, some            the Testimony for safekeeping.
less. 16:18 When they measured with an             16:35 Now the Israelites ate manna
omer, the one who gathered much had            forty years, until they came to a land
nothing left over, and the one who             that was inhabited; they ate manna until
gathered little lacked nothing; each one       they came to the border of the land of
had gathered what he could eat.                Canaan. 16:36 (Now an omer is one tenth
    16:19 Moses said to them, “No one is       of an ephah.)
to keep any of it until morning.” 16:20 But
they did not listen to Moses; some kept        Water at Massa and Meribah
part of it until morning, and it was full of
                                                  17:1 The whole community of the Is-
worms and began to stink, and Moses was
angry with them. 16:21 So they gathered        raelites traveled on their journey from
                                               the Desert of Sin according to the LORD’s
EXODUS 17:2                               128
instruction, and they pitched camp in         LORD – that the LORD will have war with
Rephidim. Now there was no water for          Amalek from generation to generation.”
the people to drink. 17:2 So the people
contended with Moses, and they said,          The Advice of Jethro
“Give us water to drink!” Moses said to
                                                  18:1 Jethro, the priest of Midian,
them, “Why do you contend with me?
Why do you test the LORD?” 17:3 But the       Moses’ father-in-law, heard about all
people were very thirsty there for wa-        that God had done for Moses and for his
ter, and they murmured against Moses          people Israel, that the LORD had brought
and said, “Why in the world did you bring     Israel out of Egypt.
                                                  18:2 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law,
us up out of Egypt – to kill us and our
children and our cattle with thirst?”         took Moses’ wife Zipporah after he had
    17:4 Then Moses cried out to the
                                              sent her back, 18:3 and her two sons, one
LORD, “What will I do with this people? –     of whom was named Gershom (for Moses
a little more and they will stone me!” 17:5   had said, “I have been a foreigner in a
The LORD said to Moses, “Go over before       foreign land”), 18:4 and the other Eliezer
the people; take with you some of the         (for Moses had said, “The God of my fa-
elders of Israel and take in your hand        ther has been my help and delivered me
your staff with which you struck the Nile     from the sword of Pharaoh”).
                                                  18:5 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, to-
and go. 17:6 I will be standing before you
there on the rock in Horeb, and you will      gether with Moses’ sons and his wife,
strike the rock, and water will come out      came to Moses in the desert where he
of it so that the people may drink.” And      was camping by the mountain of God. 18:6
Moses did so in plain view of the elders      He said to Moses, “I, your father-in-law
of Israel.                                    Jethro, am coming to you, along with your
    17:7 He called the name of the place
                                              wife and her two sons with her.” 18:7
Massah and Meribah, because of the con-       Moses went out to meet his father-in-law
tending of the Israelites and because of      and bowed down and kissed him; they
their testing the LORD, saying, “Is the       each asked about the other’s welfare,
LORD among us or not?”                        and then they went into the tent. 18:8
                                              Moses told his father-in-law all that the
Victory over the Amalekites                   LORD had done to Pharaoh and to Egypt
                                              for Israel’s sake, and all the hardship
    17:8 Amalek came and attacked Israel      that had come on them along the way,
in Rephidim. 17:9 So Moses said to            and how the LORD had delivered them.
Joshua, “Choose some of our men and go            18:9 Jethro rejoiced because of all
out, fight against Amalek. Tomorrow I         the good that the LORD had done for Is-
will stand on top of the hill with the        rael, whom he had delivered from the
staff of God in my hand.”                     hand of Egypt. 18:10 Jethro said,
    17:10 So Joshua fought against            “Blessed be the LORD who has delivered
Amalek just as Moses had instructed           you from the hand of Egypt, and from
him;and Moses and Aaron and Hur went          the hand of Pharaoh, who has delivered
up to the top of the hill. 17:11 Whenever     the people from the Egyptians’ control!
Moses would raise his hands, then Israel      18:11 Now I know that the LORD is
prevailed, but whenever he would rest his     greater than all the gods, for in the thing
hands, then Amalek prevailed. 17:12           in which they dealt proudly against them
When the hands of Moses became heavy,         he has destroyed them.” 18:12 Then
they took a stone and put it under him,       Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, brought a
and Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one      burnt offering and sacrifices for God,
on one side and one on the other, and so      and Aaron and all the elders of Israel
his hands were steady until the sun went      came to eat food with the father-in-law
down. 17:13 So Joshua destroyed Amalek        of Moses before God.
and his army with the sword.                      18:13 On the next day Moses sat to
    17:14 The LORD said to Moses, “Write      judge the people, and the people stood
this as a memorial in the book, and re-       around Moses from morning until evening.
hearse it in Joshua’s hearing; for I will     18:14 When Moses’ father-in-law saw all
surely wipe out the remembrance of            that he was doing for the people, he said,
Amalek from under heaven. 17:15 Moses         “What is this that you are doing for the
built an altar, and he called it “The LORD    people? Why are you sitting by yourself,
is my Banner,” 17:16 for he said, “For a      and all the people stand around you from
hand was lifted up to the throne of the       morning until evening?”
                                         129                             EXODUS 19:19
   18:15 Moses said to his father-in-law,    ‘You yourselves have seen what I did to
“Because the people come to me to in-        Egypt and how I lifted you on eagles’
quire of God. 18:16 When they have a         wings and brought you to myself. 19:5
dispute, it comes to me and I decide be-     And now, if you will diligently listen to me
tween a man and his neighbor, and I make     and keep my covenant, then you will be
known the decrees of God and his laws.”      my special possession out of all the na-
    18:17 Moses’ father-in-law said to       tions, for all the earth is mine, 19:6 and
him, “What you are doing is not good!        you will be to me a kingdom of priests and
18:18 You will surely wear out, both you     a holy nation.’ These are the words that
and these people who are with you, for       you will speak to the Israelites.”
this is too heavy a burden for you; you          19:7 So Moses came and summoned
are not able to do it by yourself. 18:19     the elders of Israel. He set before them
Now listen to me, I will give you advice,    all these words that the LORD had com-
and may God be with you: You be a repre-     manded him, 19:8 and all the people an-
sentative for the people to God, and you     swered together, “All that the LORD has
bring their disputes to God; 18:20 warn      commanded we will do!” So Moses
them of the statutes and the laws, and       brought the words of the people back to
make known to them the way in which          the LORD.
they must walk and the work they must            19:9 The LORD said to Moses, “I am
do. 18:21 But you choose from the people     going to come to you in a dense cloud, so
capable men, God-fearing, men of truth,      that the people may hear when I speak
those who hate bribes, and put them over     with you and so that they will always be-
the people as rulers of thousands, rulers    lieve in you.” And Moses told the words
of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers   of the people to the LORD.
of tens. 18:22 They will judge the people        19:10 The LORD said to Moses, “Go to
under normal circumstances, and every        the people and sanctify them today and
difficult case they will bring to you, but   tomorrow, and make them wash their
every small case they themselves will        clothes 19:11 and be ready for the third
judge, so that you may make it easier for    day, for on the third day the LORD will
yourself, and they will bear the burden      come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of
with you. 18:23 If you do this thing, and    all the people. 19:12 You must set
God so commands you, then you will be        boundaries for the people all around, say-
able to endure, and all these people will    ing, ‘Take heed to yourselves not to go up
be able to go home satisfied.”               on the mountain nor touch its edge. Who-
    18:24 Moses listened to his father-in-   ever touches the mountain will surely be
law and did everything he had said. 18:25    put to death! 19:13 No hand will touch
Moses chose capable men from all Israel,     him – but he will surely be stoned or shot
and he made them heads over the people,      through, whether a beast or a human be-
rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds,     ing; he must not live.’ When the ram’s
rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.       horn sounds a long blast they may go up
18:26 They judged the people under nor-      on the mountain.”
mal circumstances; the difficult cases           19:14 Then Moses went down from
they would bring to Moses, but every         the mountain to the people and sanctified
small case they would judge themselves.      the people, and they washed their
    18:27 Then Moses sent his father-in-     clothes. 19:15 He said to the people, “Be
law on his way, and so Jethro went to his    ready for the third day. Do not go near
own land.                                    your wives.”
                                                 19:16 On the third day in the morning
Israel at Sinai                              there was thunder and lightning and a
                                             dense cloud on the mountain, and the
   19:1 In the third month after the Is-
                                             sound of a very loud horn; all the people
raelites went out from the land of Egypt,    who were in the camp trembled. 19:17
on the very day, they came to the Desert     Moses brought the people out of the
of Sinai. 19:2 After they journeyed from     camp to meet God, and they took their
Rephidim, they came to the Desert of         place at the foot of the mountain. 19:18
Sinai, and they camped in the desert;        Now Mount Sinai was completely covered
Israel camped there in front of the          with smoke because the LORD had de-
mountain.                                    scended on it in fire, and its smoke went
   19:3 Moses went up to God, and the
                                             up like the smoke of a great furnace, and
LORD called to him from the mountain,        the whole mountain shook violently. 19:19
“Thus you will tell the house of Jacob,      When the sound of the horn grew louder
and declare to the people of Israel: 19:4
EXODUS 19:20                             130
and louder, Moses was speaking and God      them, and he rested on the seventh day;
was answering him with a voice.             therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath
   19:20 The LORD came down on Mount        day and set it apart as holy.
Sinai, on the top of the mountain, and the      20:12 “Honor your father and your
LORD summoned Moses to the top of the       mother, that you may live a long time in
mountain, and Moses went up. 19:21 The      the land the LORD your God is giving to
LORD said to Moses, “Go down and sol-       you.
emnly warn the people, lest they force          20:13 “You shall not murder.
their way through to the LORD to look,          20:14 “You shall not commit adultery.
and many of them perish. 19:22 Let the          20:15 “You shall not steal.
priests also, who approach the LORD,            20:16 “You shall not give false testi-
sanctify themselves, lest the LORD break    mony against your neighbor.
through against them.”                          20:17 “You shall not covet your neigh-
   19:23 Moses said to the LORD, “The       bor’s house. You shall not covet your
people are not able to come up to Mount     neighbor’s wife, nor his male servant, nor
Sinai, because you solemnly warned us,      his female servant, nor his ox, nor his
‘Set boundaries for the mountain and set    donkey, nor anything that belongs to your
it apart.’” 19:24 The LORD said to him,     neighbor.”
“Go, get down, and come up, and Aaron           20:18 All the people were seeing the
with you, but do not let the priests and    thundering and the lightning, and heard
the people force their way through to       the sound of the horn, and saw the moun-
come up to the LORD, lest he break          tain smoking – and when the people saw it
through against them.” 19:25 So Moses       they trembled with fear and kept their
went down to the people and spoke to        distance. 20:19 They said to Moses, “You
them.                                       speak to us and we will listen, but do not
                                            let God speak with us, lest we die.” 20:20
The Decalogue                               Moses said to the people, “Do not fear,
                                            for God has come to test you, that the
    20:1 God spoke all these words:
                                            fear of him may be before you so that
    20:2 “I, the LORD, am your God, who
                                            you do not sin.” 20:21 The people kept
brought you from the land of Egypt, from their distance, but Moses drew near the
the house of slavery.                       thick darkness where God was.
    20:3 “You shall have no other gods be-
fore me.                                    The Altar
    20:4 “You shall not make for yourself
a carved image or any likeness of any-          20:22 The LORD said to Moses: “Thus
thing that is in heaven above or that is on you will tell the Israelites: ‘You your-
the earth beneath or that is in the water selves have seen that I have spoken with
below. 20:5 You shall not bow down to you from heaven. 20:23 You must not
them or serve them, for I, the LORD, make gods of silver alongside me, nor
your God, am a jealous God, responding to make gods of gold for yourselves.
the transgression of fathers by dealing         20:24 ‘You must make for me an altar
with children to the third and fourth made of earth, and you will sacrifice on it
generations of those who reject me, 20:6 your burnt offerings and your peace of-
and showing covenant faithfulness to a ferings, your sheep and your cattle. In
thousand generations of those who love every place where I cause my name to be
me and keep my commandments.                honored I will come to you and I will
    20:7 “You shall not take the name of bless you. 20:25 If you make me an altar
the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD of stone, you must not build it of stones
will not hold guiltless anyone who takes shaped with tools, for if you use your
his name in vain.                           tool on it you have defiled it. 20:26 And
    20:8 “Remember the Sabbath day to you must not go up by steps to my altar,
set it apart as holy. 20:9 For six days you so that your nakedness is not exposed.’
may labor and do all your work, 20:10 but
the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD The Decisions
your God; on it you shall not do any work,
                                                21:1 “These are the decisions that
you, or your son, or your daughter, or
your male servant, or your female ser-      you will set before them:
vant, or your cattle, or the resident for- Hebrew Servants
eigner who is in your gates. 20:11 For in
six days the LORD made the heavens and          21:2 “If you buy a Hebrew servant, he
the earth and the sea and all that is in is to serve you for six years, but in the
                                          131                              EXODUS 21:36
seventh year he will go out free without         21:20 “If a man strikes his male ser-
paying anything. 21:3 If he came in by        vant or his female servant with a staff so
himself he will go out by himself; if he      that he or she dies as a result of the
had a wife when he came in, then his wife     blow, he will surely be punished. 21:21
will go out with him. 21:4 If his master      However, if the injured servant survives
gave him a wife, and she bore sons or         one or two days, the owner will not be
daughters, the wife and the children will     punished, for he has suffered the loss.
belong to her master, and he will go out          21:22 “If men fight and hit a preg-
by himself. 21:5 But if the servant should    nant woman and her child is born prema-
declare, ‘I love my master, my wife, and      turely, but there is no serious injury, he
my children; I will not go out free,’ 21:6    will surely be punished in accordance with
then his master must bring him to the         what the woman’s husband demands of
judges, and he will bring him to the door     him, and he will pay what the court de-
or the doorposts, and his master will         cides. 21:23 But if there is serious in-
pierce his ear with an awl, and he shall      jury, then you will give a life for a life,
serve him forever.                            21:24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand
    21:7 “If a man sells his daughter as a    for hand, foot for foot, 21:25 burn for
female servant, she will not go out as the    burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.
male servants do. 21:8 If she does not            21:26 “If a man strikes the eye of his
please her master, who has designated         male servant or his female servant so
her for himself, then he must let her be      that he destroys it, he will let the ser-
redeemed. He has no right to sell her to      vant go free as compensation for the eye.
a foreign nation, because he has dealt        21:27 If he knocks out the tooth of his
deceitfully with her. 21:9 If he desig-       male servant or his female servant, he
nated her for his son, then he will deal      will let the servant go free as compensa-
with her according to the customary           tion for the tooth.
rights of daughters. 21:10 If he takes
another wife, he must not diminish the        Laws about Animals
first one’s food, her clothing, or her
                                                  21:28 “If an ox gores a man or a
marital rights. 21:11 If he does not pro-
vide her with these three things, then        woman so that either dies, then the ox
she will go out free, without paying          must surely be stoned and its flesh must
money.                                        not be eaten, but the owner of the ox will
                                              be acquitted. 21:29 But if the ox had the
Personal Injuries                             habit of goring, and its owner was
                                              warned, and he did not take the neces-
    21:12 “Whoever strikes someone so         sary precautions, and then it killed a man
that he dies must surely be put to death.     or a woman, the ox must be stoned and
21:13 But if he does not do it with pre-      the man must be put to death. 21:30 If a
meditation, but it happens by accident,       ransom is set for him, then he must pay
then I will appoint for you a place where     the redemption for his life according to
he may flee. 21:14 But if a man willfully     whatever amount was set for him. 21:31
attacks his neighbor to kill him cunningly,   If the ox gores a son or a daughter, the
you will take him even from my altar that     owner will be dealt with according to this
he may die.                                   rule. 21:32 If the ox gores a male servant
    21:15 “Whoever strikes his father or      or a female servant, the owner must pay
his mother must surely be put to death.       thirty shekels of silver, and the ox must
    21:16 “Whoever kidnaps someone and        be stoned.
sells him, or is caught still holding him,        21:33 “If a man opens a pit or if a man
must surely be put to death.                  digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox
    21:17 “Whoever treats his father or       or a donkey falls into it, 21:34 the owner
his mother disgracefully must surely be       of the pit must repay the loss. He must
put to death.                                 give money to its owner, and the dead
    21:18 “If men fight, and one strikes      animal will become his. 21:35 If the ox of
his neighbor with a stone or with his fist    one man injures the ox of his neighbor so
and he does not die, but must remain in       that it dies, then they will sell the live ox
bed, 21:19 and then if he gets up and         and divide its proceeds, and they will also
walks about outside on his staff, then        divide the dead ox. 21:36 Or if it is
the one who struck him is innocent, ex-       known that the ox had the habit of gor-
cept he must pay for the injured person’s     ing, and its owner did not take the neces-
loss of time and see to it that he is fully   sary precautions, he must surely pay ox
healed.
EXODUS 22:1                               132
for ox, and the dead animal will become its owner was with it, he will not have to
his.                                         pay; if it was hired, what was paid for
                                             the hire covers it.
Laws about Property
                                             Moral and Ceremonial Laws
    22:1 (21:37) “If a man steals an ox or a
sheep and kills it or sells it, he must pay     22:16 “If a man seduces a virgin who
back five head of cattle for the ox, and is not engaged and has sexual relations
four sheep for the one sheep.                with her, he must surely endow her to be
    22:2 “If a thief is caught breaking in his wife. 22:17 If her father refuses to
and is struck so that he dies, there will give her to him, he must pay money for
be no blood guilt for him. 22:3 If the sun the bride price of virgins.
has risen on him, then there is blood guilt     22:18 “You must not allow a sorceress
for him. A thief must surely make full to live.
restitution; if he has nothing, then he will    22:19 “Whoever has sexual relations
be sold for his theft. 22:4 If the stolen with a beast must surely be put to death.
item should in fact be found alive in his       22:20 “Whoever sacrifices to a god
possession, whether it be an ox or a don- other than the LORD alone must be ut-
key or a sheep, he must pay back double. terly destroyed.
    22:5 “If a man grazes his livestock in      22:21 “You must not wrong a for-
a field or a vineyard, and he lets the live- eigner nor oppress him, for you were for-
stock loose and they graze in the field of eigners in the land of Egypt.
another man, he must make restitution           22:22 “You must not afflict any widow
from the best of his own field and the or orphan. 22:23 If you afflict them in
best of his own vineyard.                    any way and they cry to me, I will surely
    22:6 “If a fire breaks out and spreads hear their cry, 22:24 and my anger will
to thorn bushes, so that stacked grain or burn and I will kill you with the sword,
standing grain or the whole field is con- and your wives will be widows and your
sumed, the one who started the fire children will be fatherless.
must surely make restitution.                   22:25 “If you lend money to any of my
    22:7 “If a man gives his neighbor people who are needy among you, do not
money or articles for safekeeping, and it be like a moneylender to him; do not
is stolen from the man’s house, if the charge him interest. 22:26 If you do take
thief is caught, he must repay double. the garment of your neighbor in pledge,
22:8 If the thief is not caught, then the you must return it to him by the time the
owner of the house will be brought be- sun goes down, 22:27 for it is his only
fore the judges to see whether he has covering – it is his garment for his body.
laid his hand on his neighbor’s goods. 22:9 What else can he sleep in? And when he
In all cases of illegal possessions, cries out to me, I will hear, for I am gra-
whether for an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a cious.
garment, or any kind of lost item, about        22:28 “You must not blaspheme God or
which someone says ‘This belongs to me,’ curse the ruler of your people.
the matter of the two of them will come         22:29 “Do not hold back offerings
before the judges, and the one whom the from your granaries or your vats. You
judges declare guilty must repay double must give me the firstborn of your sons.
to his neighbor. 22:10 If a man gives his 22:30 You must also do this for your oxen
neighbor a donkey or an ox or a sheep or and for your sheep; seven days they may
any beast to keep, and it dies or is hurt remain with their mothers, but give them
or is carried away without anyone seeing to me on the eighth day.
it, 22:11 then there will be an oath to the     22:31 “You will be holy people to me;
LORD between the two of them, that he you must not eat any meat torn by ani-
has not laid his hand on his neighbor’s mals in the field. You must throw it to
goods, and its owner will accept this, and the dogs.
he will not have to pay. 22:12 But if it was
stolen from him, he will pay its owner. Justice
22:13 If it is torn in pieces, then he will
                                                23:1 “You must not give a false report.
bring it for evidence, and he will not have
to pay for what was torn.                    Do not make common cause with the
    22:14 “If a man borrows an animal
                                             wicked to be a malicious witness.
                                                23:2 “You must not follow a crowd in
from his neighbor, and it is hurt or dies
when its owner was not with it, the man      doing evil things; in a lawsuit you must not
who borrowed it will surely pay. 22:15 If offer testimony that agrees with a crowd
                                          133                             EXODUS 23:33
so as to pervert justice, 23:3 and you        must not remain until morning. 23:19 The
must not show partiality to a poor man in     first of the firstfruits of your soil you
his lawsuit.                                  must bring to the house of the LORD your
    23:4 “If you encounter your enemy’s       God.
ox or donkey wandering off, you must by           “You must not cook a young goat in its
all means return it to him. 23:5 If you see   mother’s milk.
the donkey of someone who hates you
fallen under its load, you must not ignore    The Angel of the Presence
him, but be sure to help him with it.
                                                  23:20 “I am going to send an angel be-
    23:6 “You must not turn away justice
for your poor people in their lawsuits.       fore you to protect you as you journey
23:7 Keep your distance from a false
                                              and to bring you into the place that I
charge – do not kill the innocent and the     have prepared. 23:21 Take heed because
righteous, for I will not justify the         of him, and obey his voice; do not rebel
wicked.                                       against him, for he will not pardon your
    23:8 “You must not accept a bribe, for
                                              transgressions, for my name is in him.
                                              23:22 But if you diligently obey him and
a bribe blinds those who see and sub-
verts the words of the righteous.             do all that I command, then I will be an
    23:9 “You must not oppress a for-
                                              enemy to your enemies, and I will be an
eigner, since you know the life of a for-     adversary to your adversaries. 23:23 For
eigner, for you were foreigners in the        my angel will go before you and bring you
land of Egypt.                                to the Amorites, the Hittites, the Per-
                                              izzites, the Canaanites, the Hivites, and
Sabbaths and Feasts                           the Jebusites, and I will destroy them
                                              completely.
    23:10 “For six years you are to sow           23:24 “You must not bow down to
your land and gather in its produce. 23:11    their gods; you must not serve them or
But in the seventh year you must let it lie   do according to their practices. Instead
fallow and leave it alone so that the poor    you must completely overthrow them and
of your people may eat, and what they         smash their standing stones to pieces.
leave any animal in the field may eat; you    23:25 You must serve the LORD your God,
must do likewise with your vineyard and       and he will bless your bread and your wa-
your olive grove. 23:12 For six days you      ter, and I will remove sickness from your
are to do your work, but on the seventh       midst. 23:26 No woman will miscarry her
day you must cease, in order that your ox     young or be barren in your land. I will
and your donkey may rest and that your        fulfill the number of your days.
female servant’s son and any hired help           23:27 “I will send my terror before
may refresh themselves.                       you, and I will destroy all the people
    23:13 “Pay attention to do everything     whom you encounter; I will make all your
I have told you, and do not even mention      enemies turn their backs to you. 23:28 I
the names of other gods – do not let          will send hornets before you that will
them be heard on your lips.                   drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and
    23:14 “Three times in the year you        the Hittite before you. 23:29 I will not
must make a pilgrim feast to me. 23:15        drive them out before you in one year,
You are to observe the Feast of Unleav-       lest the land become desolate and the
ened Bread; seven days you must eat           wild animals multiply against you. 23:30
bread made without yeast, as I com-           Little by little I will drive them out be-
manded you, at the appointed time of the      fore you, until you become fruitful and
month of Abib, for at that time you came      inherit the land. 23:31 I will set your
out of Egypt. No one may appear before        boundaries from the Red Sea to the sea
me empty-handed.                              of the Philistines, and from the desert to
    23:16 “You are also to observe the        the River, for I will deliver the inhabi-
Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of your     tants of the land into your hand, and you
labors that you have sown in the field,       will drive them out before you.
and the Feast of Ingathering at the end           23:32 “You must make no covenant
of the year when you have gathered in         with them or with their gods. 23:33 They
your harvest out of the field. 23:17 At       must not live in your land, lest they make
three times in the year all your males will   you sin against me, for if you serve their
appear before the Lord GOD.                   gods, it will surely be a snare to you.”
    23:18 “You must not offer the blood
of my sacrifice with bread containing
yeast; the fat of my festal sacrifice
EXODUS 24:1                              134
The Lord Ratifies the Covenant              the mountain in plain view of the people.
                                            24:18 Moses went into the cloud when he
    24:1 But to Moses the LORD said, went up the mountain, and Moses was on
“Come up to the LORD, you and Aaron, the mountain forty days and forty nights.
Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the
elders of Israel, and worship from a dis- The Materials for the Sanctuary
tance. 24:2 Moses alone may come near
the LORD, but the others must not come          25:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 25:2
near, nor may the people go up with him.”   “Tell the Israelites to take an offering
    24:3 Moses came and told the people for me; from every person motivated by
all the LORD’s words and all the decisions. a willing heart you are to receive my of-
All the people answered together, “We fering. 25:3 This is the offering you are
are willing to do all the words that the to accept from them: gold, silver, bronze,
LORD has said,” 24:4 and Moses wrote 25:4 blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen,
down all the words of the LORD. Early in goat’s hair, 25:5 ram skins dyed red, fine
the morning he built an altar at the foot leather, acacia wood, 25:6 oil for the
of the mountain and arranged twelve light, spices for the anointing oil and for
standing stones – according to the twelve fragrant incense, 25:7 onyx stones, and
tribes of Israel. 24:5 He sent young Is- other gems to be set in the ephod and in
raelite men, and they offered burnt of- the breastpiece. 25:8 Let
ferings and sacrificed young bulls for them make for me a sanctuary, so that I
peace offerings to the LORD. 24:6 Moses may live among them. 25:9 According to
took half of the blood and put it in bowls, all that I am showing you – the pattern of
and half of the blood he splashed on the the tabernacle and the pattern of all its
altar. 24:7 He took the Book of the Cove- furnishings – you must make it exactly so.
nant and read it aloud to the people, and The Ark of the Covenant
they said, “We are willing to do and obey
all that the LORD has spoken.” 24:8 So          25:10 “They are to make an ark of
Moses took the blood and splashed it on acacia wood – its length is to be three
the people and said, “This is the blood of feet nine inches, its width two feet
the covenant that the LORD has made three inches, and its height two feet
with you in accordance with all these three inches. 25:11 You are to overlay it
words.”                                     with pure gold – both inside and outside
    24:9 Moses and Aaron, Nadab and you must overlay it, and you are to make
Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel a surrounding border of gold over it.
went up, 24:10 and they saw the God of 25:12 You are to cast four gold rings for
Israel. Under his feet there was some- it and put them on its four feet, with two
thing like a pavement made of sapphire, rings on one side and two rings on the
clear like the sky itself. 24:11 But he did other side. 25:13 You are to make poles
not lay a hand on the leaders of the Is- of acacia wood, overlay them with gold,
raelites, so they saw God, and they ate 25:14 and put the poles into the rings at
and they drank.                             the sides of the ark in order to carry the
    24:12 The LORD said to Moses, “Come ark with them. 25:15 The poles must re-
up to me to the mountain and remain main in the rings of the ark; they must
there, and I will give you the stone tab- not be removed from it. 25:16 You are to
lets with the law and the commandments put into the ark the testimony that I will
that I have written, so that you may give to you.
teach them.” 24:13 So Moses set out with        25:17 “You are to make an atonement
Joshua his attendant, and Moses went up lid of pure gold; its length is to be three
the mountain of God. 24:14 He told the feet nine inches, and its width is to be
elders, “Wait for us in this place until we two feet three inches. 25:18 You are to
return to you. Here are Aaron and Hur make two cherubim of gold; you are to
with you. Whoever has any matters of make them of hammered metal on the
dispute can approach them.”                 two ends of the atonement lid. 25:19
    24:15 Moses went up the mountain, Make one cherub on one end and one
and the cloud covered the mountain. cherub on the other end; from the
24:16 The glory of the LORD resided on atonement lid you are to make the cheru-
Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for bim on the two ends. 25:20 The cherubim
six days. On the seventh day he called to are to be spreading their wings upward,
Moses from within the cloud. 24:17 Now overshadowing the atonement lid with
the appearance of the glory of the LORD their wings, and the cherubim are to face
was like a devouring fire on the top of
                                          135                           EXODUS 26:13
each other, looking toward the atone-       branches from it, according to the six
ment lid. 25:21 You are to put the atone-   branches that extend from the lamp-
ment lid on top of the ark, and in the ark  stand. 25:36 Their buds and their
you are to put the testimony I am giving    branches will be one piece, all of it one
you. 25:22 I will meet with you             hammered piece of pure gold.
there, and from above the atonement lid,        25:37 “You are to make its seven
from between the two cherubim that are      lamps, and then set its lamps up on it, so
over the ark of the testimony, I will       that it will give light to the area in front
speak with you about all that I will com-   of it. 25:38 Its trimmers and its trays
mand you for the Israelites.                are to be of pure gold. 25:39 About sev-
                                            enty-five pounds of pure gold is to be
The Table for the Bread of the Presence     used for it and for all these utensils.
                                            25:40 Now be sure to make them accord-
    25:23 “You are to make a table of aca-
                                            ing to the pattern you were shown on the
cia wood; its length is to be three feet, mountain.
its width one foot six inches, and its
height two feet three inches. 25:24 You The Tabernacle
are to overlay it with pure gold, and you
are to make a surrounding border of gold        26:1 “The tabernacle itself you are to
for it. 25:25 You are to make a surround- make with ten curtains of fine twisted
ing frame for it about three inches linen and blue and purple and scarlet; you
broad, and you are to make a surrounding are to make them with cherubim that are
border of gold for its frame. 25:26 You the work of an artistic designer. 26:2
are to make four rings of gold for it and The length of each curtain is to be forty-
attach the rings at the four corners two feet, and the width of each curtain
where its four legs are. 25:27 The rings is to be six feet – the same size for each
are to be close to the frame to provide of the curtains. 26:3 Five curtains are to
places for the poles to carry the table. be joined, one to another, and the other
25:28 You are to make the poles of acacia five curtains are to be joined, one to an-
wood and overlay them with gold, so that other. 26:4 You are to make loops of blue
the table may be carried with               material along the edge of the end cur-
them. 25:29 You are to make its plates, tain in one set, and in the same way you
its ladles, its pitchers, and its bowls, to are to make loops in the outer edge of
be used in pouring out offerings; you are the end curtain in the second set. 26:5
to make them of pure gold. 25:30 You are You are to make fifty loops on the one
to set the Bread of the Presence on the curtain, and you are to make fifty loops
table before me continually.                on the end curtain which is on the second
                                            set, so that the loops are opposite one to
The Lampstand                               another. 26:6 You are to make fifty gold
                                            clasps and join the curtains together
    25:31 “You are to make a lampstand of
                                            with the clasps, so that the tabernacle is
pure gold. The lampstand is to be made a unit.
of hammered metal; its base and its             26:7 “You are to make curtains of
shaft, its cups, its buds, and its blossoms goats’ hair for a tent over the taberna-
are to be from the same piece. 25:32 Six cle; you are to make eleven curtains. 26:8
branches are to extend from the sides The length of each curtain is to be forty-
of the lampstand, three branches of the five feet, and the width of each curtain
lampstand from one side of it and three is to be six feet – the same size for the
branches of the lampstand from the eleven curtains. 26:9 You are to join five
other side of it. 25:33 Three cups shaped curtains by themselves and six curtains
like almond flowers with buds and blos- by themselves. You are to double over
soms are to be on one branch, and three the sixth curtain at the front of the
cups shaped like almond flowers with tent. 26:10 You are to make fifty loops
buds and blossoms are to be on the next along the edge of the end curtain in one
branch, and the same for the six set and fifty loops along the edge of the
branches extending from the lampstand. curtain that joins the second set. 26:11
25:34 On the lampstand there are to be
                                            You are to make fifty bronze clasps and
four cups shaped like almond flowers put the clasps into the loops and join the
with buds and blossoms, 25:35 with a bud tent together so that it is a unit. 26:12
under the first two branches from it, and Now the part that remains of the cur-
a bud under the next two branches from tains of the tent – the half curtain that
it, and a bud under the third two remains will hang over at the back of the
EXODUS 26:13                             136
tabernacle. 26:13 The foot and a half on     hooks on four posts of acacia wood over-
the one side and the foot and a half on      laid with gold, set in four silver bases.
the other side of what remains in the        26:33 You are to hang this curtain under
length of the curtains of the tent will      the clasps and bring the ark of the tes-
hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on    timony in there behind the curtain. The
one side and the other side, to cover it.    curtain will make a division for you be-
    26:14 “You are to make a covering for    tween the Holy Place and the Most Holy
the tent out of ram skins dyed red and       Place. 26:34 You are to put the atone-
over that a covering of fine leather.        ment lid on the ark of the testimony in
    26:15 “You are to make the frames        the Most Holy Place. 26:35 You are to
for the tabernacle out of acacia wood as     put the table outside the curtain and the
uprights. 26:16 Each frame is to be fif-     lampstand on the south side of the tab-
teen feet long, and each frame is to be      ernacle, opposite the table, and you are
two feet three inches wide, 26:17 with       to place the table on the north side.
two projections per frame parallel one to        26:36 “You are to make a hanging for
another. You are to make all the frames      the entrance of the tent of blue, purple,
of the tabernacle in this way. 26:18 So      and scarlet yarn and fine twined linen,
you are to make the frames for the tab-      the work of an embroiderer. 26:37 You
ernacle: twenty frames for the south         are to make for the hanging five posts of
side, 26:19 and you are to make forty        acacia wood and overlay them with gold,
silver bases to go under the twenty          and their hooks will be gold, and you are
frames – two bases under the first           to cast five bronze bases for them.
frame for its two projections, and like-
wise two bases under the next frame for      The Altar
its two projections; 26:20 and for the
                                                 27:1 “You are to make the altar of
second side of the tabernacle, the north
side, twenty frames, 26:21 and their         acacia wood, seven feet six inches long,
forty silver bases, two bases under the      and seven feet six inches wide; the altar
first frame, and two bases under the         is to be square, and its height is to be
next frame. 26:22 And for the back of        four feet six inches. 27:2 You are to
the tabernacle on the west you will make     make its four horns on its four corners;
six frames. 26:23 You are to make two        its horns will be part of it, and you are to
frames for the corners of the tabernacle     overlay it with bronze. 27:3 You are to
on the back. 26:24 At the two corners        make its pots for the ashes, its shovels,
they must be doubled at the lower end        its tossing bowls, its meat hooks, and its
and finished together at the top in one      fire pans – you are to make all its utensils
ring. So it will be for both. 26:25 So       of bronze. 27:4 You are to make a grating
there are to be eight frames and their       for it, a network of bronze, and you are
silver bases, sixteen bases, two bases       to make on the network four bronze rings
under the first frame, and two bases         on its four corners. 27:5 You are to put it
under the next frame.                        under the ledge of the altar below, so
    26:26 “You are to make bars of acacia
                                             that the network will come halfway up
wood, five for the frames on one side of     the altar. 27:6 You are to make poles for
the tabernacle, 26:27 and five bars for      the altar, poles of acacia wood, and you
the frames on the second side of the         are to overlay them with bronze. 27:7
tabernacle, and five bars for the frames     The poles are to be put into the rings so
on the back of the tabernacle on the         that the poles will be on two sides of the
west. 26:28 The middle bar in the center     altar when carrying it. 27:8 You are to
of the frames will reach from end to end.    make the altar hollow, out of boards.
26:29 You are to overlay the frames with
                                             Just as it was shown you on the mountain,
gold and make their rings of gold to pro-    so they must make it.
vide places for the bars, and you are to     The Courtyard
overlay the bars with gold. 26:30 You are
to set up the tabernacle according to the       27:9 “You are to make the courtyard
plan that you were shown on the moun-        of the tabernacle. For the south side
tain.                                        there are to be hangings for the court-
    26:31 “You are to make a special cur-    yard of fine twisted linen, one hundred
tain of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and   fifty feet long for one side, 27:10 with
fine twisted linen; it is to be made with    twenty posts and their twenty bronze
cherubim, the work of an artistic de-        bases, with the hooks of the posts and
signer. 26:32 You are to hang it with gold   their bands of silver. 27:11 Likewise for
                                          137                             EXODUS 28:21
its length on the north side, there are to    priest. 28:4 Now these are the garments
be hangings for one hundred fifty feet,       that they are to make: a breastpiece, an
with twenty posts and their twenty            ephod, a robe, a fitted tunic, a turban,
bronze bases, with silver hooks and           and a sash. They are to make holy gar-
bands on the posts. 27:12 The width of        ments for your brother Aaron and for his
the court on the west side is to be sev-      sons, that they may minister as my
enty-five feet with hangings, with their      priests. 28:5 The artisans are to use the
ten posts and their ten bases. 27:13 The      gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen.
width of the court on the east side, to-          28:6 “They are to make the ephod of
ward the sunrise, is to be seventy-five       gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine
feet. 27:14 The hangings on one side of       twisted linen, the work of an artistic de-
the gate are to be twenty-two and a half      signer. 28:7 It is to have two shoulder
feet long, with their three posts and         pieces attached to two of its corners, so
their three bases. 27:15 On the second        it can be joined together. 28:8 The artis-
side there are to be hangings twenty-two      tically woven waistband of the ephod
and a half feet long, with their three        that is on it is to be like it, of one piece
posts and their three bases. 27:16 For        with the ephod, of gold, blue, purple,
the gate of the courtyard there is to be      scarlet, and fine twisted linen.
a curtain of thirty feet, of blue, purple,        28:9 “You are to take two onyx stones
and scarlet yarn and fine twined linen,       and engrave on them the names of the
the work of an embroiderer, with four         sons of Israel, 28:10 six of their names
posts and their four bases. 27:17 All the     on one stone, and the six remaining names
posts around the courtyard are to have        on the second stone, according to the
silver bands; their hooks are to be silver,   order of their birth. 28:11 You are to
and their bases bronze. 27:18 The length      engrave the two stones with the names
of the courtyard is to be one hundred         of the sons of Israel with the work of an
fifty feet and the width seventy-five         engraver in stone, like the engravings of
feet, and the height of the fine twisted      a seal; you are to have them set in gold
linen hangings is to be seven and a half      filigree settings. 28:12 You are to put the
feet, with their bronze bases. 27:19 All      two stones on the shoulders of the
the utensils of the tabernacle used in all    ephod, stones of memorial for the sons
its service, all its tent pegs, and all the   of Israel, and Aaron will bear their
tent pegs of the courtyard are to be          names before the LORD on his two shoul-
made of bronze.                               ders for
                                              a memorial. 28:13 You are to make fili-
Offering the Oil                              gree settings of gold 28:14 and two
                                              braided chains of pure gold, like a cord,
    27:20 “You are to command the Isra-
                                              and attach the chains to the settings.
elites that they bring to you pure oil of         28:15 “You are to make a breastpiece
pressed olives for the light, so that the     for use in making decisions, the work of
lamps will burn regularly. 27:21 In the       an artistic designer; you are to make it in
tent of meeting outside the curtain that      the same fashion as the ephod; you are
is before the testimony, Aaron and his        to make it of gold, blue, purple, scarlet,
sons are to arrange it from evening to        and fine twisted linen. 28:16 It is to be
morning before the LORD. This is to be a      square when doubled, nine inches long and
lasting ordinance among the Israelites        nine inches wide. 28:17 You are to set in
for generations to come.                      it a setting for stones, four rows of
The Clothing of the Priests                   stones, a row with a ruby, a topaz, and a
                                              beryl – the first row; 28:18 and the sec-
   28:1 “And you, bring near to you your      ond row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an
brother Aaron and his sons with him           emerald; 28:19 and the third row, a jac-
from among the Israelites, so that they       inth, an agate, and an amethyst; 28:20
may minister as my priests – Aaron,           and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx,
Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar,         and a jasper. They are to be enclosed in
Aaron’s sons. 28:2 You must make holy         gold in their filigree settings. 28:21 The
garments for your brother Aaron, for          stones are to be for the names of the
glory and for beauty. 28:3 You are to         sons of Israel, twelve, according to the
speak to all who are specially skilled,       number of their names. Each name ac-
whom I have filled with the spirit of wis-    cording to the twelve tribes is to be like
dom, so that they may make Aaron’s gar-       the engravings of a seal.
ments to set him apart to minister as my
EXODUS 28:22                                138
   28:22 “You are to make for the on Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron will bear
breastpiece braided chains like cords of        the iniquity of the holy things, which the
pure gold, 28:23 and you are to make for        Israelites are to sanctify by all their
the breastpiece two gold rings and at-          holy gifts; it will always be on his fore-
tach the two rings to the upper two ends        head, for their acceptance before the
of the breastpiece. 28:24 You are to at-        LORD. 28:39 You are to weave the tunic of
tach the two gold chains to the two rings       fine linen and make the turban of fine
at the ends of the breastpiece; 28:25 the       linen, and make the sash the work of an
other two ends of the two chains you will       embroiderer.
attach to the two settings and then at-             28:40 “For Aaron’s sons you are to
tach them to the shoulder pieces of the         make tunics, sashes, and headbands for
ephod at the front of it. 28:26 You are to      glory and for beauty.
make two rings of gold and put them on              28:41 “You are to clothe them – your
the other two ends of the breastpiece,          brother Aaron and his sons with him –
on its edge                                     and anoint them and ordain them and set
that is on the inner side of the ephod.         them apart as holy, so that they may min-
28:27 You are to make two more gold             ister as my priests. 28:42 Make for them
rings and attach them to the bottom of          linen undergarments to cover their naked
the two shoulder pieces on the front of         bodies; they must cover from the waist
the ephod, close to the juncture above          to the thighs. 28:43 These must be on
the waistband of the ephod. 28:28 They          Aaron and his sons when they enter to
are to tie the breastpiece by its rings to      the tent of meeting, or when they ap-
the rings of the ephod by blue cord, so         proach the altar to minister in the Holy
that it may be above the waistband of           Place, so that they bear no iniquity and
the ephod, and so that the breastpiece          die. It is to be a perpetual ordinance for
will not be loose from the ephod. 28:29         him and for his descendants after him.
Aaron will bear the names of the sons of
Israel in the breastpiece of decision over      The Consecration of Aaron and His Sons
his heart when he goes into the holy
                                                   29:1 “Now this is what you are to do
place, for a memorial before the LORD
continually.                                    for them to consecrate them so that
    28:30 “You are to put the Urim and
                                                they may minister as my priests. Take a
the Thummim into the breastpiece of             young bull and two rams without blemish;
                                                29:2 and bread made without yeast, and
decision; and they are to be over Aaron’s
heart when he goes in before the LORD.          perforated cakes without yeast mixed
Aaron is to bear the decisions of the Is-       with oil, and wafers without yeast spread
raelites over his heart before the LORD         with oil – you are to make them using fine
continually.                                    wheat flour. 29:3 You are to put them in
    28:31 “You are to make the robe of
                                                one basket and present them in the bas-
the ephod completely blue. 28:32 There          ket, along with the bull and the two rams.
                                                   29:4 “You are to present Aaron and
is to be an opening in its top in the center
of it, with an edge all around the opening,     his sons at the entrance of the tent of
the work of a weaver, like the opening of       meeting. You are to wash them with wa-
a collar, so that it cannot be torn. 28:33      ter 29:5 and take the garments and
You are to make pomegranates of blue,           clothe Aaron with the tunic, the robe of
purple, and scarlet all around its hem and      the ephod, the ephod, and the breast-
bells of gold between them all around.          piece; you are to fasten the ephod on him
28:34 The pattern is to be a gold bell and
                                                by using the skillfully woven waistband.
                                                29:6 You are to put the turban on his
a pomegranate, a gold bell and a pome-
granate, all around the hem of the robe.        head and put the holy diadem on the tur-
28:35 The robe is to be on Aaron as he
                                                ban. 29:7 You are to take the anointing oil
ministers, and his sound will be heard          and pour it on his head and anoint him.
                                                29:8 You are to present his sons and
when he enters the Holy Place before
the LORD and when he leaves, so that he         clothe them with tunics 29:9 and wrap
does not die.                                   the sashes around Aaron and his sons and
    28:36 “You are to make a plate of pure
                                                put headbands on them, and so the minis-
gold and engrave on it the way a seal is        try of priesthood will belong to them by a
engraved: “Holiness to the LORD.” 28:37         perpetual ordinance. Thus you are to con-
You are to attach to it a blue cord so          secrate Aaron and his sons.
                                                   29:10 “You are to present the bull at
that it will be on the turban; it is to be on
the front of the turban, 28:38 It will be       the front of the tent of meeting, and
                                                Aaron and his sons are to put their hands
                                          139                             EXODUS 29:41
on the head of the bull. 29:11 You are to     the breast of the ram of Aaron’s conse-
kill the bull before the LORD at the en-      cration; you are to wave it as a wave of-
trance to the tent of meeting 29:12 and       fering before the LORD, and it is to be
take some of the blood of the bull and        your share. 29:27 You are to sanctify the
put it on the horns of the altar with your    breast of the wave offering and the
finger; all the rest of the blood you are     thigh of the contribution, which were
to pour out at the base of the altar.         waved and lifted up as a contribution
29:13 You are to take all the fat that        from the ram of consecration, from what
covers the entrails, and the lobe that is     belongs to Aaron and to his sons. 29:28 It
above the liver, and the two kidneys and      is to belong to Aaron and to his sons
the fat that is on them, and burn them on     from the Israelites, by a perpetual ordi-
the altar. 29:14 But the meat of the bull,    nance, for it is a contribution. It is to be
its skin, and its dung you are to burn up     a contribution from the Israelites from
outside the camp. It is the purification      their peace offerings, their contribution
offering.                                     to the LORD.
     29:15 “You are to take one ram, and          29:29 “The holy garments that belong
Aaron and his sons are to lay their hands     to Aaron are to belong to his sons after
on the ram’s head, 29:16 and you are to       him, so that they may be anointed in
kill the ram and take its blood and splash    them and consecrated in them. 29:30 The
it all around on the altar. 29:17 Then you    priest who succeeds him from his sons,
are to cut the ram into pieces and wash       when he first comes to the tent of meet-
the entrails and its legs and put them on     ing to minister in the Holy Place, is to
its pieces and on its head 29:18 and burn     wear them for seven days.
the whole ram on the altar. It is a burnt         29:31 “You are to take the ram of the
offering to the LORD, a soothing aroma; it    consecration and cook its meat in a holy
is an offering made by fire to the LORD.      place. 29:32 Aaron and his sons are to
     29:19 “You are to take the second        eat the meat of the ram and the bread
ram, and Aaron and his sons are to lay        that was in the basket at the entrance of
their hands on the ram’s head, 29:20 and      the tent of meeting. 29:33 They are to
you are to kill the ram and take some of      eat those things by which atonement was
its blood and put it on the tip of the        made to consecrate and to set them
right ear of Aaron, on the tip of the         apart, but no one else may eat them, for
right ear of his sons, on the thumb of        they are holy. 29:34 If any of the meat
their right hand, and on the big toe of       from the consecration offerings or any
their right foot, and then splash the         of the bread is left over until morning,
blood all around on the altar. 29:21 You      then you are to burn up what is left over.
are to take some of the blood that is on      It must not be eaten, because it is holy.
the altar and some of the anointing oil           29:35 “Thus you are to do for Aaron
and sprinkle it on Aaron, on his garments,    and for his sons, according to all that I
on his sons, and on his sons’ garments        have commanded you; you are to conse-
with him, so that he may be holy, he and      crate them for seven days. 29:36 Every
his garments along with his sons and his      day you are to prepare a bull for a purifi-
sons’ garments.                               cation offering for atonement. You are to
     29:22 “You are to take from the ram      purge the altar by making atonement for
the fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers    it, and you are to anoint it to set it apart
the entrails, the lobe of the liver, the      as holy. 29:37 For seven days you are to
two kidneys and the fat that is on them,      make atonement for the altar and set it
and the right thigh – for it is the ram for   apart as holy. Then the altar will be most
consecration – 29:23 and one round flat       holy. Anything that touches the altar will
cake of bread, one perforated cake of         be holy.
oiled bread, and one wafer from the bas-          29:38 “Now this is what you are to
ket of bread made without yeast that is       prepare on the altar every day continu-
before the LORD. 29:24 You are to put all     ally: two lambs a year old. 29:39 The first
these in Aaron’s hands and in his sons’       lamb you are to prepare in the morning,
hands, and you are to wave them as a          and the second lamb you are to prepare
wave offering before the LORD. 29:25          around sundown. 29:40 With the first
Then you are to take them from their          lamb offer a tenth of an ephah of fine
hands and burn them on the altar for a        flour mixed with a fourth of a hin of oil
burnt offering, for a soothing aroma be-      from pressed olives, and a fourth of a hin
fore the LORD. It is an offering made by      of wine as a drink offering. 29:41 The
fire to the LORD. 29:26 You are to take       second lamb you are to offer around sun-
EXODUS 29:42                              140
down; you are to prepare for it the same      The Ransom Money
meal offering as for the morning and the
same drink offering, for a soothing              30:11 The LORD spoke to Moses: 30:12
aroma, an offering made by fire to the       “When you take a census of the Israel-
LORD.                                        ites according to their number, then each
    29:42 “This will be a regular burnt of-  man is to pay a ransom for his life to the
fering throughout your generations at        LORD when you number them, so that
the entrance of the tent of meeting be-      there will be no plague among them when
fore the LORD, where I will meet with you    you number them. 30:13 Everyone who
to speak to you there. 29:43 There I will    crosses over to those who are numbered
meet with the Israelites, and it will be     is to pay this: a half shekel according to
set apart as holy by my glory.               the shekel of the sanctuary (a shekel
    29:44 “So I will set apart as holy the   weighs twenty gerahs). The half shekel is
tent of meeting and the altar, and I will    to be an offering to the LORD. 30:14 Eve-
set apart as holy Aaron and his sons, that   ryone who crosses over to those num-
they may minister as priests to me. 29:45    bered, from twenty years old and up, is
I will reside among the Israelites, and I    to pay an offering to the LORD. 30:15 The
will be their God, 29:46 and they will       rich are not to increase it, and the poor
know that I am the LORD their God, who       are not to pay less than the half shekel
brought them out from the land of            when giving the offering of the LORD, to
Egypt, so that I may reside among them.      make atonement for your lives. 30:16 You
I am the LORD their God.                     are to receive the atonement money from
                                             the Israelites and give it for the service
The Altar of Incense                         of the tent of meeting. It will be a me-
                                             morial for the Israelites before the
    30:1 “You are to make an altar for LORD, to make atonement for your lives.”
burning incense; you are to make it of
acacia wood. 30:2 Its length is to be a The Bronze Laver
foot and a half and its width a foot and a
half; it will be square. Its height is to be     30:17 The LORD spoke to Moses: 30:18
three feet, with its horns of one piece “You are also to make a large bronze ba-
with it. 30:3 You are to overlay it with sin with a bronze stand for washing. You
pure gold – its top, its four walls, and its are to put it between the tent of meeting
horns – and make a surrounding border of and the altar and put water in it, 30:19
gold for it. 30:4 You are to make two gold and Aaron and his sons must wash their
rings for it under its border, on its two hands and their feet from it. 30:20 When
flanks; you are to make them on its two they enter the tent of meeting, they
sides. The rings will be places for poles must wash with water so that they do not
to carry it with. 30:5 You are to make the die. Also, when they approach the altar
poles of acacia wood and overlay them to minister by burning incense as an of-
with gold.                                   fering made by fire to the LORD, 30:21
    30:6 “You are to put it in front of the they must wash their hands and their
curtain that is before the ark of the tes- feet so that they do not die. And this will
timony (before the atonement lid that is be a perpetual ordinance for them and
over the testimony), where I will meet for their descendants throughout their
you. 30:7 Aaron is to burn sweet incense generations.”
on it morning by morning; when he at-
tends to the lamps he is to burn incense. Oil and Incense
30:8 When Aaron sets up the lamps
                                                 30:22 The LORD spoke to Moses: 30:23
around sundown he is to burn incense on “Take choice spices: twelve and a half
it; it is to be a regular incense offering pounds of free-flowing myrrh, half that –
before the LORD throughout your genera- about six and a quarter pounds – of
tions. 30:9 You must not offer strange sweet-smelling cinnamon, six and a quar-
incense on it, nor burnt offering, nor ter pounds of sweet-smelling cane, 30:24
meal offering, and you must not pour out and twelve and a half pounds of cassia, all
a drink offering on it. 30:10 Aaron is to weighed according to the sanctuary
make atonement on its horns once in the shekel, and four quarts of olive oil. 30:25
year with some of the blood of the sin You are to make this into a sacred
offering for atonement; once in the year anointing oil, a perfumed compound, the
he is to make atonement on it throughout work of a perfumer. It will be sacred
your generations. It is most holy to the anointing oil.
LORD.”
                                            141                              EXODUS 32:4
   30:26 “With it you are to anoint the         burnt offering with all its utensils, the
tent of meeting, the ark of the testi-          large basin with its base, 31:10 the woven
mony, 30:27 the table and all its utensils,     garments, the holy garments for Aaron
the lampstand and its utensils, the altar       the priest and the garments for his sons,
of incense, 30:28 the altar for the burnt       to minister as priests, 31:11 the anoint-
offering and all its utensils, and the laver    ing oil, and sweet incense for the Holy
and its base. 30:29 So you are to sanctify      Place. They will make all these things just
them, and they will be most holy; any-          as I have commanded you.”
thing that touches them will be holy.
   30:30 “You are to anoint Aaron and his       Sabbath Observance
sons and sanctify them, so that they may
                                                   31:12 The LORD said to Moses, 31:13
minister as my priests. 30:31 And you are
to tell the Israelites: ‘This is to be my       “Tell the Israelites, ‘Surely you must
sacred anointing oil throughout your gen-       keep my Sabbaths, for it is a sign be-
erations. 30:32 It must not be applied to       tween me and you throughout your gen-
people’s bodies, and you must not make          erations, that you may know that I am
any like it with the same recipe. It is         the LORD who sanctifies you. 31:14 So
holy, and it must be holy to you. 30:33         you must keep the Sabbath, for it is holy
Whoever makes perfume like it and who-          for you. Everyone who defiles it must
ever puts any of it on someone not a            surely be put to death; indeed, if anyone
priest will be cut off from his people.’”       does any work on it, then that person will
   30:34 The LORD said to Moses: “Take
                                                be cut off from among his people. 31:15
spices, gum resin, onycha, galbanum, and        Six days work may be done, but on the
pure frankincense of equal amounts 30:35        seventh day is a Sabbath of complete
and make it into an incense, a perfume,         rest, holy to the LORD; anyone who does
the work of a perfumer. It is to be finely      work on the Sabbath day must surely be
ground, and pure and sacred. 30:36 You          put to death. 31:16 The Israelites must
are to beat some of it very fine and put        keep the Sabbath by observing the Sab-
some of it before the ark of the testi-         bath throughout their generations as a
mony in the tent of meeting where I will        perpetual covenant. 31:17 It is a sign be-
meet with you; it is to be most holy to         tween me and the Israelites forever; for
you. 30:37 And the incense that you are         in six days the LORD made the heavens
to make, you must not make for your-            and the earth, and on the seventh day he
selves using the same recipe; it is to be       rested and was refreshed.’”
                                                   31:18 He gave Moses two tablets of
most holy to you, belonging to the LORD.
30:38 Whoever makes anything like it, to
                                                testimony when he had finished speaking
use as perfume, will be cut off from his        with him on Mount Sinai, tablets of stone
people.”                                        written by the finger of God.

Willing Artisans                                The Sin of the Golden Calf
                                                    32:1 When the people saw that Moses
    31:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 31:2
“See, I have chosen Bezalel son of Uri,         delayed in coming down from the moun-
the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah,          tain, they gathered around Aaron and
31:3 and I have filled him with the Spirit
                                                said to him, “Get up, make us gods that
of God in skill, in understanding, in knowl-    will go before us. As for this fellow
edge, and in all kinds of craftsmanship,        Moses, the man who brought us up from
31:4 to make artistic designs for work
                                                the land of Egypt, we do not know what
with gold, with silver, and with bronze,        has become of him!”
                                                    32:2 So Aaron said to them, “Break
31:5 and with cutting and setting stone,
and with cutting wood, to work in all kinds     off the gold earrings that are on the
of craftsmanship. 31:6 Moreover, I have         ears of your wives, your sons, and your
also given him Oholiab son of Ahisamach,        daughters, and bring them
of the tribe of Dan, and I have given           to me.” 32:3 So all the people broke off
ability to all the specially skilled, that      the gold earrings that were on their ears
they may make everything I have com-            and brought them to Aaron. 32:4 He ac-
manded you: 31:7 the tent of meeting,           cepted the gold from them, fashioned it
the ark of the testimony, the atonement         with an engraving tool, and made a molten
lid that is on it, all the furnishings of the   calf. Then they said, “These are your
tent, 31:8 the table with its utensils, the     gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of
pure lampstand with all its utensils, the       Egypt.”
altar of incense, 31:9 the altar for the
EXODUS 32:5                              142
   32:5 When Aaron saw this, he built an     they are overcome, but the sound of
altar before it, and Aaron made a proc-      singing I hear.”
lamation and said, “Tomorrow will be a           32:19 When he approached the camp
feast to the LORD.” 32:6 So they got up      and saw the calf and the dancing, Moses
early on the next day and offered up         became extremely angry. He threw the
burnt offerings and brought peace offer-     tablets from his hands and broke them
ings, and the people sat down to eat and     to pieces at the bottom of the mountain.
drink, and they rose up to play.             32:20 He took the calf they had made
    32:7 The LORD spoke to Moses: “Go        and burned it in the fire, ground it to
quickly, descend, because your people,       powder, poured it out on the water, and
whom you brought up from the land of         made the Israelites drink it.
Egypt, have acted corruptly. 32:8 They           32:21 Moses said to Aaron, “What did
have quickly turned aside from the way       this people do to you, that you have
that I commanded them – they have            brought on them so great a sin?” 32:22
made for themselves a molten calf and        Aaron said, “Do not let your anger burn
have bowed down to it and sacrificed to      hot, my lord; you know these people, that
it and said, ‘These are your gods, O Is-     they tend to evil. 32:23 They said to me,
rael, which brought you up from the land     ‘Make us gods that will go before us, for
of Egypt.’”                                  as for this fellow Moses, the man who
    32:9 Then the LORD said to Moses: “I     brought us up out of the land of Egypt,
have seen this people. Look what a stiff-    we do not know what has happened to
necked people they are! 32:10 So now,        him.’ 32:24 So I said to them, ‘Whoever
leave me alone so that my anger can burn     has gold, break it off.’ So they gave it to
against them and I can destroy them, and     me, and I threw it into the fire, and this
I will make from you a great nation.”        calf came out.”
    32:11 But Moses sought the favor of          32:25 Moses saw that the people were
the LORD his God and said, “O LORD, why      running wild, for Aaron had let them get
does your anger burn against your people,    completely out of control, causing deri-
whom you have brought out from the land      sion from their enemies. 32:26 So Moses
of Egypt with great power and with a         stood at the entrance of the camp and
mighty hand? 32:12 Why should the            said, “Whoever is for the LORD, come to
Egyptians say, ‘For evil he led them out     me.” All the Levites gathered around him,
to kill them in the mountains and to de-     32:27 and he said to them, “Thus says the
stroy them from the face of the earth’?      LORD, the God of Israel, ‘Each man fasten
Turn from your burning anger, and relent     his sword on his side, and go back and
of this evil against your people. 32:13      forth from entrance to entrance
Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel          throughout the camp, and each one kill
your servants, to whom you swore by          his brother, his friend, and his neigh-
yourself and told them, ‘I will multiply     bor.’”
your descendants like the stars of               32:28 The Levites did what Moses or-
heaven, and all this land that I have spo-   dered, and that day about three thou-
ken about I will give to your descendants,   sand men of the people died. 32:29 Moses
and they will inherit it forever.’” 32:14    said, “You have been consecrated today
Then the LORD relented over the evil         for the LORD, for each of you was against
that he had said he would do to his peo-     his son or against his brother, so he has
ple.                                         given a blessing to you today.”
    32:15 Moses turned and went down             32:30 The next day Moses said to the
from the mountain with the two tablets       people, “You have committed a very seri-
of the testimony in his hands. The tab-      ous sin, but now I will go up to the LORD –
lets were written on both sides – they       perhaps I can make atonement on behalf
were written on the front and on the         of your sin.”
back. 32:16 Now the tablets were the             32:31 So Moses returned to the LORD
work of God, and the writing was the         and said, “Alas, this people has commit-
writing of God, engraved on the tablets.     ted a very serious sin, and they have
32:17 When Joshua heard the noise of         made for themselves gods of gold. 32:32
the people as they shouted, he said to       But now, if you will forgive their sin…, but
Moses, “It is the sound of war in the        if not, wipe me out from your book that
camp!” 32:18 Moses said, “It is not the      you have written.” 32:33 The LORD said to
sound of those who shout for victory, nor    Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me –
is it the sound of those who cry because     that person I will wipe out of my book.
                                             32:34 So now go, lead the people to the
                                           143                             EXODUS 34:7
place I have spoken to you about. See, my      found favor in my sight.’ 33:13 Now if I
angel will go before you. But on the day       have found favor in your sight, show me
that I punish, I will indeed punish them       your way, that I may know you, that I
for their sin.”                                may continue to find favor in your sight.
    32:35 And the LORD sent a plague on        And see that this nation is your people.”
the people because they had made the               33:14 And the LORD said, “My pres-
calf – the one Aaron made.                     ence will go with you, and I will give you
    33:1 The LORD said to Moses, “Go up        rest.”
from here, you and the people whom you             33:15 And Moses said to him, “If your
brought up out of the land of Egypt, to        presence does not go with us, do not take
the land I promised on oath to Abraham,        us up from here. 33:16 For how will it be
to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, ‘I will give   known then that I have found favor in
it to your descendants.’ 33:2 I will send      your sight, I and your people? Is it not
an angel before you, and I will drive out      by your going with us, so that we will be
the Canaanite, the Amorite, the Hittite,       distinguished, I and your people, from all
the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Je-         the people who are on the face of the
busite. 33:3 Go up to a land flowing with      earth?”
milk and honey. But I will not go up among         33:17 The LORD said to Moses, “I will
you, for you are a stiff-necked people,        do this thing also that you have re-
and I might destroy you on the way.”           quested, for you have found favor in my
    33:4 When the people heard this            sight, and I know you by name.”
troubling word they mourned; no one put            33:18 And Moses said, “Show me your
on his ornaments. 33:5 For the LORD had        glory.”
said to Moses, “Tell the Israelites, ‘You          33:19 And the LORD said, “I will make
are a stiff-necked people. If I went up        all my goodness pass before your face,
among you for a moment, I might destroy        and I will proclaim the LORD by name be-
you. Now take off your ornaments, that I       fore you; I will be gracious to whom I will
may know what I should do to you.’” 33:6       be gracious, I will show mercy to whom I
So the Israelites stripped off their or-       will show mercy.” 33:20 But he added,
naments by Mount Horeb.                        “You cannot see my face, for no one can
                                               see me and live.” 33:21 The LORD said,
The Presence of the Lord                       “Here is a place by me; you will station
                                               yourself on a rock. 33:22 When my glory
    33:7 Moses took the tent and pitched
                                               passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the
it outside the camp, at a good distance        rock and will cover you with my hand
from the camp, and he called it the tent       while I pass by. 33:23 Then I will take
of meeting. Anyone seeking the LORD            away my hand, and you will see my back,
would go out to the tent of meeting that       but my face must not be seen.”
was outside the camp.
    33:8 And when Moses went out to the        The New Tablets of the Covenant
tent, all the people would get up and
stand at the entrance to their tents and           34:1 The LORD said to Moses, “Cut out
watch Moses until he entered the tent.         two tablets of stone like the first, and I
33:9 And whenever Moses entered the            will write on the tablets the words that
tent, the pillar of cloud would descend        were on the first tablets, which you
and stand at the entrance of the tent,         smashed. 34:2 Be prepared in the morn-
and the LORD would speak with Moses.           ing, and go up in the morning to Mount
33:10 When all the people would see the        Sinai, and station yourself for me there
pillar of cloud standing at the entrance       on the top of the mountain. 34:3 No one
of the tent, all the people, each one at       is to come up with you; do not let anyone
the entrance of his own tent, would rise       be seen anywhere on the mountain; not
and worship. 33:11 The LORD would speak        even the flocks or the herds may graze in
to Moses face to face, the way a person        front of that mountain.” 34:4 So Moses
speaks to a friend. Then Moses would           cut out two tablets of stone like the
return to the camp, but his servant,           first; early in the morning he went up to
Joshua son of Nun, a young man, did not        Mount Sinai, just as the LORD had com-
leave the tent.                                manded him, and he took in his hand the
    33:12 Moses said to the LORD, “See,        two tablets of stone.
you have been saying to me, ‘Bring this            34:5 The LORD descended in the cloud
people up,’ but you have not let me know       and stood with him there and proclaimed
whom you will send with me. But you said,      the LORD by name. 34:6 The LORD passed
‘I know you by name, and also you have         by before him and proclaimed: “The LORD,
EXODUS 34:7                                 144
the LORD, the compassionate and gracious           “No one will appear before me empty-
God, slow to anger, and abounding in loyal      handed.
love and faithfulness, 34:7 keeping loyal          34:21 “On six days you may labor, but
love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and      on the seventh day you must rest; even
transgression and sin. But he by no means       at the time of plowing and of harvest you
leaves the guilty unpunished, responding        are to rest.
to the transgression of fathers by deal-           34:22 “You must observe the Feast of
ing with children and children’s children,      Weeks – the firstfruits of the harvest
to the third and fourth generation.”            of wheat – and the Feast of Ingathering
    34:8 Moses quickly bowed to the             at the end of the year. 34:23 At three
ground and worshiped 34:9 and said, “If         times in the year all your men must ap-
now I have found favor in your sight, O         pear before the Lord GOD, the God of
Lord, let my Lord go among us, for we are       Israel. 34:24 For I will drive out the na-
a stiff-necked people; pardon our iniquity      tions before you and enlarge your bor-
and our sin, and take us for your inheri-       ders; no one will covet your land when you
tance.”                                         go up to appear before the LORD your
    34:10 He said, “See, I am going to          God three times in the year.
make a covenant before all your people. I          34:25 “You must not offer the blood
will do wonders such as have not been           of my sacrifice with yeast; the sacrifice
done in all the earth, nor in any nation. All   from the feast of Passover must not re-
the people among whom you live will see         main until the following morning.
the work of the LORD, for it is a fearful          34:26 “The first of the firstfruits of
thing that I am doing with you.                 your soil you must bring to the house of
    34:11 “Obey what I am commanding            the LORD your God.
you this day. I am going to drive out be-          You must not cook a young goat in its
fore you the Amorite, the Canaanite, the        mother’s milk.”
Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the        34:27 The LORD said to Moses, “Write
Jebusite. 34:12 Be careful not to make a        down these words, for in accordance with
covenant with the inhabitants of the land       these words I have made a covenant with
where you are going, lest it become a           you and with Israel.” 34:28 So he was
snare among you. 34:13 Rather you must          there with the LORD forty days and forty
destroy their altars, smash their images,       nights; he did not eat bread, and he did
and cut down their Asherah poles. 34:14         not drink water. He wrote on the tablets
For you must not worship any other god,         the words of the covenant, the ten com-
for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a       mandments.
jealous God. 34:15 Be careful not to
make a covenant with the inhabitants of         The Radiant Face of Moses
the land, for when they prostitute them-
                                                    34:29 Now when Moses came down
selves to their gods and sacrifice to
their gods, and someone invites you, you        from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of
will eat from his sacrifice; 34:16 and you      the testimony in his hand – when he came
then take his daughters for your sons,          down from the mountain, Moses did not
and when his daughters prostitute them-         know that the skin of his face shone
selves to their gods, they will make your       while he talked with him. 34:30 When
sons prostitute themselves to their gods        Aaron and all the Israelites saw Moses,
as well. 34:17 You must not make your-          the skin of his face shone; and they were
selves molten gods.                             afraid to approach him. 34:31 But Moses
    34:18 “You must keep the Feast of
                                                called to them, so Aaron and all the lead-
Unleavened Bread. For seven days you            ers of the community came back to him,
must eat bread made without yeast, as I         and Moses spoke to them. 34:32 After
commanded you; do this at the appointed         this all the Israelites approached, and he
time of the month Abib, for in the month        commanded them all that the LORD had
Abib you came out of Egypt.                     spoken to him on Mount Sinai. 34:33
    34:19 “Every firstborn of the womb
                                                When Moses finished speaking with
belongs to me, even every firstborn of          them, he would put a veil on his face.
                                                34:34 But when Moses went in before the
your cattle that is a male, whether ox or
sheep. 34:20 Now the firstling of a don-        LORD to speak with him, he would remove
key you may redeem with a lamb, but if          the veil until he came out. Then he would
you do not redeem it, then break its            come out and tell the Israelites what he
neck. You must redeem all the firstborn         had been commanded. 34:35 When the
of your sons.                                   Israelites would see the face of Moses,
                                                that the skin of Moses’ face shone,
                                          145                             EXODUS 36:1
Moses would put the veil on his face            35:20 So the whole community of the
again, until he went in to speak with the Israelites went out from the presence of
LORD.                                       Moses. 35:21 Everyone whose heart
                                            stirred him to action and everyone whose
Sabbath Regulations                         spirit was willing came and brought the
                                            offering for the LORD for the work of
     35:1 Moses assembled the whole
                                            the tent of meeting, for all its service,
community of the Israelites and said to and for the holy garments. 35:22 They
them, “These are the things that the came, men and women alike, all who had
LORD has commanded you to do. 35:2 In willing hearts. They brought brooches,
six days work may be done, but on the earrings, rings and ornaments, all kinds of
seventh day there must be a holy day for gold jewelry, and everyone came who
you, a Sabbath of complete rest to the waved a wave offering of gold to the
LORD. Anyone who does work on it will be LORD.
put to death. 35:3 You must not kindle a        35:23 Everyone who had blue, purple,
fire in any of your homes on the Sabbath or scarlet yarn, fine linen, goats’ hair,
day.”                                       ram skins dyed red, or fine leather
Willing Workers                             brought them. 35:24 Everyone making an
                                            offering of silver or bronze brought it as
     35:4 Moses spoke to the whole com- an offering to the LORD, and everyone
munity of the Israelites, “This is the who had acacia wood for any work of the
word that the LORD has commanded: 35:5 service brought it. 35:25 Every woman
‘Take an offering for the LORD. Let eve- who was skilled spun with her hands and
ryone who has a willing heart bring an brought what she had spun, blue, purple,
offering to the LORD: gold, silver, bronze, or scarlet yarn, or fine linen, 35:26 and all
35:6 blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, fine the women whose heart stirred them to
linen, goat’s hair, 35:7 ram skins dyed action and who were skilled spun goats’
red, fine leather, acacia wood, 35:8 olive hair.
oil for the light, spices for the anointing     35:27 The leaders brought onyx
oil and for the fragrant incense, 35:9 stones and other gems to be mounted for
onyx stones, and other gems for mount- the ephod and the breastpiece, 35:28 and
ing on the ephod and the breastpiece. spices and olive oil for the light, for the
35:10 Every skilled person among you is anointing oil, and for the fragrant in-
to come and make all that the LORD has cense.
commanded: 35:11 the tabernacle with            35:29 The Israelites brought a free-
its tent, its covering, its clasps, its will offering to the LORD, every man and
frames, its crossbars, its posts, and its woman whose heart was willing to bring
bases; 35:12 the ark, with its poles, the materials for all the work that the LORD
atonement lid, and the special curtain through Moses had commanded them to
that conceals it; 35:13 the table with its do.
poles and all its vessels, and the Bread of     35:30 Moses said to the Israelites,
the Presence; 35:14 the lampstand for “See, the LORD has chosen Bezalel son of
the light and its accessories, its lamps, Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of
and oil for the light; 35:15 and the altar Judah. 35:31 He has filled him with the
of incense with its poles, the anointing Spirit of God – with skill, with under-
oil, and the fragrant incense; the hanging standing, with knowledge, and in all kinds
for the door at the entrance of the tab- of work, 35:32 to design artistic designs,
ernacle; 35:16 the altar for the burnt to work in gold, in silver, and in bronze,
offering with its bronze grating that is 35:33 and in cutting stones for their set-
on it, its poles, and all its utensils; the ting, and in cutting wood, to do work in
large basin and its pedestal; 35:17 the every artistic craft. 35:34 And he has
hangings of the courtyard, its posts and put it in his heart to teach, he and Oho-
its bases, and the curtain for the gate- liab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of
way to the courtyard; 35:18 tent pegs Dan. 35:35 He has filled them with skill
for the tabernacle and tent pegs for the to do all kinds of work as craftsmen, as
courtyard and their ropes; 35:19 the designers, as embroiderers in blue, pur-
woven garments for serving in the holy ple, and scarlet yarn and in fine linen, and
place, the holy garments for Aaron the as weavers. They are craftsmen in all the
priest, and the garments for his sons to work and artistic designers. 36:1 So
minister as priests.”                       Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled
                                            person in whom the LORD has put skill and
EXODUS 36:2                              146
ability to know how to do all the work for   made fifty loops along the edge of the
the service of the sanctuary are to do       end curtain in the first set and fifty
the work according to all that the LORD      loops along the edge of the curtain that
has commanded.”                              joined the second set. 36:18 He made
    36:2 Moses summoned Bezalel and          fifty bronze clasps to join the tent to-
Oholiab and every skilled person in whom     gether so that it might be a unit. 36:19
the LORD had put skill – everyone whose      He made a covering for the tent out of
heart stirred him to volunteer to do the     ram skins dyed red and over that a cov-
work, 36:3 and they received from Moses      ering of fine leather.
all the offerings the Israelites had             36:20 He made the frames for the
brought to do the work for the service       tabernacle of acacia wood as uprights.
of the sanctuary, and they still continued   36:21 The length of each frame was fif-
to bring him a freewill offering each        teen feet, the width of each
morning. 36:4 So all the skilled people      frame was two and a quarter feet, 36:22
who were doing all the work on the sanc-     with two projections per frame parallel
tuary came from the work they were do-       one to another. He made all the frames
ing 36:5 and told Moses, “The people are     of the tabernacle in this way. 36:23 So he
bringing much more than is needed for        made frames for the tabernacle: twenty
the completion of the work which the         frames for the south side. 36:24 He
LORD commanded us to do!”                    made forty silver bases under the twenty
    36:6 Moses instructed them to take       frames – two bases under the first
his message throughout the camp, saying,     frame for its two projections, and like-
“Let no man or woman do any more work        wise two bases under the next frame for
for the offering for the sanctuary.” So      its two projections, 36:25 and for the
the people were restrained from bringing     second side of the tabernacle, the north
any more. 36:7 Now the materials were        side, he made twenty frames 36:26 and
more than enough for them to do all the      their forty silver bases, two bases under
work.                                        the first frame and two bases under the
                                             next frame. 36:27 And for the back of
The Building of the Tabernacle               the tabernacle on the west he made six
                                             frames. 36:28 He made two frames for
    36:8 All the skilled among those who
                                             the corners of the tabernacle on the
were doing the work made the tabernacle      back. 36:29 At the two corners they were
with ten curtains of fine twisted linen      doubled at the lower end and finished
and blue and purple and scarlet; they        together at the top in one ring. So he did
were made with cherubim that were the        for both. 36:30 So there were eight
work of an artistic designer. 36:9 The       frames and their silver bases, sixteen
length of one curtain was forty-two feet,    bases, two bases under each frame.
and the width of one curtain was six feet        36:31 He made bars of acacia wood,
– the same size for each of the curtains.    five for the frames on one side of the
36:10 He joined five of the curtains to
                                             tabernacle 36:32 and five bars for the
one another, and the other five curtains     frames on the second side of the taber-
he joined to one another. 36:11 He made      nacle, and five bars for the frames of
loops of blue material along the edge of     the tabernacle for the back side on the
the end curtain in the first set; he did     west. 36:33 He made the middle bar to
the same along the edge of the end cur-      reach from end to end in the center of
tain in the second set. 36:12 He made        the frames. 36:34 He overlaid the
fifty loops on the first curtain, and he     frames with gold and made their rings of
made fifty loops on the end curtain that     gold to provide places for the bars, and
was in the second set, with the loops op-    he overlaid the bars with gold.
posite one another. 36:13 He made fifty          36:35 He made the special curtain of
gold clasps and joined the curtains to-      blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine
gether to one another with the clasps, so    twisted linen; he made it with cherubim,
that the tabernacle was a unit.              the work of an artistic designer. 36:36
    36:14 He made curtains of goats’ hair
                                             He made for it four posts of acacia wood
for a tent over the tabernacle; he made      and overlaid them with gold, with gold
eleven curtains. 36:15 The length of one     hooks, and he cast for them four silver
curtain was forty-five feet, and the         bases.
width of one curtain was six feet – one          36:37 He made a hanging for the en-
size for all eleven curtains. 36:16 He       trance of the tent of blue, purple, and
joined five curtains by themselves and       scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the
six curtains by themselves. 36:17 He
                                          147                            EXODUS 38:7
work of an embroiderer, 36:38 and its       mered metal; its base and its shaft, its
five posts and their hooks. He overlaid     cups, its buds, and its blossoms were
their tops and their bands with gold, but   from the same piece. 37:18 Six branches
their five bases were bronze.               were extending from its sides, three
                                            branches of the lampstand from one side
The Making of the Ark                       of it, and three branches of the lamp-
                                            stand from the other side of it. 37:19
    37:1 Bezalel made the ark of acacia
                                            Three cups shaped like almond flowers
wood; its length was three feet nine        with buds and blossoms were on the first
inches, its width two feet three inches,    branch, and three cups shaped like al-
and its height two feet three inches.       mond flowers with buds and blossoms
37:2 He overlaid it with pure gold, inside
                                            were on the next branch, and the same
and out, and he made a surrounding bor-     for the six branches that were extending
der of gold for it. 37:3 He cast four gold  from the lampstand. 37:20 On the lamp-
rings for it that he put on its four feet,  stand there were four cups shaped like
with two rings on one side and two rings    almond flowers with buds and blossoms,
on the other side. 37:4 He made poles of    37:21 with a bud under the first two
acacia wood, overlaid them with gold,       branches from it, and a bud under the
37:5 and put the poles into the rings on
                                            next two branches from it, and a bud
the sides of the ark in order to carry the  under the third two branches from it;
ark.                                        according to the six branches that ex-
    37:6 He made an atonement lid of
                                            tended from it. 37:22 Their buds and
pure gold; its length was three feet nine   their branches were of one piece; all of it
inches, and its width was two feet three    was one hammered piece of pure gold.
inches. 37:7 He made two cherubim of        37:23 He made its seven lamps, its trim-
gold; he made them of hammered metal        mers, and its trays of pure gold. 37:24
on the two ends of the atonement lid,       He made the lampstand and all its acces-
37:8 one cherub on one end and one
                                            sories with seventy-five pounds of pure
cherub on the other end. He made the        gold.
cherubim from the atonement lid on its
two ends. 37:9 The cherubim were The Making of the Altar of Incense
spreading their wings upward, overshad-
owing the atonement lid with their wings.      37:25 He made the incense altar of
The cherubim faced each other, looking acacia wood. Its length was a foot and a
toward the atonement lid.                   half and its width a foot and a half – a
                                            square – and its height was three feet.
The Making of the Table                     Its horns were of one piece with it. 37:26
                                            He overlaid it with pure gold – its top, its
    37:10 He made the table of acacia
                                            four walls, and its horns – and he made a
wood; its length was three feet, its width surrounding border of gold for it. 37:27
one foot six inches, and its height two He also made two gold rings for it under
feet three inches. 37:11 He overlaid it its border, on its two sides, on opposite
with pure gold, and he made a surround- sides, as places for poles to carry it with.
ing border of gold for it. 37:12 He made 37:28 He made the poles of acacia wood
a surrounding frame for it about three and overlaid them with gold.
inches wide, and he made a surrounding         37:29 He made the sacred anointing
border of gold for its frame. 37:13 He oil and the pure fragrant incense, the
cast four gold rings for it and attached work of a perfumer.
the rings at the four corners where its
four legs were. 37:14 The rings were The Making of the Altar for the Burnt
close to the frame to provide places for
the poles to carry the table. 37:15 He Offering
made the poles of acacia wood and over-        38:1 He made the altar for the burnt
laid them with gold, to carry the table. offering of acacia wood seven feet six
37:16 He made the vessels which were on inches long and seven feet six inches
the table out of pure gold, its plates, its wide – it was square – and its height was
ladles, its pitchers, and its bowls, to be four feet six inches. 38:2 He made its
used in pouring out offerings.              horns on its four corners; its horns were
                                            part of it, and he overlaid it with bronze.
The Making of the Lampstand                 38:3 He made all the utensils of the altar
    37:17 He made the lampstand of pure – the pots, the shovels, the tossing bowls,
gold. He made the lampstand of ham- the meat hooks, and the fire pans – he
EXODUS 38:4                               148
made all its utensils of bronze. 38:4 He      The Materials of the Construction
made a grating for the altar, a network
of bronze under its ledge, halfway up             38:21 This is the inventory of the
from the bottom. 38:5 He cast four rings      tabernacle, the tabernacle of the testi-
for the four corners of the bronze grat-      mony, which was counted by the order of
ing, to provide places for the poles. 38:6    Moses, being the work of the Levites
He made the poles of acacia wood and          under the direction of Ithamar, son of
overlaid them with bronze. 38:7 He put        Aaron the priest. 38:22 Now Bezalel son
the poles into the rings on the sides of      of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of
the altar, with which to carry it. He made    Judah, made everything that the LORD
the altar hollow, out of boards.              had commanded Moses; 38:23 and with
    38:8 He made the large basin of           him was Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the
bronze and its pedestal of bronze from        tribe of Dan, an artisan, a designer, and
the mirrors of the women who served at        an embroiderer in blue, purple, and scar-
the entrance of the tent of meeting.          let yarn and fine linen.
                                                  38:24 All the gold that was used for
The Construction of the Courtyard             the work, in all the work of the sanctuary
                                              (namely, the gold of the wave offering)
    38:9 He made the courtyard. For the       was twenty-nine talents and 730 shekels,
south side the hangings of the courtyard      according to the sanctuary shekel.
were of fine twisted linen, one hundred           38:25 The silver of those who were
fifty feet long, 38:10 with their twenty      numbered of the community was one hun-
posts and their twenty bronze bases,          dred talents and 1,775 shekels, according
with the hooks of the posts and their         to the sanctuary shekel, 38:26 one beka
bands of silver. 38:11 For the north side     per person, that is, a half shekel, accord-
the hangings were one hundred fifty           ing to the sanctuary shekel, for everyone
feet, with their twenty posts and their       who crossed over to those numbered,
twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of        from twenty years old or older, 603,550
the posts and their bands of silver. 38:12    in all. 38:27 The one hundred talents of
For the west side there were hangings         silver were used for casting the bases of
seventy-five feet long, with their ten        the sanctuary and the bases of the spe-
posts and their ten bases, with the hooks     cial curtain – one hundred bases for one
of the posts and their bands of silver.       hundred talents, one talent per base.
38:13 For the east side, toward the sun-      38:28 From the remaining 1,775 shekels
rise, it was seventy-five feet wide, 38:14    he made hooks for the posts, overlaid
with hangings on one side of the gate         their tops, and made bands for them.
that were twenty-two and a half feet              38:29 The bronze of the wave offer-
long, with their three posts and their        ing was seventy talents and 2,400 shek-
three bases, 38:15 and for the second         els. 38:30 With it he made the bases for
side of the gate of the courtyard, just       the door of the tent of meeting, the
like the other, the hangings were twenty-     bronze altar, the bronze grating for it,
two and a half feet long, with their three    and all the utensils of the altar, 38:31
posts and their three bases. 38:16 All        the bases for the courtyard all around,
the hangings around the courtyard were        the bases for the gate of the courtyard,
of fine twisted linen. 38:17 The bases for    all the tent pegs of the tabernacle, and
the posts were bronze. The hooks of the       all the tent pegs of the courtyard all
posts and their bands were silver, their      around.
tops were overlaid with silver, and all the
posts of the courtyard had silver bands.      The Making of the Priestly Garments
38:18 The curtain for the gate of the
courtyard was of blue, purple, and scarlet        39:1 From the blue, purple, and scar-
yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of      let yarn they made woven garments for
an embroiderer. It was thirty feet long,      serving in the sanctuary; they made holy
and like the hangings in the courtyard, it    garments that were for Aaron, just as
was seven and a half feet high, 38:19         the LORD had commanded Moses.
with four posts and their four bronze
bases. Their hooks and their bands were       The Ephod
silver, and their tops were overlaid with        39:2 He made the ephod of gold, blue,
silver. 38:20 All the tent pegs of the tab-   purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen.
ernacle and of the courtyard all around       39:3 They hammered the gold into thin
were bronze.                                  sheets and cut it into narrow strips to
                                              weave them into the blue, purple, and
                                          149                             EXODUS 39:41
scarlet yarn, and into the fine linen, the    by its rings to the rings of the ephod by
work of an artistic designer. 39:4 They       blue cord, so that it was above the
made shoulder pieces for it, attached to      waistband of the ephod, so that the
two of its corners, so it could be joined     breastpiece would not be loose from the
together. 39:5 The artistically woven         ephod, just as the LORD had commanded
waistband of the ephod that was on it         Moses.
was like it, of one piece with it, of gold,
blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine       The Other Garments
twisted linen, just as the LORD had com-
                                                  39:22 He made the robe of the ephod
manded Moses.
    39:6 They set the onyx stones in gold
                                              completely blue, the work of a weaver.
                                              39:23 There was an opening in the center
filigree settings, engraved as with the
engravings of a seal with the names of        of the robe, like the opening of a collar,
the sons of Israel. 39:7 He put them on       with an edge all around the opening so
the shoulder pieces of the ephod as           that it could not be torn. 39:24 They
stones of memorial for the Israelites,        made pomegranates of blue, purple, and
just as the LORD had commanded Moses.         scarlet yarn and twisted linen around the
                                              hem of the robe. 39:25 They made bells
The Breastpiece of Decision                   of pure gold and attached the bells be-
                                              tween the pomegranates around the hem
    39:8 He made the breastpiece, the         of the robe between the pomegranates.
work of an artistic designer, in the same     39:26 There was a bell and a pomegran-
fashion as the ephod, of gold, blue, pur-     ate, a bell and a pomegranate, all around
ple, and scarlet, and fine twisted linen.     the hem of the robe, to be used in minis-
39:9 It was square – they made the            tering, just as the LORD had commanded
breastpiece doubled, nine inches long and     Moses.
nine inches wide when doubled. 39:10              39:27 They made tunics of fine linen –
They set on it four rows of stones: a row     the work of a weaver, for Aaron and for
with a ruby, a topaz, and a beryl – the       his sons – 39:28 and the turban of fine
first row; 39:11 and the second row, a        linen, the headbands of fine linen, and
turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald;        the undergarments of fine twisted linen.
39:12 and the third row, a jacinth, an        39:29 The sash was of fine twisted linen
agate, and an amethyst; 39:13 and the         and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, the
fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a      work of an embroiderer, just as the LORD
jasper. They were enclosed in gold fili-      had commanded Moses. 39:30 They made
gree settings. 39:14 The stones were for      a plate, the holy diadem, of pure gold and
the names of the sons of Israel, twelve,      wrote on it an inscription, as on the en-
corresponding to the number of their          gravings of a seal, “Holiness to the LORD.”
names. Each name corresponding to one         39:31 They attached to it a blue cord, to
of the twelve tribes was like the engrav-     attach it to the turban above, just as the
ings of a seal.                               LORD had commanded Moses.
    39:15 They made for the breastpiece
braided chains like cords of pure gold,       Moses Inspects the Sanctuary
39:16 and they made two gold filigree
                                                  39:32 So all the work of the taberna-
settings and two gold rings, and they at-
tached the two rings to the upper two         cle, the tent of meeting, was completed,
ends of the breastpiece. 39:17 They at-       and the Israelites did according to all
tached the two gold chains to the two         that the LORD had commanded Moses –
rings at the ends of the breastpiece;         they did it exactly so. 39:33 They
39:18 the other two ends of the two
                                              brought the tabernacle to Moses, the
chains they attached to the two settings,     tent and all its furnishings, clasps,
and they attached them to the shoulder        frames, bars, posts, and bases; 39:34 and
pieces of the ephod at the front of it.       the coverings of ram skins dyed red, the
39:19 They made two rings of gold and
                                              covering of fine leather, and the protect-
put them on the other two ends of the         ing curtain; 39:35 the ark of the testi-
breastpiece on its edge, which is on the      mony and its poles, and the atonement
inner side of the ephod. 39:20 They made      lid; 39:36 the table, all its utensils, and
two more gold rings and attached them         the Bread of the Presence; 39:37 the
to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces      pure lampstand, its lamps, with the lamps
on the front of the ephod, close to the       set in order, and all its accessories, and
juncture above the waistband of the           oil for the light; 39:38 and the gold altar,
ephod. 39:21 They tied the breastpiece        and the anointing oil, and the fragrant
EXODUS 39:39                                 150
incense; and the curtain for the entrance        anoint them just as you anointed their
to the tent; 39:39 the bronze altar and          father, so that they may minister as my
its bronze grating, its poles, and all its       priests; their anointing will make them a
utensils; the large basin with its pedes-        priesthood that will continue throughout
tal; 39:40 the hangings of the courtyard,        their generations.” 40:16 This is what
its posts and its bases, and the curtain         Moses did, according to all the LORD had
for the gateway of the courtyard, its            commanded him – so he did.
ropes and its tent pegs, and all the fur-            40:17 So the tabernacle was set up on
nishings for the service of the taberna-         the first day of the first month, in the
cle, for the tent of meeting; 39:41 the          second year. 40:18 When Moses set up
woven garments for serving in the sanc-          the tabernacle and put its bases in place,
tuary, the holy garments for Aaron the           he set up its frames, attached its bars,
priest, and the garments for his sons to         and set up its posts. 40:19 Then he
minister as priests.                             spread the tent over the tabernacle and
    39:42 The Israelites did all the work        put the covering of the tent over it, as
according to all that the LORD had com-          the LORD had commanded Moses. 40:20
manded Moses. 39:43 Moses inspected all          He took the testimony and put it in the
the work – and they had done it just as          ark, attached the poles to the ark, and
the LORD had commanded – they had done           then put the atonement lid on the ark.
it exactly – and Moses blessed them.             40:21 And he brought the ark into the
                                                 tabernacle, hung the protecting curtain,
Setting Up the Sanctuary                         and shielded the ark of the testimony
                                                 from view, just as the LORD had com-
   40:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
                                                 manded Moses.
40:2 “On the first day of the first month
                                                     40:22 And he put the table in the
you are to set up the tabernacle, the            tent of meeting, on the north side of the
tent of meeting. 40:3 You are to place           tabernacle, outside the curtain. 40:23
the ark of the testimony in it and shield        And he set the bread in order on it be-
the ark with the special curtain. 40:4 You       fore the LORD, just as the LORD had
are to bring in the table and set out the        commanded Moses.
things that belong on it; then you are to            40:24 And he put the lampstand in the
bring in the lampstand and set up its            tent of meeting opposite the table, on
lamps. 40:5 You are to put the gold altar        the south side of the tabernacle. 40:25
for incense in front of the ark of the           Then he set up the lamps before the
testimony and put the curtain at the en-         LORD, just as the LORD had commanded
trance to the tabernacle. 40:6 You are to        Moses.
put the altar for the burnt offering in              40:26 And he put the gold altar in the
front of the entrance to the tabernacle,         tent of meeting in front of the curtain,
the tent of meeting. 40:7 You are to put         40:27 and he burned fragrant incense on
the large basin between the tent of              it, just as the LORD had commanded
meeting and the altar and put water in it.       Moses.
40:8 You are to set up the courtyard
                                                     40:28 Then he put the curtain at the
around it and put the curtain at the gate        entrance to the tabernacle. 40:29 He also
of the courtyard. 40:9 And take the              put the altar for the burnt offering by
anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle         the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent
and all that is in it, and sanctify it and all   of meeting, and offered on it the burnt
its                                              offering and the meal offering, just as
furnishings, and it will be holy. 40:10          the LORD had commanded Moses.
Then you are to anoint the altar for the             40:30 Then he put the large basin be-
burnt offering with all its utensils; you        tween the tent of meeting and the altar
are to sanctify the altar, and it will be        and put water in it for washing. 40:31
the most holy altar. 40:11 You must also         Moses and Aaron and his sons would wash
anoint the large basin and its pedestal,         their hands and their feet from it. 40:32
and you are to sanctify it.                      Whenever they entered the tent of
    40:12 “You are to bring Aaron and his
                                                 meeting, and whenever they approached
sons to the entrance of the tent of              the altar, they would wash, just as the
meeting and wash them with water. 40:13          LORD had commanded Moses.
Then you are to clothe Aaron with the                40:33 And he set up the courtyard
holy garments and anoint him and sanc-           around the tabernacle and the altar, and
tify him so that he may minister as my           put the curtain at the gate of the court-
priest. 40:14 You are to bring his sons          yard. So Moses finished the work.
and clothe them with tunics 40:15 and
                                         151   EXODUS 40:38
   40:34 Then the cloud covered the
tent of meeting, and the glory of the
LORD filled the tabernacle. 40:35 Moses
was not able to enter the tent of meeting
because the cloud settled on it and the
glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.
40:36 But when the cloud was lifted up
from the tabernacle, the Israelites
would set out on all their journeys; 40:37
but if the cloud was not lifted up, then
they would not journey further until the
day it was lifted up. 40:38 For the cloud
of the LORD was on the tabernacle by
day, but fire would be on it at night, in
plain view of all the house of Israel,
throughout all their journeys.
                        Leviticus
Introduction to the Sacrificial Regulations   arrange them on the wood which is in the
                                              fire, on the altar. 1:13 Then the one pre-
   1:1 Then the LORD called to Moses          senting the offering must wash the en-
and spoke to him from the Meeting Tent:       trails and the legs in water, and the
1:2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell         priest must present all of it and offer it
them, ‘When someone among you pre-            up in smoke on the altar – it is a burnt
sents an offering to the LORD, you must       offering, a gift of a soothing aroma to
present your offering from the domesti-       the LORD.
cated animals, either from the herd or
from the flock.                         From the Birds

Burnt Offering Regulations: Animal from           1:14 “‘If his offering to the LORD is a
                                              burnt offering from the birds, he must
the Herd                                      present his offering from the turtle-
    1:3 “‘If his offering is a burnt offer-   doves or from the young pigeons. 1:15
ing from the herd he must present it as a     The priest must present it at the altar,
flawless male; he must present it at the      pinch off its head and offer the head up
entrance of the Meeting Tent for its          in smoke on the altar, and its blood must
acceptance before the LORD. 1:4 He must       be drained out against the side of the
lay his hand on the head of the burnt         altar. 1:16 Then the priest must remove
offering, and it will be accepted for him     its entrails by cutting off its tail feath-
to make atonement on his behalf. 1:5          ers, and throw them to the east side of
Then the one presenting the offering          the altar into the place of fatty ashes,
must slaughter the bull before the LORD,      1:17 and tear it open by its wings without
and the sons of Aaron, the priests, must      dividing it into two parts. Finally, the
present the blood and splash the blood        priest must offer it up in smoke on the
against the sides of the altar which is at    altar on the wood which is in the fire – it
the entrance of the Meeting Tent. 1:6         is a burnt offering, a gift of a soothing
Next, the one presenting the offering         aroma to the LORD.
must skin the burnt offering and cut it
into parts, 1:7 and the sons of Aaron, the    Grain Offering Regulations: Offering of
priest, must put fire on the altar and        Raw Flour
arrange wood on the fire. 1:8 Then the
sons of Aaron, the priests, must arrange          2:1 “‘When a person presents a grain
the parts with the head and the suet on       offering to the LORD, his offering must
the wood that is in the fire on the altar.    consist of choice wheat flour, and he
1:9 Finally, the one presenting the offer-    must pour olive oil on it and put frankin-
ing must wash its entrails and its legs in    cense on it. 2:2 Then he must bring it to
water and the priest must offer all of it     the sons of Aaron, the priests, and the
up in smoke on the altar – it is a burnt      priest must scoop out from there a hand-
offering, a gift of a soothing aroma to       ful of its choice wheat flour and some of
the LORD.                                     its olive oil in addition to all of its frank-
                                              incense, and the priest must offer its
Animal from the Flock                         memorial portion up in smoke on the altar
                                              – it is a gift of a soothing aroma to the
    1:10 “‘If his offering is from the        LORD. 2:3 The remainder of the grain
flock for a burnt offering – from the         offering belongs to Aaron and to his sons
sheep or the goats – he must present a        – it is most holy from the gifts of the
flawless male, 1:11 and must slaughter it     LORD.
on the north side of the altar before the
LORD, and the sons of Aaron, the priests, Processed Grain Offerings
will splash its blood against the altar’s
sides. 1:12 Next, the one presenting the     2:4 “‘When you present an offering of
offering must cut it into parts, with its grain baked in an oven, it must be made
head and its suet, and the priest must of choice wheat flour baked into unleav-
                                          227
LEVITICUS 2:5                                 228
ened loaves mixed with olive oil or un-           3:3 Then the one presenting the offering
leavened wafers smeared with olive oil.           must present a gift to the LORD from the
2:5 If your offering is a grain offering          peace offering sacrifice: He must remove
made on the griddle, it must be choice            the fat that covers the entrails and all
wheat flour mixed with olive oil, unleav-         the fat that surrounds the entrails, 3:4
ened. 2:6 Crumble it in pieces and pour           the two kidneys with the fat on their
olive oil on it – it is a grain offering. 2:7     sinews, and the protruding lobe on the
If your offering is a grain offering made         liver (which he is to remove along with
in a pan, it must be made of choice wheat         the kidneys). 3:5 Then the sons of Aaron
flour deep fried in olive oil.                    must offer it up in smoke on the altar
    2:8 “‘You must bring the grain offer-         atop the burnt offering that is on the
ing that must be made from these to the           wood in the fire as a gift of a soothing
LORD. Present it to the priest, and he will       aroma to the LORD.
bring it to the altar. 2:9 Then the priest
must take up from the grain offering its          Animal from the Flock
memorial portion and offer it up in smoke
                                                      3:6 “‘If his offering for a peace of-
on the altar – it is a gift of a soothing
aroma to the LORD. 2:10 The remainder             fering sacrifice to the LORD is from the
of the grain offering belongs to Aaron            flock, he must present a flawless male or
and to his sons – it is most holy from the        female. 3:7 If he presents a sheep as his
gifts of the LORD.                                offering, he must present it before the
                                                  LORD. 3:8 He must lay his hand on the
Additional Grain Offering Regulations             head of his offering and slaughter it be-
                                                  fore the Meeting Tent, and the sons of
    2:11 “‘No grain offering which you            Aaron must splash its blood against the
present to the LORD can be made with              altar’s sides. 3:9 Then he must present a
yeast, for you must not offer up in smoke         gift to the LORD from the peace offering
any yeast or honey as a gift to the LORD.         sacrifice: He must remove all the fatty
2:12 You can present them to the LORD as          tail up to the end of the spine, the fat
an offering of first fruit, but they must         covering the entrails, and all the fat on
not go up to the altar for a soothing             the entrails, 3:10 the two kidneys with
aroma. 2:13 Moreover, you must season             the fat on their sinews, and the protrud-
every one of your grain offerings with            ing lobe on the liver (which he is to re-
salt; you must not allow the salt of the          move along with the kidneys). 3:11 Then
covenant of your God to be missing from           the priest must offer it up in smoke on
your grain offering – on every one of your        the altar as a food gift to the LORD.
grain offerings you must present salt.                3:12 “‘If his offering is a goat he
    2:14 “‘If you present a grain offering        must present it before the LORD, 3:13 lay
of first ripe grain to the LORD, you must         his hand on its head, and slaughter it be-
present your grain offering of first ripe         fore the Meeting Tent, and the sons of
grain as soft kernels roasted in fire –           Aaron must splash its blood against the
crushed bits of fresh grain. 2:15 And you         altar’s sides. 3:14 Then he must present
must put olive oil on it and set frankin-         from it his offering as a gift to the LORD:
cense on it – it is a grain offering. 2:16        the fat which covers the entrails and all
Then the priest must offer its memorial           the fat on the entrails, 3:15 the two kid-
portion up in smoke – some of its crushed         neys with the fat on their sinews, and
bits, some of its olive oil, in addition to all   the protruding lobe on the liver (which he
of its frankincense – it is a gift to the         is to remove along with the kidneys). 3:16
LORD.                                             Then the priest must offer them up in
                                                  smoke on the altar as a food gift for a
Peace Offering Regulations: Animal from           soothing aroma – all the fat belongs to
the Herd                                          the LORD. 3:17 This is a perpetual statute
                                                  throughout your generations in all the
   3:1 “‘Now if his offering is a peace           places where you live: You must never eat
offering sacrifice, if he presents an of-         any fat or any blood.’”
fering from the herd, he must present
before the LORD a flawless male or a fe-          Sin Offering Regulations
male. 3:2 He must lay his hand on the
head of his offering and slaughter it at             4:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
the entrance of the Meeting Tent, and             4:2 “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a person
the sons of Aaron, the priests, must              sins by straying unintentionally from any
splash the blood against the altar’s sides.       of the LORD’s commandments which must
                                          229                          LEVITICUS 4:31
not be violated, and violates any one of must bring some of the blood of the bull
them –                                      to the Meeting Tent, 4:17 and that priest
                                            must dip his finger in the blood and
For the Priest                              sprinkle some of the blood seven times
                                            before the LORD toward the front of the
    4:3 “‘If the high priest sins so that
                                            veil-canopy. 4:18 He must put some of
the people are guilty, on account of the the blood on the horns of the altar which
sin he has committed he must present a is before the LORD in the Meeting Tent,
flawless young bull to the LORD for a sin and all the rest of the blood he must
offering. 4:4 He must bring the bull to pour out at the base of the altar of
the entrance of the Meeting Tent before burnt offering that is at the entrance of
the LORD, lay his hand on the head of the the Meeting Tent.
bull, and slaughter the bull before the         4:19 “‘Then the priest must take all
LORD. 4:5 Then that high priest must its fat and offer the fat up in smoke on
take some of the blood of the bull and the altar. 4:20 He must do with the rest
bring it to the Meeting Tent. 4:6 The of the bull just as he did with the bull of
priest must dip his finger in the blood the sin offering; this is what he must do
and sprinkle some of it seven times be- with it. So the priest will make atone-
fore the LORD toward the front of the ment on their behalf and they will be for-
veil-canopy of the sanctuary. 4:7 The given. 4:21 He must bring the rest of the
priest must put some of the blood on the bull outside the camp and burn it just as
horns of the altar of fragrant incense he burned the first bull – it is the sin
that is before the LORD in the Meeting offering of the assembly.
Tent, and all the rest of the bull’s blood
he must pour out at the base of the altar For the Leader
of burnt offering that is at the entrance
of the Meeting Tent.                            4:22 “‘Whenever a leader, by straying
    4:8 “‘Then he must take up all the fat unintentionally, sins and violates one of
from the sin offering bull: the fat cover- the commandments of the LORD his God
ing the entrails and all the fat surround- which must not be violated, and he pleads
ing the entrails, 4:9 the two kidneys with guilty, 4:23 or his sin that he committed
the fat on their sinews, and the protrud- is made known to him, he must bring a
ing lobe on the liver (which he is to re- flawless male goat as his offering. 4:24
move along with the kidneys) 4:10 – just He must lay his hand on the head of the
as it is taken from the ox of the peace male goat and slaughter it in the place
offering sacrifice – and the priest must where the burnt offering is slaughtered
offer them up in smoke on the altar of before the LORD – it is a sin offering.
burnt offering. 4:11 But the hide of the 4:25 Then the priest must take some of
bull, all its flesh along with its head and the blood of the sin offering with his
its legs, its entrails, and its dung – 4:12 finger and put it on the horns of the al-
all the rest of the bull – he must bring tar of burnt offering, and he must pour
outside the camp to a ceremonially clean out the rest of its blood at the base of
place, to the fatty ash pile, and he must the altar of burnt offering. 4:26 Then
burn it on a wood fire; it must be burned the priest must offer all of its fat up in
on the fatty ash pile.                      smoke on the altar like the fat of the
                                            peace offering sacrifice. So the priest
For the Whole Congregation                  will make atonement on his behalf for his
                                            sin and he will be forgiven.
    4:13 “‘If the whole congregation of
Israel strays unintentionally and the For the Common Person
matter is not noticed by the assembly,
and they violate one of the LORD’s com-         4:27 “‘If an ordinary individual sins by
mandments, which must not be violated, straying unintentionally when he violates
so they become guilty, 4:14 the assembly one of the LORD’s commandments which
must present a young bull for a sin offer- must not be violated, and he pleads guilty
ing when the sin they have committed 4:28 or his sin
becomes known. They must bring it be- that he committed is made known to him,
fore the Meeting Tent, 4:15 the elders he must bring a flawless female goat as
of the congregation must lay their hands his offering for the sin that he commit-
on the head of the bull before the LORD, ted. 4:29 He must lay his hand on the
and someone must slaughter the bull be- head of the sin offering and slaughter
fore the LORD. 4:16 Then the high priest the sin offering in the place where the
LEVITICUS 4:30                              230
burnt offering is slaughtered. 4:30 Then        of these things he must confess how he
the priest must take some of its blood          has sinned, 5:6 and he must bring his
with his finger and put it on the horns of      penalty for guilt to the LORD for his sin
the altar of burnt offering, and he must        that he has committed, a female from
pour out all the rest of its blood at the       the flock, whether a female sheep or a
base of the altar. 4:31 Then he must re-        female goat, for a sin offering. So the
move all of its fat (just as fat was re-        priest will make atonement on his behalf
moved from the peace offering sacrifice)        for his sin.
and the priest must offer it up in smoke            5:7 “‘If he cannot afford an animal
on the altar for a soothing aroma to the        from the flock, he must bring his penalty
LORD. So the priest will make atonement         for guilt for his sin that he has commit-
on his behalf and he will be forgiven.          ted, two turtledoves or two young pi-
   4:32 “‘But if he brings a sheep as his       geons, to the LORD, one for a sin offering
offering, for a sin offering, he must           and one for a burnt offering. 5:8 He must
bring a flawless female. 4:33 He must lay       bring them to the priest and present
his hand on the head of the sin offering        first the one that is for a sin offering.
and slaughter it for a sin offering in the      The priest must pinch its head at the
place where the burnt offering is slaugh-       nape of its neck, but must not sever the
tered. 4:34 Then the priest must take           head from the body. 5:9 Then he must
some of the blood of the sin offering           sprinkle some of the blood of the sin of-
with his finger and put it on the horns of      fering on the wall of the altar, and the
the altar of burnt offering, and he must        remainder of the blood must be squeezed
pour out all the rest of its blood at the       out at the base of the altar – it is a sin
base of the altar. 4:35 Then the one who        offering. 5:10 The second bird he must
brought the offering must remove all its        make a burnt offering according to the
fat (just as the fat of the sheep is re-        standard regulation. So the priest will
moved from the peace offering sacrifice)        make atonement on behalf of this person
and the priest must offer them up in            for his sin which he has committed, and
smoke on the altar on top of the other          he will be forgiven.
gifts of the LORD. So the priest will make          5:11 “‘If he cannot afford two turtle-
atonement on his behalf for his sin which       doves or two young pigeons, he must
he has committed and he will be forgiven.       bring as his offering for his sin which he
                                                has committed a tenth of an ephah of
Additional Sin Offering Regulations             choice wheat flour for a sin offering. He
                                                must not place olive oil on it and he must
    5:1 “‘When a person sins in that he
                                                not put frankincense on it, because it is a
hears a public curse against one who fails      sin offering. 5:12 He must bring it to the
to testify and he is a witness (he either       priest and the priest must scoop out
saw or knew what had happened) and he           from it a handful as its memorial portion
does not make it known, then he will bear       and offer it up in smoke on the altar on
his punishment for iniquity. 5:2 Or when        top of the other gifts of the LORD – it is
there is a person who touches anything          a sin offering. 5:13 So the priest will
ceremonially unclean, whether the car-          make atonement on his behalf for his sin
cass of an unclean wild animal, or the          which he has committed by doing one of
carcass of an unclean domesticated ani-         these things, and he will be forgiven. The
mal, or the carcass of an unclean creep-        remainder of the offering will belong to
ing thing, even if he did not realize it, but   the priest like the grain offering.’”
he himself has become unclean and is
guilty; 5:3 or when he touches human un-        Guilt Offering Regulations: Known
cleanness with regard to anything by
which he can become unclean, even if he         Trespass
did not realize it, but he himself has             5:14 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
later come to know it and is guilty; 5:4 or     5:15 “When a person commits a trespass
when a person swears an oath, speaking          and sins by straying unintentionally from
thoughtlessly with his lips, whether to do      the regulations about the LORD’s holy
evil or to do good, with regard to any-         things, then he must bring his penalty for
thing which the individual might speak          guilt to the LORD, a flawless ram from
thoughtlessly in an oath, even if he did        the flock, convertible into silver shekels
not realize it, but he himself has later        according to the standard of the sanctu-
come to know it and is guilty with regard       ary shekel, for a guilt offering. 5:16 And
to one of these oaths – 5:5 when an indi-       whatever holy thing he violated he must
vidual becomes guilty with regard to one        restore and must add one fifth to it and
                                          231                          LEVITICUS 6:23
give it to the priest. So the priest will    must take up the fatty ashes of the
make atonement on his behalf with the        burnt offering that the fire consumed on
guilt offering ram and he will be for-       the altar, and he must place them beside
given.”                                      the altar. 6:11 Then he must take off his
                                             clothes and put on other clothes, and he
Unknown trespass                             must bring the fatty ashes outside the
                                             camp to a ceremonially clean place, 6:12
    5:17 “If a person sins and violates any
                                             but the fire which is on the altar must be
of the LORD’s commandments which must        kept burning on it. It must not be extin-
not be violated (although he did not know    guished. So the priest must kindle wood
it at the time, but later realizes he is     on it morning by morning, and he must
guilty), then he will bear his punishment    arrange the burnt offering on it and of-
for iniquity 5:18 and must bring a flaw-     fer the fat of the peace offering up in
less ram from the flock, convertible into    smoke on it. 6:13 A continual fire must be
silver shekels, for a guilt offering to the  kept burning on the altar. It must not be
priest. So the priest will make atonement    extinguished.
on his behalf for his error which he
committed (although he himself had not The Grain Offering of the Common Person
known it) and he will be forgiven. 5:19 It
is a guilt offering; he was surely guilty        6:14 “‘This is the law of the grain of-
before the LORD.”                            fering. The sons of Aaron are to present
                                             it before the LORD in front of the altar,
Trespass by Deception and False Oath         6:15 and the priest must take up with his
                                             hand some of the choice wheat flour of
    6:1 (5:20) Then the LORD spoke to
                                             the grain offering and some of its olive
Moses: 6:2 “When a person sins and oil, and all of the frankincense that is on
commits a trespass against the LORD by the grain offering, and he must offer its
deceiving his fellow citizen in regard to memorial portion up in smoke on the altar
something held in trust, or a pledge, or as a soothing aroma to the LORD. 6:16
something stolen, or by extorting some- Aaron and his sons are to eat what is left
thing from his fellow citizen, 6:3 or has over from it. It must be eaten unleav-
found something lost and denies it and ened in a holy place; they are to eat it in
swears falsely concerning any one of the the courtyard of the Meeting Tent. 6:17
things that someone might do to sin – 6:4 It must not be baked with yeast. I have
when it happens that he sins and he is given it as their portion from my gifts. It
found guilty, then he must return what- is most holy, like the sin offering and the
ever he had stolen, or whatever he had guilt offering. 6:18 Every male among the
extorted, or the thing that he had held sons of Aaron may eat it. It is a perpet-
in trust, or the lost thing that he had ual allotted portion throughout your gen-
found, 6:5 or anything about which he erations from the gifts of the LORD.
swears falsely. He must restore it in full Anyone who touches these gifts must be
and add one fifth to it; he must give it to holy.’”
its owner when he is found guilty. 6:6
Then he must bring his guilt offering to The Grain Offering of the Priests
the LORD, a flawless ram from the flock,
convertible into silver shekels, for a guilt     6:19 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
offering to the priest. 6:7 So the priest 6:20 “This is the offering of Aaron and
will make atonement on his behalf before his sons which they must present to the
the LORD and he will be forgiven for LORD on the day when he is anointed: a
whatever he has done to become guilty.”      tenth of an ephah of choice wheat flour
                                             as a continual grain offering, half of it in
Sacrificial Instructions for the Priests:    the morning and half of it in the evening.
The Burnt Offering                           6:21 It must be made with olive oil on a
                                             griddle and you must bring it well soaked,
    6:8 (6:1) Then the LORD spoke to so you must present a grain offering of
Moses: 6:9 “Command Aaron and his sons, broken pieces as a soothing aroma to the
‘This is the law of the burnt offering. LORD. 6:22 The high priest who succeeds
The burnt offering is to remain on the him from among his sons must do it. It is
hearth on the altar all night until morn- a perpetual statute; it must be offered
ing, and the fire of the altar must be up in smoke as a whole offering to the
kept burning on it. 6:10 Then the priest LORD. 6:23 Every grain offering of a
must put on his linen robe and must put
linen leggings over his bare flesh, and he
LEVITICUS 6:24                             232
priest must be a whole offering; it must dry, belongs to all the sons of Aaron,
not be eaten.”                           each one alike.
The Sin Offering                               The Peace Offering
   6:24 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:          7:11 “‘This is the law of the peace of-
6:25 “Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the fering sacrifice which he is to present to
law of the sin offering. In the place the LORD. 7:12 If he presents it on ac-
where the burnt offering is slaughtered        count of thanksgiving, along with the
the sin offering must be slaughtered           thank offering sacrifice he must present
before the LORD. It is most holy. 6:26         unleavened loaves mixed with olive oil,
The priest who offers it for sin is to eat     unleavened wafers smeared with olive oil,
it. It must be eaten in a holy place, in the   and well soaked ring-shaped loaves made
court of the Meeting Tent. 6:27 Anyone         of choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil.
who touches its meat must be holy, and         7:13 He must present this grain offering
whoever spatters some of its blood on a        in addition to ring-shaped loaves of leav-
garment, you must wash whatever he             ened bread which regularly accompany
spatters it on in a holy place. 6:28 Any       the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace
clay vessel it is boiled in must be broken,    offering. 7:14 He must present one of
and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel,       each kind of grain offering as a contribu-
then that vessel must be rubbed out and        tion offering to the LORD; it belongs to
rinsed in water. 6:29 Any male among the       the priest who splashes the blood of the
priests may eat it. It is most holy. 6:30      peace offering. 7:15 The meat of his
But any sin offering from which some of        thanksgiving peace offering must be
its blood is brought into the Meeting          eaten on the day of his offering; he must
Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary        not set any of it aside until morning.
must not be eaten. It must be burned up            7:16 “‘If his offering is a votive or
in the fire.                                   freewill sacrifice, it may be eaten on the
                                               day he presents his sacrifice, and also
The Guilt Offering                             the leftovers from it may be eaten on
                                               the next day, 7:17 but the leftovers
    7:1 “‘This is the law of the guilt of-
                                               from the meat of the sacrifice must be
fering. It is most holy. 7:2 In the place      burned up in the fire on the third day.
where they slaughter the burnt offering        7:18 If some of the meat of his peace
they must slaughter the guilt offering,        offering sacrifice is ever eaten on the
and the officiating priest must splash         third day it will not be accepted; it will
the blood against the altar’s sides. 7:3       not be accounted to the one who pre-
Then the one making the offering must          sented it, since it is spoiled, and the per-
present all its fat: the fatty tail, the fat   son who eats from it will bear his pun-
covering the entrails, 7:4 the two kidneys     ishment for iniquity. 7:19 The meat which
and the fat on their sinews, and the pro-      touches anything ceremonially unclean
truding lobe on the liver (which he must       must not be eaten; it must be burned up
remove along with the kidneys). 7:5 Then       in the fire. As for ceremonially clean
the priest must offer them up in smoke         meat, everyone who is ceremonially clean
on the altar as a gift to the LORD. It is a    may eat the meat. 7:20 The person who
guilt offering. 7:6 Any male among the         eats meat from the peace offering sacri-
priests may eat it. It must be eaten in a      fice which belongs to the LORD while his
holy place. It is most holy. 7:7 The law is    uncleanness persists will be cut off from
the same for the sin offering and the          his people. 7:21 When a person touches
guilt offering; it belongs to the priest       anything unclean (whether human un-
who makes atonement with it.                   cleanness, or an unclean animal, or an un-
Priestly Portions of Burnt and Grain           clean detestable creature) and eats some
                                               of the meat of the peace offering sacri-
Offerings                                      fice which belongs to the LORD, that per-
   7:8 “‘As for the priest who presents        son will be cut off from his people.’”
someone’s burnt offering, the hide of
                                               Sacrificial Instructions for the Common
that burnt offering which he presented
belongs to him. 7:9 Every grain offering       People: Fat and Blood
which is baked in the oven or made in the         7:22 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
pan or on the griddle belongs to the           7:23 “Tell the Israelites, ‘You must not
priest who presented it. 7:10 Every grain      eat any fat of an ox, sheep, or goat. 7:24
offering, whether mixed with olive oil or
                                          233                             LEVITICUS 8:17
Moreover, the fat of an animal that has       their offerings to the LORD in the wilder-
died of natural causes and the fat of an      ness of Sinai.
animal torn by beasts may be used for
any other purpose, but you must certainly     Ordination of the Priests
never eat it. 7:25 If anyone eats fat
                                                 8:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
from the animal from which he presents
                                              8:2 “Take Aaron and his sons with him,
a gift to the LORD, that person will be cut
off from his people. 7:26 And you must      and the garments, the anointing oil, the
not eat any blood of the birds or the do-   sin offering bull, the two rams, and the
mesticated land animals in any of the       basket of unleavened bread, 8:3 and as-
places where you live. 7:27 Any person      semble the whole congregation at the
who eats any blood – that person will be    entrance of the Meeting Tent.” 8:4 So
cut off from his people.’”                  Moses did just as the LORD commanded
                                            him, and the congregation assembled at
Priestly Portions of Peace Offerings        the entrance of the Meeting Tent. 8:5
                                            Then Moses said to the congregation:
    7:28 Then the LORD spoke to Moses: “This is what the LORD has commanded to
7:29 “Tell the Israelites, ‘The one who be done.”
presents his peace offering sacrifice to
the LORD must bring his offering to the Clothing Aaron
LORD from his peace offering sacrifice.
                                                8:6 So Moses brought Aaron and his
7:30 With his own hands he must bring
the LORD’s gifts. He must bring the fat     sons forward and washed them with wa-
with the breast to wave the breast as a ter. 8:7 Then he put the tunic on Aaron,
wave offering before the LORD, 7:31 and wrapped the sash around him, and
the priest must offer the fat up in smoke clothed him with the robe. Next he put
on the altar, but the breast will belong to the ephod on him and placed on him the
Aaron and his sons. 7:32 The right thigh decorated band of the ephod, and fas-
you must give as a contribution offering tened the ephod closely to him with the
to the priest from your peace offering band. 8:8 He then set the breastpiece on
sacrifices. 7:33 The one from Aaron’s him and put the Urim and Thummim into
sons who presents the blood of the peace the breastpiece. 8:9 Finally, he set the
offering and fat will have the right thigh turban on his head and attached the gold
as his share, 7:34 for the breast of the plate, the holy diadem, to the front of
wave offering and the thigh of the con- the turban just as the LORD had com-
tribution offering I have taken from the manded Moses.
Israelites out of their peace offering Anointing the Tabernacle and Aaron, and
sacrifices and have given them to Aaron
the priest and to his sons from the peo- Clothing Aaron’s Sons
ple of Israel as a perpetual allotted por-      8:10 Then Moses took the anointing
tion.’”                                     oil and anointed the tabernacle and eve-
    7:35 This is the allotment of Aaron rything in it, and so consecrated them.
and the allotment of his sons from the 8:11 Next he sprinkled some of it on the
LORD’s gifts on the day Moses presented altar seven times and so anointed the
them to serve as priests to the LORD. altar, all its vessels, and the wash basin
7:36 This is what the LORD commanded to and its stand to consecrate them. 8:12
give to them from the Israelites on the He then poured some of the anointing oil
day Moses anointed them – a perpetual on the head of Aaron and anointed him to
allotted portion throughout their genera- consecrate him. 8:13 Moses also brought
tions.                                      forward Aaron’s sons, clothed them with
                                            tunics, wrapped sashes around them, and
Summary of Sacrificial Regulations in
                                            wrapped headbands on them just as the
Leviticus 6:8-7:36                          LORD had commanded Moses.
    7:37 This is the law for the burnt of-    Consecration Offerings
fering, the grain offering, the sin offer-
ing, the guilt offering, the ordination          8:14 Then he brought near the sin of-
offering, and the peace offering sacri-       fering bull and Aaron and his sons laid
fice, 7:38 which the LORD commanded           their hands on the head of the sin offer-
Moses on Mount Sinai on the day he            ing bull, 8:15 and he slaughtered it.
commanded the Israelites to present           Moses then took the blood and put it all
                                              around on the horns of the altar with his
LEVITICUS 8:16                            234
finger and decontaminated the altar, and      dination. It was Moses’ share just as the
he poured out the rest of the blood at        LORD had commanded Moses.
the base of the altar and so consecrated
it to make atonement on it. 8:16 Then he      Anointing Aaron, his Sons, and their
took all the fat on the entrails, the pro-    Garments
truding lobe of the liver, and the two
kidneys and their fat, and Moses offered         8:30 Then Moses took some of the
it all up in smoke on the altar, 8:17 but     anointing oil and some of the blood which
the rest of the bull – its hide, its flesh,   was on the altar and sprinkled it on Aaron
and its dung – he completely burned up        and his garments, and on his sons and his
outside the camp just as the LORD had         sons’ garments with him. So he conse-
commanded Moses.                              crated Aaron, his garments, and his sons
    8:18 Then he presented the burnt of-      and his sons’ garments with him. 8:31
fering ram and Aaron and his sons laid        Then Moses said to Aaron and his sons,
their hands on the head of the ram, 8:19      “Boil the meat at the entrance of the
and he slaughtered it. Moses then             Meeting Tent, and there you are to eat it
splashed the blood against the altar’s        and the bread which is in the ordination
sides. 8:20 Then he cut the ram into          offering basket, just as I have com-
parts, and Moses offered the head, the        manded, saying, ‘Aaron and his sons are
parts, and the suet up in smoke, 8:21 but     to eat it,’ 8:32 but the remainder of the
the entrails and the legs he washed with      meat and the bread you must burn with
water, and Moses offered the whole ram        fire. 8:33 And you must not go out from
up in smoke on the altar – it was a burnt     the entrance of the Meeting Tent for
offering for a soothing aroma, a gift to      seven days, until the day when your days
the LORD, just as the LORD had com-           of ordination are completed, because you
manded Moses.                                 must be ordained over a seven-day pe-
    8:22 Then he presented the second         riod. 8:34 What has been done on this
ram, the ram of ordination, and Aaron         day the LORD has commanded to be done
and his sons laid their hands on the head     to make atonement for you. 8:35 You
of the ram 8:23 and he slaughtered it.        must reside at the entrance of the
Moses then took some of its blood and         Meeting Tent day and night for seven
put it on Aaron’s right earlobe, on the       days and keep the charge of the LORD so
thumb of his right hand, and on the big       that you will not die, for this is what I
toe of his right foot. 8:24 Next he           have been commanded.” 8:36 So Aaron
brought Aaron’s sons forward, and Moses       and his sons did all the things the LORD
put some of the blood on their right ear-     had commanded through Moses.
lobes, on their right thumbs, and on the
big toes of their right feet, and Moses       Inauguration of Tabernacle Worship
splashed the rest of the blood against           9:1 On the eighth day Moses sum-
the altar’s sides.                            moned Aaron and his sons and the elders
    8:25 Then he took the fat (the fatty      of Israel, 9:2 and said to Aaron, “Take
tail, all the fat on the entrails, the pro-   for yourself a bull calf for a sin offering
truding lobe of the liver, and the two        and a ram for a burnt offering, both
kidneys and their fat) and the right          flawless, and present them before the
thigh, 8:26 and from the basket of un-        LORD. 9:3 Then tell the Israelites: ‘Take a
leavened bread that was before the LORD       male goat for a sin offering and a calf
he took one unleavened loaf, one loaf of      and lamb, both a year old and flawless,
bread mixed with olive oil, and one wafer,    for a burnt offering, 9:4 and an ox and a
and placed them on the fat parts and on       ram for peace offerings to sacrifice be-
the right thigh. 8:27 He then put all of      fore the LORD, and a grain offering mixed
them on the palms of Aaron and his sons,      with olive oil, for today the LORD is going
who waved them as a wave offering be-         to appear to you.’” 9:5 So they took what
fore the LORD. 8:28 Moses then took           Moses had commanded to the front of
them from their palms and offered them        the Meeting Tent and the whole congre-
up in smoke on the altar on top of the        gation presented them and stood before
burnt offering – they were an ordination      the LORD. 9:6 Then Moses said, “This is
offering for a soothing aroma; it was a       what the LORD has commanded you to do
gift to the LORD. 8:29 Finally, Moses took    so that the glory of the LORD may appear
the breast and waved it as a wave offer-      to you.” 9:7 Moses then said to Aaron,
ing before the LORD from the ram of or-       “Approach the altar and make your sin
                                              offering and your burnt offering, and
                                        235                        LEVITICUS 10:11
make atonement on behalf of yourself       offering before the LORD just as Moses
and on behalf of the people; and also      had commanded.
make the people’s offering and make            9:22 Then Aaron lifted up his hands
atonement on behalf of them just as the    toward the people and blessed them and
LORD has commanded.”                       descended from making the sin offering,
                                           the burnt offering, and the peace offer-
The Sin Offering for the Priests           ing. 9:23 Moses and Aaron then entered
                                           into the Meeting Tent. When they came
    9:8 So Aaron approached the altar
                                           out, they blessed the people, and the
and slaughtered the sin offering calf      glory of the LORD appeared to all the
which was for himself. 9:9 Then Aaron’s    people. 9:24 Then fire went out from the
sons presented the blood to him and he     presence of the LORD and consumed the
dipped his finger in the blood and put it  burnt offering and the fat parts on the
on the horns of the altar, and the rest of altar, and all the people saw it, so they
the blood he poured out at the base of     shouted loudly and fell down with their
the altar. 9:10 The fat and the kidneys    faces to the ground.
and the protruding lobe of the liver from
the sin offering he offered up in smoke Nadab and Abihu
on the altar just as the LORD had com-
manded Moses, 9:11 but the flesh and           10:1 Then Aaron’s sons, Nadab and
the hide he completely burned up outside Abihu, each took his fire pan and put fire
the camp.                                   in it, set incense on it, and presented
                                            strange fire before the LORD, which he
The Burnt Offering for the Priests          had not commanded them to do. 10:2 So
                                            fire went out from the presence of the
    9:12 He then slaughtered the burnt
                                            LORD and consumed them so that they
offering, and his sons handed the blood died before the LORD. 10:3 Moses then
to him and he splashed it against the al- said to Aaron, “This is what the LORD
tar’s sides. 9:13 The burnt offering itself spoke: ‘Among the ones close to me I will
they handed to him by its parts, including show myself holy, and in the presence of
the head, and he offered them up in all the people I will be honored.’” So
smoke on the altar, 9:14 and he washed Aaron kept silent. 10:4 Moses then called
the entrails and the legs and offered to Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of
them up in smoke on top of the burnt Uzziel, Aaron’s uncle, and said to them,
offering on the altar.                      “Come near, carry your brothers away
The Offerings for the People                from the front of the sanctuary to a
                                            place outside the camp.” 10:5 So they
    9:15 Then he presented the people’s came near and carried them away in their
offering. He took the sin offering male tunics to a place outside the camp just as
goat which was for the people, slaugh- Moses had spoken. 10:6 Then Moses said
tered it, and performed a decontamina- to Aaron and to Eleazar and Ithamar his
tion rite with it like the first one. 9:16 other two sons, “Do not dishevel the hair
He then presented the burnt offering, of your heads and do not tear your gar-
and did it according to the standard ments, so that you do not die and so that
regulation. 9:17 Next he presented the wrath does not come on the whole con-
grain offering, filled his hand with some gregation. Your brothers, all the house of
of it, and offered it up in smoke on the Israel, are to mourn the burning which
altar in addition to the morning burnt the LORD has caused, 10:7 but you must
offering. 9:18 Then he slaughtered the not go out from the entrance of the
ox and the ram – the peace offering sac- Meeting Tent lest you die, for the LORD’s
rifices which were for the people – and anointing oil is on you.” So they acted
Aaron’s sons handed the blood to him and according to the word of Moses.
he splashed it against the altar’s sides.
9:19 As for the fat parts from the ox Perpetual Statutes the Lord Spoke to
and from the ram (the fatty tail, the fat Aaron
covering the entrails, the kidneys, and
the protruding lobe of the liver), 9:20        10:8 Then the LORD spoke to Aaron,
they set those on the breasts and he 10:9 “Do not drink wine or strong drink,
offered the fat parts up in smoke on the you and your sons with you, when you en-
altar. 9:21 Finally Aaron waved the ter into the Meeting Tent, so that you do
breasts and the right thigh as a wave not die, which is a perpetual statute
                                            throughout your generations, 10:10 as
LEVITICUS 10:11                         236
well as to distinguish between the holy Clean and Unclean Land Creatures
and the common, and between the un-
clean and the clean, 10:11 and to teach       11:1 The LORD spoke to Moses and
the Israelites all the statutes that the Aaron, saying to them, 11:2 “Tell the Is-
LORD has spoken to them through Moses.” raelites: ‘This is the kind of creature you
                                           may eat from among all the animals that
Perpetual Statutes Moses spoke to Aaron    are on the land. 11:3 You may eat any
                                           among the animals that has a divided
    10:12 Then Moses spoke to Aaron and hoof (the hooves are completely split in
to Eleazar and Ithamar, his remaining two) and that also chews the cud. 11:4
sons, “Take the grain offering which re- However, you must not eat these from
mains from the gifts of the LORD and eat among those that chew the cud and have
it unleavened beside the altar, for it is divided hooves: The camel is unclean to
most holy. 10:13 You must eat it in a holy you because it chews the cud even
place because it is your allotted portion though its hoof is not divided. 11:5 The
and the allotted portion of your sons rock badger is unclean to you because it
from the gifts of the LORD, for this is chews the cud even though its hoof is not
what I have been commanded. 10:14 Also, divided. 11:6 The hare is unclean to you
the breast of the wave offering and the because it chews the cud even though its
thigh of the contribution offering you hoof is not divided. 11:7 The pig is un-
must eat in a ceremonially clean place, clean to you because its
you and your sons and daughters with hoof is divided (the hoof is completely
you, for they have been given as your split in two), even though it does not
allotted portion and the allotted portion chew the cud. 11:8 You must not eat
of your sons from the peace offering from their meat and you must not touch
sacrifices of the Israelites. 10:15 The their carcasses; they are unclean to you.
thigh of the contribution offering and
the breast of the wave offering they Clean and Unclean Water Creatures
must bring in addition to the gifts of the
fat parts to wave them as a wave offer-       11:9 “‘These you can eat from all
ing before the LORD, and it will belong to creatures that are in the water: Any
you and your sons with you for a perpet- creatures in the water that have both
ual statute just as the LORD has com- fins and scales, whether in the seas or in
manded.”                                   the streams, you may eat. 11:10 But any
                                           creatures that do not have both fins and
The Problem with the Inaugural Sin         scales, whether in the seas or in the
Offering                                   streams, from all the swarming things of
                                           the water and from all the living crea-
    10:16 Later Moses sought diligently tures that are in the water, are detest-
for the sin offering male goat, but it had able to you. 11:11 Since they are detest-
actually been burnt. So he became angry able to you, you must not eat their meat
at Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s remain- and their carcass you must detest. 11:12
ing sons, saying, 10:17 “Why did you not Any creature in the water that does not
eat the sin offering in the sanctuary? have both fins and scales is detestable to
For it is most holy and he gave it to you you.
to bear the iniquity of the congregation,
to make atonement on their behalf be- Clean and Unclean Birds
fore the LORD. 10:18 See here! Its blood
was not brought into the holy place           11:13 “‘These you are to detest from
within! You should certainly have eaten it among the birds – they must not be
in the sanctuary just as I commanded!” eaten, because they are detestable: the
10:19 But Aaron spoke to Moses, “See griffon vulture, the bearded vulture, the
here! Just today they presented their sin black vulture, 11:14 the kite, the buzzard
offering and their burnt offering before of any kind, 11:15 every kind of crow,
the LORD and such things as these have 11:16 the eagle owl, the short-eared owl,
happened to me! If I had eaten a sin of- the long-eared owl, the hawk of any kind,
fering today would the LORD have been 11:17 the little owl, the cormorant, the
pleased?” 10:20 When Moses heard this screech owl, 11:18 the white owl, the
explanation, he was satisfied.             scops owl, the osprey, 11:19 the stork,
                                           the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and
                                           the bat.
                                         237                           LEVITICUS 12:5
Clean and Unclean Insects                    vessel will become unclean. 11:35 Any-
                                             thing their carcass may fall on will be-
   11:20 “‘Every winged swarming thing       come unclean. An oven or small stove
that walks on all fours is detestable to     must be smashed to pieces; they are un-
you. 11:21 However, this you may eat         clean, and they will stay unclean to you.
from all the winged swarming things that     11:36 However, a spring or a cistern
walk on all fours, which have jointed legs   which collects water will be clean, but
to hop with on the land. 11:22 These you     one who touches their carcass will be
may eat from them: the locust of any         unclean. 11:37 Now, if such a carcass
kind, the bald locust of any kind, the       falls on any sowing seed which is to be
cricket of any kind, the grasshopper of      sown, it is clean, 11:38 but if water is put
any kind. 11:23 But any other winged         on the seed and such a carcass falls on it,
swarming thing that has four legs is de-     it is unclean to you.
testable to you.
                                             Edible Land Quadrupeds
Carcass Uncleanness
                                              11:39 “‘Now if an animal that you may
   11:24 “‘By these you defile yourselves; eat dies, whoever touches its carcass will
anyone who touches their carcass will be be unclean until the evening. 11:40 One
unclean until the evening, 11:25 and any- who eats from its carcass must wash his
one who carries their carcass must wash clothes and be unclean until the evening,
his clothes and will be unclean until the and whoever carries its carcass must
evening.                                     wash his clothes and be unclean until the
                                             evening. 11:41 Every swarming thing that
Inedible Land Quadrupeds                     swarms on the land is detestable; it must
    11:26 “‘All animals that divide the
                                             not be eaten. 11:42 You must not eat any-
hoof but it is not completely split in two thing that crawls on its belly or anything
and do not chew the cud are unclean to that walks on all fours or on any number
you; anyone who touches them becomes of legs of all the swarming things that
unclean. 11:27 All that walk on their paws swarm on the land, because they are de-
among all the creatures that walk on all testable. 11:43 Do not make yourselves
fours are unclean to you. Anyone who detestable by any of the swarming
touches their carcass will be unclean until things. You must not defile yourselves by
the evening, 11:28 and the one who car- them and become unclean by them, 11:44
ries their carcass must wash his clothes for I am the LORD your God and you are
and be unclean until the evening; they are to sanctify yourselves and be holy be-
unclean to you.                              cause I am holy. You must not defile
                                             yourselves by any of the swarming things
Creatures that Swarm on the Land             that creep on the ground, 11:45 for I am
                                             the LORD who brought you up from the
    11:29 “‘Now this is what is unclean to land of Egypt to be your God, and you are
you among the swarming things that to be holy because I am holy. 11:46 This
swarm on the land: the rat, the mouse, is the law of the land animals, the birds,
the large lizard of any kind, 11:30 the all the living creatures that move in the
Mediterranean gecko, the spotted lizard, water, and all the creatures that swarm
the wall gecko, the skink, and the chame- on the land, 11:47 to distinguish between
leon. 11:31 These are the ones that are the unclean and the clean, between the
unclean to you among all the swarming living creatures that may be eaten and
things. Anyone who touches them when the living creatures that must not be
they die will be unclean until evening. eaten.’”
11:32 Also, anything they fall on when
they die will become unclean – any wood Purification of a Woman after Childbirth
vessel or garment or article of leather or
                                                12:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 12:2
sackcloth. Any such vessel with which
work is done must be immersed in water “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a woman pro-
and will be unclean until the evening. Then duces offspring and bears a male child,
it will become clean. 11:33 As for any clay she will be unclean seven days, as she is
vessel they fall into, everything in it will unclean during the days of her menstrua-
become unclean and you must break it. tion. 12:3 On the eighth day the flesh of
11:34 Any food that may be eaten which his foreskin must be circumcised. 12:4
becomes soaked with water will become Then she will remain thirty-three days in
unclean. Anything drinkable in any such blood purity. She must not touch any-
LEVITICUS 12:5                            238
thing holy and she must not enter the         further on the skin after he has shown
sanctuary until the days of her purifica-     himself to the priest for his purification,
tion are fulfilled. 12:5 If she bears a fe-   then he must show himself to the priest
male child, she will be impure fourteen       a second time. 13:8 The priest must then
days as during her menstrual flow, and        examine it, and if the scab has spread on
she will remain sixty-six days in blood       the skin, then the priest is to pronounce
purity.                                       the person unclean. It is a disease.
   12:6 “‘When the days of her purifica-
tion are completed for a son or for a         A Swelling on the Skin
daughter, she must bring a one year old
                                                  13:9 “When someone has a diseased
lamb for a burnt offering and a young
pigeon or turtledove for a sin offering to    infection, he must be brought to the
the entrance of the Meeting Tent, to the      priest. 13:10 The priest will then exam-
priest. 12:7 The priest is to present it      ine it, and if a white swelling is on the
before the LORD and make atonement on         skin, it has turned the hair white, and
her behalf, and she will be clean from her    there is raw flesh in the swelling, 13:11 it
flow of blood. This is the law of the one     is a chronic disease on the skin of his
who bears a child, for the male or the        body, so the priest is to pronounce him
female child. 12:8 If she cannot afford a     unclean. The priest must not merely
sheep, then she must take two turtle-         quarantine him, for he is unclean. 13:12
doves or two young pigeons, one for a         If, however, the disease breaks out on
burnt offering and one for a sin offering,    the skin so that the disease covers all
and the priest is to make atonement on        the skin of the person with the infection
her behalf, and she will be clean.’”          from his head to his feet, as far as the
                                              priest can see, 13:13 the priest must
Infections on the Skin                        then examine it, and if the disease cov-
                                              ers his whole body, he is to pronounce
    13:1 The LORD spoke to Moses and          the person with the infection clean. He
Aaron: 13:2 “When someone has a swel-         has turned all white, so he is clean. 13:14
ling or a scab or a bright spot on the skin   But whenever raw flesh appears in it he
of his body that may become a diseased        will be unclean, 13:15 so the priest is to
infection, he must be brought to Aaron        examine the raw flesh and pronounce him
the priest or one of his sons, the priests.   unclean – it is diseased. 13:16 If, how-
13:3 The priest must then examine the         ever, the raw flesh once again turns
infection on the skin of the body, and if     white, then he must come to the priest.
the hair in the infection has turned white    13:17 The priest will then examine it, and
and the infection appears to be deeper        if the infection has turned white, the
than the skin of the body, then it is a       priest is to pronounce the person with
diseased infection, so when the priest        the infection clean – he is clean.
examines it he must pronounce the per-
son unclean.                                A Boil on the Skin

A Bright Spot on the Skin                         13:18 “When someone’s body has a
                                              boil on its skin and it heals, 13:19 and in
   13:4 “If it is a white bright spot on      the place of the boil there is a white
the skin of his body, but it does not ap-     swelling or a reddish white bright spot,
pear to be deeper than the skin, and the      he must show himself to the priest. 13:20
hair has not turned white, then the           The priest will then examine it, and if it
priest is to quarantine the person with       appears to be deeper than the skin and
the infection for seven days. 13:5 The        its hair has turned white, then the priest
priest must then examine it on the sev-       is to pronounce the person unclean. It is
enth day, and if, as far as he can see, the   a diseased infection that has broken out
infection has stayed the same and has         in the boil. 13:21 If, however, the priest
not spread on the skin, then the priest is    examines it, and there is no white hair in
to quarantine the person for another          it, it is not deeper than the skin, and it
seven days. 13:6 The priest must then         has faded, then the priest is to quaran-
examine it again on the seventh day, and      tine him for seven days. 13:22 If it is
if the infection has faded and has not        spreading further on the skin, then the
spread on the skin, then the priest is to     priest is to pronounce him unclean. It is
pronounce the person clean. It is a scab,     an infection. 13:23 But if the bright spot
so he must wash his clothes and be clean.     stays in its place and has not spread, it is
13:7 If, however, the scab is spreading
                                         239                         LEVITICUS 13:58
the scar of the boil, so the priest is to ther on the skin after his purification,
pronounce him clean.                         13:36 then the priest is to examine it,
                                             and if the scall has spread on the skin
A Burn on the Skin                           the priest is not to search further for
                                             reddish yellow hair. The person is un-
    13:24 “When a body has a burn on its
                                             clean. 13:37 If, as far as the priest can
skin and the raw area of the burn be- see, the scall has stayed the same and
comes a reddish white or white bright black hair has sprouted in it, the scall has
spot, 13:25 the priest must examine it, been healed; the person is clean. So the
and if the hair has turned white in the priest is to pronounce him clean.
bright spot and it appears to be deeper
than the skin, it is a disease that has Bright White Spots on the Skin
broken out in the burn. The priest is to
pronounce the person unclean. It is a dis-       13:38 “When a man or a woman has
eased infection. 13:26 If, however, the bright spots – white bright spots – on the
priest examines it and there is no white skin of their body, 13:39 the priest is to
hair in the bright spot, it is not deeper examine them, and if the bright spots on
than the skin, and it has faded, then the the skin of their body are faded white, it
priest is to quarantine him for seven is a harmless rash that has broken out on
days. 13:27 The priest must then examine the skin. The person is clean.
it on the seventh day, and if it is spread-
ing further on the skin, then the priest is Baldness on the Head
to pronounce him unclean. It is a diseased
                                                 13:40 “When a man’s head is bare so
infection. 13:28 But if the bright spot
stays in its place, has not spread on the that he is balding in back, he is clean.
skin, and it has faded, then it is the swel- 13:41 If his head is bare on the forehead
ling of the burn, so the priest is to pro- so that he is balding in front, he is clean.
nounce him clean, because it is the scar 13:42 But if there is a reddish white in-
of the burn.                                 fection in the back or front bald area, it
                                             is a disease breaking out in his back or
Scall on the Head or in the Beard            front bald area. 13:43 The priest is to
                                             examine it, and if the swelling of the in-
    13:29 “When a man or a woman has an fection is reddish white in the back or
infection on the head or in the beard, front bald area like the appearance of a
13:30 the priest is to examine the infec- disease on the skin of the body, 13:44 he
tion, and if it appears to be deeper than is a diseased man. He is unclean. The
the skin and the hair in it is reddish yel- priest must surely pronounce him unclean
low and thin, then the priest is to pro- because of his infection on his head.
nounce the person unclean. It is scall, a
disease of the head or the beard. 13:31 The Life of the Person with Skin Disease
But if the priest examines the scall in-
                                                 13:45 “As for the diseased person
fection and it does not appear to be
deeper than the skin, and there is no        who has the infection, his clothes must
black hair in it, then the priest is to be torn, the hair of his head must be
quarantine the person with the scall in- unbound, he must cover his mustache,
fection for seven days. 13:32 The priest and he must call out ‘Unclean! Unclean!’
must then examine the infection on the 13:46 The whole time he has the infec-
seventh day, and if the scall has not tion he will be continually unclean. He
spread, there is no reddish yellow hair in must live in isolation, and his place of
it, and the scall does not appear to be residence must be outside the camp.
deeper than the skin, 13:33 then the in- Infections in Garments, Cloth, or Leather
dividual is to shave himself, but he must
not shave the area affected by the scall,        13:47 “When a garment has a diseased
and the priest is to quarantine the person infection in it, whether a wool or linen
with the scall for another seven days. garment, 13:48 or in the warp or woof of
13:34 The priest must then examine the the linen or the wool, or in leather or
scall on the seventh day, and if the scall anything made of leather, 13:49 if the
has not spread on the skin and it does not infection in the garment or leather or
appear to be deeper than the skin, then warp or woof or any article of leather is
the priest is to pronounce him clean. So yellowish green or reddish, it is a dis-
he is to wash his clothes and be clean. eased infection and it must be shown to
13:35 If, however, the scall spreads fur- the priest. 13:50 The priest is to examine
LEVITICUS 13:51                            240
and then quarantine the article with the      and some twigs of hyssop be taken up for
infection for seven days. 13:51 He must       the one being cleansed. 14:5 The priest
then examine the infection on the sev-        will then command that one bird be
enth day. If the infection has spread in      slaughtered into a clay vessel over fresh
the garment, or in the warp, or in the        water. 14:6 Then he is to take the live
woof, or in the leather – whatever the        bird along with the piece of cedar wood,
article into which the leather was made –     the scrap of crimson fabric, and the
the infection is a malignant disease. It is   twigs of hyssop, and he is to dip them
unclean. 13:52 He must burn the garment       and the live bird in the blood of the bird
or the warp or the woof, whether wool or      slaughtered over the fresh water, 14:7
linen, or any article of leather which has    and sprinkle it seven times on the one
the infection in it. Because it is a malig-   being cleansed from the disease, pro-
nant disease it must be burned up in the      nounce him clean, and send the live bird
fire. 13:53 But if the priest examines it     away over the open countryside.
and the infection has not spread in the
garment or in the warp or in the woof or      The Seven Days of Purification
in any article of leather, 13:54 the priest
                                                 14:8 “The one being cleansed must
is to command that they wash whatever
has the infection and quarantine it for       then wash his clothes, shave off all his
another seven days. 13:55 The priest          hair, and bathe in water, and so be clean.
must then examine it after the infection      Then afterward he may enter the camp,
has been washed out, and if the infection     but he must live outside his tent seven
has not changed its appearance even           days. 14:9 When the seventh day comes
though the infection has not spread, it is    he must shave all his hair – his head, his
unclean. You must burn it up in the fire.     beard, his eyebrows, all his hair – and he
It is a fungus, whether on the back side      must wash his clothes, bathe his body in
or front side of the article. 13:56 But if    water, and so be clean.
the priest has examined it and the infec-     The Eighth Day Atonement Rituals
tion has faded after it has been washed,
he is to tear it out of the garment or the        14:10 “On the eighth day he must
leather or the warp or the woof. 13:57        take two flawless male lambs, one flaw-
Then if it still appears again in the gar-    less yearling female lamb, three-tenths
ment or the warp or the woof, or in any       of an ephah of choice wheat flour as a
article of leather, it is an outbreak.        grain offering mixed with olive oil, and
Whatever has the infection in it you          one log of olive oil, 14:11 and the priest
must burn up in the fire. 13:58 But the       who pronounces him clean will have the
garment or the warp or the woof or any        man who is being cleansed stand along
article of leather which you wash and         with these offerings before the LORD at
infection disappears from it is to be         the entrance of the Meeting Tent.
washed a second time and it will be               14:12 “The priest is to take one male
clean.”                                       lamb and present it for a guilt offering
                                              along with the log of olive oil and present
Summary of Infection Regulations              them as a wave offering before the LORD.
                                              14:13 He must then slaughter the male
   13:59 This is the law of the diseased
infection in the garment of wool or linen,    lamb in the place where the sin offering
or the warp or woof, or any article of        and the burnt offering are slaughtered,
leather, for pronouncing it clean or un-      in the sanctuary, because, like the sin
clean.                                        offering, the guilt offering belongs to
                                              the priest; it is most holy. 14:14 Then the
Purification of Diseased Skin Infections      priest is to take some of the blood of the
                                              guilt offering and put it on the right ear-
   14:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 14:2         lobe of the one being cleansed, on the
“This is the law of the diseased person on    thumb of his right hand, and on the big
the day of his purification, when he is       toe of his right foot. 14:15 The priest
brought to the priest. 14:3 The priest is     will then take some of the log of olive oil
to go outside the camp and examine the        and pour it into his own left hand. 14:16
infection. If the infection of the dis-       Then the priest is to dip his right fore-
eased person has been healed, 14:4 then       finger into the olive oil that is in his left
the priest will command that two live         hand, and sprinkle some of the olive oil
clean birds, a piece of cedar wood, a         with his finger seven times before the
scrap of crimson fabric,                      LORD. 14:17 The priest will then put some
                                            241                          LEVITICUS 14:47
of the rest of the olive oil that is in his        14:30 “He will then make one of the
hand on the right earlobe of the one be-        turtledoves or young pigeons, which are
ing cleansed, on the thumb of his right         within his means, 14:31 a sin offering and
hand, and on the big toe of his right foot,     the other a burnt offering along with the
on the blood of the guilt offering, 14:18       grain offering. So the priest is to make
and the remainder of the olive oil that is      atonement for the one being cleansed
in his hand the priest is to put on the         before the LORD. 14:32 This is the law of
head of the one being cleansed. So the          the one in whom there is a diseased in-
priest is to make atonement for him be-         fection, who does not have sufficient
fore the LORD.                                  means for his purification.”
   14:19 “The priest must then perform
the sin offering and make atonement for         Purification of Disease-Infected Houses
the one being cleansed from his impurity.
                                                    14:33 The LORD spoke to Moses and
After that he is to slaughter the burnt
offering, 14:20 and the priest is to offer      Aaron: 14:34 “When you enter the land of
the burnt offering and the grain offering       Canaan which I am about to give to you
on the altar. So the priest is to make          for a possession, and I put a diseased
atonement for him and he will be clean.         infection in a house in the land you are to
                                                possess, 14:35 then whoever owns the
The Eighth Day Atonement Rituals for the        house must come and declare to the
                                                priest, ‘Something like an infection is
Poor Person                                     visible to me in the house.’ 14:36 Then
    14:21 “If the person is poor and does       the priest will command that the house
not have sufficient means, he must take         be cleared before the priest enters to
one male lamb as a guilt offering for a         examine the infection so that everything
wave offering to make atonement for             in the house does not become unclean,
himself, one-tenth of an ephah of choice        and afterward the priest will enter to
wheat flour mixed with olive oil for a          examine the house. 14:37 He is to exam-
grain offering, a log of olive oil, 14:22 and   ine the infection, and if the infection in
two turtledoves or two young pigeons,           the walls of the house consists of yel-
which are within his means. One will be a       lowish green or reddish eruptions, and it
sin offering and the other a burnt offer-       appears to be deeper than the surface of
ing.                                            the wall, 14:38 then the priest is to go
    14:23 “On the eighth day he must            out of the house to the doorway of the
bring them for his purification to the          house and quarantine the house for seven
priest at the entrance of the Meeting           days. 14:39 The priest must return on
Tent before the LORD, 14:24 and the             the seventh day and examine it, and if
priest is to take the male lamb of the          the infection has spread in the walls of
guilt offering and the log of olive oil and     the house, 14:40 then the priest is to
wave them as a wave offering before the         command that the stones that had the
LORD. 14:25 Then he is to slaughter the         infection in them be pulled and thrown
male lamb of the guilt offering, and the        outside the city into an unclean place.
priest is to take some of the blood of the      14:41 Then he is to have the house
guilt offering and put it on the right ear-     scraped all around on the inside, and the
lobe of the one being cleansed, on the          plaster which is scraped off must be
thumb of his right hand, and on the big         dumped outside the city into an unclean
toe of his right foot. 14:26 The priest         place. 14:42 They are then to take other
will then pour some of the olive oil into       stones and replace those stones, and he
his own left hand, 14:27 and sprinkle           is to take other plaster and replaster the
some of the olive oil that is in his left       house.
hand with his right forefinger seven                14:43 “If the infection returns and
times before the LORD. 14:28 Then the           breaks out in the house after he has
priest is to put some of the olive oil that     pulled out the stones, scraped the house,
is in his hand on the right earlobe of the      and it is replastered, 14:44 the priest is
one being cleansed, on the thumb of his         to come and examine it, and if the infec-
right hand, and on the big toe of his right     tion has spread in the house, it is a malig-
foot, on the place of the blood of the          nant disease in the house. It is unclean.
guilt offering, 14:29 and the remainder         14:45 He must tear down the house, its
of the olive oil that is in the hand of the     stones, its wood, and all the plaster of
priest he is to put on the head of the one      the house, and bring all of it outside the
being cleansed to make atonement for            city to an unclean place. 14:46 Anyone
him before the LORD.                            who enters the house all the days the
LEVITICUS 14:47                           242
priest has quarantined it will be unclean     clean until evening. 15:6 The one who sits
until evening. 14:47 Anyone who lies down     on the furniture the man with a dis-
in the house must wash his clothes. Any-      charge sits on must wash his clothes,
one who eats in the house must wash his       bathe in water, and be unclean until eve-
clothes.                                      ning. 15:7 The one who touches the body
    14:48 “If, however, the priest enters     of the man with a discharge must wash
and examines it, and the infection has        his clothes, bathe in water, and be un-
not spread in the house after the house       clean until evening. 15:8 If the man with
has been replastered, then the priest is      a discharge spits on a person who is
to pronounce the house clean because the      ceremonially clean, that person must
infection has been healed. 14:49 Then he      wash his clothes, bathe in water, and be
is to take two birds, a piece of cedar        unclean until evening. 15:9 Any means of
wood, a scrap of crimson fabric, and          riding the man with a discharge rides on
some twigs of hyssop to decontaminate         will be unclean. 15:10 Anyone who touches
the house, 14:50 and he is to slaughter       anything that was under him will be un-
one bird into a clay vessel over fresh wa-    clean until evening, and the one who car-
ter. 14:51 He must then take the piece        ries those items must wash his clothes,
of cedar wood, the twigs of hyssop, the       bathe in water, and be unclean until eve-
scrap of crimson fabric, and the live bird,   ning. 15:11 Anyone whom the man with
and dip them in the blood of the slaugh-      the discharge touches without having
tered bird and in the fresh water, and        rinsed his hands in water must wash his
sprinkle the house seven times. 14:52 So      clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean
he is to decontaminate the house with         until evening. 15:12 A clay vessel which
the blood of the bird, the fresh water,       the man with the discharge touches must
the live bird, the piece of cedar wood,       be broken, and any wooden utensil must
the twigs of hyssop, and the scrap of         be rinsed in water.
crimson fabric, 14:53 and he is to send
the live bird away outside the city into      Purity Regulations for Male Bodily
the open countryside. So he is to make        Discharges
atonement for the house and it will be
clean.                                           15:13 “‘When the man with the dis-
                                              charge becomes clean from his discharge
Summary of Purification Regulations for       he is to count off for himself seven days
Infections                                    for his purification, and he must wash his
                                              clothes, bathe in fresh water, and be
    14:54 “This is the law for all diseased   clean. 15:14 Then on the eighth day he is
infections, for scall, 14:55 for the dis-     to take for himself two turtledoves or
eased garment, for the house, 14:56 for       two young pigeons, and he is to present
the swelling, for the scab, and for the       himself before the LORD at the entrance
bright spot, 14:57 to teach when some-        of the Meeting Tent and give them to
thing is unclean and when it is clean. This   the priest, 15:15 and the priest is to
is the law for dealing with infectious dis-   make one of them a sin offering and the
ease.”                                        other a burnt offering. So the priest is
                                              to make atonement for him before the
Male Bodily Discharges                        LORD for his discharge.
                                                 15:16 “‘When a man has a seminal
    15:1 The LORD spoke to Moses and
                                              emission, he must bathe his whole body in
Aaron: 15:2 “Speak to the Israelites and      water and be unclean until evening, 15:17
tell them, ‘When any man has a discharge      and he must wash in water any clothing or
from his body, his discharge is unclean.      leather that has semen on it, and it will
15:3 Now this is his uncleanness in regard
                                              be unclean until evening. 15:18 When a
to his discharge – whether his body se-       man has sexual intercourse with a woman
cretes his discharge or blocks his dis-       and there is a seminal emission, they
charge, he is unclean. All the days that      must bathe in water and be unclean until
his body has a discharge or his body          evening.
blocks his discharge, this is his unclean-
ness.                                         Female Bodily Discharges
    15:4 “‘Any bed the man with a dis-
charge lies on will be unclean, and any          15:19 “‘When a woman has a discharge
furniture he sits on will be unclean. 15:5    and her discharge is blood from her
Anyone who touches his bed must wash          body, she is to be in her menstruation
his clothes, bathe in water, and be un-       seven days, and anyone who touches her
                                           243                          LEVITICUS 16:14
will be unclean until evening. 15:20 Any-      or female, and a man who has sexual in-
thing she lies on during her menstruation      tercourse with an unclean woman.’”
will be unclean, and anything she sits on
will be unclean. 15:21 Anyone who touches      The Day of Atonement
her bed must wash his clothes, bathe in
                                                   16:1 The LORD spoke to Moses after
water, and be unclean until evening. 15:22
Anyone who touches any furniture she           the death of Aaron’s two sons when they
sits on must wash his clothes, bathe in        approached the presence of the LORD and
water, and be unclean until evening. 15:23     died, 16:2 and the LORD said to Moses:
If there is something on the bed or on         “Tell Aaron your brother that he must
the furniture she sits on, when he             not enter at any time into the holy place
touches it he will be unclean until evening,   inside the veil-canopy in front of the
15:24 and if a man actually has sexual
                                               atonement plate that is on the ark so
intercourse with her so that her men-          that he may not die, for I will appear in
strual impurity touches him, then he will      the cloud over the atonement plate.
be unclean seven days and any bed he lies      Day of Atonement Offerings
on will be unclean.
    15:25 “‘When a woman’s discharge of            16:3 “In this way Aaron is to enter
blood flows many days not at the time of       into the sanctuary – with a young bull for
her menstruation, or if it flows beyond        a sin offering and a ram for a burnt of-
the time of her menstruation, all the          fering. 16:4 He must put on a holy linen
days of her discharge of impurity will be      tunic, linen leggings are to cover his body,
like the days of her menstruation – she is     and he is to wrap himself with a linen
unclean. 15:26 Any bed she lies on all the     sash and wrap his head with a linen tur-
days of her discharge will be to her like      ban. They are holy garments, so he must
the bed of her menstruation, any furni-        bathe his body in water and put them on.
ture she sits on will be unclean like the      16:5 He must also take two male goats
impurity of her menstruation, 15:27 and        from the congregation of the Israelites
anyone who touches them will be unclean,       for a sin offering and one ram for a
and he must wash his clothes, bathe in         burnt offering. 16:6 Then Aaron is to
water, and be unclean until evening.           present the sin offering bull which is for
                                               himself and is to make atonement on be-
Purity Regulations from Female Bodily          half of himself and his household. 16:7
Discharges                                     He must then take the two goats and
                                               stand them before the LORD at the en-
    15:28 “‘If she becomes clean from her      trance of the Meeting Tent, 16:8 and
discharge, then she is to count off for        Aaron is to cast lots over the two goats,
herself seven days, and afterward she          one lot for the LORD and one lot for
will be clean. 15:29 Then on the eighth        Azazel. 16:9 Aaron must then present
day she must take for herself two tur-         the goat which has been designated by
tledoves or two young pigeons and she          lot for the LORD, and he is to make it a
must bring them to the priest at the en-       sin offering, 16:10 but the goat which
trance of the Meeting Tent, 15:30 and          has been designated by lot for Azazel is
the priest is to make one a sin offering       to be stood alive before the LORD to
and the other a burnt offering. So the         make atonement on it by sending it away
priest is to make atonement for her be-        to Azazel into the wilderness.
fore the LORD from her discharge of im-
purity.                                   The Sin Offering Sacrificial Procedures
Summary of Purification Regulations for           16:11 “Aaron is to present the sin of-
Bodily Discharges                              fering bull which is for himself, and he is
                                               to make atonement on behalf of himself
    15:31 “‘Thus you are to set the Isra-      and his household. He is to slaughter the
elites apart from their impurity so that       sin offering bull which is for himself,
they do not die in their impurity by defil-    16:12 and take a censer full of coals of
ing my tabernacle which is in their midst.     fire from the altar before the LORD and
15:32 This is the law of the one with a        a full double handful of finely ground
discharge: the one who has a seminal           fragrant incense, and bring them inside
emission and becomes unclean by it, 15:33      the veil-canopy. 16:13 He must then put
the one who is sick in her menstruation,       the incense on the fire before the LORD,
the one with a discharge, whether male         and the cloud of incense will cover the
                                               atonement plate which is above the ark
LEVITICUS 16:14                           244
of the testimony, so that he will not die.    clothes, and go out and make his burnt
16:14 Then he is to take some of the          offering and the people’s burnt offering.
blood of the bull and sprinkle it with his    So he is to make atonement on behalf of
finger on the eastern face of the atone-      himself and the people.
ment plate, and in front of the atone-            16:25 “Then he is to offer up the fat
ment plate he is to sprinkle some of the      of the sin offering in smoke on the altar,
blood seven times with his finger.            16:26 and the one who sent the goat away
    16:15 “He must then slaughter the sin     to Azazel must wash his clothes, bathe
offering goat which is for the people. He     his body in water, and afterward he may
is to bring its blood inside the veil-        reenter the camp. 16:27 The bull of the
canopy, and he is to do with its blood just   sin offering and the goat of the sin of-
as he did to the blood of the bull: He is     fering, whose blood was brought to make
to sprinkle it on the atonement plate and     atonement in the holy place, must be
in front of the atonement plate. 16:16 So     brought outside the camp and their hide,
he is to make atonement for the holy          their flesh, and their dung must be
place from the impurities of the Israel-      burned up, 16:28 and the one who burns
ites and from their transgressions with       them must wash his clothes and bathe his
regard to all their sins, and thus he is to   body in water, and afterward he may re-
do for the Meeting Tent which resides         enter the camp.
with them in the midst of their impuri-
ties. 16:17 Nobody is to be in the Meet-      Review of the Day of Atonement
ing Tent when he enters to make atone-
                                                  16:29 “This is to be a perpetual stat-
ment in the holy place until he goes out,
and he has made atonement on his behalf,      ute for you. In the seventh month, on the
on behalf of his household, and on behalf     tenth day of the month, you must humble
of the whole assembly of Israel.              yourselves and do no work of any kind,
    16:18 “Then he is to go out to the al-
                                              both the native citizen and the foreigner
tar which is before the LORD and make         who resides in your midst, 16:30 for on
atonement for it. He is to take some of       this day atonement is to be made for you
the blood of the bull and some of the         to cleanse you from all your sins; you
blood of the goat, and put it all around on   must be clean before the LORD. 16:31 It
the horns of the altar. 16:19 Then he is      is to be a Sabbath of complete rest for
to sprinkle on it some of the blood with      you, and you must humble yourselves. It
his finger seven times, and cleanse and       is a perpetual statute.
                                                  16:32 “The priest who is anointed and
consecrate it from the impurities of the
Israelites.                                   ordained to act as high priest in place of
                                              his father is to make atonement. He is to
The Live Goat Ritual Procedures               put on the linen garments, the holy gar-
                                              ments, 16:33 and he is to purify the Most
    16:20 “When he has finished purifying     Holy Place, he is to purify the Meeting
the holy place, the Meeting Tent, and the     Tent and the altar, and he is to make
altar, he is to present the live goat. 16:21  atonement for the priests and for all the
Aaron is to lay his two hands on the head     people of the assembly. 16:34 This is to
of the live goat and confess over it all      be a perpetual statute for you to make
the iniquities of the Israelites and all      atonement for the Israelites for all their
their transgressions in regard to all their   sins once a year.” So he did just as the
sins, and thus he is to put them on the       LORD had commanded Moses.
head of the goat and send it away into
the wilderness by the hand of a man The Slaughter of Animals
standing ready. 16:22 The goat is to bear
                                                17:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 17:2
on itself all their iniquities into an inac-
cessible land, so he is to send the goat     “Speak to Aaron, his sons, and all the
away in the wilderness.                      Israelites, and tell them: ‘This is the
                                             word that the LORD has commanded: 17:3
The Concluding Rituals                       “Blood guilt will be accounted to any man
                                             from the house of Israel who slaughters
    16:23 “Aaron must then enter the an ox or a lamb or a goat inside the camp
Meeting Tent and take off the linen gar- or outside the camp, 17:4 but has not
ments which he had put on when he en- brought it to the entrance of the Meet-
tered the sanctuary, and leave them ing Tent to present it as an offering to
there. 16:24 Then he must bathe his the LORD before the tabernacle of the
body in water in a holy place, put on his LORD. He has shed blood, so that man will
                                            245                            LEVITICUS 18:18
be cut off from the midst of his people.        and does not bathe his body, he will bear
17:5 This is so that the Israelites will        his punishment for iniquity.’”
bring their sacrifices that they are sac-
rificing in the open field to the LORD at       Exhortation to Obedience and Life
the entrance of the Meeting Tent to the
                                                   18:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 18:2
priest and sacrifice them there as peace
offering sacrifices to the LORD. 17:6 The       “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘I
priest is to splash the blood on the altar      am the LORD your God! 18:3 You must not
of the LORD at the entrance of the              do as they do in the land of Egypt where
Meeting Tent, and offer the fat up in           you have been living, and you must not do
smoke for a soothing aroma to the LORD.         as they do in the land of Canaan into
17:7 So they must no longer offer their
                                                which I am about to bring you; you must
sacrifices to the goat demons, acting like      not walk in their statutes. 18:4 You must
prostitutes by going after them. This is        observe my regulations and you must be
to be a perpetual statute for them              sure to walk in my statutes. I am the
throughout their generations.                   LORD your God. 18:5 So you must keep my
    17:8 “You are to say to them: ‘Any
                                                statutes and my regulations; anyone who
man from the house of Israel or from            does so will live by keeping them. I am
the foreigners who reside in their midst,       the LORD.
who offers a burnt offering or a sacri-         Laws of Sexual Relations
fice 17:9 but does not bring it to the en-
trance of the Meeting Tent to offer it to           18:6 “‘No man is to approach any close
the LORD – that person will be cut off          relative to have sexual intercourse with
from his people.                                her. I am the LORD. 18:7 You must not
                                                expose your father’s nakedness by having
Prohibition against Eating Blood                sexual intercourse with your mother. She
    17:10 “‘Any man from the house of Is-
                                                is your mother; you must not have inter-
rael or from the foreigners who reside in       course with her. 18:8 You must not have
their midst who eats any blood, I will set      sexual intercourse with your father’s
my face against that person who eats the        wife; she is your father’s nakedness. 18:9
blood, and I will cut him off from the          You must not have sexual intercourse
midst of his people, 17:11 for the life of      with your sister, whether she is your fa-
every living thing is in the blood. So I        ther’s daughter or your mother’s daugh-
myself have assigned it to you on the           ter, whether she is born in the same
altar to make atonement for your lives,         household or born outside it; you must
for the blood makes atonement by means          not have sexual intercourse with either
of the life. 17:12 Therefore, I have said       of them. 18:10 You must not expose the
to the Israelites: No person among you is       nakedness of your son’s daughter or your
to eat blood, and no resident foreigner         daughter’s daughter by having sexual
who lives among you is to eat blood.            intercourse with them, because they are
    17:13 “‘Any man from the Israelites
                                                your own nakedness. 18:11 You must not
or from the foreigners who reside in            have sexual intercourse with the daugh-
their midst who hunts a wild animal or a        ter of your father’s wife born of your
bird that may be eaten must pour out its        father; she is your sister. You must not
blood and cover it with soil, 17:14 for the     have intercourse with her. 18:12 You
life of all flesh is its blood. So I have       must not have sexual intercourse with
said to the Israelites: You must not eat        your father’s sister; she is your father’s
the blood of any living thing because the       flesh. 18:13 You must not have sexual
life of every living thing is its blood – all   intercourse with your mother’s sister,
who eat it will be cut off.                     because she is your mother’s flesh. 18:14
                                                You must not expose the nakedness of
Regulations for Eating Carcasses                your father’s brother; you must not ap-
                                                proach his wife to have sexual inter-
    17:15 “‘Any person who eats an animal       course with her. She is your aunt. 18:15
that has died of natural causes or an           You must not have sexual intercourse
animal torn by beasts, whether a native         with your daughter-in-law; she is your
citizen or a foreigner, must wash his           son’s wife. You must not have intercourse
clothes, bathe in water, and be unclean         with her. 18:16 You must not have sexual
until evening; then he becomes clean.           intercourse with your brother’s wife; she
17:16 But if he does not wash his clothes       is your brother’s nakedness. 18:17 You
                                                must not have sexual intercourse with
LEVITICUS 18:18                            246
both a woman and her daughter; you must        Israelites and tell them, ‘You must be
not take as wife either her son’s daugh-       holy because I, the LORD your God, am
ter or her daughter’s daughter to have         holy. 19:3 Each of you must respect his
intercourse with them. They are closely        mother and his father, and you must keep
related to her – it is lewdness. 18:18 You     my Sabbaths. I am the LORD your God.
must not take a woman in marriage and          19:4 Do not turn to idols, and you must
then marry her sister as a rival wife          not make for yourselves gods of cast
while she is still alive, to have sexual in-   metal. I am the LORD your God.
tercourse with her.
    18:19 “‘You must not approach a            Eating the Peace Offering
woman in her menstrual impurity to have
                                                   19:5 “‘When you sacrifice a peace of-
sexual intercourse with her. 18:20 You
must not have sexual intercourse with          fering sacrifice to the LORD, you must
the wife of your fellow citizen to become      sacrifice it so that it is accepted for you.
                                               19:6 It must be eaten on the day of your
unclean with her. 18:21 You must not give
any of your children as an offering to         sacrifice and on the following day, but
Molech, so that you do not profane the         what is left over until the third day must
name of your God. I am the LORD! 18:22         be burned up. 19:7 If, however, it is
You must not have sexual intercourse           eaten on the third day, it is spoiled, it
with a male as one has sexual intercourse      will not be accepted, 19:8 and the one
with a woman; it is a detestable act.          who eats it will bear his punishment for
18:23 You must not have sexual inter-
                                               iniquity because he has profaned what is
course with any animal to become defiled       holy to the LORD. That person will be cut
with it, and a woman must not stand be-        off from his people.
fore an animal to have sexual intercourse      Leaving the Gleanings
with it; it is a perversion.
                                                  19:9 “‘When you gather in the harvest
Warning against the Abominations of the        of your land, you must not completely
Nations                                        harvest the corner of your field, and you
                                               must not gather up the gleanings of your
    18:24 “‘Do not defile yourselves with      harvest. 19:10 You must not pick your
any of these things, for the nations           vineyard bare, and you must not gather
which I am about to drive out before you       up the fallen grapes of your vineyard. You
have been defiled with all these things.       must leave them for the poor and the
18:25 Therefore the land has become            foreigner. I am the LORD your God.
unclean and I have brought the punish-
ment for its iniquity upon it, so that the     Dealing Honestly
land has vomited out its inhabitants.
18:26 You yourselves must obey my stat-            19:11 “‘You must not steal, you must
utes and my regulations and must not do        not tell lies, and you must not deal falsely
any of these abominations, both the na-        with your fellow citizen. 19:12 You must
tive citizen and the resident foreigner in     not swear falsely in my name, so that you
your midst, 18:27 for the people who           do not profane the name of your God. I
were in the land before you have done all      am the LORD. 19:13 You must not oppress
these abominations, and the land has be-       your neighbor or commit robbery against
come unclean. 18:28 So do not make the         him. You must not withhold the wages of
land vomit you out because you defile it       the hired laborer overnight until morning.
just as it has vomited out the nations         19:14 You must not curse a deaf person
that were before you. 18:29 For if any-        or put a stumbling block in front of a
one does any of these abominations, the        blind person. You must fear your God; I
persons who do them will be cut off from       am the LORD.
the midst of their people. 18:30 You must
obey my charge to not practice any of          Justice, Love, and Propriety
the abominable statutes that have been      19:15 “‘You must not deal unjustly in
done before you, so that you do not de- judgment: you must neither show partial-
file yourselves by them. I am the LORD  ity to the poor nor honor the rich. You
your God.’”                             must judge your fellow citizen fairly.
                                        19:16 You must not go about as a slan-
Religious and Social Regulations        derer among your people. You must not
    19:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 19:2 stand idly by when your neighbor’s life is
“Speak to the whole congregation of the at stake. I am the LORD. 19:17 You must
                                         247                          LEVITICUS 20:6
not hate your brother in your heart. You     Purity, Honor, Respect, and Honesty
must surely reprove your fellow citizen
so that you do not incur sin on account of       19:30 “‘You must keep my Sabbaths
him. 19:18 You must not take vengeance       and fear my sanctuary. I am the LORD.
or bear a grudge against the children of     19:31 Do not turn to the spirits of the
your people, but you must love your          dead and do not seek familiar spirits to
neighbor as yourself. I am the LORD.         become unclean by them. I am the LORD
19:19 You must keep my statutes. You         your God. 19:32 You must stand up in the
must not allow two different kinds of        presence of the aged, honor the pres-
your animals to breed, you must not sow      ence of an elder, and fear your God. I am
your field with two different kinds of       the LORD. 19:33 When a foreigner re-
seed, and you must not wear a garment        sides with you in your land, you must not
made of two different kinds of fabric.       oppress him. 19:34 The foreigner who
                                             resides with you must be to you like a
Lying with a Slave Woman                     native citizen among you; so you must
                                             love him as yourself, because you were
    19:20 “‘When a man has sexual inter-     foreigners in the land of Egypt. I am the
course with a woman, although she is a       LORD your God. 19:35 You must not do
slave woman designated for another man       injustice in the regulation of measures,
and she has not yet been ransomed, or        whether of length, weight, or volume.
freedom has not been granted to her,         19:36 You must have honest balances,
there will be an obligation to pay compen-   honest weights, an honest ephah, and an
sation. They must not be put to death,       honest hin. I am the LORD your God who
because she was not free. 19:21 He must      brought you out from the land of Egypt.
bring his guilt offering to the LORD at      19:37 You must be sure to obey all my
the entrance of the Meeting Tent, a guilt    statutes and regulations. I am the LORD.’”
offering ram, 19:22 and the priest is to
make atonement for him with the ram of Prohibitions against Illegitimate Family
the guilt offering before the LORD for
his sin that he has committed, and he will Worship
be forgiven of his sin that he has com-          20:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 20:2
mitted.                                      “You are to say to the Israelites, ‘Any
                                             man from the Israelites or from the for-
The Produce of Fruit Trees                   eigners who reside in Israel who gives
    19:23 “‘When you enter the land and any of his children to Molech must be put
plant any fruit tree, you must consider to death; the people of the land must
its fruit to be forbidden. Three years it pelt him with stones. 20:3 I myself will
will be forbidden to you; it must not be set my face against that man and cut him
eaten. 19:24 In the fourth year all its off from the midst of his people, be-
fruit will be holy, praise offerings to the cause he has given some of his children
LORD. 19:25 Then in the fifth year you to Molech and thereby defiled my sanc-
may eat its fruit to add its produce to tuary and profaned my holy name. 20:4
your harvest. I am the LORD your God.        If, however, the people of the land shut
                                             their eyes to that man when he gives
Blood, Hair, and Body                        some of his children to Molech so that
                                             they do not put him to death, 20:5 I my-
    19:26 “‘You must not eat anything with self will set my face against that man and
the blood still in it. You must not practice his clan. I will cut off from the midst of
either divination or soothsaying. 19:27 their people both him
You must not round off the corners of and all who follow after him in spiritual
the hair on your head or ruin the corners prostitution, to commit prostitution by
of your beard. 19:28 You must not slash worshiping Molech.
your body for a dead person or incise a
tattoo on yourself. I am the LORD. 19:29 Prohibition against Spiritists and Mediums
Do not profane your daughter by making
her a prostitute, so that the land does          20:6 “‘The person who turns to the
not practice prostitution and become full spirits of the dead and familiar spirits to
of lewdness.                                 commit prostitution by going after them,
                                             I will set my face against that person and
                                             cut him off from the midst of his people.
LEVITICUS 20:7                            248
Exhortation to Holiness and Obedience         intercourse with his aunt, he has exposed
                                              his uncle’s nakedness; they must bear
   20:7 “‘You must sanctify yourselves        responsibility for their sin, they will die
and be holy, because I am the LORD your       childless. 20:21 If a man has sexual in-
God. 20:8 You must be sure to obey my         tercourse with his brother’s wife, it is
statutes. I am the LORD who sanctifies        indecency. He has exposed his brother’s
you.                                          nakedness; they will be childless.
Family Life and Sexual Prohibitions           Exhortation to Holiness and Obedience
    20:9 “‘If anyone curses his father and        20:22 “‘You must be sure to obey all
mother he must be put to death. He has        my statutes and regulations, so that the
cursed his father and mother; his blood       land to which I am about to bring you to
guilt is on himself. 20:10 If a man com-      take up residence there does not vomit
mits adultery with his neighbor’s wife,       you out. 20:23 You must not walk in the
both the adulterer and the adulteress         statutes of the nation which I am about
must be put to death. 20:11 If a man has      to drive out before you, because they
sexual intercourse with his father’s wife,    have done all these things and I am filled
he has exposed his father’s nakedness.        with disgust against them. 20:24 So I
Both of them must be put to death; their      have said to you: You yourselves will pos-
blood guilt is on themselves. 20:12 If a      sess their land and I myself will give it to
man has sexual intercourse with his           you for a possession, a land flowing with
daughter-in-law, both of them must be         milk and honey. I am the LORD your God
put to death. They have committed per-        who has set you apart from the other
version; their blood guilt is on them-        peoples. 20:25 Therefore you must dis-
selves. 20:13 If a man has sexual inter-      tinguish between the clean animal and the
course with a male as one has sexual in-      unclean, and between the unclean bird
tercourse with a woman, the two of them       and the clean, and you must not make
have committed an abomination. They           yourselves detestable by means of an
must be put to death; their blood guilt is    animal or bird or anything that creeps on
on themselves. 20:14 If a man has sexual      the ground – creatures I have distin-
intercourse with both a woman and her         guished for you as unclean. 20:26 You
mother, it is lewdness. Both he and they      must be holy to me because I, the LORD,
must be burned to death, so there is no       am holy, and I have set you apart from
lewdness in your midst. 20:15 If a man        the other peoples to be mine.
has sexual intercourse with any animal,
he must be put to death, and you must         Prohibition against Spiritists and Mediums
kill the animal. 20:16 If a woman ap-
proaches any animal to have sexual inter-        20:27 “‘A man or woman who has in
course with it, you must kill the woman,      them a spirit of the dead or a familiar
and the animal must be put to death;          spirit must be put to death. They must
their blood guilt is on themselves.           pelt them with stones; their blood guilt is
    20:17 “‘If a man has sexual inter-        on themselves.’”
course with his sister, whether the           Rules for the Priests
daughter of his father or his mother, so
that he sees her nakedness and she sees           21:1 The LORD said to Moses: “Say to
his nakedness, it is a disgrace. They must    the priests, the sons of Aaron – say to
be cut off in the sight of the children of    them, ‘For a dead person no priest is to
their people. He has exposed his sister’s     defile himself among his people, 21:2 ex-
nakedness; he will bear his punishment        cept for his close relative who is near to
for iniquity. 20:18 If a man has sexual       him: his mother, his father, his son, his
intercourse with a menstruating woman         daughter, his brother, 21:3 and his virgin
and uncovers her nakedness, he has laid       sister who is near to him, who has no
bare her fountain of blood and she has        husband; he may defile himself for her.
exposed the fountain of her blood, so         21:4 He must not defile himself as a hus-
both of them must be cut off from the         band among his people so as to profane
midst of their people. 20:19 You must not     himself. 21:5 Priests must not have a bald
expose the nakedness of your mother’s         spot shaved on their head, they must not
sister and your father’s sister, for such a   shave the corner of their beard, and
person has laid bare his own close rela-      they must not cut slashes in their body.
tive. They must bear their punishment             21:6 “‘They must be holy to their God,
for iniquity. 20:20 If a man has sexual       and they must not profane the name of
                                           249                          LEVITICUS 22:16
their God, because they are the ones who       Thus he must not profane my holy places,
present the LORD’s gifts, the food of          for I am the LORD who sanctifies them.’”
their God. Therefore they must be holy.           21:24 So Moses spoke these things to
21:7 They must not take a wife defiled         Aaron, his sons, and all the Israelites.
by prostitution, nor are they to take a
wife divorced from her husband, for the        Regulations for the Eating of Priestly
priest is holy to his God. 21:8 You must       Stipends
sanctify him because he presents the
food of your God. He must be holy to you           22:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 22:2
because I, the LORD who sanctifies you         “Tell Aaron and his sons that they must
all, am holy. 21:9 If a daughter of a          deal respectfully with the holy offerings
priest profanes herself by engaging in         of the Israelites, which they consecrate
prostitution, she is profaning her father.     to me, so that they do not profane my
She must be burned to death.                   holy name. I am the LORD. 22:3 Say to
                                               them, ‘Throughout your generations, if
Rules for the High Priest                      any man from all your descendants ap-
                                               proaches the holy offerings which the
    21:10 “‘The high priest – who is           Israelites consecrate to the LORD while
greater than his brothers, on whose head       he is impure, that person must be cut off
the anointing oil is poured, who has been      from before me. I am the LORD. 22:4 No
ordained to wear the priestly garments –       man from the descendants of Aaron who
must neither dishevel the hair of his          is diseased or has a discharge may eat
head nor tear his garments. 21:11 He           the holy offerings until he becomes
must not go where there is any dead per-       clean. The one who touches anything
son; he must not defile himself even for       made unclean by contact with a dead per-
his father and his mother. 21:12 He must       son, or a man who has a seminal emission,
not go out from the sanctuary and must         22:5 or a man who touches a swarming
not profane the sanctuary of his God,          thing by which he becomes unclean, or
because the dedication of the anointing        touches a person by which he becomes
oil of his God is on him. I am the LORD.       unclean, whatever that person’s impurity
21:13 He must take a wife who is a virgin.     – 22:6 the person who touches any of
21:14 He must not marry a widow, a di-         these will be unclean until evening and
vorced woman, or one profaned by prosti-       must not eat from the holy offerings
tution; he may only take a virgin from his     unless he has bathed his body in water.
people as a wife. 21:15 He must not pro-       22:7 When the sun goes down he will be
fane his children among his people, for I      clean, and afterward he may eat from
am the LORD who sanctifies him.’”              the holy offerings, because they are his
                                               food. 22:8 He must not eat an animal that
Rules for the Priesthood                       has died of natural causes or an animal
    21:16 The LORD spoke to Moses: 21:17       torn by beasts and thus become unclean
“Tell Aaron, ‘No man from your descen-         by it. I am the LORD. 22:9 They must
dants throughout their generations who         keep my charge so that they do not incur
has a physical flaw is to approach to pre-     sin on account of it and therefore die
sent the food of his God. 21:18 Certainly      because they profane it. I am the LORD
no man who has a physical flaw is to ap-       who sanctifies them.
proach: a blind man, or one who is lame,           22:10 “‘No lay person may eat anything
or one with a slit nose, or a limb too long,   holy. Neither a priest’s lodger nor a hired
21:19 or a man who has had a broken leg        laborer may eat anything holy, 22:11 but
or arm, 21:20 or a hunchback, or a dwarf,      if a priest buys a person with his own
or one with a spot in his eye, or a fester-    money, that person may eat the holy of-
ing eruption, or a feverish rash, or a         ferings, and those born in the priest’s
crushed testicle. 21:21 No man from the        own house may eat his food. 22:12 If a
descendants of Aaron the priest who has        priest’s daughter marries a lay person,
a physical flaw may step forward to pre-       she may not eat the holy contribution
sent the LORD’s gifts; he has a physical       offerings, 22:13 but if a priest’s daugh-
flaw, so he must not step forward to pre-      ter is a widow or divorced, and she has no
sent the food of his God. 21:22 He may         children so that she returns to live in her
eat both the most holy and the holy food       father’s house as in her youth, she may
of his God, 21:23 but he must not go into      eat from her father’s food, but no lay
the veil-canopy or step forward to the         person may eat it.
altar because he has a physical flaw.              22:14 “‘If a man eats a holy offering
                                               by mistake, he must add one fifth to it
LEVITICUS 22:15                           250
and give the holy offering to the priest.         22:31 “You must be sure to do my
22:15 They must not profane the holy          commandments. I am the LORD. 22:32 You
offerings which the Israelites contribute     must not profane my holy name, and I will
to the LORD, 22:16 and so cause them to       be sanctified in the midst of the Israel-
incur a penalty for guilt when they eat       ites. I am the LORD who sanctifies you,
their holy offerings, for I am the LORD       22:33 the one who brought you out from
who sanctifies them.’”                        the land of Egypt to be your God. I am
                                              the LORD.”
Regulations for Offering Votive and
Freewill Offerings                            Regulations for Israel’s Appointed Times

    22:17 The LORD spoke to Moses: 22:18          23:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 23:2
“Speak to Aaron, his sons, and all the        “Speak to the Israelites and tell them,
Israelites and tell them, ‘When any man       ‘These are the LORD’s appointed times
from the house of Israel or from the          which you must proclaim as holy assem-
foreigners in Israel presents his offering    blies – my appointed times:
for any of the votive or freewill offer-
ings which they present to the LORD as a      The Weekly Sabbath
burnt offering, 22:19 if it is to be ac-          23:3 “‘Six days work may be done, but
ceptable for your benefit it must be a        on the seventh day there must be a Sab-
flawless male from the cattle, sheep, or      bath of complete rest, a holy assembly.
goats. 22:20 You must not present any-        You must not do any work; it is a Sabbath
thing that has a flaw, because it will not    to the LORD in all the places where you
be acceptable for your benefit. 22:21 If      live.
a man presents a peace offering sacrifice
to the LORD for a special votive offering     The Festival of Passover and Unleavened
or for a freewill offering from the herd      Bread
or the flock, it must be flawless to be
acceptable; it must have no flaw.                 23:4 “‘These are the LORD’s appointed
    22:22 “‘You must not present to the       times, holy assemblies, which you must
LORD something blind, or with a broken        proclaim at their appointed time. 23:5 In
bone, or mutilated, or with a running         the first month, on the fourteenth day
sore, or with a festering eruption, or        of the month, at twilight, is a Passover
with a feverish rash. You must not give       offering to the LORD. 23:6 Then on the
any of these as a gift on the altar to the    fifteenth day of the same month will be
LORD. 22:23 As for an ox or a sheep with      the festival of unleavened bread to the
a limb too long or stunted, you may pre-      LORD; seven days you must eat unleav-
sent it as a freewill offering, but it will   ened bread. 23:7 On the first day there
not be acceptable for a votive offering.      will be a holy assembly for you; you must
22:24 You must not present to the LORD        not do any regular work. 23:8 You must
something with testicles that are             present a gift to the LORD for seven
bruised, crushed, torn, or cut off; you       days, and the seventh day is a holy as-
must not do this in your land. 22:25 Even     sembly; you must not do any regular
from a foreigner you must not present         work.’”
the food of your God from such animals
as these, for they are ruined and flawed;     The Presentation of First Fruits
they will not be acceptable for your
benefit.’”                                        23:9 The LORD spoke to Moses: 23:10
    22:26 The LORD spoke to Moses: 22:27      “Speak to the Israelites and tell them,
“When an ox, lamb, or goat is born, it        ‘When you enter the land that I am about
must be under the care of its mother          to give to you and you gather in its har-
seven days, but from the eighth day on-       vest, then you must bring the sheaf of
ward it will be acceptable as an offering     the first portion of your harvest to the
gift to the LORD. 22:28 You must not          priest, 23:11 and he must wave the sheaf
slaughter an ox or a sheep and its young      before the LORD to be accepted for your
on the same day. 22:29 When you sacri-        benefit – on the day after the Sabbath
fice a thanksgiving offering to the LORD,     the priest is to wave it. 23:12 On the day
you must sacrifice it so that it is accept-   you wave the sheaf you must also offer a
able for your benefit. 22:30 On that very     flawless yearling lamb for a burnt offer-
day it must be eaten; you must not leave      ing to the LORD,
any part of it over until morning. I am the   23:13 along with its grain offering, two
LORD.                                         tenths of an ephah of choice wheat flour
                                           251                          LEVITICUS 23:43
mixed with olive oil, as a gift to the LORD,   The Day of Atonement
a soothing aroma, and its drink offering,
one fourth of a hin of wine. 23:14 You            23:26 The LORD spoke to Moses: 23:27
must not eat bread, roasted grain, or          “The tenth day of this seventh month is
fresh grain until this very day, until you     the Day of Atonement. It is to be a holy
bring the offering of your God. This is a      assembly for you, and you must humble
perpetual statute throughout your gen-         yourselves and present a gift to the
erations in all the places where you live.     LORD. 23:28 You must not do any work on
                                               this particular day, because it is a day of
The Festival of Weeks                          atonement to make atonement for your-
                                               selves before the LORD your God. 23:29
    23:15 “‘You must count for yourselves      Indeed, any person who does not behave
seven weeks from the day after the             with humility on this particular day will
Sabbath, from the day you bring the            be cut off from his people. 23:30 As for
wave offering sheaf; they must be com-         any person who does any work on this
plete weeks. 23:16 You must count fifty        particular day, I will exterminate that
days – until the day after the seventh         person from the midst of his people!
Sabbath – and then you must present a          23:31 You must not do any work. This is a
new grain offering to the LORD. 23:17          perpetual statute throughout your gen-
From the places where you live you must        erations in all the places where you live.
bring two loaves of bread for a wave of-       23:32 It is a Sabbath of complete rest
fering; they must be made from two             for you, and you must humble yourselves
tenths of an ephah of fine wheat flour,        on the ninth day of the month in the eve-
baked with yeast, as first fruits to the       ning, from evening until evening you must
LORD. 23:18 Along with the loaves of           observe your Sabbath.”
bread, you must also present seven flaw-
less yearling lambs, one young bull, and       The Festival of Booths
two rams. They are to be a burnt offer-
ing to the LORD along with their grain             23:33 The LORD spoke to Moses: 23:34
offering and drink offerings, a gift of a      “Tell the Israelites, ‘On the fifteenth
soothing aroma to the LORD. 23:19 You          day of this seventh month is the Festival
must also offer one male goat for a sin        of Temporary Shelters for seven days to
offering and two yearling lambs for a          the LORD. 23:35 On the first day is a holy
peace offering sacrifice, 23:20 and the        assembly; you must do no regular work.
priest is to wave them – the two lambs –       23:36 For seven days you must present a
along with the bread of the first fruits,      gift to the LORD. On the eighth day there
as a wave offering before the LORD; they       is to be a holy assembly for you, and you
will be holy to the LORD for the priest.       must present a gift to the LORD. It is a
    23:21 “‘On this very day you must pro-     solemn assembly day; you must not do any
claim an assembly; it is to be a holy as-      regular work.
sembly for you. You must not do any                23:37 “‘These are the appointed times
regular work. This is a perpetual statute      of the LORD that you must proclaim as
in all the places where you live through-      holy assemblies to present a gift to the
out your generations. 23:22 When you           LORD – burnt offering, grain offering,
gather in the harvest of your land, you        sacrifice, and drink offerings, each day
must not completely harvest the corner         according to its regulation, 23:38 besides
of your field, and you must not gather up      the Sabbaths of the LORD and all your
the gleanings of your harvest. You must        gifts, votive offerings, and freewill of-
leave them for the poor and the for-           ferings which you must give to the LORD.
eigner. I am the LORD your God.’”                  23:39 “‘On the fifteenth day of the
                                               seventh month, when you gather in the
The Festival of Horn Blasts                    produce of the land, you must celebrate a
                                               pilgrim festival of the LORD for seven
    23:23 The LORD spoke to Moses: 23:24       days. On the first day is a complete rest
“Tell the Israelites, ‘In the seventh          and on the eighth day is complete rest.
month, on the first day of the month, you      23:40 On the first day you must take for
must have a complete rest, a memorial          yourselves branches from majestic trees
announced by loud horn blasts, a holy as-      – palm branches, branches of leafy trees,
sembly. 23:25 You must not do any regu-        and willows of the brook – and you must
lar work, but you must present a gift to       rejoice before the LORD your God for
the LORD.’”                                    seven days. 23:41 You must celebrate it
                                               as a pilgrim festival to the LORD for
LEVITICUS 23:42                           252
seven days in the year. This is a perpet-     sion for themselves based on words from
ual statute throughout your generations;      the mouth of the LORD.
you must celebrate it in the seventh              24:13 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
month. 23:42 You must live in temporary       24:14 “Bring the one who cursed outside
shelters for seven days; every native         the camp, and all who heard him are to
citizen in Israel must live in temporary      lay their hands on his head, and the
shelters, 23:43 so that your future gen-      whole congregation is to stone him to
erations may know that I made the Isra-       death. 24:15 Moreover, you are to tell
elites live in temporary shelters when I      the Israelites, ‘If any man curses his God
brought them out from the land of Egypt.      he will bear responsibility for his sin,
I am the LORD your God.’”                     24:16 and one who misuses the name of
    23:44 So Moses spoke to the Israel-       the LORD must surely be put to death.
ites about the appointed times of the         The whole congregation must surely
LORD.                                         stone him, whether he is a foreigner or a
                                              native citizen; when he misuses the Name
Regulations for the Lampstand and Table       he must be put to death.
of Bread                                          24:17 “‘If a man beats any person to
                                              death, he must be put to death. 24:18
    24:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 24:2        One who beats an animal to death must
“Command the Israelites to bring to you       make restitution for it, life for life.
pure oil of beaten olives for the light, to   24:19 If a man inflicts an injury on his
make a lamp burn continually. 24:3 Out-       fellow citizen, just as he has done it must
side the veil-canopy of the congregation      be done to him – 24:20 fracture for frac-
in the Meeting Tent Aaron must arrange        ture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth – just
it from evening until morning before the      as he inflicts an injury on another person
LORD continually. This is a perpetual stat-   that same injury must be inflicted on
ute throughout your generations. 24:4 On      him. 24:21 One who beats an animal to
the ceremonially pure lampstand he must       death must make restitution for it, but
arrange the lamps before the LORD con-        one who beats a person to death must be
tinually.                                     put to death. 24:22 There will be one
    24:5 “You must take choice wheat          regulation for you, whether a foreigner
flour and bake twelve loaves; there must      or a native citizen, for I am the LORD
be two tenths of an ephah of flour in         your God.’”
each loaf, 24:6 and you must set them in          24:23 Then Moses spoke to the Isra-
two rows, six in a row, on the ceremoni-      elites and they brought the one who
ally pure table before the LORD. 24:7 You     cursed outside the camp and stoned him
must put pure frankincense on each row,       with stones. So the Israelites did just as
and it will become a memorial portion for     the LORD had commanded Moses.
the
bread, a gift to the LORD. 24:8 Each Sab-     Regulations for the Sabbatical Year
bath day Aaron must arrange it before
the LORD continually; this portion is from        25:1 The LORD spoke to Moses at
the Israelites as a perpetual covenant.       Mount Sinai: 25:2 “Speak to the Israel-
24:9 It will belong to Aaron and his sons,    ites and tell them, ‘When you enter the
and they must eat it in a holy place be-      land that I am giving you, the land must
cause it is most holy to him, a perpetual     observe a Sabbath to the LORD. 25:3 Six
allotted portion from the gifts of the        years you may sow your field, and six
LORD.”                                        years you may prune your vineyard and
                                              gather the produce, 25:4 but in the sev-
A Case of Blaspheming the Name                enth year the land must have a Sabbath
                                              of complete rest – a Sabbath to the
   24:10 Now an Israelite woman’s son         LORD. You must not sow your field or
whose father was an Egyptian went out         prune your vineyard. 25:5 You must not
among the Israelites, and the Israelite       gather in the aftergrowth of your har-
woman’s son and an Israelite man had a        vest and you must not pick the grapes of
fight in the camp. 24:11 The Israelite        your unpruned vines; the land must have a
woman’s son misused the Name and              year of complete rest. 25:6 You may have
cursed, so they brought him to Moses.         the Sabbath produce of the land to eat –
(Now his mother’s name was Shelomith          you, your male servant, your female ser-
daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan.)      vant, your hired worker, the resident
24:12 So they placed him in custody until     foreigner who stays with you, 25:7 your
they were able to make a clear legal deci-    cattle, and the wild animals that are in
                                         253                        LEVITICUS 25:38
your land – all its produce will be for you reclaim because the land belongs to me,
to eat.                                      for you are foreigners and residents with
                                             me. 25:24 In all your landed property you
Regulations for the Jubilee Year of          must provide for the right of redemption
Release                                      of the land.
                                                25:25 “‘If your brother becomes im-
    25:8 “‘You must count off seven weeks poverished and sells some of his prop-
of years, seven times seven years, and erty, his near redeemer is to come to you
the days of the seven weeks of years will and redeem what his brother sold. 25:26
amount to forty-nine years. 25:9 You If a man has no redeemer, but he pros-
must sound loud horn blasts – in the sev- pers and gains enough for its redemption,
enth month, on the tenth day of the 25:27 he is to calculate the value of the
month, on the Day of Atonement – you years it was sold, refund the balance to
must sound the horn in your entire land. the man to whom he had sold it, and re-
25:10 So you must consecrate the fifti- turn to his property. 25:28 If he has not
eth year, and you must proclaim a release prospered enough to refund a balance to
in the land for all its inhabitants. That him, then what he sold will belong to the
year will be your jubilee; each one of you one who bought it until the jubilee year,
must return to his property and each one but it must revert in the jubilee and the
of you must return to his clan. 25:11 That original owner may return to his prop-
fiftieth year will be your jubilee; you erty.
must not sow the land, harvest its after-
growth, or pick the grapes of its un- Release of Houses
pruned vines. 25:12 Because that year is
a jubilee, it will be holy to you – you may     25:29 “‘If a man sells a residential
eat its produce from the field.              house in a walled city, its right of re-
                                             demption must extend until one full year
Release of Landed Property                   from its sale; its right of redemption
                                             must extend to a full calendar year.
    25:13 “‘In this year of jubilee you 25:30 If it is not redeemed before the
must each return to your property. 25:14 full calendar year is ended, the house in
If you make a sale to your fellow citizen the walled city will belong without re-
or buy from your fellow citizen, no one is claim to the one who bought it through-
to wrong his brother. 25:15 You may buy out his generations; it will not revert in
it from your fellow citizen according to the jubilee. 25:31 The houses of villages,
the number of years since the last jubi- however, which have no wall surrounding
lee; he may sell it to you according to the them must be considered as the field of
years of produce that are left. 25:16 The the land; they will have the right of re-
more years there are, the more you may demption and must revert in the jubilee.
make its purchase price, and the fewer 25:32 As for the cities of the Levites,
years there are, the less you must make the houses in the cities which they pos-
its purchase price, because he is only sess, the Levites must have a perpetual
selling to you a number of years of pro- right of redemption. 25:33 Whatever
duce. 25:17 No one is to oppress his fel- someone among the Levites might redeem
low citizen, but you must fear your God, – the sale of a house which is his prop-
because I am the LORD your God. 25:18 erty in a city – must revert in the jubilee,
You must obey my statutes and my regu- because the houses of the cities of the
lations; you must be sure to keep them so Levites are their property in the midst
that you may live securely in the land.      of the Israelites. 25:34 Moreover, the
    25:19 “‘The land will give its fruit and open field areas of their cities must not
you may eat until you are satisfied, and be sold, because that is their perpetual
you may live securely in the land. 25:20 If possession.
you say, ‘What will we eat in the seventh
year if we do not sow and gather our Debt and Slave Regulations
produce?’ 25:21 I will command my bless-
ing for you in the sixth year so that it        25:35 “‘If your brother becomes im-
may yield the produce for three years, poverished and is indebted to you, you
25:22 and you may sow the eighth year must support him; he must live with you
and eat from that sixth year’s produce – like a foreign resident. 25:36 Do not take
old produce. Until you bring in the ninth interest or profit from him, but you must
year’s produce, you may eat old produce. fear your God and your brother must live
25:23 The land must not be sold without with you. 25:37 You must not lend him
LEVITICUS 25:38                          254
your money at interest and you must not      for his redemption. 25:53 He must be
sell him food for profit. 25:38 I am the     with the one who bought him like a yearly
LORD your God who brought you out from       hired worker. The one who bought him
the land of Egypt to give you the land of    must not rule over him harshly in your
Canaan – to be your God.                     sight. 25:54 If, however, he is not re-
    25:39 “‘If your brother becomes im-      deemed in these ways, he must go free in
poverished with regard to you so that he     the jubilee year, he and his children with
sells himself to you, you must not subject   him, 25:55 because the Israelites are my
him to slave service. 25:40 He must be       own servants; they are my servants whom
with you as a hired worker, as a resident    I brought out from the land of Egypt. I
foreigner; he must serve with you until      am the LORD your God.
the year of jubilee, 25:41 but then he
may go free, he and his children with him,   Exhortation to Obedience
and may return to his family and to the
                                                26:1 “‘You must not make for your-
property of his ancestors. 25:42 Since
they are my servants whom I brought out      selves idols, so you must not set up for
from the land of Egypt, they must not be     yourselves a carved image or a pillar, and
sold in a slave sale. 25:43 You must not     you must not place a sculpted stone in
rule over him harshly, but you must fear     your land to bow down before it, for I am
your God.                                    the LORD your God. 26:2 You must keep
    25:44 “‘As for your male and female
                                             my Sabbaths and reverence my sanctu-
slaves who may belong to you – you may       ary. I am the LORD.
buy male and female slaves from the na-      The Benefits of Obedience
tions all around you. 25:45 Also you may
buy slaves from the children of the for-         26:3 “‘If you walk in my statutes and
eigners who reside with you, and from        are sure to obey my commandments, 26:4
their families that are with you, whom       I will give you your rains in their time so
they have fathered in your land, they        that the land will give its yield and the
may become your property. 25:46 You          trees of the field will produce their
may give them as inheritance to your         fruit. 26:5 Threshing season will extend
children after you to possess as prop-       for you until the season for harvesting
erty. You may enslave them perpetually.      grapes, and the season for harvesting
However, as for your brothers the Isra-      grapes will extend until sowing season, so
elites, no man may rule over his brother     you will eat your bread until you are sat-
harshly.                                     isfied, and you will live securely in your
    25:47 “‘If a resident foreigner who is   land. 26:6 I will grant peace in the land so
with you prospers and your brother be-       that you will lie down to sleep without
comes impoverished with regard to him        anyone terrifying you. I will remove
so that he sells himself to a resident       harmful animals from the land, and no
foreigner who is with you or to a member     sword of war will pass through your land.
of a foreigner’s family, 25:48 after he      26:7 You will pursue your enemies and
has sold himself he retains a right of       they will fall before you by the sword.
redemption. One of his brothers may          26:8 Five of you will pursue a hundred,
redeem him, 25:49 or his uncle or his        and a hundred of you will pursue ten
cousin may redeem him, or anyone of the      thousand, and your enemies will fall be-
rest of his blood relatives – his family –   fore you by the sword. 26:9 I will turn to
may redeem him, or if he prospers he         you, make you fruitful, multiply you, and
may redeem himself. 25:50 He must cal-       maintain my covenant with you. 26:10 You
culate with the one who bought him the       will still be eating stored produce from
number of years from the year he sold        the previous year and will have to clean
himself to him until the jubilee year, and   out what is stored from the previous
the cost of his sale must correspond to      year to make room for new.
the number of years, according to the            26:11 “‘I will put my tabernacle in your
rate of wages a hired worker would have      midst and I will not abhor you. 26:12 I
earned while with him. 25:51 If there are    will walk among you, and I will be your
still many years, in keeping with them he    God and you will be my people. 26:13 I am
must refund most of the cost of his pur-     the LORD your God who brought you out
chase for his redemption, 25:52 but if       from the land of Egypt, from being their
only a few years remain until the jubilee,   slaves, and I broke the bars of your yoke
he must calculate for himself in keeping     and caused you to walk upright.
with the remaining years and refund it
                                             255                          LEVITICUS 26:45
The Consequences of Disobedience                 make your sanctuaries desolate, and I will
                                                 refuse to smell your soothing aromas.
    26:14 “‘If, however, you do not obey         26:32 I myself will make the land deso-
me and keep all these commandments –             late and your enemies who live in it will be
26:15 if you reject my statutes and ab-          appalled. 26:33 I will scatter you among
hor my regulations so that you do not            the nations and unsheathe the sword af-
keep all my commandments and you break           ter you, so your land will become desolate
my covenant – 26:16 I for my part will do        and your cities will become a waste.
this to you: I will inflict horror on you,           26:34 “‘Then the land will make up for
consumption and fever, which diminish            its Sabbaths all the days it lies desolate
eyesight and drain away the vitality of          while you are in the land of your enemies;
life. You will sow your seed in vain be-         then the land will rest and make up its
cause your enemies will eat it. 26:17 I will     Sabbaths. 26:35 All the days of the
set my face against you. You will be             desolation it will have the rest it did not
struck down before your enemies, those           have on your Sabbaths when you lived on
who hate you will rule over you, and you         it.
will flee when there is no one pursuing              26:36 “‘As for the ones who remain
you.                                             among you, I will bring despair into their
    26:18 “‘If, in spite of all these things,    hearts in the lands of their enemies. The
you do not obey me, I will discipline you        sound of a blowing leaf will pursue them,
seven times more on account of your sins.        and they will flee as one who flees the
26:19 I will break your strong pride and         sword and fall down even though there is
make your sky like iron and your land like       no pursuer. 26:37 They will stumble over
bronze. 26:20 Your strength will be used         each other as those who flee before a
up in vain, your land will not give its yield,   sword, though there is no pursuer, and
and the trees of the land will not produce       there will be no one to take a stand for
their fruit.                                     you before your enemies. 26:38 You will
    26:21 “‘If you walk in hostility against     perish among the nations; the land of
me and are not willing to obey me, I will        your enemies will consume you.
increase your affliction seven times ac-
cording to your sins. 26:22 I will send the      Restoration through Confession and
wild animals against you and they will be-       Repentance
reave you of your children, annihilate
your cattle, and diminish your population           26:39 “‘As for the ones who remain
so that your roads will become deserted.         among you, they will rot away because of
    26:23 “‘If in spite of these things you      their iniquity in the lands of your ene-
do not allow yourselves to be disciplined        mies, and they will also rot away because
and you walk in hostility against me, 26:24      of their ancestors’ iniquities which are
I myself will also walk in hostility against     with them. 26:40 However, when they
you and strike you seven times on account        confess their iniquity and their ances-
of your sins. 26:25 I will bring on you an       tors’ iniquity which they committed by
avenging sword, a covenant vengeance.            trespassing against me, by which they
Although you will gather together into           also walked in hostility against me 26:41
your cities, I will send pestilence among        (and I myself will walk in hostility against
you and you will be given into enemy             them and bring them into the land of
hands. 26:26 When I break off your sup-          their enemies), and then their uncircum-
ply of bread, ten women will bake your           cised hearts become humbled and they
bread in one oven; they will ration your         make up for their iniquity, 26:42 I will
bread by weight, and you will eat and not        remember my covenant with Jacob and
be satisfied.                                    also my covenant with Isaac and also my
    26:27 “‘If in spite of this you do not       covenant with Abraham, and I will re-
obey me but walk in hostility against me,        member the land. 26:43 The land will be
26:28 I will walk in hostile rage against        abandoned by them in order that it may
you and I myself will also discipline you        make up for its Sabbaths while it is made
seven times on account of your sins.             desolate without them, and they will
26:29 You will eat the flesh of your sons        make up for their iniquity because they
and the flesh of your daughters. 26:30 I         have rejected my regulations and have
will destroy your high places and cut            abhorred my statutes. 26:44 In spite of
down your incense altars, and I will stack       this, however, when they are in the land
your dead bodies on top of the lifeless          of their enemies I will not reject them
bodies of your idols. I will abhor you.          and abhor them to make a complete end
26:31 I will lay your cities waste and           of them, to break my covenant with
LEVITICUS 26:45                          256
them, for I am the LORD their God. 26:45    value of the priest, thus it will be. 27:13
I will remember for them the covenant       If, however, the person who made the
with their ancestors whom I brought out     vow redeems the animal, he must add one
from the land of Egypt in the sight of      fifth to its conversion value.
the nations to be their God. I am the
LORD.’”                                     Redemption of Vowed Houses

Summary Colophon                                27:14 “‘If a man consecrates his house
                                            as holy to the LORD, the priest will estab-
    26:46 These are the statutes, regula- lish its conversion value, whether good or
tions, and instructions which the LORD bad. Just as the priest establishes its
established between himself and the Is- conversion value, thus it will stand. 27:15
raelites at Mount Sinai through Moses.      If the one who consecrates it redeems
                                            his house, he must add to it one fifth of
Redemption of Vowed People                  its conversion value in silver, and it will
                                            belong to him.
    27:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 27:2
“Speak to the Israelites and tell them, Redemption of Vowed Fields
‘When a man makes a special votive of-
fering based on the conversion value of         27:16 “‘If a man consecrates to the
persons to the LORD, 27:3 the conversion LORD some of his own landed property,
value of the male from twenty years old the conversion value must be calculated
up to sixty years old is fifty shekels by in accordance with the amount of seed
the standard of the sanctuary shekel. needed to sow it, a homer of barley seed
27:4 If the person is a female, the con- being priced at fifty shekels of silver.
version value is thirty shekels. 27:5 If 27:17 If he consecrates his field in the
the person is from five years old up to jubilee year, the conversion value will
twenty years old, the conversion value of stand, 27:18 but if he consecrates his
the male is twenty shekels, and for the field after the jubilee, the priest will
female ten shekels. 27:6 If the person is calculate the price for him according to
one month old up to five years old, the the years that are left until the next
conversion value of the male is five shek- jubilee year, and it will be deducted from
els of silver, and for the female the con- the conversion value. 27:19 If, however,
version value is three shekels of silver. the one who consecrated the field re-
27:7 If the person is from sixty years deems it, he must add to it one fifth of
old and older, if he is a male the conver- the conversion price and it will belong to
sion value is fifteen shekels, and for the him. 27:20 If he does not redeem the
female ten shekels. 27:8 If he is too poor field, but sells the field to someone else,
to pay the conversion value, he must he may never redeem it. 27:21 When it
stand the person before the priest and reverts in the jubilee, the field will be
the priest will establish his conversion holy to the LORD like a permanently dedi-
value; according to what the man who cated field; it will become the priest’s
made the vow can afford, the priest will property.
establish his conversion value.                 27:22 “‘If he consecrates to the LORD
                                            a field he has purchased, which is not
Redemption of Vowed Animals                 part of his own landed property, 27:23
                                            the priest will calculate for him the
    27:9 “‘If what is vowed is a kind of
                                            amount of its conversion value until the
animal from which an offering may be jubilee year, and he must pay the conver-
presented to the LORD, anything which he sion value on that jubilee day as some-
gives to the LORD from this kind of ani- thing that is holy to the LORD. 27:24 In
mal will be holy. 27:10 He must not re- the jubilee year the field will return to
place or exchange it, good for bad or bad the one from whom he bought it, the one
for good, and if he does indeed exchange to whom it belongs as landed property.
one animal for another animal, then both 27:25 Every conversion value must be
the original animal and its substitute will calculated by the standard of the sanc-
be holy. 27:11 If what is vowed is an un- tuary shekel; twenty gerahs to the
clean animal from which an offering must shekel.
not be presented to the LORD, then he
must stand the animal before the priest, Redemption of the Firstborn
27:12 and the priest will establish its
conversion value, whether good or bad.          27:26 “‘Surely no man may consecrate
According to the assessed conversion a firstborn that already belongs to the
                                          257                                    1:19
LORD as a firstborn among the animals;   the trees, belongs to the LORD; it is holy
                                         to the LORD. 27:31 If a man redeems part
whether it is an ox or a sheep, it belongs
to the LORD. 27:27 If, however, it is    of his tithe, however, he must add one
among the unclean animals, he may ran-   fifth to it. 27:32 All the tithe of herd or
som it according to its conversion value flock, everything which passes under the
                                         rod, the tenth one will be holy to the
and must add one fifth to it, but if it is
not redeemed it must be sold according   LORD. 27:33 The owner must not examine
to its conversion value.                 the animals to distinguish between good
                                         and bad, and he must not exchange it. If,
Things Permanently Dedicated to the Lord however, he
                                         does exchange it, both the original animal
    27:28 “‘Surely anything which a man
                                         and its substitute will be holy. It must
permanently dedicates to the LORD from not be redeemed.’”
all that belongs to him, whether from
people, animals, or his landed property, Final Colophon
must be neither sold nor redeemed; any-
thing permanently dedicated is most holy    27:34 These are the commandments
to the LORD. 27:29 Any human being who which the LORD commanded Moses to tell
is permanently dedicated must not be the Israelites at Mount Sinai.
ransomed; such a person must be put to
death.
Redemption of the Tithe
   27:30 “‘Any tithe of the land, from
the grain of the land or from the fruit of




                         Numbers
Organizing the Census of the Israelites           from Manasseh, Gamaliel son of
                                                  Pedahzur;
   1:1 Now the LORD spoke to Moses in
                     2       3
                                                  1:11 from Benjamin, Abidan son of
the tent of meeting in the                        Gideoni;
wilderness of Sinai on the first day of           1:12 from Dan, Ahiezer son of
the second month of the second year               Ammishaddai;
after the Israelites departed from the            1:13 from Asher, Pagiel son of
land of Egypt. He said: 1:2 “Take a census        Ocran;
of the entire Israelite community by              1:14 from Gad, Eliasaph son of
their clans and families, counting the            Deuel;
                                                  1:15 from Naphtali, Ahira son of
name of every individual male. 1:3 You
                                                  Enan.”
and Aaron are to number all in Israel who
can serve in the army, those who are          The Census of the Tribes
twenty years old or older, by their divi-
sions. 1:4 And to help you there is to be a      1:16 These were the ones chosen
man from each tribe, each man the head        from the community, leaders of their
of his family. 1:5 Now these are the          ancestral tribes. They were the heads of
names of the men who are to help you:         the thousands of Israel.
     from Reuben, Elizur son of Shedeur;         1:17 So Moses and Aaron took these
     1:6 from Simeon, Shelumiel son of        men who had been mentioned specifically
     Zurishaddai;                             by name, 1:18 and they assembled the
     1:7 from Judah, Nahshon son of           entire community together on the first
     Amminadab;                               day of the second month. Then the peo-
     1:8 from Issachar, Nethanel son of       ple recorded their ancestry by their
     Zuar;                                    clans and families, and the men who were
     1:9 from Zebulun, Eliab son of           twenty years old or older were listed by
     Helon;                                   name individually, 1:19 just as the LORD
     1:10 from the sons of Joseph:
     from Ephraim, Elishama son of            had commanded Moses. And so he num-
     Ammihud;                                 bered them in the wilderness of Sinai.
NUMBERS 1:20                             290
   1:20 And they were as follows:                1:36 From the descendants of Benja-
    The descendants of Reuben, the           min: According to the records of their
firstborn son of Israel: According to the    clans and families, all the males twenty
records of their clans and families, all     years old or older who could serve in the
the males twenty years old or older who      army were listed by name. 1:37 Those of
could serve in the army were listed by       them who were numbered from the tribe
name individually. 1:21 Those of them        of Benjamin were 35,400.
who were numbered from the tribe of              1:38 From the descendants of Dan:
Reuben were 46,500.                          According to the records of their clans
    1:22 From the descendants of             and families, all the males twenty years
Simeon: According to the records of          old or older who could serve in the army
their clans and families, all the males      were listed by name. 1:39 Those of them
numbered of them twenty years old or         who were numbered from the tribe of
older who could serve in the army were       Dan were 62,700.
listed by name individually. 1:23 Those of       1:40 From the descendants of Asher:
them who were numbered from the tribe        According to the records of their clans
of Simeon were 59,300.                       and families, all the males twenty years
    1:24 From the descendants of Gad:        old or older who could serve in the army
According to the records of their clans      were listed by name. 1:41 Those of them
and families, all the males twenty years     who were numbered from the tribe of
old or older who could serve in the army     Asher were 41,500.
were listed by name. 1:25 Those of them          1:42 From the descendants of
who were numbered from the tribe of          Naphtali: According to the records of
Gad were 45,650.                             their clans and families, all the males
    1:26 From the descendants of Judah:      twenty years old or older who could serve
According to the records of their clans      in the army were listed by name. 1:43
and families, all the males twenty years     Those of them who were numbered from
old or older who could serve in the army     the tribe of Naphtali were 53,400.
were listed by name. 1:27 Those of them          1:44 These were the men whom Moses
who were numbered from the tribe of          and Aaron numbered along with the
Judah were 74,600.                           twelve leaders of Israel, each of whom
    1:28 From the descendants of Issa-       was from his own family. 1:45 All the Is-
char: According to the records of their      raelites who were twenty years old or
clans and families, all the males twenty     older, who could serve in Israel’s army,
years old or older who could serve in the    were numbered according to their fami-
army were listed by name. 1:29 Those of      lies. 1:46 And all those numbered totaled
them who were numbered from the tribe        603,550.
of Issachar were 54,400.
    1:30 From the descendants of Zebu-       The Exemption of the Levites
lun: According to the records of their
                                                 1:47 But the Levites, according to the
clans and families, all the males twenty
years old or older who could serve in the    tribe of their fathers, were not num-
army were listed by name. 1:31 Those of      bered among them. 1:48 The LORD had
them who were numbered from the tribe        said to Moses, 1:49 “Only the tribe of
of Zebulun were 57,400.                      Levi you must not number or count with
    1:32 From the sons of Joseph:
                                             the other Israelites. 1:50 But appoint the
    From the descendants of Ephraim:         Levites over the tabernacle of the testi-
According to the records of their clans      mony, over all its furnishings and over
and families, all the males twenty years     everything in it. They must carry the
old or older who could serve in the army     tabernacle and all its furnishings; and
were listed by name. 1:33 Those of them      they must attend to it and camp around
who were numbered from the tribe of          it. 1:51 Whenever the tabernacle is to
Ephraim were 40,500. 1:34 From the de-       move, the Levites must take it down, and
scendants of Manasseh: According to the      whenever the tabernacle is to be reas-
records of their clans and families, all     sembled, the Levites must set it up. Any
the males twenty years old or older who      unauthorized person who approaches it
could serve in the army were listed by       must be killed.
                                                 1:52 “The Israelites will camp accord-
name. 1:35 Those of them who were num-
bered from the tribe of Manasseh were        ing to their divisions, each man in his
32,200.                                      camp, and each man by his standard. 1:53
                                             But the Levites must camp around the
                                             tabernacle of the testimony, so that the
                                          291                             NUMBERS 3:3
LORD’s anger will not fall on the Israelite   the same order as they camped, each in
community. The Levites are responsible        his own place under his standard.
for the care of the tabernacle of the
testimony.”                                   The Tribes on the West
    1:54 The Israelites did according to
                                                  2:18 “On the west will be the divisions
all that the LORD commanded Moses –
that is what they did.                        of the camp of Ephraim under their
                                              standard. The leader of the people of
The Arrangement of the Tribes                 Ephraim is Elishama son of Amihud. 2:19
                                              Those numbered in his division are
    2:1 The LORD spoke to Moses and to        40,500. 2:20 Next to them will be the
Aaron: 2:2 “Every one of the Israelites       tribe of Manasseh. The leader of the
must camp under his standard with the         people of Manasseh is Gamaliel son of
emblems of his family; they must camp at      Pedahzur. 2:21 Those numbered in his
some distance around the tent of meet-        division are 32,200. 2:22 Next will be the
ing.                                          tribe of Benjamin. The leader of the
                                              people of Benjamin is Abidan son of
The Tribes on the East                        Gideoni. 2:23 Those numbered in his divi-
                                              sion are 35,400. 2:24 All those numbered
    2:3 “Now those who will be camping on
                                              of the camp of Ephraim, according to
the east, toward the sunrise, are the         their divisions, are 108,100. They will
divisions of the camp of Judah under          travel third.
their standard. The leader of the people
of Judah is Nahshon son of Amminadab.         The Tribes on the North
2:4 Those numbered in his division are
74,600. 2:5 Those who will be camping          2:25 “On the north will be the divi-
next to them are the tribe of Issachar.    sions of the camp of Dan, under their
The leader of the people of Issachar is    standards. The leader of the people of
Nethanel son of Zuar. 2:6 Those num-       Dan is Ahiezer son of Ammishaddai. 2:26
bered in his division are 54,400. 2:7 Next Those numbered in his division are
will be the tribe of Zebulun. The leader   62,700. 2:27 Those who will be camping
of the people of Zebulun is Eliab son of   next to them are the tribe of Asher. The
Helon. 2:8 Those numbered in his division  leader of the people of Asher is Pagiel
are 57,400. 2:9 All those numbered of      son of Ocran. 2:28 Those numbered in his
the camp of Judah, according to their      division are 41,500. 2:29 Next will be the
divisions, are 186,400. They will travel attribe of Naphtali. The leader of the peo-
the front.                                 ple of Naphtali is Ahira son of Enan. 2:30
                                           Those numbered in his division are
The Tribes on the South                    53,400. 2:31 All those numbered of the
                                           camp of Dan are 157,600. They will travel
   2:10 “On the south will be the divi-
                                           last, under their standards.”
sions of the camp of Reuben under their
standard. The leader of the people of Summary
Reuben is Elizur son of Shedeur. 2:11
Those numbered in his division are             2:32 These are the Israelites, num-
46,500. 2:12 Those who will be camping bered according to their families. All
next to them are the tribe of Simeon. those numbered in the camps, by their
The leader of the people of Simeon is divisions, are 603,550. 2:33 But the
Shelumiel son of Zurishaddai. 2:13 Those Levites were not numbered among the
numbered in his division are 59,300. 2:14 other Israelites, as the LORD commanded
Next will be the tribe of Gad. The leader Moses.
of the people of Gad is Eliasaph son of        2:34 So the Israelites did according
Deuel. 2:15 Those numbered in his divi- to all that the LORD commanded Moses;
sion are 45,650. 2:16 All those numbered that is the way they camped under their
of the camp of Reuben, according to standards, and that is the way they trav-
their divisions, are 151,450. They will eled, each with his clan and family.
travel second.
                                           The Sons of Aaron
The Tribe in the Center
                                               3:1 Now these are the records of
   2:17 “Then the tent of meeting with Aaron and Moses when the LORD spoke
the camp of the Levites will travel in the with Moses on Mount Sinai. 3:2 These are
middle of the camps. They will travel in the names of the sons of Aaron: Nadab,
NUMBERS 3:3                              292
the firstborn, and Abihu, Eleazar, and       families were: Amram, Izhar, Hebron,
Ithamar. 3:3 These are the names of the      and Uzziel. 3:20 The sons of Merari by
sons of Aaron, the anointed priests,         their families were Mahli and Mushi.
whom he consecrated to minister as           These are the families of the Levites by
priests.                                     their clans.
    3:4 Nadab and Abihu died before the
LORD when they offered strange fire          The Numbering of the Gershonites
before the LORD in the wilderness of Si-
                                                 3:21 From Gershon came the family of
nai, and they had no children. So Eleazar
and Ithamar ministered as priests in the     the Libnites and the family of the
presence of Aaron their father.              Shimeites; these were the families of
                                             the Gershonites. 3:22 Those of them who
The Assignment of the Levites                were numbered, counting every male
                                             from a month old and upward, were
    3:5 The LORD spoke to Moses: 3:6         7,500. 3:23 The families of the Ger-
“Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present   shonites were to camp behind the taber-
them before Aaron the priest, that they      nacle toward the west. 3:24 Now the
may serve him. 3:7 They are responsible      leader of the clan of the Gershonites was
for his needs and the needs of the whole     Eliasaph son of Lael.
community before the tent of meeting,            3:25 And the responsibilities of the
by attending to the service of the taber-    Gershonites in the tent of meeting in-
nacle. 3:8 And they are responsible for      cluded the tabernacle, the tent with its
all the furnishings of the tent of meet-     covering, the curtain at the entrance of
ing, and for the needs of the Israelites,    the tent of meeting, 3:26 the hangings of
as they serve in the tabernacle. 3:9 You     the courtyard, the curtain at the en-
are to assign the Levites to Aaron and his   trance to the courtyard that surrounded
sons; they will be assigned exclusively to   the tabernacle and the altar, and their
him out of all the Israelites. 3:10 So you   ropes, plus all the service connected with
are to appoint Aaron and his sons, and       these things.
they will be responsible for their priest-
hood; but the unauthorized person who        The Numbering of the Kohathites
comes near must be put to death.”
                                                 3:27 From Kohath came the family of
    3:11 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
3:12 “Look, I myself have taken the
                                             the Amramites, the family of the Iz-
Levites from among the Israelites in-        harites, the family of the Hebronites,
stead of every firstborn who opens the       and the family of the Uzzielites; these
womb among the Israelites. So the            were the families of the Kohathites. 3:28
Levites belong to me, 3:13 because all the   Counting every male from a month old
firstborn are mine. When I destroyed all     and upward, there were 8,600. They
the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I set    were responsible for the care of the
apart for myself all the firstborn in Is-    sanctuary. 3:29 The families of the Ko-
rael, both man and beast. They belong to     hathites were to camp on the south side
me. I am the LORD.”                          of the tabernacle. 3:30 Now the leader
                                             of the clan of the families of the Ko-
The Numbering of the Levites                 hathites was Elizaphan son of Uzziel.
                                                 3:31 Their responsibilities included
    3:14 Then the LORD spoke to Moses in     the ark, the table, the lampstand, the
the wilderness of Sinai: 3:15 “Number        altars, and the utensils of the sanctuary
the Levites by their clans and their fami-   with which they ministered, the curtain,
lies; every male from a month old and        and all their service. 3:32 Now the head
upward you are to number.” 3:16 So           of all the Levitical leaders was Eleazar
Moses numbered them according to the         son of Aaron the priest. He was ap-
word of the LORD, just as he had been        pointed over those who were responsible
commanded.                                   for the sanctuary.
The Summary of Families                      The Numbering of Merari
     3:17 These were the sons of Levi by        3:33 From Merari came the family of
their names: Gershon, Kohath, and Mer-       the Mahlites and the family of the
ari.                                         Mushites; these were the families of
     3:18 These are the names of the sons    Merari. 3:34 Those of them who were
of Gershon by their families: Libni and      numbered, counting every male from a
Shimei. 3:19 The sons of Kohath by their     month old and upward, were 6,200. 3:35
                                            293                            NUMBERS 4:15
Now the leader of the clan of the fami-         ites he collected the money, 1,365 shek-
lies of Merari was Zuriel son of Abihail.       els, according to the sanctuary shekel.
These were to camp on the north side of         3:51 Moses gave the redemption money
the tabernacle.                                 to Aaron and his sons, according to the
    3:36 The appointed responsibilities of      word of the LORD, as the LORD had com-
the Merarites included the frames of            manded Moses.
the tabernacle, its crossbars, its posts,
its sockets, its utensils, plus all the serv-   The Service of the Kohathites
ice connected with these things, 3:37 and
                                                    4:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses
the pillars of the courtyard all around,
with their sockets, their pegs, and their       and Aaron: 4:2 “Take a census of the Ko-
ropes.                                          hathites from among the Levites, by
    3:38 But those who were to camp in
                                                their families and by their clans, 4:3
front of the tabernacle on the east, in         from thirty years old and upward to fifty
front of the tent of meeting, were              years old, all who enter the company to
Moses, Aaron, and his sons. They were           do the work in the tent of meeting. 4:4
responsible for the needs of the sanctu-        This is the service of the Kohathites in
ary and for the needs of the Israelites,        the tent of meeting, relating to the most
but the unauthorized person who ap-             holy things. 4:5 When it is time for the
proached was to be put to death. 3:39 All       camp to journey, Aaron and his sons must
who were numbered of the Levites, whom          come and take down the screening cur-
Moses and Aaron numbered by the word            tain and cover the ark of the testimony
of the LORD, according to their families,       with it. 4:6 Then they must put over it a
every male from a month old and upward,         covering of fine leather and spread over
were 22,000.                                    that a cloth entirely of blue, and then
                                                they must insert its poles.
The Substitution for the Firstborn                  4:7 “On the table of the presence
                                                they must spread a blue cloth, and put on
    3:40 Then the LORD said to Moses,           it the dishes, the pans, the bowls, and
“Number all the firstborn males of the          the pitchers for pouring, and the Bread
Israelites from a month old and upward,         of the Presence must be on it continually.
and take the number of their names. 3:41        4:8 They must spread over them a scar-
And take the Levites for me – I am the          let cloth, and cover the same with a cov-
LORD – instead of all the firstborn males       ering of fine leather; and they must in-
among the Israelites, and the livestock         sert its poles.
of the Levites instead of all the first-            4:9 “They must take a blue cloth and
born of the livestock of the Israelites.”       cover the lampstand of the light, with its
3:42 So Moses numbered all the first-           lamps, its wick-trimmers, its trays, and
born males among the Israelites, as the         all its oil vessels, with which they service
LORD had commanded him. 3:43 And all            it. 4:10 Then they must put it with all its
the firstborn males, by the number of           utensils in a covering of fine leather, and
the names from a month old and upward,          put it on a carrying beam.
totaled 22,273.                                     4:11 “They must spread a blue cloth
    3:44 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:          on the gold altar, and cover it with a cov-
3:45 “Take the Levites instead of all the       ering of fine leather; and they must in-
firstborn males among the Israelites, and       sert its poles. 4:12 Then they must take
the livestock of the Levites instead of         all the utensils of the service, with which
their livestock. And the Levites will be        they serve in the sanctuary, put them in
mine. I am the LORD. 3:46 And for the           a blue cloth, cover them with a covering
redemption of the 273 firstborn males           of fine leather, and put them on a carry-
of the Israelites who exceed the number         ing beam. 4:13 Also, they must take away
of the Levites, 3:47 collect five shekels       the ashes from the altar and spread a
for each one individually; you are to col-      purple cloth over it. 4:14 Then they must
lect this amount in the currency of the         place on it all its implements with which
sanctuary shekel (this shekel is twenty         they serve there – the trays, the meat
gerahs). 3:48 And give the money for the        forks, the shovels, the basins, and all the
redemption of the excess number of              utensils of the altar – and they must
them to Aaron and his sons.”                    spread on it a covering of fine leather,
    3:49 So Moses took the redemption           and then insert its poles.
money from those who were in excess of              4:15 “When Aaron and his sons have
those redeemed by the Levites. 3:50             finished covering the sanctuary and all
From the firstborn males of the Israel-         the furnishings of the sanctuary, when
NUMBERS 4:16                               294
the camp is ready to journey, then the         The Service of the Merarites
Kohathites will come to carry them; but
they must not touch any holy thing, or             4:29 “As for the sons of Merari, you
they will die. These are the responsibili-     are to number them by their families and
ties of the Kohathites with the tent of        by their clans. 4:30 You must number
meeting.                                       them from thirty years old and upward to
    4:16 “The appointed responsibility of      fifty years old, all who enter the com-
Eleazar son of Aaron the priest is for         pany to do the work of the tent of meet-
the oil for the light, and the spiced in-      ing. 4:31 This is what they are responsi-
cense, and the daily grain offering, and       ble to carry as their entire service in the
the anointing oil; he also has the ap-         tent of meeting: the frames of the tab-
pointed responsibility over all the taber-     ernacle, its crossbars, its posts, its sock-
nacle with all that is in it, over the sanc-   ets, 4:32 and the posts of the surround-
tuary and over all its furnishings.”           ing courtyard with their sockets, tent
    4:17 Then the LORD spoke to Moses          pegs, and ropes, along with all their fur-
and Aaron: 4:18 “Do not allow the tribe        nishings and everything for their service.
of the families of the Kohathites to be        You are to assign by names the items
cut off from among the Levites; 4:19 but       that each man is responsible to carry.
in order that they will live and not die       4:33 This is the service of the families of
when they approach the most holy things,       the Merarites, their entire service con-
do this for them: Aaron and his sons will      cerning the tent of meeting, under the
go in and appoint each man to his service      authority of Ithamar son of Aaron the
and his responsibility. 4:20 But the Ko-       priest.”
hathites are not to go in to watch while
the holy things are being covered, or          Summary
they will die.”                                    4:34 So Moses and Aaron and the
The Service of the Gershonites                 leaders of the community numbered the
                                               Kohathites by their families and by clans,
   4:21 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:          4:35 from thirty years old and upward to
4:22 “Also take a census of the Ger-           fifty years old, everyone who entered
shonites, by their clans and by their          the company for the work in the tent of
families. 4:23 You must number them            meeting; 4:36 and those of them num-
from thirty years old and upward to fifty      bered by their families were 2,750. 4:37
years old, all who enter the company to        These were those numbered from the
do the work of the tent of meeting. 4:24       families of the Kohathites, everyone who
This is the service of the families of         served in the tent of meeting, whom
Gershonites, as they serve and carry it.       Moses and Aaron numbered according to
4:25 They must carry the curtains for          the word of the LORD by the authority of
the tabernacle and the tent of meeting         Moses.
with its covering, the covering of fine            4:38 Those numbered from the Ger-
leather that is over it, the curtains for      shonites, by their families and by their
the entrance of the tent of meeting, 4:26      clans, 4:39 from thirty years old and up-
the hangings for the courtyard, the cur-       ward to fifty years old, everyone who
tain for the entrance of the gate of the       entered the company for the work in the
court, which is around the tabernacle and      tent of meeting – 4:40 those of them
the altar, and their ropes, along with all     numbered by their families, by their
the furnishings for their service and          clans, were 2,630. 4:41 These were those
everything that is made for them. So           numbered from the families of the Ger-
they are to serve.                             shonites, everyone who served in the
    4:27 “All the service of the Ger-          tent of meeting, whom Moses and Aaron
shonites, whether carrying loads or for        numbered according to the word of the
any of their work, will be at the direction    LORD.
of Aaron and his sons. You will assign             4:42 Those numbered from the fami-
them all their tasks as their responsibil-     lies of the Merarites, by their families,
ity. 4:28 This is the service of the fami-     by their clans, 4:43 from thirty years old
lies of the Gershonites concerning the         and upward to fifty years old, everyone
tent of meeting. Their responsibilities        who entered the company for the work in
will be under the authority of Ithamar         the tent of meeting – 4:44 those of them
son of Aaron the priest.                       numbered by their families were 3,200.
                                               4:45 These are those numbered from the
                                               families of the Merarites, whom Moses
                                          295                            NUMBERS 5:28
and Aaron numbered according to the           that she has defiled herself, since there
word of the LORD by the authority of          was no witness against her, nor was she
Moses.                                        caught – 5:14 and if jealous feelings come
   4:46 All who were numbered of the          over him and he becomes suspicious of
Levites, whom Moses, Aaron, and the           his wife, when she is defiled; or if jealous
leaders of Israel numbered by their           feelings come over him and he becomes
families and by their clans, 4:47 from        suspicious of his wife, when she is not
thirty years old and upward to fifty          defiled – 5:15 then the man must bring
years old, everyone who entered to do         his wife to the priest, and he must bring
the work of service and the work of car-      the offering required for her, one tenth
rying relating to the tent of meeting –       of an ephah of barley meal; he must not
4:48 those of them numbered were              pour olive oil on it or put frankincense on
8,580. 4:49 According to the word of the      it, because it is a grain offering of suspi-
LORD they were numbered, by the               cion, a grain offering for remembering,
authority of Moses, each according to his     for bringing iniquity to remembrance.
service and according to what he was to           5:16 “‘Then the priest will bring her
carry. Thus were they numbered by him,        near and have her stand before the LORD.
as the LORD had commanded Moses.              5:17 The priest will then take holy water
                                              in a pottery jar, and take some of the
Separation of the Unclean                     dust that is on the floor of the taberna-
                                              cle, and put it into the water. 5:18 Then
   5:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
                                              the priest will have the woman stand be-
5:2 “Command the Israelites to expel
                                              fore the LORD, uncover the woman’s head,
from the camp every leper, everyone who       and put the grain offering for remem-
has a discharge, and whoever becomes          bering in her hands, which is the grain
defiled by a corpse. 5:3 You must expel       offering of suspicion. The priest will hold
both men and women; you must put them         in his hand the bitter water that brings a
outside the camp, so that they will not       curse. 5:19 Then the priest will put the
defile their camps, among which I live.”      woman under oath and say to the her, “If
5:4 So the Israelites did so, and expelled
                                              no other man has had sexual relations
them outside the camp. As the LORD had        with you, and if you have not gone astray
spoken to Moses, so the Israelites did.       and become defiled while under your
Restitution for Sin                           husband’s authority, may you be free
                                              from this bitter water that brings a
   5:5 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:          curse. 5:20 But if you have gone astray
5:6 “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a man or a    while under your husband’s authority, and
woman commits any sin that people com-        if you have defiled yourself and some
mit, thereby breaking faith with the          man other than your husband has had
LORD, and that person is found guilty, 5:7    sexual relations with you….” 5:21 Then
then he must confess his sin that he has      the priest will put the woman under the
committed and must make full reparation,      oath of the curse and will say to the her,
add one fifth to it, and give it to whom-     “The LORD make you an attested curse
ever he wronged. 5:8 But if the individual    among your people, if the LORD makes
has no close relative to whom reparation      your thigh fall away and your abdomen
can be made for the wrong, the repara-        swell; 5:22 and this water that causes
tion for the wrong must be paid to the        the curse will go into your stomach, and
LORD for the priest, in addition to the       make your abdomen swell and your thigh
ram of atonement by which atonement is        rot.” Then the woman must say, “Amen,
made for him. 5:9 Every offering of all       amen.”
the Israelites’ holy things that they             5:23 “‘Then the priest will write these
bring to the priest will be his. 5:10 Every   curses on a scroll and then scrape them
man’s holy things will be his; whatever       off into the bitter water. 5:24 He will
any man gives the priest will be his.’”       make the woman drink the bitter water
                                              that brings a curse, and the water that
The Jealousy Ordeal                           brings a curse will enter her to produce
                                              bitterness. 5:25 The priest will take the
    5:11 The LORD spoke to Moses: 5:12        grain offering of suspicion from the
“Speak to the Israelites and tell them,       woman’s hand, wave the grain offering
‘If any man’s wife goes astray and be-        before the LORD, and bring it to the al-
haves unfaithfully toward him, 5:13 and a     tar. 5:26 Then the priest will take a
man has sexual relations with her without     handful of the grain offering as its me-
her husband knowing it, and it is hidden
NUMBERS 5:27                              296
morial portion, burn it on the altar, and     day he must shave it. 6:10 On the eighth
afterward make the woman drink the            day he is to bring two turtledoves or two
water. 5:27 When he has made her drink        young pigeons to the priest, to the en-
the water, then, if she has defiled her-      trance to the tent of meeting. 6:11 Then
self and behaved unfaithfully toward her      the priest will offer one for a purifica-
husband, the water that brings a curse        tion offering and the other as a burnt
will enter her to produce bitterness – her    offering, and make atonement for him,
abdomen will swell, her thigh will fall       because of his transgression in regard to
away, and the woman will become a curse       the corpse. So he must reconsecrate his
among her people. 5:28 But if the woman       head on that day. 6:12 He must rededi-
has not defiled herself, and is clean, then   cate to the LORD the days of his separa-
she will be free of ill effects and will be   tion and bring a male lamb in its first
able to bear children.                        year as a
    5:29 “‘This is the law for cases of       reparation offering, but the former days
jealousy, when a wife, while under her        will not be counted because his separa-
husband’s authority, goes astray and de-      tion was defiled.
files herself, 5:30 or when jealous feel-
ings come over a man and he becomes           Fulfilling the Vows
suspicious of his wife; then he must have
                                                  6:13 “‘Now this is the law of the
the woman stand before the LORD, and
the priest will carry out all this law upon   Nazirite: When the days of his separa-
her. 5:31 Then the man will be free from      tion are fulfilled, he must be brought to
iniquity, but that woman will bear the        the entrance of the tent of meeting, 6:14
consequences of her iniquity.’”               and he must present his offering to the
                                              LORD: one male lamb in its first year
The Nazirite Vow                              without blemish for a burnt offering, one
                                              ewe lamb in its first year without blemish
   6:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:          for a purification offering, one ram with-
6:2 “Speak to the Israelites, and tell        out blemish for a peace offering, 6:15
them, ‘When either a man or a woman           and a basket of bread made without
takes a special vow, to take a vow as a       yeast, cakes of fine flour mixed with
Nazirite, to separate himself to the          olive oil, wafers made without yeast and
LORD, 6:3 he must separate himself from       smeared with olive oil, and their grain
wine and strong drink, he must drink nei-     offering and their drink offerings.
ther vinegar made from wine nor vinegar           6:16 “‘Then the priest must present
made from strong drink, nor may he drink      all these before the LORD and offer his
any juice of grapes, nor eat fresh grapes     purification offering and his burnt offer-
or raisins.                                   ing. 6:17 Then he must offer the ram as a
6:4 All the days of his separation he must    peace offering to the LORD, with the
not eat anything that is produced by the      basket of bread made without yeast; the
grapevine, from seed to skin.                 priest must also offer his grain offering
   6:5 “‘All the days of the vow of his       and his drink offering.
separation no razor may be used on his            6:18 “‘Then the Nazirite must shave
head until the time is fulfilled for which    his consecrated head at the entrance to
he separated himself to the LORD. He will     the tent of meeting and must take the
be holy, and he must let the locks of hair    hair from his consecrated head and put it
on his head grow long.                        on the fire where the peace offering is
   6:6 “‘All the days that he separates       burning. 6:19 And the priest must take
himself to the LORD he must not contact       the boiled shoulder of the ram, one cake
a dead body. 6:7 He must not defile him-      made without yeast from the basket, and
self even for his father or his mother or     one wafer made without yeast, and put
his brother or his sister if they die, be-    them on the hands of the Nazirite after
cause the separation for his God is on his    he has shaved his consecrated head; 6:20
head. 6:8 All the days of his separation      then the priest must wave them as a
he must be holy to the LORD.                  wave offering before the LORD; it is a
                                              holy portion for the priest, together with
Contingencies for Defilement                  the breast of the wave offering and the
                                              thigh of the raised offering. After this
   6:9 “‘If anyone dies very suddenly be-
                                              the Nazirite may drink wine.’
side him and he defiles his consecrated           6:21 “This is the law of the Nazirite
head, then he must shave his head on the      who vows to the LORD his offering ac-
day of his purification – on the seventh      cording to his separation, as well as
                                          297                           NUMBERS 7:35
whatever else he can provide. Thus he their offering before the altar. 7:11 For
must fulfill his vow that he makes, ac- the LORD said to Moses, “They must pre-
cording to the law of his separation.”      sent their offering, one leader for each
                                            day, for the dedication of the altar.”
The Priestly Benediction
                                            The Tribal Offerings
    6:22 The LORD spoke to Moses: 6:23
“Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the way      7:12 The one who presented his of-
you are to bless the Israelites. Say to fering on the first day was Nahshon son
them:                                       of Amminadab, from the tribe of Judah.
      6:24 “The LORD bless you and          7:13 His offering was one silver platter
      protect you;                          weighing 130 shekels, and one silver
      6:25 The LORD make his face to        sprinkling bowl weighing 70 shekels, both
      shine upon you,                       according to the sanctuary shekel, each
      and be gracious to you;               of them full of fine flour mixed with
      6:26 The LORD lift up his             olive oil as a grain offering; 7:14 one gold
      countenance upon you                  pan weighing 10 shekels, full of incense;
      and give you peace.”’                 7:15 one young bull, one ram, and one
    6:27 So they will put my name on the male lamb in its first year, for a burnt
Israelites, and I will bless them.”         offering; 7:16 one male goat for a purifi-
The Leader’s Offerings                      cation offering; 7:17 and for the sacri-
                                            fice of peace offerings: two bulls, five
    7:1 When Moses had completed set- rams, five male goats, and five male
ting up the tabernacle, he anointed it and lambs in their first year. This was the
consecrated it and all its furnishings, and offering of Nahshon son of Amminadab.
he anointed and consecrated the altar           7:18 On the second day Nethanel son
and all its utensils. 7:2 Then the leaders of Zuar, leader of Issachar, presented an
of Israel, the heads of their clans, made offering. 7:19 He offered for his offer-
an offering. They were the leaders of ing one silver platter weighing 130 shek-
the tribes; they were the ones who had els and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing
been supervising the numbering. 7:3 They 70, both according to the sanctuary
brought their offering before the LORD, shekel, each of them full of fine flour
six covered carts and twelve oxen – one mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;
cart for every two of the leaders, and an 7:20 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels,
ox for each one; and they presented full of incense; 7:21 one young bull, one
them in front of the tabernacle.            ram, and one male lamb in its first year,
                                            for a burnt offering; 7:22 one male goat
The Distribution of the Gifts               for a purification offering; 7:23 and for
                                            the sacrifice of peace offerings: two
    7:4 Then the LORD spoke to Moses: bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five
7:5 “Receive these gifts from them, that male lambs in their first year. This was
they may be used in doing the work of the offering of Nethanel son of Zuar.
the tent of meeting; and you must give          7:24 On the third day Eliab son of
them to the Levites, to every man as his Helon, leader of the Zebulunites, pre-
service requires.”                          sented an offering. 7:25 His offering was
    7:6 So Moses accepted the carts and one silver platter weighing 130 shekels
the oxen and gave them to the Levites. and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70
7:7 He gave two carts and four oxen to shekels, both according to the sanctuary
the Gershonites, as their service re- shekel, each of them full of fine flour
quired; 7:8 and he gave four carts and mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;
eight oxen to the Merarites, as their 7:26 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels,
service required, under the authority of full of incense; 7:27 one young bull, one
Ithamar son of Aaron the priest. 7:9 But ram, and one male lamb in its first year,
to the Kohathites he gave none, because for a burnt offering; 7:28 one male goat
the service of the holy things, which they for a purification offering; 7:29 and for
carried on their shoulders, was their re- the sacrifice of peace offerings: two
sponsibility.                               bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five
                                            male lambs in their first year. This was
The Time of Presentation
                                            the offering of Eliab son of Helon.
    7:10 The leaders offered gifts for          7:30 On the fourth day Elizur son of
the dedication of the altar when it was Shedeur, leader of the Reubenites, pre-
anointed. And the leaders presented sented an offering. 7:31 His offering was
NUMBERS 7:32                              298
one silver platter weighing 130 shekels       7:53 and for the sacrifice of peace of-
and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70    ferings: two bulls, five rams, five male
shekels, both according to the sanctuary      goats, and five lambs in their first year.
shekel, each of them full of fine flour       This was the offering of Elishama son of
mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;     Ammihud.
7:32 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels,            7:54 On the eighth day Gamaliel son
full of incense; 7:33 one young bull, one     of Pedahzur, leader of the Manassehites,
ram, and one male lamb in its first year,     presented an offering. 7:55 His offering
for a burnt offering; 7:34 one male goat      was one silver platter weighing 130 shek-
for a purification offering; 7:35 and for     els and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing
the sacrifice of peace offerings: two         70 shekels, both according to the sanc-
bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five   tuary shekel, each of them full of fine
lambs in their first year. This was the       flour mixed with olive oil as a grain of-
offering of Elizur son of Shedeur.            fering; 7:56 one gold pan weighing 10
    7:36 On the fifth day Shelumiel son       shekels, full of incense; 7:57 one young
of Zurishaddai, leader of the Simeonites,     bull, one ram, and one male lamb in its
presented an offering. 7:37 His offering      first year, for a burnt offering; 7:58 one
was one silver platter weighing 130 shek-     male goat for a purification offering;
els and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing   7:59 and for the sacrifice of peace of-
70 shekels, both according to the sanc-       ferings: two bulls, five rams, five male
tuary shekel, each of them full of fine       goats, and five lambs in their first year.
flour mixed with olive oil as a grain of-     This was the offering of Gamaliel son of
fering; 7:38 one gold pan weighing 10         Pedahzur.
shekels; 7:39 one young bull, one ram, and        7:60 On the ninth day Abidan son of
one male lamb in its first year, for a        Gideoni, leader of the Benjaminites, pre-
burnt offering; 7:40 one male goat for a      sented an offering. 7:61 His offering was
purification offering; 7:41 and for the       one silver platter weighing 130 shekels
sacrifice of peace offerings: two bulls,      and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70
five rams, five male goats, and five lambs    shekels, both according to the sanctuary
in their first year. This was the offering    shekel, each of them full of fine flour
of Sheloumiel son of Zurishaddai.             mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;
    7:42 On the sixth day Eliasaph son of     7:62 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels,
Deuel, leader of the Gadites, presented       full of incense; 7:63 one young bull, one
an offering. 7:43 His offering was one        ram, and one male lamb in its first year,
silver platter weighing 130 shekels and       for a burnt offering; 7:64 one male goat
one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70        for a purification offering; 7:65 and for
shekels, both according to the sanctuary      the sacrifice of peace offerings: two
shekel, each of them full of fine flour       bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five
mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;     lambs in their first year. This was the
7:44 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels;        offering of Abidan son of Gideoni.
7:45 one young bull, one ram, and one             7:66 On the tenth day Ahiezer son of
male lamb in its first year, for a burnt      Amishaddai, leader of the Danites, pre-
offering; 7:46 one male goat for a purifi-    sented an offering. 7:67 His offering was
cation offering; 7:47 and for the sacri-      one silver platter weighing 130 shekels
fice of peace offerings: two bulls, five      and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70
rams, five male goats, and five lambs in      shekels, both according to the sanctuary
their first year. This was the offering of    shekel, each of them full of fine flour
Eliasaph son of Deuel.                        mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;
    7:48 On the seventh day Elishama son      7:68 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels,
of Ammihud, leader of the Ephraimites,        full of incense; 7:69 one young bull, one
presented an offering. 7:49 His offering      ram, and one male lamb in its first year,
was one silver platter weighing 130 shek-     for a burnt offering; 7:70 one male goat
els and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing   for a purification offering; 7:71 and for
70 shekels, both according to the sanc-       the sacrifice of peace offerings: two
tuary shekel, each of them full of fine       bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five
flour mixed with olive oil as a grain of-     lambs in their first year. This was the
fering; 7:50 one gold pan weighing 10         offering of Ahiezer son of Amishaddai.
shekels, full of incense; 7:51 one young          7:72 On the eleventh day Pagiel son of
bull, one ram, and one male lamb in its       Ocran, leader of the Asherites, pre-
first year, for a burnt offering; 7:52 one    sented an offering. 7:73 His offering was
male goat for a purification offering;        one silver platter weighing 130 shekels
                                          299                            NUMBERS 8:19
and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70    Lighting the Lamps
shekels, both according to the sanctuary
shekel, each of them full of fine flour          8:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 8:2
mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;     “Speak to Aaron and tell him, ‘When you
7:74 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels,        set up the lamps, the seven lamps are to
full of incense; 7:75 one young bull, one     give light in front of the lampstand.’”
ram, and one male lamb in its first year,        8:3 And Aaron did so; he set up the
for a burnt offering; 7:76 one male goat      lamps to face toward the front of the
for a purification offering; 7:77 and for     lampstand, as the LORD commanded
the sacrifice of peace offerings: two         Moses. 8:4 This is how the lampstand was
bulls, five rams, five male goats, and five   made: It was beaten work in gold; from
lambs in their first year. This was the       its shaft to its flowers it was beaten
offering of Pagiel son of Ocran.              work. According to the pattern which the
    7:78 On the twelfth day Ahira son of      LORD had shown Moses, so he made the
Enan, leader of the Naphtalites, pre-         lampstand.
sented an offering. 7:79 His offering was
one silver platter weighing 130 shekels       The Separation of the Levites
and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing 70       8:5 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
shekels, both according to the sanctuary      8:6 “Take the Levites from among the
shekel, each of them full of fine flour       Israelites and purify them. 8:7 And do
mixed with olive oil as a grain offering;     this to them to purify them: Sprinkle
7:80 one gold pan weighing 10 shekels;
                                              water of purification on them; then have
7:81 one young bull, one ram, and one
                                              them shave all their body and wash their
male lamb in its first year, for a burnt      clothes, and so purify themselves. 8:8
offering; 7:82 one male goat for a purifi-    Then they are to take a young bull with
cation offering; 7:83 and for the sacri-      its grain offering of fine flour mixed
fice of peace offerings: two bulls, five      with olive oil; and you are to take a sec-
rams, five male goats, and five lambs in      ond young bull for a purification offering.
their first year. This was the offering of    8:9 You are to bring the Levites before
Ahira son of Enan.                            the tent of meeting and assemble the
Summary                                       entire community of the Israelites. 8:10
                                              Then you are to bring the Levites before
    7:84 This was the dedication for the      the LORD, and the Israelites are to lay
altar from the leaders of Israel, when it     their hands on the Levites; 8:11 and
was anointed: twelve silver platters,         Aaron is to offer the Levites before the
twelve silver sprinkling bowls, and twelve    LORD as a wave offering from the Israel-
gold pans. 7:85 Each silver platter           ites, that they may do the work of the
weighed 130 shekels, and each silver          LORD. 8:12 When the Levites lay their
sprinkling bowl weighed 70 shekels. All       hands on the heads of the bulls, offer
the silver of the vessels weighed 2,400       the one for a purification offering and
shekels, according to the sanctuary           the other for a whole burnt offering to
shekel. 7:86 The twelve gold pans full of     the LORD, to make atonement for the
incense weighed 10 shekels each, accord-      Levites. 8:13 You are to have the Levites
ing to the sanctuary shekel; all the gold     stand before Aaron and his sons, and
of the pans weighed 120 shekels. 7:87 All     then offer them as a wave offering to
the animals for the burnt offering were       the LORD. 8:14 And so you are to sepa-
12 young bulls, 12 rams, 12 male lambs in     rate the Levites from among the Israel-
their first year, with their grain offer-     ites, and the Levites will be mine.
ing, and 12 male goats for a purification         8:15 “After this, the Levites will go in
offering. 7:88 All the animals for the        to do the work of the tent of meeting. So
sacrifice for the peace offering were 24      you must cleanse them and offer them
young bulls, 60 rams, 60 male goats, and      like a wave offering. 8:16 For they are
60 lambs in their first year. These were      entirely given to me from among the Is-
the dedication offerings for the altar        raelites. I have taken them for myself
after it was anointed.                        instead of all who open the womb, the
    7:89 Now when Moses went into the         firstborn sons of all the Israelites. 8:17
tent of meeting to speak with the LORD,       For all the firstborn males among the
he heard the voice speaking to him from       Israelites are mine, both humans and
above the atonement lid that was on the       animals; when I destroyed all the first-
ark of the testimony, from between the        born in the land of Egypt I set them
two cherubim. Thus he spoke to him.           apart for myself. 8:18 So I have taken
NUMBERS 8:19                              300
the Levites instead of all the firstborn      body of a man could not keep the Passo-
sons among the Israelites. 8:19 I have        ver on that day, so they came before
given the Levites as a gift to Aaron and      Moses and before Aaron on that day. 9:7
his sons from among the Israelites, to do     And those men said to him, “We are
the work for the Israelites in the tent of    ceremonially defiled by the dead body of
meeting, and to make atonement for the        a man; why are we kept back from offer-
Israelites, so there will be no plague        ing the LORD’s offering at its appointed
among the Israelites when the Israelites      time among the Israelites?” 9:8 So
come near the sanctuary.”                     Moses said to them, “Remain here and I
    8:20 So Moses and Aaron and the en-       will hear what the LORD will command
tire community of the Israelites did this     concerning you.”
with the Levites. According to all that           9:9 The LORD spoke to Moses: 9:10
the LORD commanded Moses concerning           “Tell the Israelites, ‘If any of you or of
the Levites, this is what the Israelites      your posterity become ceremonially de-
did with them. 8:21 The Levites purified      filed by touching a dead body, or are on a
themselves and washed their clothing;         journey far away, then he may observe
then Aaron presented them like a wave         the Passover to the LORD. 9:11 They may
offering before the LORD, and Aaron           observe it on the fourteenth day of the
made atonement for them to purify             second month at twilight; they are to eat
them. 8:22 After this, the Levites went       it with bread made without yeast and
in to do their work in the tent of meeting    with bitter herbs. 9:12 They must not
before Aaron and before his sons. As the      leave any of it until morning, nor break
LORD had commanded Moses concerning           any of its bones; they must observe it in
the Levites, so they did.                     accordance with every statute of the
                                              Passover.
The Work of the Levites                           9:13 But the man who is ceremonially
                                              clean, and was not on a journey, and fails
   8:23 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
                                              to keep the Passover, that person must
8:24 “This is what pertains to the
                                              be cut off from his people. Because he
Levites: At the age of twenty-five years      did not bring the LORD’s offering at its
and upward one may begin to join the          appointed time, that man must bear his
company in the work of the tent of meet-      sin. 9:14 If a resident foreigner lives
ing, 8:25 and at the age of fifty years       among you and wants to keep the Passo-
they must retire from performing the          ver to the LORD, he must do so according
work and may no longer work. 8:26 They        to the statute of the Passover, and ac-
may assist their colleagues in the tent of    cording to its custom. You must have the
meeting, to attend to needs, but they         same statute for the resident foreigner
must do no work. This is the way you          and for the one who was born in the
must establish the Levites regarding          land.’”
their duties.”
                                              The Leading of the Lord
Passover Regulations
                                                  9:15 On the day that the tabernacle
   9:1 The LORD spoke to Moses in the
                                              was set up, the cloud covered the taber-
wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of    nacle – the tent of the testimony – and
the second year after they had come out       from evening until morning there was a
of the land of Egypt:                         fiery appearance over the tabernacle.
    9:2 “The Israelites are to observe the
                                              9:16 This is the way it used to be con-
Passover at its appointed time. 9:3 In the    tinually: The cloud would cover it by day,
fourteenth day of this month, at twilight,    and there was a fiery appearance by
you are to observe it at its appointed        night. 9:17 Whenever the cloud was
time; you must keep it in accordance with     taken up from the tabernacle, then after
all its statutes and all its customs.” 9:4    that the Israelites would begin their
So Moses instructed the Israelites to         journey; and in whatever place the cloud
observe the Passover. 9:5 And they ob-        settled, there the Israelites would make
served the Passover on the fourteenth         camp. 9:18 At the commandment of the
day of the first month at twilight in the     LORD the Israelites would begin their
wilderness of Sinai; in accordance with all   journey, and at the commandment of the
that the LORD had commanded Moses, so         LORD they would make camp; as long as
the Israelites did.                           the cloud remained settled over the tab-
    9:6 It happened that some men who
                                              ernacle they would camp. 9:19 When the
were ceremonially defiled by the dead         cloud remained over the tabernacle many
                                         301                            NUMBERS 10:28
days, then the Israelites obeyed the in-     burnt offerings and over the sacrifices
structions of the LORD and did not jour-     of your peace offerings, so that they
ney.                                         may become a memorial for you before
   9:20 When the cloud remained over         your God: I am the LORD your God.”
the tabernacle a number of days, they
remained camped according to the LORD’s      The Journey From Sinai to Kadesh
commandment, and according to the
                                                10:11 On the twentieth day of the
LORD’s commandment they would journey.
9:21 And when the cloud remained only
                                             second month, in the second year, the
from evening until morning, when the         cloud was taken up from the tabernacle
cloud was taken up the following morning,    of the testimony. 10:12 So the Israelites
then they traveled on. Whether by day        set out on their journeys from the wil-
or by night, when the cloud was taken up     derness of Sinai; and the cloud settled in
they traveled. 9:22 Whether it was for       the wilderness of Paran.
two days, or a month, or a year, that the    Judah Begins the Journey
cloud prolonged its stay over the taber-
nacle, the Israelites remained camped            10:13 This was the first time they
without traveling; but when it was taken     set out on their journey according to the
up, they traveled on. 9:23 At the com-       commandment of the LORD, by the
mandment of the LORD they camped, and        authority of Moses.
at the commandment of the LORD they              10:14 The standard of the camp of
traveled on; they kept the instructions of   the Judahites set out first according to
the LORD according to the commandment        their companies, and over his company
of the LORD, by the authority of Moses.      was Nahshon son of Amminadab.
                                                 10:15 Over the company of the tribe
The Blowing of Trumpets                      of Issacharites was Nathanel son of
    10:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 10:2
                                             Zuar, 10:16 and over the company of the
“Make two trumpets of silver; you are to     tribe of the Zebulunites was Elion son of
make them from a single hammered             Helon. 10:17 Then the tabernacle was
piece. You will use them for assembling      dismantled, and the sons of Gershon and
the community and for directing the          the sons of Merari set out, carrying the
traveling of the camps. 10:3 When they       tabernacle.
blow them both, all the community must       Journey Arrangements for the Tribes
come to you to the entrance of the tent
of meeting.                                      10:18 The standard of the camp of
    10:4 “But if they blow with one trum-    Reuben set out according to their compa-
pet, then the leaders, the heads of the      nies; over his company was Elizur son of
thousands of Israel, must come to you.       Shedeur. 10:19 Over the company of the
10:5 When you blow an alarm, then the        tribe of the Simeonites was Shelumiel
camps that are located on the east side      son of Zurishaddai, 10:20 and over the
must begin to travel. 10:6 And when you      company of the tribe of the Gadites was
blow an alarm the second time, then the      Eliasaph son of Deuel. 10:21 And the Ko-
camps that are located on the south side     hathites set out, carrying the articles
must begin to travel. An alarm must be       for the sanctuary; the tabernacle was to
sounded for their journeys. 10:7 But         be set up before they arrived. 10:22 And
when you assemble the community, you         the standard of the camp of the
must blow, but you must not sound an         Ephraimites set out according to their
alarm. 10:8 The sons of Aaron, the           companies; over his company was El-
priests, must blow the trumpets; and         ishama son of Ammihud. 10:23 Over the
they will be to you for an eternal ordi-     company of the tribe of the Manasse-
nance throughout your generations. 10:9      hites was Gamaliel son of Pedahzur, 10:24
If you go to war in your land against an     and over the company of the tribe of
adversary who opposes you, then you          Benjaminites was Abidan son of Gideoni.
must sound an alarm with the trumpets,           10:25 The standard of the camp of
and you will be remembered before the        the Danites set out, which was the rear
LORD your God, and you will be saved         guard of all the camps by their compa-
from your enemies.                           nies; over his company was Ahiezer son
    10:10 “Also in the time when you re-     of Ammishaddai. 10:26 Over the company
joice, such as on your appointed festivals   of the tribe of the Asherites was Pagiel
or at the beginnings of your months, you     son of Ocran, 10:27 and over the com-
must blow with your trumpets over your       pany of the tribe of the Naphtalites was
NUMBERS 10:28                               302
Ahira son of Enan. 10:28 These were the         color of bdellium. 11:8 And the people
traveling arrangements of the Israelites        went about and gathered it, and ground it
according to their companies when they          with mills or pounded it in mortars; they
traveled.                                       baked it in pans and made cakes of it. It
                                                tasted like fresh olive oil. 11:9 And when
The Appeal to Hobab                             the dew came down on the camp in the
                                                night, the manna fell with it.)
   10:29 Moses said to Hobab son of
Reuel, the Midianite, Moses’ father-in-         Moses’ Complaint to the Lord
law, “We are journeying to the place
about which the LORD said, ‘I will give it          11:10 Moses heard the people weeping
to you.’ Come with us and we will treat         throughout their families, everyone at
you well, for the LORD has promised good        the door of his tent; and when the anger
things for Israel.” 10:30 But Hobab said        of the LORD was kindled greatly, Moses
to him, “I will not go, but I will go instead   was also displeased. 11:11 And Moses
to my own land and to my kindred.” 10:31        said to the LORD, “Why have you af-
Moses said, “Do not leave us, because you       flicted your servant? Why have I not
know places for us to camp in the wilder-       found favor in your sight, that you lay
ness, and you could be our guide. 10:32         the burden of this entire people on me?
And if you come with us, it is certain that     11:12 Did I conceive this entire people?
whatever good things the LORD will favor        Did I give birth to them, that you should
us with, we will share with you as well.”       say to me, ‘Carry them in your arms, as a
   10:33 So they traveled from the              foster father bears a nursing child,’ to
mountain of the LORD three days’ jour-          the land which you swore to their fa-
ney; and the ark of the covenant of the         thers? 11:13 From where shall I get
LORD was traveling before them during           meat to give to this entire people, for
the three days’ journey, to find a resting      they cry to me, ‘Give us meat, that we
place for them. 10:34 And the cloud of          may eat!’ 11:14 I am not able to bear this
the LORD was over them by day, when             entire people alone, because it is too
they traveled from the camp. 10:35 And          heavy for me! 11:15 But if you are going
when the ark traveled, Moses would say,         to deal with me like this, then kill me im-
“Rise up, O LORD! May your enemies be           mediately. If I have found favor in your
scattered, and may those who hate you           sight then do not let me see my trouble.”
flee before you!” 10:36 And when it came
to rest he would say, “Return, O LORD, to       The Response of God
the many thousands of Israel!”
                                                    11:16 The LORD said to Moses,
The Israelites Complain                         “Gather to me seventy men of the elders
                                                of Israel, whom you know are elders of
   11:1 When the people complained, it          the people and officials over them, and
displeased the LORD. When the LORD              bring them to the tent of meeting; let
heard it, his anger burned, and so the          them take their position there with you.
fire of the LORD burned among them and          11:17 Then I will come down and speak
consumed some of the outer parts of the         with you there, and I will take part of
camp. 11:2 When the people cried to             the spirit that is on you, and will put it on
Moses, he prayed to the LORD, and the           them, and they will bear some of the
fire died out. 11:3 So he called the name       burden of the people with you, so that
of that place Taberah because there the         you do not bear it all by yourself.
fire of the LORD burned among them.                 11:18 “And say to the people, ‘Sanc-
                                                tify yourselves for tomorrow, and you will
Complaints about Food                           eat meat, for you have wept in the hear-
                                                ing of the LORD, saying, “Who will give us
    11:4 Now the mixed multitude who
                                                meat to eat, for life was good for us in
were among them craved more desirable           Egypt?” Therefore the LORD will give you
foods, and so the Israelites wept again         meat, and you will eat. 11:19 You will eat,
and said, “If only we had meat to eat!          not just one day, nor two days, nor five
11:5 We remember the fish we used to
                                                days, nor ten days, nor twenty days,
eat freely in Egypt, the cucumbers, the         11:20 but a whole month, until it comes
melons, the leeks, the onions, and the          out your nostrils and makes you sick, be-
garlic. 11:6 But now we are dried up, and       cause you have despised the LORD who is
there is nothing at all before us except        among you and have wept before him,
this manna!” 11:7 (Now the manna was
like coriander seed, and its color like the
                                         303                            NUMBERS 12:14
saying, “Why did we ever come out of         against the people, and the LORD struck
Egypt?”’”                                    the people with a very great plague.
    11:21 Moses said, “The people around         11:34 So the name of that place was
me are 600,000 on foot; but you say, ‘I      called Kibroth Hattaavah, because there
will give them meat, that they may eat       they buried the people that craved dif-
for a whole month.’ 11:22 Would they         ferent food. 11:35 The people traveled
have enough if the flocks and herds were     from Kibroth Hattaavah to Hazeroth,
slaughtered for them? If all the fish of     and they stayed at Hazeroth.
the sea were caught for them, would
they have enough?” 11:23 And the LORD        Miriam and Aaron Oppose Moses
said to Moses, “Is the LORD’s hand short-
                                                12:1 Then Miriam and Aaron spoke
ened? Now you will see whether my word
to you will come true or not!”               against Moses because of the Cushite
    11:24 So Moses went out and told the
                                             woman he had married (for he had mar-
people the words of the LORD. He then        ried an Ethiopian woman). 12:2 They said,
gathered seventy men of the elders of        “Has the LORD only spoken through
the people and had them stand around         Moses? Has he not also spoken through
the tabernacle. 11:25 And the LORD came      us?” And the LORD heard it.
                                                12:3 (Now the man Moses was very
down in the cloud and spoke to them, and
he took some of the Spirit that was on       humble, more so than any man on the
Moses and put it on the seventy elders.      face of the earth.)
When the Spirit rested on them, they         The Response of the Lord
prophesied, but did not do so again.
                                                 12:4 The LORD spoke immediately to
Eldad and Medad                              Moses, Aaron, and Miriam: “The three of
   11:26 But two men remained in the
                                             you come to the tent of meeting.” So the
camp; one’s name was Eldad, and the          three of them went. 12:5 And the LORD
other’s name was Medad. And the spirit       came down in a pillar of cloud and stood
rested on them. (Now they were among         at the entrance of the tent; he then
those in the registration, but had not       called Aaron and Miriam, and they both
gone to the tabernacle.) So they prophe-     came forward.
                                                 12:6 The LORD said, “Hear now my
sied in the camp. 11:27 And a young man
ran and told Moses, “Eldad and Medad         words: If there is a prophet among you, I
are prophesying in the camp!” 11:28          the LORD will make myself known to him
Joshua son of Nun, the servant of Moses,     in a vision; I will speak with him in a
one of his choice young men, said, “My       dream. 12:7 My servant Moses is not like
lord Moses, stop them!” 11:29 Moses said     this; he is faithful in all my house. 12:8
to him, “Are you jealous for me? I wish      With him I will speak face to face,
that all the LORD’s people were prophets,    openly, and not in riddles; and he will see
that the LORD would put his Spirit on        the form of the LORD. Why then were
them!” 11:30 Then Moses returned to the      you not afraid to speak against my ser-
camp along with the elders of Israel.        vant Moses?” 12:9 The anger of the LORD
                                             burned against them, and he departed.
Provision of Quail                           12:10 When the cloud departed from
                                             above the tent, Miriam became leprous as
    11:31 Now a wind went out from the       snow. Then Aaron looked at Miriam, and
LORD and brought quail from the sea, and     she was leprous!
let them fall near the camp, about a day’s
journey on this side, and about a day’s      The Intercession of Moses
journey on the other side, all around the
                                                 12:11 So Aaron said to Moses, “O my
camp, and about three feet high on the
surface of the ground. 11:32 And the         lord, please do not hold this sin against
people stayed up all that day, all that      us, in which we have acted foolishly and
night, and all the next day, and gathered    have sinned! 12:12 Do not let her be like
the quail. The one who gathered the least    a baby born dead, whose flesh is half-
gathered ten homers, and they spread         consumed when it comes out of its
them out for themselves all around the       mother’s womb!”
                                                 12:13 Then Moses cried to the LORD,
camp. 11:33 But while the meat was still
between their teeth, before they             “Heal her now, O God.” 12:14 The LORD
chewed it, the anger of the LORD burned      said to Moses, “If her father had only
                                             spit in her face, would she not have been
                                             disgraced for seven days? Shut her out
NUMBERS 12:15                           304
from the camp seven days, and afterward     The Spies’ Activities
she can be brought back in again.”
    12:15 So Miriam was shut outside of         13:21 So they went up and investi-
the camp for seven days, and the people     gated the land from the wilderness of
did not journey on until Miriam was         Zin to Rehob, at the entrance of Hamath.
brought back in. 12:16 After that the       13:22 When they went up through the
people moved from Hazeroth and camped       Negev, they came to Hebron where Ahi-
in the wilderness of Paran.                 man, Sheshai, and Talmai, descendants of
                                            Anak, were living. (Now Hebron had been
Spies Sent Out                              built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.)
                                            13:23 When they came to the valley of
   13:1 The LORD spoke to Moses:            Eshcol, they cut down from there a
13:2 “Send out men to investigate the       branch with one cluster of grapes, and
land of Canaan, which I am giving to the    they carried it on a staff between two
Israelites. You are to send one man from    men, as well as some of the pomegranates
each ancestral tribe, each one a leader     and the figs. 13:24 That place was called
among them.” 13:3 So Moses sent them        the Eshcol Valley, because of the cluster
from the wilderness of Paran at the         of grapes that the Israelites cut from
command of the LORD. All of them were       there. 13:25 They returned from investi-
leaders of the Israelites.                  gating the land after forty days.
   13:4 Now these were their names:
from the tribe of Reuben, Shammua son       The Spies’ Reports
of Zaccur; 13:5 from the tribe of
Simeon, Shaphat son of Hori; 13:6 from          13:26 They came back to Moses and
the tribe of Judah, Caleb son of Jephun-    Aaron and to the whole community of the
neh; 13:7 from the tribe of Issachar,       Israelites in the wilderness of Paran at
Igal son of Joseph; 13:8 from the tribe     Kadesh. They reported to the whole
of Ephraim, Hoshea son of Nun; 13:9         community and showed the fruit of the
from the tribe of Benjamin, Palti son of    land. 13:27 They told Moses, “We went to
Raphu; 13:10 from the tribe of Zebulun,     the land where you sent us. It is indeed
Gaddiel son of Sodi; 13:11 from the tribe   flowing with milk and honey, and this is
of Joseph, namely, the tribe of Ma-         its fruit. 13:28 But the inhabitants are
nasseh, Gaddi son of Susi; 13:12 from       strong, and the cities are fortified and
the tribe of Dan, Ammiel son of Gemalli;    very large. Moreover we saw the descen-
13:13 from the tribe of Asher, Sethur       dants of Anak there. 13:29 The Amale-
son of Michael; 13:14 from the tribe of     kites live in the land of the Negev; the
Naphtali, Nahbi son of Vopshi; 13:15        Hittites, Jebusites, and Amorites live in
from the tribe of Gad, Geuel son of Maki.   the hill country; and the Canaanites live
13:16 These are the names of the men        by the sea and along the banks of the
whom Moses sent to investigate the land.    Jordan.”
And Moses gave Hoshea son of Nun the            13:30 Then Caleb silenced the people
name Joshua.                                before Moses, saying, “Let us go up and
                                            occupy it, for we are well able to conquer
The Spies’ Instructions                     it.” 13:31 But the men who had gone up
                                            with him said, “We are not able to go up
   13:17 When Moses sent them to in-        against these people, because they are
vestigate the land of Canaan, he told       stronger than we are!” 13:32 Then they
them, “Go up through the Negev, and         presented the Israelites with a discour-
then go up into the hill country 13:18 and  aging report of the land they had investi-
see what the land is like, and whether      gated, saying, “The land that we passed
the people who live in it are strong or     through to investigate is a land that de-
weak, few or many, 13:19 and whether        vours its inhabitants. All the people we
the land they live in is good or bad, and   saw there are of great stature. 13:33 We
whether the cities they inhabit are like    even saw the Nephilim there (the de-
camps or fortified cities, 13:20 and        scendants of Anak came from the
whether the land is rich or poor, and       Nephilim), and we seemed liked grass-
whether or not there are forests in it.     hoppers both to ourselves and to them.”
And be brave, and bring back some of the
fruit of the land.” Now it was the time of The Israelites Respond in Unbelief
year for the first ripe grapes.
                                              14:1 Then all the community raised a
                                           loud cry, and the people wept that night.
                                           14:2 And all the Israelites murmured
                                           305                            NUMBERS 14:35
against Moses and Aaron, and the whole         slow to anger and abounding in loyal love,
congregation said to them, “If only we         forgiving iniquity and transgression, but
had died in the land of Egypt, or if only      by no means clearing the guilty, visiting
we had perished in this wilderness! 14:3       the iniquity of the fathers on the chil-
Why has the LORD brought us into this          dren until the third and fourth genera-
land only to be killed by the sword, that      tions.’ 14:19 Please forgive the iniquity of
our wives and our children should become       this people according to your great loyal
plunder? Wouldn’t it be                        love, just as you have forgiven this people
better for us to return to Egypt?” 14:4        from Egypt even until now.”
So they said to one another, “Let’s ap-            14:20 Then the LORD said, “I have
point a leader and return to Egypt.”           forgiven them as you asked. 14:21 But
    14:5 Then Moses and Aaron fell down        truly, as I live, all the earth will be filled
with their faces to the ground before          with the glory of the LORD. 14:22 For all
the whole assembled community of the           the people have seen my glory and my
Israelites. 14:6 And Joshua son of Nun         signs that I did in Egypt and in the wil-
and Caleb son of Jephunneh, two of those       derness, and yet have tempted me now
who had investigated the land, tore their      these ten times, and have not obeyed me,
garments. 14:7 They said to the whole          14:23 they will by no means see the land
community of the Israelites, “The land         that I swore to their fathers, nor will
we passed through to investigate is an         any of them who despised me see it.
exceedingly good land. 14:8 If the LORD        14:24 Only my servant Caleb, because he
delights in us, then he will bring us into     had a different spirit and has followed
this land and give it to us – a land that is   me fully – I will bring him into the land
flowing with milk and honey. 14:9 Only do      where he had gone, and his descendants
not rebel against the LORD, and do not         will possess it. 14:25 (Now the Amale-
fear the people of the land, for they are      kites and the Canaanites were living in
bread for us. Their protection has turned      the valleys.) Tomorrow, turn and journey
aside from them, but the LORD is with us.      into the wilderness by the way of the
Do not fear them!”                             Red Sea.”
    14:10 However, the whole community             14:26 The LORD spoke to Moses and
threatened to stone them. But the glory        Aaron: 14:27 “How long must I bear with
of the LORD appeared to all the Israel-        this evil congregation that murmurs
ites at the tent of meeting.                   against me? I have heard the complaints
                                               of the Israelites that they murmured
The Punishment from God                        against me. 14:28 Say to them, ‘As I live,
                                               says the LORD, I will surely do to you just
    14:11 The LORD said to Moses, “How
                                               what you have spoken in my hearing.
long will this people despise me, and how      14:29 Your dead bodies will fall in this
long will they not believe in me, in spite     wilderness – all those of you who were
of the signs that I have done among            numbered, according to your full number,
them? 14:12 I will strike them with the        from twenty years old and upward, who
pestilence, and I will disinherit them; I      have murmured against me. 14:30 You will
will make you into a nation that is greater    by no means enter into the land where I
and mightier than they!”                       swore to settle you. The only exceptions
    14:13 Moses said to the LORD, “When
                                               are Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua
the Egyptians hear it – for you brought        son of Nun. 14:31 But I will bring in your
up this people by your power from among        little ones, whom you said would become
them – 14:14 then they will tell it to the     victims of war, and they will enjoy the
inhabitants of this land. They have heard      land that you have despised. 14:32 But as
that you, LORD, are among this people,         for you, your dead bodies will fall in this
that you, LORD, are seen face to face,         wilderness, 14:33 and your children will
that your cloud stands over them, and          wander in the wilderness forty years and
that you go before them by day in a pillar     suffer for your unfaithfulness, until your
of cloud and in a pillar of fire by night.     dead bodies lie finished in the wilder-
14:15 If you kill this entire people at
                                               ness. 14:34 According to the number of
once, then the nations that have heard of      the days you have investigated this land,
your fame will say, 14:16 ‘Because the         forty days – one day for a year – you will
LORD was not able to bring this people         suffer for your iniquities, forty years,
into the land that he swore to them, he        and you will know what it means to thwart
killed them in the wilderness.’ 14:17 So       me. 14:35 I, the LORD, have said, “I will
now, let the power of my Lord be great,        surely do so to all this evil congregation
just as you have said, 14:18 ‘The LORD is
NUMBERS 14:36                             306
that has gathered together against me.        15:7 and for a drink offering you must
In this wilderness they will be finished,     offer one-third of a hin of wine as a
and there they will die!”’”                   pleasing aroma to the LORD. 15:8 And
    14:36 The men whom Moses sent to          when you prepare a young bull as a burnt
investigate the land, who returned and        offering or a sacrifice for discharging a
made the whole community murmur               vow or as a peace offering to the LORD,
against him by producing an evil report       15:9 then a grain offering of three-
about the land, 14:37 those men who           tenths of an ephah of finely ground flour
produced the evil report about the land,      mixed with half a hin of olive oil must be
died by the plague before the LORD.           presented with the young bull, 15:10 and
14:38 But Joshua son of Nun and Caleb         you must present as the drink offering
son of Jephunneh, who were among the          half a hin of wine with the fire offering
men who went to investigate the land,         as a pleasing aroma to the LORD. 15:11
lived. 14:39 When Moses told these            This is what is to be done for each ox, or
things to all the Israelites, the people      each ram, or each of the male lambs or
mourned greatly.                              the goats. 15:12 You must do so for each
    14:40 And early in the morning they       one according to the number that you
went up to the crest of the hill country,     prepare.
saying, “Here we are, and we will go up to        15:13 “‘Every native-born person must
the place that the LORD commanded, for        do these things in this way to present an
we have sinned.” 14:41 But Moses said,        offering made by fire as a pleasing aroma
“Why are you now transgressing the            to the LORD. 15:14 If a resident for-
commandment of the LORD? It will not          eigner is living with you – or whoever is
succeed! 14:42 Do not go up, for the LORD     among you in future generations – and
is not among you, and you will be de-         prepares an offering made by fire as a
feated before your enemies. 14:43 For         pleasing aroma to the LORD, he must do it
the Amalekites and the Canaanites are         the same way you are to do it. 15:15 One
there before you, and you will fall by the    statute must apply to you who belong to
sword. Because you have turned away           the congregation and to the resident
from the LORD, the LORD will not be with      foreigner who is living among you, as a
you.”                                         permanent statute for your future gen-
    14:44 But they dared to go up to the      erations. You and the resident foreigner
crest of the hill, although neither the ark   will be alike before the LORD. 15:16 One
of the covenant of the LORD nor Moses         law and one custom must apply to you and
departed from the camp. 14:45 So the          to the resident foreigner who lives along-
Amalekites and the Canaanites who lived       side you.’”
in that hill country swooped down and
attacked them as far as Hormah.               Rules for First Fruits

Sacrificial Rulings                               15:17 The LORD spoke to Moses: 15:18
                                              “Speak to the Israelites and tell them,
    15:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 15:2        ‘When you enter the land to which I am
“Speak to the Israelites and tell them,       bringing you 15:19 and you eat some of
‘When you enter the land where you are        the food of the land, you must offer up a
to live, which I am giving you, 15:3 and      raised offering to the LORD. 15:20 You
you make an offering by fire to the LORD      must offer up a cake of the first of your
from the herd or from the flock               finely ground flour as a raised offering;
(whether a burnt offering or a sacrifice      as you offer the raised offering of the
for discharging a vow or as a freewill of-    threshing floor, so you must offer it up.
fering or in your solemn feasts) to create    15:21 You must give to the LORD some of
a pleasing aroma to the LORD, 15:4 then       the first of your finely ground flour as a
the one who presents his offering to the      raised offering in your future genera-
LORD must bring a grain offering of one-      tions.
tenth of an ephah of finely ground flour
mixed with one fourth of a hin of olive       Rules for Unintentional Offenses
oil. 15:5 You must also prepare one-
                                                 15:22 “‘If you sin unintentionally and
fourth of a hin of wine for a drink offer-
ing with the burnt offering or the sacri-     do not observe all these commandments
fice for each lamb. 15:6 Or for a ram,        that the LORD has spoken to Moses –
                                              15:23 all that the LORD has commanded
you must prepare as a grain offering two-
tenths of an ephah of finely ground flour     you by the authority of Moses, from the
mixed with one-third of a hin of olive oil,   day that the LORD commanded Moses and
                                          307                           NUMBERS 16:14
continuing through your future genera-        Rules for Tassels
tions – 15:24 then if anything is done un-
intentionally without the knowledge of           15:37 The LORD spoke to Moses: 15:38
the community, the whole community            “Speak to the Israelites and tell them to
must prepare one young bull for a burnt       make tassels for themselves on the cor-
offering – for a pleasing aroma to the        ners of their garments throughout their
LORD – along with its grain offering and      generations, and put a blue thread on the
its customary drink offering, and one         tassel of the corners. 15:39 You must
male goat for a purification offering.        have this tassel so that you may look at it
15:25 And the priest is to make atone-        and remember all the commandments of
ment for the whole community of the           the LORD and obey them and so that you
Israelites, and they will be forgiven, be-    do not follow after your own heart and
cause it was unintentional and they have      your own eyes that lead you to unfaith-
brought their offering, an offering made      fulness. 15:40 Thus you will remember
by fire to the LORD, and their purifica-      and obey all my commandments and be
tion offering before the LORD, for their      holy to your God. 15:41 I am the LORD
unintentional offense. 15:26 And the          your God, who brought you out of the
whole community of the Israelites and         land of Egypt to be your God. I am the
the resident foreigner who lives among        LORD your God.”
them will be forgiven, since all the people
were involved in the unintentional of-        The Rebellion of Korah
fense.                                            16:1 Now Korah son of Izhar, the son
    15:27 “‘If any person sins unintention-
                                              of Kohath, the son of Levi, and Dathan
ally, then he must bring a yearling female    and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On son
goat for a purification offering. 15:28       of Peleth, who were Reubenites, took men
And the priest must make atonement for        16:2 and rebelled against Moses, along
the person who sins unintentionally –         with some of the Israelites, 250 leaders
when he sins unintentionally before the       of the community, chosen from the as-
LORD – to make atonement for him, and         sembly, famous men. 16:3 And they as-
he will be forgiven. 15:29 You must have      sembled against Moses and Aaron, saying
one law for the person who sins uninten-      to them, “You take too much upon your-
tionally, both for the native-born among      selves, seeing that the whole community
the Israelites and for the resident for-      is holy, every one of them, and the LORD
eigner who lives among them.                  is among them. Why then do you exalt
Deliberate Sin                                yourselves above the community of the
                                              LORD?”
    15:30 “‘But the person who acts defi-         16:4 When Moses heard it he fell
antly, whether native-born or a resident      down with his face to the ground. 16:5
foreigner, insults the LORD. That person      Then he said to Korah and to all his com-
must be cut off from among his people.        pany, “In the morning the LORD will make
15:31 Because he has despised the word        known who are his, and who is holy. He
of the LORD and has                           will cause that person to approach him;
broken his commandment, that person           the person he has chosen he will cause to
must be completely cut off. His iniquity      approach him. 16:6 Do this, Korah, you
will be on him.’”                             and all your company: Take censers, 16:7
    15:32 When the Israelites were in         put fire in them, and set incense on them
the wilderness they found a man gather-       before the LORD tomorrow, and the man
ing wood on the Sabbath day. 15:33            whom the LORD chooses will be holy. You
Those who found him gathering wood            take too much upon yourselves, you sons
brought him to Moses and Aaron and to         of Levi!” 16:8 Moses said to Korah, “Lis-
the whole community. 15:34 They put him       ten now, you sons of Levi! 16:9 Does it
in custody, because there was no clear        seem too small a thing to you that the
instruction about what should be done to      God of Israel has separated you from
him. 15:35 Then the LORD said to Moses,       the community of Israel to bring you
“The man must surely be put to death;         near to himself, to perform the service
the whole community must stone him with       of the tabernacle of the LORD, and to
stones outside the camp.” 15:36 So the        stand before the community to minister
whole community took him outside the          to them? 16:10 He has brought you near
camp and stoned him to death, just as         and all your brothers, the sons of Levi,
the LORD commanded Moses.                     with you. Do you now seek the priesthood
                                              also? 16:11 Therefore you and all your
NUMBERS 16:12                             308
company have assembled together               Abiram came out and stationed them-
against the LORD! And Aaron – what is he      selves in the entrances of their tents
that you murmur against him?” 16:12           with their wives, their children, and their
Then Moses summoned Dathan and Abi-           toddlers. 16:28 Then Moses said, “This is
ram, the sons of Eliab, but they said,        how you will know that the LORD has sent
“We will not come up. 16:13 Is it a small     me to do all these works, for I have not
thing that you have brought us up out of      done them of my own will. 16:29 If these
the land that flows with milk and honey,      men die a natural death, or if they share
to kill us in the wilderness? Now do you      the fate of all men, then the LORD has
want to make yourself a prince over us?       not sent me. 16:30 But if the LORD does
16:14 Moreover, you have not brought us       something entirely new, and the earth
into a land that flows with milk and          opens its mouth and swallows them up
honey, nor given us an inheritance of         along with all that they have, and they go
fields and vineyards. Do you think you can    down alive to the grave, then you will
blind these men? We will not come up.”        know that these men have despised the
    16:15 Moses was very angry, and he        LORD!”
said to the LORD, “Have no respect for            16:31 When he had finished speaking
their offering! I have not taken so much      all these words, the ground that was un-
as one donkey from them, nor have I           der them split open, 16:32 and the earth
harmed any one of them!”                      opened its mouth and swallowed them,
    16:16 Then Moses said to Korah, “You      along with their households, and all Ko-
and all your company present yourselves       rah’s men, and all their goods. 16:33 They
before the LORD – you and they, and           and all that they had went down alive into
Aaron – tomorrow. 16:17 And each of you       the pit, and the earth closed over them.
take his censer, put incense in it, and       So they perished from among the com-
then each of you present his censer be-       munity. 16:34 All the Israelites who were
fore the LORD: 250 censers, along with        around them fled at their cry, for they
you, and Aaron – each of you with his         said, “What if the earth swallows us
censer.” 16:18 So everyone took his cen-      too?” 16:35 Then a fire went out from
ser, put fire in it, and set incense on it,   the LORD and devoured the 250 men who
and stood at the entrance of the tent of      offered incense.
meeting, with Moses and Aaron. 16:19
When Korah assembled the whole com-           The Atonement for the Rebellion
munity against them at the entrance of
                                                 16:36 (17:1) The LORD spoke to Moses:
the tent of meeting, then the glory of
                                              16:37 “Tell Eleazar son of Aaron the
the LORD appeared to the whole commu-
nity.                                         priest to pick up the censers out of the
                                              flame, for they are holy, and then scat-
The Judgment on the Rebels                    ter the coals of fire at a distance. 16:38
                                              As for the censers of these men who
    16:20 The LORD spoke to Moses and         sinned at the cost of their lives, they
Aaron: 16:21 “Separate yourselves from        must be made into hammered sheets for
among this community, that I may con-         covering the altar, because they pre-
sume them in an instant.” 16:22 Then          sented them before the LORD and sancti-
they threw themselves down with their         fied them. They will become a sign to the
faces to the ground and said, “O God, the     Israelites.” 16:39 So Eleazar the priest
God of the spirits of all people, will you    took the bronze censers presented by
be angry with the whole community when        those who had been burned up, and they
only one man sins?”                           were hammered out as a covering for the
    16:23 So the LORD spoke to Moses:         altar. 16:40 It was a memorial for the
16:24 “Tell the community: ‘Get away          Israelites, that no outsider who is not a
from around the homes of Korah, Dathan,       descendant of Aaron should approach to
and Abiram.’” 16:25 Then Moses got up         burn incense before the LORD, that he
and went to Dathan and Abiram; and the        might not become like Korah and his com-
elders of Israel went after him. 16:26        pany – just as the LORD had spoken by
And he said to the community, “Move           the authority of Moses. 16:41 But on the
away from the tents of these wicked           next day the whole community of Israel-
men, and do not touch anything they           ites murmured against Moses and Aaron,
have, lest you be destroyed because of        saying, “You have killed the LORD’s peo-
all their sins.” 16:27 So they got away       ple!” 16:42 When the community assem-
from the homes of Korah, Dathan, and          bled against Moses and Aaron, they
Abiram on every side, and Dathan and          turned toward the tent of meeting – and
                                         309                           NUMBERS 18:10
the cloud covered it, and the glory of the   The Memorial
LORD appeared. 16:43 Then Moses and
Aaron stood before the tent of meeting.         17:10 The LORD said to Moses, “Bring
   16:44 The LORD spoke to Moses: 16:45      Aaron’s staff back before the testimony
“Get away from this community, so that I     to be preserved for a sign to the rebels,
can consume them in an instant!” But they    so that you may bring their murmurings
threw themselves down with their faces       to an end before me, that they will not
to the ground. 16:46 Then Moses said to      die.” 17:11 So Moses did as the LORD
Aaron, “Take the censer, put burning         commanded him – this is what he did.
coals from the altar in it, place incense       17:12 The Israelites said to Moses,
on it, and go quickly into the assembly      “We are bound to die! We perish, we all
and make atonement for them, for wrath       perish! 17:13 (17:28) Anyone who even
has gone out from the LORD – the plague      comes close to the tabernacle of the
has begun!” 16:47 So Aaron did as Moses      LORD will die! Are we all to die?”
commanded and ran into the middle of
the assembly, where the plague was just      Responsibilities of the Priests
beginning among the people. So he placed         18:1 The LORD said to Aaron, “You and
incense on the coals and made atonement      your sons and your tribe with you must
for the people. 16:48 He stood between       bear the iniquity of the sanctuary, and
the dead and the living, and the plague      you and your sons with you must bear the
was stopped. 16:49 Now 14,700 people         iniquity of your priesthood.
died in the plague, in addition to those         18:2 “Bring with you your brothers,
who died in the event with Korah. 16:50      the tribe of Levi, the tribe of your fa-
Then Aaron returned to Moses at the          ther, so that they may join with you and
entrance of the tent of meeting, and the     minister to you while you and your sons
plague was stopped.                          with you are before the tent of the tes-
The Budding of Aaron’s Staff                 timony. 18:3 They must be responsible to
                                             care for you and to care for the entire
    17:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 17:2       tabernacle. However, they must not come
“Speak to the Israelites, and receive        near the furnishings of the sanctuary and
from them a staff from each tribe, one       the altar, or both they and you will die.
from every tribal leader, twelve staffs;     18:4 They must join with you, and they
you must write each man’s name on his        will be responsible for the care of the
staff. 17:3 You must write Aaron’s name      tent of meeting, for all the service of
on the staff of Levi; for one staff is for   the tent, but no unauthorized person may
the head of every tribe. 17:4 You must       approach you. 18:5 You will be responsible
place them in the tent of meeting before     for the care of the sanctuary and the
the ark of the covenant where I meet         care of the altar, so that there will be no
with you. 17:5 And the staff of the man      more wrath on the Israelites. 18:6 I my-
whom I choose will blossom; so I will rid    self have chosen your brothers the
myself of the complaints of the Israel-      Levites from among the Israelites. They
ites, which they murmur against you.”        are given to you as a gift from the LORD,
    17:6 So Moses spoke to the Israel-       to perform the duties of the tent of
ites, and each of their leaders gave him a   meeting. 18:7 But you and your sons with
staff, one for each leader, according to     you are responsible for your priestly du-
their tribes – twelve staffs; the staff of   ties, for everything at the altar and
Aaron was among their staffs. 17:7 Then      within the curtain. And you must serve. I
Moses placed the staffs before the LORD      give you the priesthood as a gift for
in the tent of the testimony.                service; but the unauthorized person who
    17:8 On the next day Moses went into     approaches must be put to death.”
the tent of the testimony – and the staff
of Aaron for the house of Levi had           The Portion of the Priests
sprouted, and brought forth buds, and            18:8 The LORD spoke to Aaron, “See, I
produced blossoms, and yielded almonds!      have given you the responsibility for my
17:9 So Moses brought out all the staffs
                                             raised offerings; I have given all the holy
from before the LORD to all the Israel-      things of the Israelites to you as your
ites. They looked at them, and each man      priestly portion and to your sons as a
took his staff.                              perpetual ordinance. 18:9 Of all the most
                                             holy offerings reserved from the fire
                                             this will be yours: Every offering of
                                             theirs, whether from every grain offer-
NUMBERS 18:10                              310
ing or from every purification offering or     their sin and die. 18:23 But the Levites
from every reparation offering which           must perform the service of the tent of
they bring to me, will be most holy for        meeting, and they must bear their iniq-
you and for your sons. 18:10 You are to        uity. It will be a perpetual ordinance
eat it as a most holy offering; every male     throughout your generations that among
may eat it. It will be holy to you.            the Israelites the Levites have no inheri-
    18:11 “And this is yours: the raised       tance. 18:24 But I have given to the
offering of their gift, along with all the     Levites for an inheritance the tithes of
wave offerings of the Israelites. I have       the Israelites that are offered to the
given them to you and to your sons and         LORD as a raised offering. That is why I
daughters with you as a perpetual ordi-        said to them that among the Israelites
nance. Everyone who is ceremonially clean      they are to have no inheritance.”
in your household may eat of it.
    18:12 “All the best of the olive oil and   Instructions for the Levites
all the best of the wine and of the wheat,
                                                   18:25 The LORD spoke to Moses: 18:26
the first fruits of these things that they
give to the LORD, I have given to you.         “You are to speak to the Levites, and you
18:13 And whatever first ripe fruit in
                                               must tell them, ‘When you receive from
their land they bring to the LORD will be      the Israelites the tithe that I have given
yours; everyone who is ceremonially clean      you from them as your inheritance, then
in your household may eat of it.               you are to offer up from it as a raised
    18:14 “Everything devoted in Israel
                                               offering to the LORD a tenth of the
will be yours. 18:15 The firstborn of          tithe. 18:27 And your raised offering will
every womb which they present to the           be credited to you as though it were
LORD, whether human or animal, will be         grain from the threshing floor or as new
yours. Nevertheless, the firstborn sons        wine from the winepress. 18:28 Thus you
you must redeem, and the firstborn             are to offer up a raised offering to the
males of unclean animals you must re-          LORD of all your tithes which you receive
deem. 18:16 And those that must be re-         from the Israelites; and you must give
deemed you are to redeem when they are         the LORD’s raised offering from it to
a month old, according to your estima-         Aaron the priest. 18:29 From all your
tion, for five shekels of silver according     gifts you must offer up every raised of-
to the sanctuary shekel (which is twenty       fering due the LORD, from all the best of
gerahs). 18:17 But you must not redeem         it, and the holiest part of it.’
                                                   18:30 “Therefore you will say to them,
the firstborn of a cow or a sheep or a
goat; they are holy. You must splash their     ‘When you offer up the best of it, then it
blood on the altar and burn their fat for      will be credited to the Levites as the
an offering made by fire for a pleasing        product of the threshing floor and as the
aroma to the LORD. 18:18 And their meat        product of the winepress. 18:31 And you
will be yours, just as the breast and the      may eat it in any place, you and your
right hip of the raised offering is yours.     household, because it is your wages for
18:19 All the raised offerings of the holy
                                               your service in the tent of meeting. 18:32
things that the Israelites offer to the        And you will bear no sin concerning it
LORD, I have given to you, and to your         when you offer up the best of it. And you
sons and daughters with you, as a per-         must not profane the holy things of the
petual ordinance. It is a covenant of salt     Israelites, or else you will die.’”
forever before the LORD for you and for        The Red Heifer Ritual
your descendants with you.”
                                                  19:1 The LORD spoke to Moses and
Duties of the Levites                          Aaron: 19:2 “This is the ordinance of the
    18:20 The LORD spoke to Aaron, “You
                                               law which the LORD has commanded: ‘In-
will have no inheritance in their land, nor    struct the Israelites to bring you a red
will you have any portion of property          heifer without blemish, which has no de-
among them – I am your portion and your        fect and has never carried a yoke. 19:3
inheritance among the Israelites. 18:21        You must give it to Eleazar the priest so
See, I have given the Levites all the          that he can take it outside the camp, and
tithes in Israel for an inheritance, for       it must be slaughtered before him. 19:4
their service which they perform – the         Eleazar the priest is to take some of its
service of the tent of meeting. 18:22 No       blood with his finger, and sprinkle some
longer may the Israelites approach the         of the blood seven times directly in front
tent of meeting, or else they will bear        of the tent of meeting. 19:5 Then the
                                           311                            NUMBERS 20:8
heifer must be burned in his sight – its       in the water, and sprinkle it on the tent,
skin, its flesh, its blood, and its offal is   on all its furnishings, and on the people
to be burned. 19:6 And the priest must         who were there, or on the one who
take cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet wool      touched a bone, or one killed, or one who
and throw them into the midst of the           died, or a grave. 19:19 And the clean
fire where the heifer is burning. 19:7         person must sprinkle the unclean on the
Then the priest must wash his clothes          third day and on the seventh day; and on
and bathe himself in water, and after-         the seventh day he must purify him, and
ward he may come into the camp, but the        then he must wash his clothes, and bathe
priest will be ceremonially unclean until      in water, and he will be clean in the eve-
evening. 19:8 The one who burns it must        ning. 19:20 But the man who is unclean
wash his clothes in water and bathe him-       and does not purify himself, that person
self in water. He will be ceremonially un-     must be cut off from among the commu-
clean until evening.                           nity, because he has polluted the sanctu-
    19:9 “‘Then a man who is ceremonially      ary of the LORD; the water of purifica-
clean must gather up the ashes of the          tion was not sprinkled on him, so he is
red heifer and put them in a ceremonially      unclean.
clean place outside the camp. They must            19:21 “‘So this will be a perpetual or-
be kept for the community of the Israel-       dinance for them: The one who sprinkles
ites for use in the water of purification –    the water of purification must wash his
it is a purification for sin. 19:10 The one    clothes, and the one who touches the
who gathers the ashes of the heifer            water of purification will be unclean until
must wash his clothes and be ceremoni-         evening. 19:22 And whatever the unclean
ally unclean until evening. This will be a     person touches will be unclean, and the
permanent ordinance both for the Isra-         person who touches it will be unclean un-
elites and the resident foreigner who          til evening.’”
lives among them.
                                               The Israelites Complain Again
Purification from Uncleanness
                                         20:1 Then the entire community of
   19:11 “‘Whoever touches the corpse Israel entered the wilderness of Zin in
of any person will be ceremonially unclean     the first month, and the people stayed in
seven days. 19:12 He must purify himself       Kadesh. Miriam died and was buried
with water on the third day and on the         there.
seventh day, and so will be clean. But if          20:2 And there was no water for the
he does not purify himself on the third        community, and so they gathered them-
day and the seventh day, then he will not      selves together against Moses and Aaron.
be clean. 19:13 Anyone who touches the         20:3 The people contended with Moses,
corpse of any dead person and does not         saying, “If only we had died when our
purify himself defiles the tabernacle of       brothers died before the LORD! 20:4 Why
the LORD. And that person must be cut          have you brought up the LORD’s commu-
off from Israel, because the water of          nity into this wilderness? So that we and
purification was not sprinkled on him. He      our cattle should die here? 20:5 Why
will be unclean; his uncleanness remains       have you brought us up from Egypt only
on him.                                        to bring us to this dreadful place? It is
    19:14 “‘This is the law: When a man        no place for grain, or figs, or vines, or
dies in a tent, anyone who comes into the      pomegranates; nor is there any water to
tent and all who are in the tent will be       drink!”
ceremonially unclean seven days. 19:15
And every open container that has no           Moses Responds
covering fastened on it is unclean. 19:16
                                                  20:6 So Moses and Aaron went from
And whoever touches the body of some-
one killed with a sword in the open fields,    the presence of the assembly to the en-
or the body of someone who died of             trance to the tent of meeting. They then
natural causes, or a human bone, or a          threw themselves down with their faces
grave, will be unclean seven days.             to the ground, and the glory of the LORD
    19:17 “‘For a ceremonially unclean
                                               appeared to them. 20:7 Then the LORD
person you must take some of the ashes         spoke to Moses: 20:8 “Take the staff
of the heifer burnt for purification from      and assemble the community, you and
sin and pour fresh running water over          Aaron your brother, and then speak to
them in a vessel. 19:18 Then a ceremoni-       the rock before their eyes. It will pour
ally clean person must take hyssop, dip it     forth its water, and you will bring water
NUMBERS 20:9                             312
out of the rock for them, and so you will    passage through his border; therefore
give the community and their beasts wa-      Israel turned away from him.
ter to drink.”
    20:9 So Moses took the staff from        Aaron’s Death
before the LORD, just as he commanded
                                                 20:22 So the entire company of Isra-
him. 20:10 Then Moses and Aaron gath-
ered the community together in front of      elites traveled from Kadesh and came to
the rock, and he said to them, “Listen,      Mount Hor. 20:23 And the LORD spoke to
you rebels, must we bring water out of       Moses and Aaron in Mount Hor, by the
this rock for you?” 20:11 Then Moses         border of the land of Edom. He said:
                                             20:24 “Aaron will be gathered to his an-
raised his hand, and struck the rock
twice with his staff. And water came out     cestors, for he will not enter into the
abundantly. So the community drank, and      land I have given to the Israelites be-
their beasts drank too.                      cause both of you rebelled against my
                                             word at the waters of Meribah. 20:25
The Lord’s Judgment                          Take Aaron and Eleazar his son, and bring
                                             them up on Mount Hor. 20:26 Remove
    20:12 Then the LORD spoke to Moses       Aaron’s priestly garments and put them
and Aaron, “Because you did not trust me     on Eleazar his son, and Aaron will be
enough to show me as holy before the         gathered to his ancestors and will die
Israelites, therefore you will not bring     there.”
this community into the land I have given        20:27 So Moses did as the LORD com-
them.”                                       manded; and they went up Mount Hor in
    20:13 These are the waters of Meri-      the sight of the whole community. 20:28
bah, because the Israelites contended        And Moses removed Aaron’s garments
with the LORD, and his holiness was main-    and put them on his son Eleazar. So
tained among them.                           Aaron died there on the top of the moun-
                                             tain. And Moses and Eleazar came down
Rejection by the Edomites                    from the mountain. 20:29 When all the
                                             community saw that Aaron was dead, the
    20:14 Moses sent messengers from
                                             whole house of Israel mourned for Aaron
Kadesh to the king of Edom: “Thus says       thirty days.
your brother Israel: ‘You know all the
hardships we have experienced, 20:15         Victory at Hormah
how our ancestors went down into Egypt,
and we lived in Egypt a long time, and the      21:1 When the Canaanite king of Arad
Egyptians treated us and our ancestors       who lived in the Negev heard that Israel
badly. 20:16 So when we cried to the         was approaching along the road to Atha-
LORD, he heard our voice and sent a mes-     rim, he fought against Israel and took
senger, and has brought us up out of         some of them prisoner.
Egypt. Now we are here in Kadesh, a town        21:2 So Israel made a vow to the
on the edge of your country. 20:17 Please    LORD and said, “If you will indeed deliver
let us pass through your country. We will    this people into our hand, then we will
not pass through the fields or through       utterly destroy their cities.” 21:3 The
the vineyards, nor will we drink water       LORD listened to the voice of Israel and
from any well. We will go by the King’s      delivered up the Canaanites, and they
Highway; we will not turn to the right or    utterly destroyed them and their cities.
the left until we have passed through        So the name of the place was called
your region.’”                               Hormah.
    20:18 But Edom said to him, “You will
not pass through me, or I will come out      Fiery Serpents
against you with the sword.” 20:19 Then
                                                21:4 Then they traveled from Mount
the Israelites said to him, “We will go
along the highway, and if we or our cattle   Hor by the road to the Red Sea, to go
drink any of your water, we will pay for     around the land of Edom, but the people
it. We will only pass through on our feet,   became impatient along the way. 21:5
without doing anything else.”                And the people spoke against God and
    20:20 But he said, “You may not pass
                                             against Moses, “Why have you brought us
through.” Then Edom came out against         up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness,
them with a large and powerful force.        for there is no bread or water, and we
20:21 So Edom refused to give Israel
                                             detest this worthless food.”
                                                21:6 So the LORD sent poisonous
                                             snakes among the people, and they bit
                                        313                           NUMBERS 21:35
the people; many people of Israel died.     into the vineyards, nor will we drink wa-
21:7 Then the people came to Moses and      ter from any well, but we will go along the
said, “We have sinned, for we have spo-     King’s Highway until we pass your bor-
ken against the LORD and against you.       ders.” 21:23 But Sihon did not permit
Pray to the LORD that he would take away    Israel to pass through his border; he
the snakes from us.” So Moses prayed        gathered all his forces together and
for the people.                             went out against Israel into the wilder-
    21:8 The LORD said to Moses, “Make a    ness. When he came to Jahaz, he fought
poisonous snake and set it on a pole.       against Israel. 21:24 But the Israelites
When anyone who is bitten looks at it, he   defeated him in battle and took posses-
will live.” 21:9 So Moses made a bronze     sion of his land from the Arnon to the
snake and put it on a pole, so that if a    Jabbok, as far as the Ammonites, for the
snake had bitten someone, when he           border of the Ammonites was strongly
looked at the bronze snake he lived.        defended. 21:25 So Israel took all these
                                            cities; and Israel settled in all the cities
The Approach to Moab                        of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all its
                                            villages. 21:26 For Heshbon was the city
    21:10 The Israelites traveled on and
                                            of King Sihon of the Amorites. Now he
camped in Oboth. 21:11 Then they trav-      had fought against the former king of
eled on from Oboth and camped at Iye        Moab and had taken all of his land from
Abarim, in the wilderness that is before    his control, as far as the Arnon. 21:27
Moab, on the eastern side. 21:12 From       That is why those who speak in proverbs
there they moved on and camped in the       say,
valley of Zered. 21:13 From there they            “Come to Heshbon, let it be built.
moved on and camped on the other side             Let the city of Sihon be established!
of the Arnon, in the wilderness that ex-          21:28 For fire went out from
tends from the regions of the Amorites,           Heshbon,
for Arnon is the border of Moab, be-              a flame from the city of Sihon.
tween Moab and the Amorites. 21:14 This           It has consumed Ar of Moab
is why it is said in the Book of the Wars         and the lords of the high places of
of the LORD,                                      Arnon.
      “Waheb in Suphah and the wadis,             21:29 Woe to you, Moab.
      the Arnon 21:15 and the slope of            You are ruined, O people of
      the valleys                                 Chemosh!
      that extends to the dwelling of Ar,         He has made his sons fugitives,
      and falls off at the border of              and his daughters the prisoners of
      Moab.”                                      King Sihon of the Amorites.
    21:16 And from there they traveled            21:30 We have overpowered them;
to Beer; that is the well where the LORD          Heshbon has perished as far as
spoke to Moses, “Gather the people and I          Dibon.
will give them water.” 21:17 Then Israel          We have shattered them as far as
sang this song:                                   Nophah,
      “Spring up, O well, sing to it!             which reaches to Medeba.”
      21:18 The well which the princes          21:31 So the Israelites lived in the
      dug,                                  land of the Amorites. 21:32 Moses sent
      which the leaders of the people       spies to reconnoiter Jaazer, and they
      opened                                captured its villages and dispossessed
      with their scepters and their         the Amorites who were there.
      staffs.”                                  21:33 Then they turned and went up
    And from the wilderness they trav-      by the road to Bashan. And King Og of
eled to Mattanah; 21:19 and from Mat-       Bashan and all his forces marched out
tanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to     against them to do battle at Edrei. 21:34
Bamoth; 21:20 and from Bamoth to the        And the LORD said to Moses, “Do not fear
valley that is in the country of Moab,      him, for I have delivered him and all his
near the top of Pisgah, which overlooks     people and his land into your hand. You
the wilderness.                             will do to him what you did to King Sihon
                                            of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon.
The Victory over Sihon and Og               21:35 So they defeated Og, his sons, and
   21:21 Then Israel sent messengers to
                                            all his people, until there were no survi-
King Sihon of the Amorites, saying,         vors, and they possessed his land.
   21:22 “Let us pass through your land;
we will not turn aside into the fields or
NUMBERS 22:1                             314
Balaam Refuses to Curse Israel               the first. 22:16 And they came to Balaam
                                             and said to him, “Thus says Balak son of
    22:1 The Israelites traveled on and      Zippor: ‘Please do not let anything hinder
camped in the plains of Moab on the side     you from coming to me. 22:17 For I will
of the Jordan River across from Jericho.     honor you greatly, and whatever you tell
22:2 Balak son of Zippor saw all that the    me I will do. So come, put a curse on this
Israelites had done to the Amorites. 22:3    nation for me.’”
And the Moabites were greatly afraid of         22:18 Balaam replied to the servants
the people, because they were so numer-      of Balak, “Even if Balak would give me his
ous. The Moabites were sick with fear        palace full of silver and gold, I could not
because of the Israelites.                   transgress the commandment of the
    22:4 So the Moabites said to the eld-    LORD my God to do less or more. 22:19
ers of Midian, “Now this mass of people      Now therefore, please stay the night
will lick up everything around us, as the    here also, that I may know what more
bull devours the grass of the field. Now     the LORD might say to me.” 22:20 God
Balak son of Zippor was king of the Mo-      came to Balaam that night, and said to
abites at this time. 22:5 And he sent        him, “If the men have come to call you,
messengers to Balaam son of Beor at          get up and go with them; but the word
Pethor, which is by the Euphrates River      that I will say to you, that you must do.”
in the land of Amaw, to summon him, say-     22:21 So Balaam got up in the morning,
ing, “Look, a nation has come out of         saddled his donkey, and went with the
Egypt. They cover the face of the earth,     princes of Moab.
and they are settling next to me. 22:6 So
now, please come and curse this nation       God Opposes Balaam
for me, for they are too powerful for me.
Perhaps I will prevail so that we may con- 22:22 Then God’s anger was kindled
quer them and drive them out of the     because he went, and the angel of the
land. For I know that whoever you bless LORD stood in the road to oppose him.
is blessed, and whoever you curse is    Now he was riding on his donkey and his
cursed.”                                two servants were with him. 22:23 And
    22:7 So the elders of Moab and the  the donkey saw the angel of the LORD
elders of Midian departed with the fee  standing in the road with his sword drawn
                                        in his hand, so the donkey turned aside
for divination in their hand. They came to
Balaam and reported to him the words of from the road and went into the field.
Balak. 22:8 He replied to them, “Stay   But Balaam beat the donkey, to make her
                                        turn back to the road.
here tonight, and I will bring back to you
whatever word the LORD may speak to        22:24 Then the angel of the LORD
me.” So the princes of Moab stayed with stood in a path among the vineyards,
Balaam. 22:9 And God came to Balaam and where there was a wall on either side.
said, “Who are these men with you?”     22:25 And when the donkey saw the angel
22:10 Balaam said to God, “Balak son of of the LORD, she pressed herself into the
Zippor, king of Moab, has sent a messagewall, and crushed Balaam’s foot against
to me, saying, 22:11 “Look, a nation hasthe wall. So he beat her again.
come out of Egypt, and it covers the face  22:26 Then the angel of the LORD
of the earth. Come now and put a curse  went farther, and stood in a narrow
                                        place, where there was no way to turn
on them for me; perhaps I will be able to
defeat them and drive them out.” 22:12  either to the right or to the left. 22:27
But God said to Balaam, “You must not goWhen the donkey saw the angel of the
with them; you must not curse the peo-  LORD, she crouched down under Balaam.
ple, for they are blessed.”             Then Balaam was angry, and he beat his
    22:13 So Balaam got up in the morn- donkey with a staff.
ing, and said to the princes of Balak, “Go 22:28 Then the LORD opened the
                                        mouth of the donkey, and she said to
to your land, for the LORD has refused to
permit me to go with you.” 22:14 So the Balaam, “What have I done to you that
princes of Moab departed and went back  you have beaten me these three times?”
to Balak and said, “Balaam refused to   22:29 And Balaam said to the donkey,
come with us.”                          “You have made me look stupid; I wish
                                        there were a sword in my hand, for I
Balaam Accompanies the Moabite Princes  would kill you right now.” 22:30 The don-
                                        key said to Balaam, “Am not I your don-
   22:15 Balak again sent princes, more key that you have ridden ever since I was
numerous and more distinguished than yours until this day? Have I ever at-
                                         315                          NUMBERS 23:17
tempted to treat you this way?” And he          23:4 Then God met Balaam, who said
said, “No.” 22:31 Then the LORD opened       to him, “I have prepared seven altars,
Balaam’s eyes, and he saw the angel of       and I have offered on each altar a bull
the LORD standing in the way with his        and a ram.” 23:5 Then the LORD put a
sword drawn in his hand; so he bowed his     message in Balaam’s mouth and said, “Re-
head and threw himself down with his         turn to Balak, and speak what I tell you.”
face to the ground. 22:32 The angel of          23:6 So he returned to him, and he
the LORD said to him, “Why have you          was still standing by his burnt offering,
beaten your donkey these three times?        he and all the princes of Moab. 23:7 Then
Look, I came out to oppose you because       Balaam uttered his oracle, saying,
what you are doing is perverse before             “Balak, the king of Moab, brought
me. 22:33 The donkey saw me and turned            me from Aram,
from me these three times. If she had             out of the mountains of the east,
not turned from me, I would have killed           saying,
you but saved her alive.” 22:34 Balaam            ‘Come, pronounce a curse on Jacob
said to the angel of the LORD, “I have            for me;
sinned, for I did not know that you stood         come, denounce Israel.’
against me in the road. So now, if it is          23:8 How can I curse one whom God
evil in your sight, I will go back home.”         has not cursed,
                                                  or how can I denounce one whom the
22:35 But the angel of the LORD said to
                                                  LORD has not denounced?
Balaam, “Go with the men, but you may             23:9 For from the top of the rocks
only speak the word that I will speak to          I see them;
you.” So Balaam went with the princes of          from the hills I watch them.
Balak.                                            Indeed, a nation that lives alone,
                                                  and it will not be reckoned among
Balaam Meets Balak                                the nations.
    22:36 When Balak heard that Balaam            23:10 Who can count the dust of
                                                  Jacob,
was coming, he went out to meet him at a          Or number the fourth part of
city of Moab which was on the border of           Israel?
the Arnon at the boundary of his terri-           Let me die the death of the upright,
tory. 22:37 Balak said to Balaam, “Did I          and let the end of my life be like
not send again and again to you to sum-           theirs.”
mon you? Why did you not come to me?
Am I not able to honor you?” 22:38           Balaam Relocates
Balaam said to Balak, “Look, I have come
to you. Now, am I able to speak just any-        23:11 Then Balak said to Balaam,
thing? I must speak only the word that       “What have you done to me? I brought
God puts in my mouth.” 22:39 So Balaam       you to curse my enemies, but on the con-
went with Balak, and they came to Kiri-      trary you have only blessed them!” 23:12
ath-huzoth. 22:40 And Balak sacrificed       Balaam replied, “Must I not be careful to
bulls and sheep, and sent some to Balaam,    speak what the LORD has put in my
and to the princes who were with him.        mouth?” 23:13 Balak said to him, “Please
22:41 Then on the next morning Balak         come with me to another place from
took Balaam, and brought him up to           which you can observe them. You will see
Bamoth Baal. From there he saw the ex-       only a part of them, but you will not see
tent of the nation.                          all of them. Curse them for me from
                                             there.”
Balaam Blesses Israel                            23:14 So Balak brought Balaam to the
                                             field of Zophim, to the top of Pisgah,
    23:1 Balaam said to Balak, “Build me     where he built seven altars and offered a
seven altars here, and prepare for me        bull and a ram on each altar. 23:15 And
here seven bulls and seven rams.” 23:2 So    Balaam said to Balak, “Station yourself
Balak did just as Balaam had said. Balak     here by your burnt offering, while I meet
and Balaam then offered on each altar a      the LORD there. 23:16 Then the LORD met
bull and a ram. 23:3 Balaam said to Balak,   Balaam and put a message in his mouth
“Station yourself by your burnt offering,    and said, “Return to Balak, and speak
and I will go off; perhaps the LORD will     what I tell you.” 23:17 When Balaam came
come to meet me, and whatever he re-         to him, he was still standing by his burnt
veals to me I will tell you.” Then he went   offering, along with the princes of Moab.
to a deserted height.                        And Balak said to him, “What has the
                                             LORD spoken?”
NUMBERS 23:18                               316
Balaam Prophesies Again                         Balaam Prophesies Yet Again
   23:18 Balaam uttered his oracle, and             24:1 When Balaam saw that it pleased
said,                                           the LORD to bless Israel, he did not go as
        “Rise up, Balak, and hear;              at the other times to seek for omens,
        Listen to me, son of Zippor:            but he set his face toward the wilder-
        23:19 God is not a man, that he         ness. 24:2 When Balaam lifted up his
        should lie,                             eyes, he saw Israel camped tribe by
        nor a human being, that he should       tribe; and the Spirit of God came upon
        change his mind.                        him. 24:3 Then he uttered this oracle:
        Has he said, and will he not do it?          “The oracle of Balaam son of Beor;
        Or has he spoken, and will he not            the oracle of the man whose eyes
        make it happen?                              are open;
        23:20 Indeed, I have received a              24:4 the oracle of the one who
        command to bless;                            hears the words of God,
        he has blessed, and I cannot reverse         who sees a vision from the Almighty,
        it.                                          although falling flat on the ground
        23:21 He has not looked on iniquity          with eyes open:
        in Jacob,                                    24:5 ‘How beautiful are your tents,
        nor has he seen trouble in Israel.           O Jacob,
        The LORD their God is with them;             and your dwelling places, O Israel!
        his acclamation as king is among             24:6 They are like valleys stretched
        them.                                        forth,
        23:22 God brought them out of                like gardens by the river’s side,
        Egypt.                                       like aloes that the LORD has planted,
        They have, as it were, the strength          and like cedar trees beside the
        of a wild bull.                              waters.
        23:23 For there is no spell against          24:7 He will pour the water out of
        Jacob,                                       his buckets,
        nor is there any divination against          and their descendants will be like
        Israel.                                      abundant water;
        At this time it must be said of              their king will be greater than Agag,
        Jacob                                        and their kingdom will be exalted.
        and of Israel, ‘Look at what God has         24:8 God brought them out of
        done!’                                       Egypt.
        23:24 Indeed, the people will rise up        They have, as it were, the strength
        like a lioness,                              of a young bull;
        and like a lion raises himself up;           they will devour hostile people
        they will not lie down until they eat        and will break their bones
        their prey,                                  and will pierce them through with
        and drink the blood of the slain.”           arrows.
                                                     24:9 They crouch and lie down like a
Balaam Relocates Yet Again                           lion,
   23:25 Balak said to Balaam, “Neither              and as a lioness, who can stir him?
curse them at all nor bless them at all!”            Blessed is the one who blesses you,
23:26 But Balaam replied to Balak, “Did I
                                                     and cursed is the one who curses
                                                     you!’”
not tell you, ‘All that the LORD speaks, I          24:10 Then Balak became very angry
must do’?”                                      at Balaam, and he struck his hands to-
   23:27 Balak said to Balaam, “Come,
                                                gether. Balak said to Balaam, “I called
please; I will take you to another place.       you to curse my enemies, and look, you
Perhaps it will please God to let you curse     have done nothing but bless them these
them for me from there.” 23:28 So Balak         three times! 24:11 So now, go back where
took Balaam to the top of Peor, that            you came from! I said that I would
looks toward the wilderness. 23:29 Then         greatly honor you; but now the LORD has
Balaam said to Balak, “Build seven altars       stood in the way of your honor.”
here for me, and prepare seven bulls and            24:12 Balaam said to Balak, “Did I not
seven rams.” 23:30 So Balak did as              also tell your messengers whom you sent
Balaam had said, and offered a bull and a       to me, 24:13 ‘If Balak would give me his
ram on each altar.                              palace full of silver and gold, I cannot go
                                                beyond the commandment of the LORD to
                                                do either good or evil of my own will, but
                                                whatever the LORD tells me I must
                                         317                          NUMBERS 25:15
speak’? 24:14 And now, I am about to go Israel’s Sin with the Moabite Women
back to my own people. Come now, and I
will advise you as to what this people will      25:1 When Israel lived in Shittim, the
do to your people in the future.”            people began to commit sexual immorality
                                             with the daughters of Moab. 25:2 These
Balaam Prophesies a Fourth Time              women invited the people to the sacri-
                                             fices of their gods; then the people ate
    24:15 Then he uttered this oracle:       and bowed down to their gods. 25:3 When
      “The oracle of Balaam son of Beor;     Israel joined themselves to Baal-peor,
      the oracle of the man whose eyes       the anger of the LORD flared up against
      are open;
      24:16 the oracle of the one who        Israel.
      hears the words of God,                God’s Punishment
      and who knows the knowledge of the
      Most High,                                 25:4 The LORD said to Moses, “Arrest
      who sees a vision from the Almighty, all the leaders of the people, and hang
      although falling flat on the ground    them up before the LORD in broad day-
      with eyes open:                        light, so that the fierce anger of the
      24:17 ‘I see him, but not now;
                                             LORD may be turned away from Israel.”
      I behold him, but not close at hand.
                                             25:5 So Moses said to the judges of Is-
      A star will march forth out of
      Jacob,                                 rael, “Each of you must execute those of
      and a scepter will rise out of Israel. his men who were joined to Baal-peor.”
      He will crush the skulls of Moab,          25:6 Just then one of the Israelites
      and the heads of all the sons of       came and brought to his brothers a
      Sheth.                                 Midianite woman in the plain view of
      24:18 Edom will be a possession,       Moses and of the whole community of the
      Seir, his enemies, will also be a      Israelites, while they were weeping at
      possession;                            the entrance of the tent of meeting. 25:7
      but Israel will act valiantly.         When Phinehas son of Eleazar, the son of
      24:19 A ruler will be established      Aaron the priest, saw it, he got up from
      from Jacob;                            among the assembly, took a javelin in his
      he will destroy the remains of the     hand, 25:8 and went after the Israelite
      city.’”                                man into the tent and thrust through the
                                             Israelite man and into the woman’s ab-
Balaam’s Final Prophecies                    domen. So the plague was stopped from
    24:20 Then Balaam looked on Amalek the Israelites. 25:9 Those that died in
and delivered this oracle:                   the plague were 24,000.
      “Amalek was the first of the
      nations,                               The Aftermath
      but his end will be that he will           25:10 The LORD spoke to Moses: 25:11
      perish.”                               “Phinehas son of Eleazar, the son of
    24:21 Then he looked on the Kenites
                                             Aaron the priest, has turned my anger
and uttered this oracle:                     away from the Israelites, when he mani-
      “Your dwelling place seems strong,
      and your nest is set on a rocky cliff. fested such zeal for my sake among
      24:22 Nevertheless the Kenite will     them, so that I did not consume the Is-
      be consumed.                           raelites in my zeal. 25:12 Therefore, an-
      How long will Asshur take you away     nounce: ‘I am going to give to him my
      captive?”                              covenant of peace. 25:13 So it will be to
    24:23 Then he uttered this oracle:       him and his descendants after him a
      “O, who will survive when God does     covenant of a permanent priesthood, be-
      this!                                  cause he has been zealous for his God,
      24:24 Ships will come from the         and has made atonement for the Israel-
      coast of Kittim,                       ites.’”
      and will afflict Asshur, and will          25:14 Now the name of the Israelite
      afflict Eber,                          who was stabbed – the one who was
      and he will also perish forever.”      stabbed with the Midianite woman – was
    24:25 Balaam got up and departed and Zimri son of Salu, a leader of a clan of
returned to his home, and Balak also went the Simeonites. 25:15 The name of the
his way.                                     Midianite woman who was killed was Cozbi
                                             daughter of Zur. He was a leader over
                                             the people of a clan of Midian.
NUMBERS 25:16                            318
   25:16 Then the LORD spoke to Moses: Gad
25:17 “Bring trouble to the Midianites,
and destroy                               26:15 The Gadites by their families:
them, 25:18 because they bring trouble from Zephon, the family of the
to you by their treachery with which         Zephonites; from Haggi, the family of
they have deceived you in the matter of      the Haggites; from Shuni, the family of
Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, the        the Shunites; 26:16 from Ozni, the fam-
daughter of a prince of Midian, their sis-   ily of the Oznites; from Eri, the family
ter, who was killed on the day of the        of the Erites; 26:17 from Arod, the fam-
plague that happened as a result of Peor.”   ily of the Arodites, and from Areli, the
                                             family of the Arelites. 26:18 These were
A Second Census Required                     the families of the Gadites according to
                                             those numbered of them, 40,500.
   26:1 After the plague the LORD said
to Moses and to Eleazar son of Aaron the     Judah
priest, 26:2 “Take a census of the whole
community of Israelites, from twenty            26:19 The descendants of Judah were
years old and upward, by their clans, eve-   Er and Onan, but Er and Onan died in the
ryone who can serve in the army of Is-       land of Canaan. 26:20 And the Judahites
rael.” 26:3 So Moses and Eleazar the         by their families were: from Shelah, the
priest spoke with them in the plains of      family of the Shelahites; from Perez, the
Moab, by the Jordan River across from        family of the Perezites; and from Zerah,
Jericho. They said, 26:4 “Number the         the family of the Zerahites. 26:21 And
people from twenty years old and upward,     the Perezites were: from Hezron, the
just as the LORD commanded Moses and         family of the Hezronites; from Hamul,
the Israelites who went out from the         the family of the Hamulites. 26:22 These
land of Egypt.”                              were the families of Judah according to
                                             those numbered of them, 76,500.
Reuben
                                             Issachar
   26:5 Reuben was the firstborn of Is-
rael. The Reubenites: from Hanoch, the           26:23 The Issacharites by their fami-
family of the Hanochites; from Pallu, the    lies: from Tola, the family of the To-
family of the Palluites; 26:6 from Hezron,   laites; from Puah, the family of the
the family of the Hezronites; from           Puites; 26:24 from Jashub, the family of
Carmi, the family of the Carmites. 26:7      the Jashubites; and from Shimron, the
These were the families of the Reube-        family of the Shimronites. 26:25 These
nites; and those numbered of them were       were the families of Issachar, according
43,730. 26:8 Pallu’s descendant was Eliab.   to those numbered of them, 64,300.
26:9 Eliab’s descendants were Nemuel,
Dathan, and Abiram. It was Dathan and        Zebulun
Abiram who as leaders of the community           26:26 The Zebulunites by their fami-
rebelled against Moses and Aaron with        lies: from Sered, the family of the Sard-
the followers of Korah when they re-         ites; from Elon, the family of the Elo-
belled against the LORD. 26:10 The earth     nites; from Jahleel, the family of the
opened its mouth and swallowed them and      Jahleelites. 26:27 These were the fami-
Korah at the time that company died,         lies of the Zebulunites, according to
when the fire consumed 250 men. So           those numbered of them, 60,500.
they became a warning. 26:11 But the
descendants of Korah did not die.            Manasseh
Simeon                                           26:28 The descendants of Joseph by
                                             their families: Manasseh and Ephraim.
    26:12 The Simeonites by their fami-
                                             26:29 The Manassehites: from Machir,
lies: from Nemuel, the family of the         the family of the Machirites (now Machir
Nemuelites; from Jamin, the family of        became the father of Gilead); from
the Jaminites; from Jakin, the family of     Gilead, the family of the Gileadites.
the Jakinites; 26:13 from Zerah, the         26:30 These were the Gileadites: from
family of the Zerahites; and from Shaul,     Iezer, the family of the Iezerites; from
the family of the Shaulites. 26:14 These     Helek, the family of the Helekites; 26:31
were the families of the Simeonites,         from Asriel, the family of the Asrielites;
22,200.                                      from Shechem, the family of the She-
                                          319                           NUMBERS 26:65
chemites; 26:32 from Shemida, the fam-        Naphtali
ily of the Shemidaites; from Hepher, the
family of the Hepherites. 26:33 Now               26:48 The Naphtalites by their fami-
Zelophehad son of Hepher had no sons,         lies: from Jahzeel, the family of the Ja-
but only daughters; and the names of the      hzeelites; from Guni, the family of the
daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah,          Gunites; 26:49 from Jezer, the family of
Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 26:34       the Jezerites; from Shillem, the family
These were the families of Manasseh;          of the Shillemites. 26:50 These were the
those numbered of them were 52,700.           families of Naphtali according to their
                                              families; and those numbered of them
Ephraim                                       were 45,400.
    26:35 These are the Ephraimites by        Total Number and Division of the Land
their families: from Shuthelah, the fam-
ily of the Shuthelahites; from Beker, the         26:51 These were those numbered of
family of the Bekerites; from Tahan, the      the Israelites, 601,730.
family of the Tahanites. 26:36 Now these          26:52 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
were the Shuthelahites: from Eran, the        26:53 “To these the land must be divided
family of the Eranites. 26:37 These were      as an inheritance according to the num-
the families of the Ephraimites, accord-      ber of the names. 26:54 To a larger group
ing to those numbered of them, 32,500.        you will give a larger inheritance, and to a
These were the descendants of Joseph          smaller group you will give a smaller in-
by their families.                            heritance. To each one its inheritance
                                              must be given according to the number of
Benjamin                                      people in it. 26:55 The land must be di-
                                              vided by lot; and they will inherit in ac-
    26:38 The Benjaminites by their fami-     cordance with the names of their ances-
lies: from Bela, the family of the Be-        tral tribes. 26:56 Their inheritance must
laites; from Ashbel, the family of the        be apportioned by lot among the larger
Ashbelites; from Ahiram, the family of        and smaller groups.
the Ahiramites; 26:39 from Shupham, the           26:57 And these are the Levites who
family of the Shuphamites; from               were numbered according to their fami-
Hupham, the family of the Huphamites.         lies: from Gershon, the family of the
26:40 The descendants of Bela were Ard        Gershonites; of Kohath, the family of the
and Naaman. From Ard, the family of the       Kohathites; from Merari, the family of
Ardites; from Naaman, the family of the       the Merarites. 26:58 These are the fami-
Naamanites. 26:41 These are the Benja-        lies of the Levites: the family of the Lib-
minites, according to their families, and     nites, the family of the Hebronites, the
according to those numbered of them,          family of the Mahlites, the family of the
45,600.                                       Mushites, the family of the Korahites.
Dan                                           Kohath became the father of Amram.
                                              26:59 Now the name of Amram’s wife was
   26:42 These are the Danites by their       Jochebed, daughter of Levi, who was
families: from Shuham, the family of the      born to Levi in Egypt. And to Amram she
Shuhamites. These were the families of        bore Aaron, Moses, and Miriam their sis-
Dan, according to their families. 26:43 All   ter. 26:60 And to Aaron were born Nadab
the families of the Shuhahites according      and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 26:61
to those numbered of them were 64,400.        But Nadab and Abihu died when they of-
                                              fered strange fire before the LORD.
Asher                                         26:62 Those of them who were numbered
                                              were 23,000, all males from a month old
   26:44 The Asherites by their families:     and upward, for they were not numbered
from Imnah, the family of the Imnahites;      among the Israelites; no inheritance was
from Ishvi, the family of the Ishvites;       given to them among the Israelites.
from Beriah, the family of the Beria-             26:63 These are those who were num-
hites. 26:45 From the Beriahites: from        bered by Moses and Eleazar the priest,
Heber, the family of the Heberites; from      who numbered the Israelites in the plains
Malkiel, the family of the Malkielites.       of Moab along the Jordan River opposite
26:46 Now the name of the daughter of         Jericho. 26:64 But there was not a man
Asher was Serah. 26:47 These are the          among these who had been among those
families of the Asherites, according to       numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest
those numbered of them, 53,400.               when they numbered the Israelites in
NUMBERS 26:65                              320
the wilderness of Sinai. 26:65 For the         eyes over the water – the water of Meri-
LORD had said of them, “They will surely       bah in Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.”
die in the wilderness.” And there was not          27:15 Then Moses spoke to the LORD:
left a single man of them, except Caleb        27:16 “Let the LORD, the God of the spir-
son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.        its of all humankind, appoint a man over
                                               the community, 27:17 who will go out be-
Special Inheritance Laws                       fore them, and who will come in before
                                               them, and who will lead them out, and
    27:1 Then the daughters of Zelophe-
                                               who will bring them in, so that the com-
had son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the      munity of the LORD may not be like sheep
son of Machir, the son of Manasseh of          that have no shepherd.”
the families of Manasseh, the son Joseph           27:18 The LORD replied to Moses,
came forward. Now these are the names          “Take Joshua son of Nun, a man in whom
of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah,        is such a spirit, and lay your hand on him;
Milcah, and Tirzah. 27:2 And they stood        27:19 set him before Eleazar the priest
before Moses and Eleazar the priest and        and before the whole community, and
the leaders of the whole assembly at the       commission him publicly. 27:20 Then you
entrance to the tent of meeting and said,      must delegate some of your authority to
27:3 “Our father died in the wilderness,
                                               him, so that the whole community of the
although he was not part of the company        Israelites will be obedient. 27:21 And he
of those that gathered themselves to-          will stand before Eleazar the priest, who
gether against the LORD in the company         will seek counsel for him before the LORD
of Korah; but he died for his own sin, and     by the decision of the Urim. At his com-
he had no sons. 27:4 Why should the            mand they will go out, and at his command
name of our father be lost from among          they will come in, he and all the Israel-
his family because he had no son? Give us      ites with him, the whole community.”
a possession among the relatives of our            27:22 So Moses did as the LORD com-
father.”                                       manded him; he took Joshua and set him
    27:5 So Moses brought their case be-
                                               before Eleazar the priest and before the
fore the LORD. 27:6 The LORD said to           whole community. 27:23 He laid his hands
Moses: 27:7 “The daughters of Zelophe-         on him and commissioned him, just as the
had have a valid claim. You must indeed        LORD commanded, by the authority of
give them possession of an inheritance         Moses.
among their father’s relatives, and you
must transfer the inheritance of their         Daily Offerings
father to them. 27:8 And you must tell
the Israelites, ‘If a man dies and has no          28:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 28:2
son, then you must transfer his inheri-        “Command the Israelites: ‘With regard to
tance to his daughter; 27:9 and if he has      my offering, be sure to offer my food
no daughter, then you are to give his in-      for my offering made by fire, as a pleas-
heritance to his brothers; 27:10 and if        ing aroma to me at its appointed time.’
he has no brothers, then you are to give       28:3 You will say to them, ‘This is the
his inheritance to his father’s brothers;      offering made by fire which you must
27:11 and if his father has no brothers,       offer to the LORD: two unblemished
then you are to give his inheritance to his    lambs one year old each day for a contin-
relative nearest to him from his family,       ual burnt offering. 28:4 The first lamb
and he will possess it. This will be for the   you must offer in the morning, and the
Israelites a legal requirement, as the         second lamb you must offer in the late
LORD commanded Moses.’”                        afternoon, 28:5 with one-tenth of an
                                               ephah of finely ground flour as a grain
Leadership Change                              offering mixed with one quarter of a hin
                                               of pressed olive oil. 28:6 It is a continual
    27:12 Then the LORD said to Moses,
                                               burnt offering that was instituted on
“Go up this mountain of the Abarim             Mount Sinai as a pleasing aroma, an of-
range, and see the land I have given to        fering made by fire to the LORD.
the Israelites. 27:13 When you have seen           28:7 “‘And its drink offering must be
it, you will be gathered to your ancestors,    one quarter of a hin for each lamb. You
as Aaron your brother was gathered to          must pour out the strong drink as a drink
his ancestors. 27:14 For in the wilder-        offering to the LORD in the holy place.
ness of Zin when the community rebelled        28:8 And the second lamb you must offer
against me, you rebelled against my com-       in the late afternoon; just as you offered
mand to show me as holy before their           the grain offering and drink offering in
                                          321                           NUMBERS 29:6
the morning, you must offer it as an of- one goat for a purification offering, to
fering made by fire, as a pleasing aroma make atonement for you. 28:23 You must
to the LORD.                                 offer these in addition to the burnt of-
                                             fering in the morning which is for a con-
Weekly Offerings                             tinual burnt offering. 28:24 In this man-
                                             ner you must offer daily throughout the
    28:9 “‘On the Sabbath day, you must
                                             seven days the food of the sacrifice
offer two unblemished lambs a year old, made by fire as a sweet aroma to the
and two-tenths of an ephah of finely LORD. It is to be offered in addition to
ground flour as a grain offering, mixed the continual burnt offering and its drink
with olive oil, along with its drink offer- offering. 28:25 On the seventh day you
ing. 28:10 This is the burnt offering for are to have a holy assembly, you must do
every Sabbath, besides the continual no regular work.
burnt offering and its drink offering.
                                             Firstfruits
Monthly Offerings
                                                 28:26 “‘Also, on the day of the first
    28:11 “‘On the first day of each
                                             fruits, when you bring a new grain offer-
month you must offer as a burnt offering ing to the LORD during your Feast of
to the LORD two young bulls, one ram, and Weeks, you are to have a holy assembly.
seven unblemished lambs a year old, You must do no ordinary work. 28:27 But
28:12 with three-tenths of an ephah of
                                             you must offer as the burnt offering, as
finely ground flour mixed with olive oil as a sweet aroma to the LORD, two young
a grain offering for each bull, and two- bulls, one ram, seven lambs one year old,
tenths of an ephah of finely ground flour 28:28 with their grain offering of finely
mixed with olive oil as a grain offering ground flour mixed with olive oil: three-
for the ram, 28:13 and one-tenth of an tenths of an ephah for each bull, two-
ephah of finely ground flour mixed with tenths for the one ram, 28:29 with one-
olive oil as a grain offering for each lamb, tenth for each of the seven lambs, 28:30
as a burnt offering for a pleasing aroma, as well as one male goat to make an
an offering made by fire to the LORD. atonement for you. 28:31 You are to of-
28:14 For their drink offerings, include
                                             fer them with their drink offerings in
half a hin of wine with each bull, one- addition to the continual burnt offering
third of a hin for the ram, and one- and its grain offering – they must be un-
fourth of a hin for each lamb. This is the blemished.
burnt offering for each month through-
out the months of the year. 28:15 And Blowing Trumpets
one male goat must be offered to the
LORD as a purification offering, in addi-        29:1 “‘On the first day of the seventh
tion to the continual burnt offering and month, you are to hold a holy assembly.
its drink offering.                          You must not do your ordinary work, for
                                             it is a day of blowing trumpets for you.
Passover and Unleavened Bread                29:2 You must offer a burnt offering as
                                             a sweet aroma to the LORD: one young
    28:16 “‘On the fourteenth day of the
                                             bull, one ram, and seven lambs one year
first month is the LORD’s Passover. 28:17 old without blemish.
And on the fifteenth day of this month is        29:3 “‘Their grain offering is to be of
the festival. For seven days bread made finely ground flour mixed with olive oil,
without yeast must be eaten. 28:18 And three-tenths of an ephah for the bull,
on the first day there is to be a holy as- two-tenths of an ephah for the ram, 29:4
sembly; you must do no ordinary work on and one-tenth for each of the seven
it.                                          lambs, 29:5 with one male goat for a pu-
    28:19 “‘But you must offer to the
                                             rification offering to make an atonement
LORD an offering made by fire, a burnt for you; 29:6 this is in addition to the
offering of two young bulls, one ram, and monthly burnt offering and its grain of-
seven lambs one year old; they must all fering, and the daily burnt offering with
be unblemished. 28:20 And their grain its grain offering and their drink offer-
offering is to be of finely ground flour ings as prescribed, as a sweet aroma, a
mixed with olive oil. For each bull you sacrifice made by fire to the LORD.
must offer three-tenths of an ephah,
and two-tenths for the ram. 28:21 For
each of the seven lambs you are to offer
one-tenth of an ephah, 28:22 as well as
NUMBERS 29:7                              322
The Day of Atonement                          offering with its grain offering and its
                                              drink offering.
    29:7 “‘On the tenth day of this sev-          29:23 “‘On the fourth day you must
enth month you are to have a holy assem-      offer ten bulls, two rams, and fourteen
bly. You must humble yourselves; you          lambs one year old, all without blemish,
must not do any work on it. 29:8 But you      29:24 and their grain offering and their
must offer a burnt offering as a pleasing     drink offerings for the bulls, for the
aroma to the LORD, one young bull, one        rams, and for the lambs, according to
ram, and seven lambs one year old, all of     their number as prescribed, 29:25 along
them without blemish. 29:9 Their grain        with one male goat for a purification of-
offering must be of finely ground flour       fering, in addition to the continual burnt
mixed with olive oil, three-tenths of an      offering with its grain offering and its
ephah for the bull, two-tenths for the        drink offering.
ram, 29:10 and one-tenth for each of the          29:26 “‘On the fifth day you must of-
seven lambs, 29:11 along with one male        fer nine bulls, two rams, and fourteen
goat for a purification offering, in addi-    lambs one year old, all without blemish,
tion to the purification offering for         29:27 and their grain offering and their
atonement and the continual burnt offer-      drink offerings for the bulls, for the
ing with its grain offering and their drink   rams, and for the lambs, according to
offerings.                                    their number as prescribed, 29:28 along
                                              with one male goat for a purification of-
The Feast of Temporary Shelters               fering, in addition to the continual burnt
     29:12 “‘On the fifteenth day of the
                                              offering with its grain offering and its
seventh month you are to have a holy          drink offering.
                                                  29:29 “‘On the sixth day you must of-
assembly; you must do no ordinary work,
and you must keep a festival to the LORD      fer eight bulls, two rams, and fourteen
for seven days. 29:13 You must offer a        lambs one year old, all without blemish,
                                              29:30 and their grain offering and their
burnt offering, an offering made by fire
as a pleasing aroma to the LORD: thirteen     drink offerings for the bulls, for the
young bulls, two rams, and fourteen lambs     rams, and for the lambs, according to
each one year old, all of them without        their number as prescribed, 29:31 along
blemish. 29:14 Their grain offering must      with one male goat for a purification of-
be of finely ground flour mixed with olive    fering, in addition to the continual burnt
oil, three-tenths of an ephah for each of     offering with its grain offering and its
the thirteen bulls, two-tenths of an          drink offering.
ephah for each of the two rams, 29:15             29:32 “‘On the seventh day you must
and one-tenth for each of the fourteen        offer seven bulls, two rams, and fourteen
lambs, 29:16 along with one male goat for     lambs one year old, all without blemish,
                                              29:33 and their grain offering and their
a purification offering, in addition to the
continual burnt offering with its grain       drink offerings for the bulls, for the
offering and its drink offering.              rams, and for the lambs, according to
     29:17 “‘On the second day you must
                                              their number as prescribed, 29:34 along
offer twelve young bulls, two rams, four-     with one male goat for a purification of-
teen lambs one year old, all without blem-    fering, in addition to the continual burnt
ish, 29:18 and their grain offering and       offering with its grain offering and its
their drink offerings for the bulls, for      drink offering.
                                                  29:35 “‘On the eighth day you are to
the rams, and for the lambs, according to
their number as prescribed, 29:19 along       have a holy assembly; you must do no or-
with one male goat for a purification of-     dinary work on it. 29:36 But you must
fering, in addition to the continual burnt    offer a burnt offering, an offering made
offering with its grain offering and their    by fire, as a pleasing aroma to the LORD,
drink offerings.                              one bull, one ram, seven lambs one year
     29:20 “‘On the third day you must of-
                                              old, all of them without blemish, 29:37
fer eleven bulls, two rams, fourteen          and with their grain offering and their
lambs one year old, all without blemish,      drink offerings for the bull, for the ram,
29:21 and their grain offering and their
                                              and for the lambs, according to their
drink offerings for the bulls, for the        number as prescribed, 29:38 along with
rams, and for the lambs, according to         one male goat for a purification offering,
their number as prescribed, 29:22 along       in addition to the continual burnt offer-
with one male goat for a purification of-     ing with its grain offering and its drink
fering, in addition to the continual burnt    offering.
                                           323                           NUMBERS 31:13
   29:39 “‘These things you must present       not overrule her, then all her vows will
to the LORD at your appointed times, in        stand, and every obligation which she
addition to your vows and your freewill        pledged for herself will stand. 30:12 But
offerings, as your burnt offerings, your       if her husband clearly nullifies them
grain offerings, your drink offerings, and     when he hears them, then whatever she
your peace offerings.’” 29:40 (30:1) So        says by way of vows or obligations will
Moses told the Israelites everything,          not stand. Her husband has made them
just as the LORD had commanded him.            void, and the LORD will release her from
                                               them.
Vows Made by Men                                   30:13 “Any vow or sworn obligation
                                               that would bring affliction to her, her
    30:1 Moses told the leaders of the
                                               husband can confirm or nullify. 30:14 But
tribes concerning the Israelites, “This is     if her husband remains completely silent
what the LORD has commanded: 30:2 If a         about her from day to day, he thus con-
man makes a vow to the LORD or takes an        firms all her vows or all her obligations
oath of binding obligation on himself, he      which she is under; he confirms them
must not break his word, but must do           because he remained silent about when
whatever he has promised.                      he heard them. 30:15 But if he should
Vows Made by Single Women                      nullify them after he has heard them,
                                               then he will bear her iniquity.”
    30:3 “If a young woman who is still liv-       30:16 These are the statutes that
ing in her father’s house makes a vow to       the LORD commanded Moses, relating to a
the LORD or places herself under an obli-      man and his wife, and a father and his
gation, 30:4 and her father hears of her       young daughter who is still living in her
vow or the obligation to which she has         father’s house.
pledged herself, and her father remains
silent about her, then all her vows will       The Midianite War
stand, and every obligation to which she           31:1 The LORD spoke to Moses: 31:2
has pledged herself will stand. 30:5 But if    “Exact vengeance for the Israelites on
her father overrules her when he hears         the Midianites – after that you will be
about it, then none of her vows or her         gathered to your people.”
obligations which she has pledged for              31:3 So Moses spoke to the people:
herself will stand. And the LORD will re-      “Arm men from among you for the war, to
lease her from it, because her father          attack the Midianites and to execute the
overruled her.                                 LORD’s vengeance on Midian. 31:4 You
Vows Made by Married Women                     must send to the battle a thousand men
                                               from every tribe throughout all the
   30:6 “And if she marries a husband          tribes of Israel.” 31:5 So a thousand
while under a vow, or she uttered any-         from every tribe, twelve thousand armed
thing impulsively by which she has             for battle in all, were provided out of the
pledged herself, 30:7 and her husband          thousands of Israel.
hears about it, but remains silent about
her when he hears about it, then her           Campaign Against the Midianites
vows will stand and her obligations which          31:6 So Moses sent them to the war,
she has pledged for herself will stand.        one thousand from every tribe, with Phi-
30:8 But if when her husband hears it he
                                               nehas son of Eleazar the priest, who was
overrules her, then                            in charge of the holy articles and the
he will nullify the vow she has taken, and     signal trumpets. 31:7 They fought against
whatever she uttered impulsively which         the Midianites, as the LORD commanded
she has pledged for herself. And the           Moses, and they killed every male. 31:8
LORD will release her from it.                 They killed the kings of Midian in addi-
Vows Made by Widows                            tion to those slain – Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur,
                                               and Reba – five Midianite kings. They also
    30:9 “But every vow of a widow or of a     killed Balaam son of Beor with the sword.
divorced woman which she has pledged               31:9 The Israelites took the women
for herself will remain intact. 30:10 If       of Midian captives along with their little
she made the vow in her husband’s house        ones, and took all their herds, all their
or put herself under obligation with an        flocks, and all their goods as plunder.
oath, 30:11 and her husband heard about        31:10 They burned all their towns where
it, but remained silent about her, and did     they lived and all their encampments.
NUMBERS 31:11                             324
31:11 They took all the plunder and all take the sum of the plunder that was
the spoils, both people and animals. 31:12 captured, both people and animals. 31:27
They brought the captives and the spoils      Divide the plunder into two parts, one for
and the plunder to Moses, to Eleazar the      those who took part in the war – who
priest, and to the Israelite community, to    went out to battle – and the other for all
the camp on the plains of Moab, along the     the community.
Jordan River across from Jericho. 31:13           31:28 “You must exact a tribute for
Moses, Eleazar the priest, and all the        the LORD from the fighting men who went
leaders of the community went out to          out to battle: one life out of five hun-
meet them outside the camp.                   dred, from the people, the cattle, and
                                              from the donkeys and the sheep. 31:29
The Death of the Midianite Women              You are to take it from their half-share
                                              and give it to Eleazar the priest for a
    31:14 But Moses was furious with the
                                              raised offering to the LORD. 31:30 From
officers of the army, the commanders          the Israelites’ half-share you are to take
over thousands and commanders over            one portion out of fifty of the people,
hundreds, who had come from service in        the cattle, the donkeys, and the sheep –
the war. 31:15 Moses said to them, “Have      from every kind of animal – and you are
you allowed all the women to live? 31:16      to give them to the Levites, who are re-
Look, these people through the counsel        sponsible for the care of the LORD’s tab-
of Balaam caused the Israelites to act        ernacle.”
treacherously against the LORD in the             31:31 So Moses and Eleazar the
matter of Peor – which resulted in the        priest did as the LORD commanded Moses.
plague among the community of the LORD!       31:32 The spoil that remained of the
31:17 Now therefore kill every boy, and
                                              plunder which the fighting men had gath-
kill every woman who has had sexual in-       ered was 675,000 sheep, 31:33 72,000
tercourse with a man. 31:18 But all the       cattle, 31:34 61,000 donkeys, 31:35 and
young women who have not had sexual           32,000 young women who had never had
intercourse with a man will be yours.         sexual intercourse with a man.
Purification After Battle                         31:36 The half-portion of those who
                                              went to war numbered 337,500 sheep;
   31:19 “Any of you who has killed any-      31:37 the LORD’s tribute from the sheep
one or touched any of the dead, remain        was 675. 31:38 The cattle numbered
outside the camp for seven days; purify       36,000; the LORD’s tribute was 72. 31:39
yourselves and your captives on the third     The donkeys were 30,500, of which the
day, and on the seventh day. 31:20 You        LORD’s tribute was 61. 31:40 The people
must purify each garment and everything       were 16,000, of which the LORD’s tribute
that is made of skin, everything made of      was 32 people.
goat’s hair, and everything made of               31:41 So Moses gave the tribute,
wood.”                                        which was the LORD’s raised offering, to
   31:21 Then Eleazar the priest said to      Eleazar the priest, as the LORD com-
the men of war who had gone into the          manded Moses.
battle, “This is the ordinance of the law         31:42 From the Israelites’ half-share
that the LORD commanded Moses: 31:22          that Moses had separated from the
‘Only the gold, the silver, the bronze, the   fighting men, 31:43 there were 337,500
iron, the tin, and the lead, 31:23 every-     sheep from the portion belonging to the
thing that may stand the fire, you are to     community, 31:44 36,000 cattle, 31:45
pass through the fire, and it will be         30,500 donkeys, 31:46 and 16,000 people.
ceremonially clean, but it must still be          31:47 From the Israelites’ share
purified with the water of purification.      Moses took one of every fifty people and
Anything that cannot withstand the fire       animals and gave them to the Levites who
you must pass through the water. 31:24        were responsible for the care of the
You must wash your clothes on the sev-        LORD’s tabernacle, just as the LORD com-
enth day, and you will be ceremonially        manded Moses.
clean, and afterward you may enter the            31:48 Then the officers who were
camp.’”                                       over the thousands of the army, the
                                              commanders over thousands and the
The Distribution of Spoils                    commanders over hundreds, approached
                                              Moses 31:49 and said to him, “Your ser-
   31:25 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:        vants have taken a count of the men who
31:26 “You and Eleazar the priest, and all    were in the battle, who were under our
the family leaders of the community,
                                          325                           NUMBERS 32:27
authority, and not one is missing. 31:50      swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and
So we have brought as an offering for         Jacob, 32:12 except Caleb son of
the LORD what each man found: gold or-        Jephunneh the Kenizzite, and Joshua son
naments, armlets, bracelets, signet rings,    of Nun, for they followed the LORD
earrings, and necklaces, to make atone-       wholeheartedly.’ 32:13 So the LORD’s an-
ment for ourselves before the LORD.”          ger was kindled against the Israelites,
31:51 Moses and Eleazar the priest took       and he made them wander in the wilder-
the gold from them, all of it in the form     ness for forty years, until all that gen-
of ornaments. 31:52 All the gold of the       eration that had done wickedly before
offering they offered up to the LORD          the LORD was finished. 32:14 Now look,
from the commanders of thousands and          you are standing in your fathers’ place, a
the commanders of hundreds weighed            brood of sinners, to increase still further
16,750 shekels. 31:53 Each soldier had        the fierce wrath of the LORD against the
taken plunder for himself. 31:54 So           Israelites. 32:15 For if you turn away
Moses and Eleazar the priest received         from following him, he will once again
the gold from the commanders of thou-         abandon them in the wilderness, and you
sands and commanders of hundreds and          will be the reason for their destruction.”
brought it into the tent of meeting as a
memorial for the Israelites before the        The Offer of the Reubenites and Gadites
LORD.
                                                  32:16 Then they came very close to
The Petition of the Reubenites and            him and said, “We will build sheep folds
                                              here for our flocks and cities for our
Gadites                                       families, 32:17 but we will maintain our-
    32:1 Now the Reubenites and the Ga-       selves in armed readiness and go before
dites possessed a very large number of        the Israelites until whenever we have
cattle. When they saw that the lands of       brought them to their place. Our de-
Jazer and Gilead were ideal for cattle,       scendants will be living in fortified towns
32:2 the Gadites and the Reubenites           as a protection against the inhabitants of
came and addressed Moses, Eleazar the         the land. 32:18 We will not return to our
priest, and the leaders of the community.     homes until every Israelite has his in-
They said, 32:3 “Ataroth, Dibon, Jazer,       heritance. 32:19 For we will not accept
Nimrah, Heshbon, Elealeh, Sebam, Nebo,        any inheritance on the other side of the
and Beon, 32:4 the land that the LORD         Jordan River and beyond, because our
subdued before the community of Israel,       inheritance has come to us on this east-
is ideal for cattle, and your servants have   ern side of the Jordan.”
cattle.” 32:5 So they said, “If we have           32:20 Then Moses replied, “If you will
found favor in your sight, let this land be   do this thing, and if you will arm your-
given to your servants for our inheri-        selves for battle before the LORD, 32:21
tance. Do not have us cross the Jordan        and if all your armed men cross the Jor-
River.”                                       dan before the LORD until he drives out
                                              his enemies from his presence 32:22 and
Moses’ Response                               the land is subdued before the LORD,
                                              then afterward you may return and be
    32:6 Moses said to the Gadites and        free of your obligation to the LORD and
the Reubenites, “Must your brothers go        to Israel. This land will then be your pos-
to war while you remain here? 32:7 Why        session in the LORD’s sight.
do you frustrate the intent of the Isra-          32:23 “But if you do not do this, then
elites to cross over into the land which      look, you will have sinned against the
the LORD has given them? 32:8 Your fa-        LORD. And know that your sin will find you
thers did the same thing when I sent          out. 32:24 So build cities for your de-
them from Kadesh Barnea to see the            scendants and pens for your sheep, but
land. 32:9 When they went up to the Esh-      do what you have said you would do.”
col Valley and saw the land, they frus-           32:25 So the Gadites and the Reube-
trated the intent of the Israelites so        nites replied to Moses, “Your servants
that they did not enter the land that the     will do as my lord commands. 32:26 Our
LORD had given them. 32:10 So the anger       children, our wives, our flocks, and all our
of the LORD was kindled that day, and he      livestock will be there in the cities of
swore, 32:11 ‘Because they have not fol-      Gilead, 32:27 but your servants will cross
lowed me wholeheartedly, not one of the       over, every man armed for war, to do
men twenty years old and upward who           battle in the LORD’s presence, just as my
came from Egypt will see the land that I      lord says.”
NUMBERS 32:28                             326
   32:28 So Moses gave orders about           in the first month, on the fifteenth day
them to Eleazar the priest, to Joshua son     of the first month; on the day after the
of Nun, and to the heads of the families      Passover the Israelites went out defi-
of the Israelite tribes. 32:29 Moses said     antly in plain sight of all the Egyptians.
to them: “If the Gadites and the Reube-       33:4 Now the Egyptians were burying all
nites cross the Jordan with you, each one     their firstborn, whom the LORD had killed
equipped for battle in the LORD’s pres-       among them; the LORD also executed
ence, and you conquer the land, then you      judgments on their gods.
must allot them the territory of Gilead           33:5 The Israelites traveled from
as their possession. 32:30 But if they do     Rameses and camped in Succoth.
not cross over with you armed, they must          33:6 They traveled from Succoth, and
receive possessions among you in Canaan.”     camped in Etham, which is on the edge of
32:31 Then the Gadites and the Reube-         the wilderness. 33:7 They traveled from
nites answered, “Your servants will do        Etham, and turned again to Pi-hahiroth,
what the LORD has spoken. 32:32 We will       which is before Baal-Zephon; and they
cross armed in the LORD’s presence into       camped before Migdal. 33:8 They trav-
the land of Canaan, and then the posses-      eled from Pi-hahiroth, and passed
sion of our inheritance that we inherit       through the middle of the sea into the
will be ours on this side of the Jordan       wilderness, and went three days’ journey
River.”                                       in the wilderness of Etham, and camped
                                              in Marah. 33:9 They traveled from Marah
Land Assignment                               and came to Elim; in Elim there are
                                              twelve fountains of water and seventy
    32:33 So Moses gave to the Gadites,
                                              palm trees, so they camped there.
the Reubenites, and to half the tribe of          33:10 They traveled from Elim, and
Manasseh son of Joseph the realm of           camped by the Red Sea. 33:11 They trav-
King Sihon of the Amorites, and the           eled from the Red Sea and camped in the
realm of King Og of Bashan, the entire        wilderness of Zin. 33:12 They traveled
land with its cities and the territory sur-   from the wilderness of Zin and camped in
rounding them. 32:34 The Gadites rebuilt      Dophkah. 33:13 And they traveled from
Dibon, Ataroth, Aroer, 32:35 Atroth           Dophkah, and camped in Alush.
Shophan, Jazer, Jogbehah, 32:36 Beth              33:14 They traveled from Alush and
Nimrah, and Beth Haran as fortified cit-      camped at Rephidim, where there was no
ies, and constructed pens for their           water for the people to drink. 33:15 They
flocks. 32:37 The Reubenites rebuilt          traveled from Rephidim and camped in
Heshbon, Elealeh, Kiriathaim, 32:38 Nebo,     the wilderness of Sinai.
Baal Meon (with a change of name), and
Sibmah. They renamed the cities they          Wanderings in the Wilderness
built.
    32:39 The descendants of Machir son          33:16 They traveled from the desert
of Manasseh went to Gilead, took it, and      of Sinai and camped at Kibroth Hat-
dispossessed the Amorites who were in         taavah. 33:17 They traveled from Kibroth
it. 32:40 So Moses gave Gilead to Machir,     Hattaavah and camped at Hazeroth.
son of Manasseh, and he lived there.          33:18 They traveled from Hazeroth and
32:41 Now Jair son of Manasseh went           camped in Rithmah. 33:19 They traveled
and captured their small towns and            from Rithmah and camped at Rimmon-
named them Havvoth Jair. 32:42 Then           perez. 33:20 They traveled from Rimmon-
Nobah went and captured Kenath and its        perez and camped in Libnah. 33:21 They
villages and called it Nobah after his own    traveled from Libnah and camped at Ris-
name.                                         sah. 33:22 They traveled from Rissah and
                                              camped in Kehelathah. 33:23 They trav-
Wanderings from Egypt to Sinai                eled from Kehelathah and camped at
                                              Mount Shepher. 33:24 They traveled
   33:1 These are the journeys of the
                                              from Mount Shepher and camped in
Israelites, who went out of the land of       Haradah. 33:25 They traveled from
Egypt by their divisions under the            Haradah and camped in Makheloth. 33:26
authority of Moses and Aaron. 33:2            They traveled from Makheloth and
Moses recorded their departures ac-           camped at Tahath. 33:27 They traveled
cording to their journeys, by the com-        from Tahath and camped at Terah. 33:28
mandment of the LORD; now these are           They traveled from Terah and camped in
their journeys according to their depar-      Mithcah. 33:29 They traveled from Mith-
tures. 33:3 They departed from Rameses        cah and camped in Hashmonah. 33:30
                                          327                           NUMBERS 34:12
They traveled from Hashmonah and              I have given you the land to possess it.
camped in Moseroth. 33:31 They traveled       33:54 You must divide the land by lot for
from Moseroth and camped in Bene-             an inheritance among your families. To a
jaakan. 33:32 They traveled from Bene-        larger group you must give a larger in-
jaakan and camped at Hor-haggidgad.           heritance, and to a smaller group you
33:33 They traveled from Hor-haggidgad        must give a smaller inheritance. Every-
and camped in Jotbathah. 33:34 They           one’s inheritance must be in the place
traveled from Jotbathah and camped in         where his lot falls. You must inherit ac-
Abronah. 33:35 They traveled from Ab-         cording to your ancestral tribes. 33:55
ronah and camped at Ezion-geber. 33:36        But if you do not drive out the inhabi-
They traveled from Ezion-geber and            tants of the land before you, then those
camped in the wilderness of Zin, which is     whom you allow to remain will be irritants
Kadesh.                                       in your eyes and thorns in your side, and
                                              will cause you trouble in the land where
Wanderings from Kadesh to Moab                you will be living. 33:56 And what I in-
                                              tended to do to them I will do to you.”
   33:37 They traveled from Kadesh and
camped in Mount Hor at the edge of the        The Southern Border of the Land
land of Edom. 33:38 Aaron the priest as-
cended Mount Hor at the command of               34:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
the LORD, and he died there in the forti-     34:2 “Give these instructions to the Is-
eth year after the Israelites had come        raelites, and tell them: ‘When you enter
out of the land of Egypt on the first day     Canaan, the land that has been assigned
of the fifth month. 33:39 Now Aaron was       to you as an inheritance, the land of Ca-
123 years old when he died in Mount Hor.      naan with its borders, 34:3 your southern
33:40 The king of Arad, the Canaanite         border will extend from the wilderness
king who lived in the south of the land of    of Zin along the Edomite border, and
Canaan, heard about the approach of the       your southern border will run eastward
Israelites.                                   to the extremity of the Salt Sea, 34:4
   33:41 They traveled from Mount Hor         and then the border will turn from the
and camped in Zalmonah. 33:42 They            south to the Scorpion Ascent, continue
traveled from Zalmonah and camped in          to Zin, and then its direction will be from
Punon. 33:43 They traveled from Punon         the south to Kadesh Barnea. Then it will
and camped in Oboth. 33:44 They trav-         go to Hazar Addar and pass over to Az-
eled from Oboth and camped in Iye-            mon. 34:5 There the border will turn
abarim, on the border of Moab. 33:45          from Azmon to the Brook of Egypt, and
They traveled from Iim and camped in          then its direction is to the sea.
Dibon-gad. 33:46 They traveled from
Dibon-gad and camped in Almon-                The Western Border of the Land
diblathaim. 33:47 They traveled from
                                                  34:6 “‘And for a western border you
Almon-diblathaim and camped in the
mountains of Abarim before Nebo. 33:48        will have the Great Sea. This will be your
They traveled from the mountains of           western border.
Abarim and camped in the plains of Moab       The Northern Border of the Land
by the Jordan River across from Jericho.
33:49 They camped by the Jordan, from             34:7 “‘And this will be your northern
Beth-jeshimoth as far as Abel-shittim in      border: From the Great Sea you will draw
the plains of Moab.                           a line to Mount Hor; 34:8 from Mount
                                              Hor you will draw a line to Lebo Hamath,
At the Border of Canaan                       and the direction of the border will be to
    33:50 The LORD spoke to Moses in the
                                              Zedad. 34:9 The border will continue to
plains of Moab by the Jordan, across          Ziphron, and its direction will be to
from Jericho. He said: 33:51 “Speak to        Hazar Enan. This will be your northern
the Israelites and tell them, ‘When you       border.
have crossed the Jordan into the land of      The Eastern Border of the Land
Canaan, 33:52 you must drive out all the
inhabitants of the land before you. De-           34:10 “‘For your eastern border you
stroy all their carved images, all their      will draw a line from Hazar Enan to
molten images, and demolish their high        Shepham. 34:11 The border will run down
places. 33:53 You must dispossess the         from Shepham to Riblah, on the east side
inhabitants of the land and live in it, for   of Ain, and the border will descend and
NUMBERS 34:12                              328
reach the eastern side of the Sea of           their cattle, for their possessions, and
Chinnereth. 34:12 Then the border will         for all their animals. 35:4 The grazing
continue down the Jordan River and its         lands around the towns that you will give
direction will be to the Salt Sea. This will   to the Levites must extend to a distance
be your land by its borders that surround      of 500 yards from the town wall.
it.’”                                              35:5 “You must measure from outside
     34:13 Then Moses commanded the            the wall of the town on the east 1,000
Israelites: “This is the land which you will   yards, and on the south side 1,000 yards,
inherit by lot, which the LORD has com-        and on the west side 1,000 yards, and on
manded to be given to the nine and a half      the north side 1,000 yards, with the town
tribes, 34:14 because the tribe of the         in the middle. This territory must belong
Reubenites by their families, the tribe of     to them as grazing land for the towns.
the Gadites by their families, and half of     35:6 Now from these towns that you will
the tribe of Manasseh have received            give to the Levites you must select six
their inheritance. 34:15 The two and a         towns of refuge to which a person who
half tribes have received their inheri-        has killed someone may flee. And you
tance on this side of the Jordan, east of      must give them forty-two other towns.
Jericho, toward the sunrise.”                      35:7 “So the total of the towns you
                                               will give the Levites is forty-eight. You
Appointed Officials                            must give these together with their
                                               grazing lands. 35:8 The towns you will
    34:16 The LORD said to Moses: 34:17
                                               give must be from the possession of the
“These are the names of the men who are        Israelites. From the larger tribes you
to allocate the land to you as an inheri-      must give more; and from the smaller
tance: Eleazar the priest and Joshua son       tribes fewer. Each must contribute some
of Nun. 34:18 You must take one leader         of its own towns to the Levites in propor-
from every tribe to assist in allocating       tion to the inheritance allocated to each.
the land as an inheritance. 34:19 These
are the names of the men: from the tribe       The Cities of Refuge
of Judah, Caleb son of Jephunneh; 34:20
from the tribe of the Simeonites,                 35:9 Then the LORD spoke to Moses:
Shemuel son of Ammihud; 34:21 from the         35:10 “Speak to the Israelites and tell
tribe of Benjamin, Elidad son of Kislon;       them, ‘When you cross over the Jordan
34:22 and from the tribe of the Danites,       River into the land of Canaan, 35:11 you
a leader, Bukki son of Jogli. 34:23 From       must then designate some towns as towns
the Josephites, Hanniel son of Ephod, a        of refuge for you, to which a person who
leader from the tribe of Manasseh; 34:24       has killed someone unintentionally may
from the tribe of the Ephraimites, a           flee. 35:12 And they must stand as your
leader, Kemuel son of Shiphtan; 34:25          towns of refuge from the avenger in or-
from the tribe of the Zebulunites, a           der that the killer may not die until he
leader, Elizaphan son of Parnach; 34:26        has stood trial before the community.
from the tribe of the Issacharites, a          35:13 These towns that you must give
leader, Paltiel son of Azzan; 34:27 from       shall be your six towns for refuge.
the tribe of the Asherites, a leader,             35:14 “You must give three towns on
Ahihud son of Shelomi; 34:28 and from          this side of the Jordan, and you must
the tribe of the Naphtalites, a leader,        give three towns in the land of Canaan;
Pedahel son of Ammihud.” 34:29 These           they must be towns of refuge. 35:15
are the ones whom the LORD commanded           These six towns will be places of refuge
to divide up the inheritance among the         for the Israelites, and for the foreigner,
Israelites in the land of Canaan.              and for the settler among them, so that
                                               anyone who kills any person accidentally
The Levitical Cities                           may flee there.
                                                  35:16 “But if he hits someone with an
    35:1 Then the LORD spoke to Moses in
                                               iron tool so that he dies, he is a mur-
the Moabite plains by the Jordan near          derer. The murderer must surely be put
Jericho. He said: 35:2 “Instruct the Is-       to death. 35:17 If he strikes him by
raelites to give the Levites towns to live     throwing a stone large enough that he
in from the inheritance the Israelites         could die, and he dies, he is a murderer.
will possess. You must also give the           The murderer must surely be put to
Levites grazing land around the towns.         death. 35:18 Or if he strikes him with a
35:3 Thus they will have towns in which
                                               wooden hand weapon so that he could die,
to live, and their grazing lands will be for   and he dies, he is a murderer. The mur-
                                          329                           NUMBERS 36:12
derer must surely be put to death. 35:19      Therefore do not defile the land that
The avenger of blood himself must kill        you will inhabit, in which I live, for I the
the murderer; when he meets him, he           LORD live among the Israelites.”
must kill him.
    35:20 “But if he strikes him out of ha-   Women and Land Inheritance
tred or throws something at him inten-
                                                  36:1 Then the heads of the family
tionally so that he dies, 35:21 or with
enmity he strikes him with his hand and       groups of the Gileadites, the descendant
he dies, the one who struck him must          of Machir, the descendant of Manasseh,
surely be put to death, for he is a mur-      who were from the Josephite families,
derer. The avenger of blood must kill the     approached and spoke before Moses and
murderer when he meets him.                   the leaders who were the heads of
    35:22 “But if he strikes him suddenly,
                                              the Israelite families. 36:2 They said,
without enmity, or throws anything at         “The LORD commanded my lord to give
him unintentionally, 35:23 or with any        the land as an inheritance by lot to the
stone large enough that a man could die,      Israelites; and my lord was commanded
without seeing him, and throws it at him,     by the LORD to give the inheritance of
and he dies, even though he was not his       our brother Zelophehad to his daughters.
                                              36:3 Now if they should be married to
enemy nor sought his harm, 35:24 then
the community must judge between the          one of the men from another Israelite
slayer and the avenger of blood accord-       tribe, their inheritance would be taken
ing to these decisions. 35:25 The commu-      from the inheritance of our fathers and
nity must deliver the slayer out of the       added to the inheritance of the tribe
hand of the avenger of blood, and the         into which they marry. As a result, it will
community must restore him to the town        be taken from the lot of our inheritance.
                                              36:4 And when the Jubilee of the Israel-
of refuge to which he fled, and he must
live there until the death of the high        ites is to take place, their inheritance
priest, who was anointed with the conse-      will be added to the inheritance of the
crated oil. 35:26 But if the slayer at any    tribe into which they marry. So their
time goes outside the boundary of the         inheritance will be taken away from the
town to which he had fled, 35:27 and the      inheritance of our ancestral tribe.”
avenger of blood finds him outside the        Moses’ Decision
borders of the town of refuge, and the
avenger of blood kills the slayer, he will        36:5 Then Moses gave a ruling to the
not be guilty of blood, 35:28 because the     Israelites by the word of the LORD:
slayer should have stayed in his town of      “What the tribe of the Josephites is
refuge until the death of the high priest.    saying is right. 36:6 This is what the LORD
But after the death of the high priest,       has commanded for Zelophehad’s daugh-
the slayer may return to the land of his      ters: ‘Let them marry whomever they
possessions. 35:29 So these things must       think best, only they must marry within
be a statutory ordinance for you              the family of their father’s tribe. 36:7 In
throughout your generations, in all the       this way the inheritance of the Israelites
places where you live.                        will not be transferred from tribe to
    35:30 “Whoever kills any person, the      tribe. But every one of the Israelites
murderer must be put to death by the          must retain the ancestral heritage. 36:8
testimony of witnesses; but one witness       And every daughter who possesses an
cannot testify against any person to          inheritance from any of the tribes of the
cause him to be put to death. 35:31           Israelites must become the wife of a
Moreover, you must not accept a ransom        man from any family in her father’s tribe,
for the life of a murderer who is guilty      so that every Israelite may retain the
of death; he must surely be put to death.     inheritance of his fathers. 36:9 No in-
35:32 And you must not accept a ransom        heritance may pass from tribe to tribe.
for anyone who has fled to a town of ref-     But every one of the tribes of the Isra-
uge, to allow him to return home and live     elites must retain its inheritance.”
on his own land before the death of the           36:10 As the LORD had commanded
high priest.                                  Moses, so the daughters of Zelophehad
    35:33 “You must not pollute the land      did. 36:11 For the daughters of Zelophe-
where you live, for blood defiles the land,   had – Mahlah, Tirzah, Hoglah, Milcah, and
and the land cannot be cleansed of the        Noah – were married to the sons of their
blood that is shed there, except by the       uncles. 36:12 They were married into the
blood of the person who shed it. 35:34        families of the Manassehites, the de-
NUMBERS 36:13                          330
scendants of Joseph, and their inheri-
tance remained in the tribe of their fa-
ther’s family.
   36:13 These are the commandments
and the decisions that the LORD com-
manded the Israelites through the
authority of Moses, on the plains of
Moab by the Jordan River opposite
Jericho.
            Deuteronomy
The Covenant Setting                       ministrators of groups of thousands,
                                           hundreds, fifties, and tens, and also as
    1:1 This is what Moses said to the as- other tribal officials. 1:16 I furthermore
sembly of Israel in the Transjordanian     admonished your judges at that time
wastelands, the arid country opposite      that they should pay attention to issues
Suph, between Paran and Tophel, Laban,     among your fellow citizens and judge
Hazeroth, and Di Zahab 1:2 Now it is       fairly, whether between one citizen and
ordinarily an eleven-day journey from      another or a citizen and a resident for-
Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by way of Mount     eigner. 1:17 They must not discriminate
Seir. 1:3 However, it was not until the    in judgment, but hear the lowly and the
first day of the eleventh month of the     great alike. Nor should they be intimi-
fortieth year that Moses addressed the     dated by human beings, for judgment
Israelites just as the LORD had in-        belongs to God. If the matter being ad-
structed him to do. 1:4 This took place    judicated is too difficult for them, they
after the defeat of King Sihon of the      should bring it before me for a hearing.
Amorites, whose capital was in Heshbon,
and King Og of Bashan, whose capital was Instructions at Kadesh Barnea
in Ashtaroth, specifically in Edrei. 1:5 So
it was in the Transjordan, in Moab, that        1:18 So I instructed you at that time
Moses began to deliver these words:         regarding everything you should do. 1:19
                                            Then we left Horeb and passed through
Events at Horeb                             all that immense, forbidding wilderness
                                            that you saw on the way to the Amorite
    1:6 The LORD our God spoke to us at hill country as the LORD our God had
Horeb and said, “You have stayed in the commanded us to do, finally arriving at
area of this mountain long enough. 1:7 Kadesh Barnea. 1:20 Then I said to you,
Get up now, resume your journey, heading “You have come to the Amorite hill coun-
for the Amorite hill country, to all its try which the
areas including the arid country, the LORD our God is about to give us. 1:21
highlands, the Shephelah, the Negev, and Look, he has placed the land in front of
the coastal plain – all of Canaan and you! Go up, take possession of it, just as
Lebanon as far as the Great River, that the LORD, the God of your ancestors, said
is, the Euphrates. 1:8 Look! I have al- to do. Do not be afraid or discouraged!”
ready given the land to you. Go, occupy 1:22 So all of you approached me and
the territory that I, the LORD, promised said, “Let’s send some men ahead of us to
to give to your ancestors Abraham, scout out the land and bring us back word
Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descen- as to how we should attack it and what
dants.” 1:9 I also said to you at that the cities are like there.” 1:23 I thought
time, “I am no longer able to sustain you this was a good idea, so I sent twelve
by myself. 1:10 The LORD your God has men from among you, one from each
increased your population to the point tribe. 1:24 They left and went up to the
that you are now as numerous as the very hill country, coming to the Eshcol Valley,
stars of the sky. 1:11 Indeed, may the which they scouted out. 1:25 Then they
LORD, the God of your ancestors, make took some of the produce of the land and
you a thousand times more numerous carried it back down to us. They also
than you are now, blessing you just as he brought a report to us, saying, “The land
said he would! 1:12 But how can I alone that the LORD our God is about to give us
bear up under the burden of your hard- is good.”
ship and strife? 1:13 Select wise and
practical men, those known among your Disobedience at Kadesh Barnea
tribes, whom I may appoint as your lead-
ers.” 1:14 You replied to me that what I        1:26 You were not willing to go up,
had said to you was good. 1:15 So I chose   however, but instead rebelled against the
as your tribal leaders wise and well- LORD your God. 1:27 You complained
known men, placing them over you as ad- among yourselves privately and said, “Be-
                                        364
                                          365                    DEUTERONOMY 2:15
cause the LORD hates us he brought us         did not listen. Instead you rebelled
from Egypt to deliver us over to the Am-      against the LORD and recklessly went up
orites so they could destroy us! 1:28         to the hill country. 1:44 The Amorite in-
What is going to happen to us? Our            habitants of that area confronted you
brothers have drained away our courage        and chased you like a swarm of bees,
by describing people who are more nu-         striking you down from Seir as far as
merous and taller than we are, and great      Hormah. 1:45 Then you came back and
cities whose defenses appear to be as         wept before the LORD, but he paid no
high as heaven itself! Moreover, they         attention to you whatsoever. 1:46 There-
said they saw Anakites there.” 1:29 So I      fore, you remained at Kadesh for a long
responded to you, “Do not be terrified of     time – indeed, for the full time.
them! 1:30 The LORD your God is about to
go ahead of you; he will fight for you,       The Journey from Kadesh Barnea to Moab
just as you saw him do in Egypt 1:31 and
                                                  2:1 Then we turned and set out to-
in the desert, where you saw him carry-
ing you along like a man carries his son.     ward the desert land on the way to the
This he did everywhere you went until         Red Sea just as the LORD told me to do,
you came to this very place.” 1:32 How-       detouring around Mount Seir for a long
ever, through all this you did not have       time. 2:2 At this point the LORD said to
confidence in the LORD your God, 1:33         me, 2:3 “You have circled around this
the one who was constantly going before       mountain long enough; now turn north. 2:4
you to find places for you to set up camp.    Instruct these people as follows: ‘You are
He appeared by fire at night and cloud by     about to cross the border of your rela-
day, to show you the way you ought to go.     tives the descendants of Esau, who in-
                                              habit Seir. They will be afraid of you, so
Judgment at Kadesh Barnea                     watch yourselves carefully. 2:5 Do not be
                                              hostile toward them, because I am not
    1:34 When the LORD heard you, he          giving you any of their land, not even a
became angry and made this vow: 1:35          footprint, for I have given Mount Seir as
“Not a single person of this evil genera-     an inheritance for Esau. 2:6 You may pur-
tion will see the good land that I prom-      chase food to eat and water to drink
ised to give to your ancestors! 1:36 The      from them. 2:7 All along the way I, the
exception is Caleb son of Jephunneh; he       LORD your God, have blessed your every
will see it and I will give him and his de-   effort. I have been attentive to your
scendants the territory on which he has       travels through this great wasteland.
walked, because he has wholeheartedly         These forty years I have been with you;
followed me.” 1:37 As for me, the LORD        you have lacked for nothing.’”
was also angry with me on your account.           2:8 So we turned away from our rela-
He said, “You also will not be able to go     tives the descendants of Esau, the in-
there. 1:38 However, Joshua son of Nun,       habitants of Seir, turning from the de-
your assistant, will go. Encourage him,       sert route, from Elat and Ezion Geber,
because he will enable Israel to inherit      and traveling the way of the Moab waste-
the land. 1:39 Also, your infants, who you    lands. 2:9 Then the LORD said to me, “Do
thought would die on the way, and your        not harass Moab and provoke them to
children, who as yet do not know good         war, for I will not give you any of their
from bad, will go there; I will give them     land as your territory. This is because I
the land and they will possess it. 1:40 But   have given Ar to the descendants of Lot
as for you, turn back and head for the        as their possession. 2:10 (The Emites
desert by the way to the Red Sea.”            used to live there, a people as powerful,
                                              numerous, and tall as the Anakites. 2:11
Unsuccessful Conquest of Canaan               These people, as well as the Anakites, are
                                              also considered Rephaites; the Moabites
   1:41 Then you responded to me and
                                              call them Emites. 2:12 Previously the
admitted, “We have sinned against the         Horites lived in Seir but the descendants
LORD. We will now go up and fight as the      of Esau dispossessed and destroyed
LORD our God has told us to do.” So you       them and settled in their place, just as
each put on your battle gear and pre-         Israel did to the land it came to possess,
pared to go up to the hill country. 1:42      the land the LORD gave them.) 2:13 Now,
But the LORD told me: “Tell them this: ‘Do    get up and cross the Wadi Zered.” So we
not go up and fight, because I will not be    did so. 2:14 Now the length of time it
with you and you will be defeated by your     took for us to go from Kadesh Barnea to
enemies.’” 1:43 I spoke to you, but you       the crossing of Wadi Zered was thirty-
DEUTERONOMY 2:15                          366
eight years, time for all the military men    until I cross the Jordan to the land the
of that generation to die, just as the        LORD our God is giving us.” 2:30 But King
LORD had vowed to them. 2:15 Indeed, it       Sihon of Heshbon was unwilling to allow
was the very hand of the LORD that            us to pass near him because the LORD our
eliminated them from within the camp          God had made him obstinate and stub-
until they were all gone.                     born so that he might deliver him over to
                                              you this very day. 2:31 The LORD said to
Instructions Concerning Ammon                 me, “Look! I have already begun to give
                                              over Sihon and his land to you. Start
    2:16 So it was that after all the mili-
                                              right now to take his land as your posses-
tary men had been eliminated from the         sion.” 2:32 When Sihon and all his troops
community, 2:17 the LORD said to me,          emerged to encounter us in battle at Ja-
2:18 “Today you are going to cross the
                                              haz, 2:33 the LORD our God delivered him
border of Moab, that is, of Ar. 2:19 But      over to us and we struck him down, along
when you come close to the Ammonites,         with his sons and everyone else. 2:34 At
do not harass or provoke them because I       that time we seized all his cities and put
am not giving you any of the Ammonites’       every one of them under divine judgment,
land as your possession; I have already       including even the women and children;
given it to Lot’s descendants as their        we left no survivors. 2:35 We kept only
possession.                                   the livestock and plunder from the cities
    2:20 (That also is considered to be a
                                              for ourselves. 2:36 From Aroer, which is
land of the Rephaites. The Rephaites          at the edge of Wadi Arnon (it is the city
lived there originally; the Ammonites call    in the wadi), all the way to Gilead there
them Zamzummites. 2:21 They are a peo-        was not a town able to resist us – the
ple as powerful, numerous, and tall as the    LORD our God gave them all to us. 2:37
Anakites. But the LORD destroyed the          However, you did not approach the land
Rephaites in advance of the Ammonites,        of the Ammonites, the Wadi Jabbok, the
so they dispossessed them and settled         cities of the hill country, or any place
down in their place. 2:22 This is exactly     else forbidden by the LORD our God.
what he did for the descendants of Esau
who lived in Seir when he destroyed the       Defeat of King Og of Bashan
Horites before them so that they could
dispossess them and settle in their area          3:1 Next we set out on the route to
to this very day. 2:23 As for the Avvites     Bashan, but King Og of Bashan and his
who lived in settlements as far west as       whole army came out to meet us in battle
Gaza, Caphtorites who came from Crete         at Edrei. 3:2 The LORD, however, said to
destroyed them and settled down in their      me, “Don’t be afraid of him because I
place.)                                       have already given him, his whole army,
    2:24 Get up, make your way across         and his land to you. You will do to him
Wadi Arnon. Look! I have already deliv-       exactly what you did to King Sihon of the
ered over to you Sihon the Amorite, king      Amorites who lived in Heshbon.” 3:3 So
of Heshbon, and his land. Go ahead! Take      the LORD our God did indeed give over to
it! Engage him in war! 2:25 This very day     us King Og of Bashan and his whole army
I will begin to fill all the people of the    and we struck them down until not a sin-
earth with dread and to terrify them          gle survivor was left. 3:4 We captured all
when they hear about you. They will           his cities at that time – there was not a
shiver and shake in anticipation of your      town we did not take from them – sixty
approach.”                                    cities, all the region of Argob, the domin-
                                              ion of Og in Bashan. 3:5 All of these cit-
Defeat of Sihon, King of Heshbon              ies were fortified by high walls, gates,
                                              and locking bars; in addition there were a
   2:26 Then I sent messengers from
                                              great many open villages. 3:6 We put all
the Kedemoth Desert to King Sihon of          of these under divine judgment just as
Heshbon with an offer of peace: 2:27          we had done to King Sihon of Heshbon –
“Let me pass through your land; I will        every occupied city, including women and
keep strictly to the roadway. I will not      children. 3:7 But all the livestock and
turn aside to the right or the left. 2:28     plunder from the cities we kept for our-
Sell me food for cash so that I can eat       selves. 3:8 So at that time we took the
and sell me water to drink. Just allow me     land of the two Amorite kings in the
to go through on foot, 2:29 just as the       Transjordan from Wadi Arnon to Mount
descendants of Esau who live at Seir and      Hermon 3:9 (the Sidonians call Hermon
the Moabites who live in Ar did for me,       Sirion and the Amorites call it Senir),
                                            367                    DEUTERONOMY 4:8
3:10 all the cities of the plateau, all of same to all the kingdoms where you are
Gilead and Bashan as far as Salecah and going. 3:22 Do not be afraid of them, for
Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in         the LORD your God will personally fight
Bashan. 3:11 Only King Og of Bashan was       for you.”
left of the remaining Rephaites. (It is
noteworthy that his sarcophagus was           Denial to Moses of the Promised Land
made of iron. Does it not, indeed, still
                                                  3:23 Moreover, at that time I pleaded
remain in Rabbath of the Ammonites? It
is thirteen and a half feet long and six      with the LORD, 3:24 “O, Lord GOD, you
feet wide according to standard meas-         have begun to show me your greatness
ure.)                                         and strength. (What god in heaven or
                                              earth can rival your works and mighty
Distribution of the Transjordanian            deeds?) 3:25 Let me please cross over to
                                              see the good land on the other side of
Allotments                                    the Jordan River – this good hill country
    3:12 This is the land we brought un-      and the Lebanon!” 3:26 But the LORD was
der our control at that time: The terri-      angry at me because of you and would not
tory extending from Aroer by the Wadi         listen to me. Instead, he said to me,
Arnon and half the Gilead hill country        “Enough of that! Do not speak to me any-
with its cities I gave to the Reubenites      more about this matter. 3:27 Go up to
and Gadites. 3:13 The rest of Gilead and      the top of Pisgah and take a good look to
all of Bashan, the kingdom of Og, I gave      the west, north, south, and east, for you
to half the tribe of Manasseh. (All the       will not be allowed to cross the Jordan.
region of Argob, that is, all Bashan, is      3:28 Commission Joshua, and encourage
called the land of Rephaim. 3:14 Jair, son    and strengthen him, because he will lead
of Manasseh, took all the Argob region as     these people over and will enable them to
far as the border with the Geshurites         inherit the land you will see.” 3:29 So we
and Maacathites (namely Bashan) and           settled down in the valley opposite Beth
called it by his name, Havvoth-Jair, which    Peor.
it retains to this very day.) 3:15 I gave
Gilead to Machir. 3:16 To the Reubenites      The Privileges of the Covenant
and Gadites I allocated the territory             4:1 Now, Israel, pay attention to the
extending from Gilead as far as Wadi          statutes and ordinances I am about to
Arnon (the exact middle of the wadi was       teach you, so that you might live and go
a boundary) all the way to the Wadi Jab-      on to enter and take possession of the
bok, the Ammonite border. 3:17 The            land that the LORD, the God of your an-
Arabah and the Jordan River were also a       cestors, is giving you. 4:2 Do not add a
border, from the sea of Chinnereth to         thing to what I command you nor sub-
the sea of the Arabah (that is, the Salt      tract from it, so that you may keep the
Sea), beneath the watershed of Pisgah to      commandments of the LORD your God
the east.                                     that I am delivering to you. 4:3 You have
                                              witnessed what the LORD did at Baal
Instructions to the Transjordanian Tribes     Peor, how he eradicated from your midst
    3:18 At that time I instructed you as     everyone who followed Baal Peor. 4:4 But
follows: “The LORD your God has given         you who remained faithful to the LORD
you this land for your possession. You        your God are still alive to this very day,
warriors are to cross over before your        every one of you. 4:5 Look! I have taught
fellow Israelites equipped for battle.        you statutes and ordinances just as the
3:19 But your wives, children, and live-      LORD my God told me to do, so that you
stock (of which I know you have many)         might carry them out in the land you are
may remain in the cities I have given you.    about to enter and possess. 4:6 So be
3:20 You must fight until the LORD gives      sure to do them, because this will testify
your countrymen victory as he did you         of your wise understanding to the people
and they take possession of the land that     who will learn of all these statutes and
the LORD your God is giving them on the       say, “Indeed, this great nation is a very
other side of the Jordan River. Then          wise people.” 4:7 In fact, what other
each of you may return to his own terri-      great nation has a god so near to them
tory that I have given you.” 3:21 I also      like the LORD our God whenever we call on
commanded Joshua at the same time,            him? 4:8 And what other great nation has
“You have seen everything the LORD your       statutes and ordinances as just as this
God did to these two kings; he will do the
DEUTERONOMY 4:9                           368
whole law that I am about to share with so that you do not forget the covenant of
you today?                                   the LORD your God that he has made with
                                             you, and that you do not make an image
Reminder of the Horeb Covenant               of any kind, just as he has forbidden you.
                                             4:24 For the LORD your God is a consum-
   4:9 Again, however, pay very careful
                                             ing fire; he is a jealous God.
attention, lest you forget the things you
have seen and disregard them for the Threat and Blessing following Covenant
rest of your life; instead teach them to
your children and grandchildren. 4:10 You Disobedience
stood before the LORD your God at                4:25 After you have produced chil-
Horeb and he said to me, “Assemble the dren and grandchildren and have been in
people before me so that I can tell them the land a long time, if you become cor-
my commands. Then they will learn to rupt and make an image of any kind and
revere me all the days they live in the do other evil things before the LORD your
land, and they will instruct their chil- God that enrage him, 4:26 I invoke
dren.” 4:11 You approached and stood at heaven and earth as witnesses against
the foot of the mountain, a mountain you today that you will surely and swiftly
ablaze to the sky above it and yet dark be removed from the very land you are
with a thick cloud. 4:12 Then the LORD about to cross the Jordan to possess.
spoke to you from the middle of the fire; You will not last long there because you
you heard speech but you could not see will surely be annihilated. 4:27 Then the
anything – only a voice was heard. 4:13 LORD will scatter you among the peoples
And he revealed to you the covenant he and there will be very few of you among
has commanded you to keep, the ten the nations where the LORD will drive you.
commandments, writing them on two 4:28 There you will worship gods made by
stone tablets. 4:14 Moreover, at that human hands – wood and stone that can
same time the LORD commanded me to neither see, hear, eat, nor smell. 4:29 But
teach you statutes and ordinances for if you seek the LORD your God from
you to keep in the land which you are there, you will find him, if, indeed, you
about to enter and possess.                  seek him with all your heart and soul.
                                             4:30 In your distress when all these
The Nature of Israel’s God                   things happen to you in the latter days, if
   4:15 Be very careful, then, because you return to the LORD your God and
you saw no form at the time the LORD obey him 4:31 (for he is a merciful God),
spoke to you at Horeb from the middle he will not let you down or destroy you,
of the fire. 4:16 I say this so you will not for he cannot forget the covenant with
corrupt yourselves by making an image in your ancestors that he confirmed by
the form of any kind of figure. This in- oath to them.
cludes the likeness of a human male or
female, 4:17 any kind of land animal, any The Uniqueness of Israel’s God
bird that flies in the sky, 4:18 anything        4:32 Indeed, ask about the distant
that crawls on the ground, or any fish in past, starting from the day God created
the deep waters of the earth. 4:19 When humankind on the earth, and ask from
you look up to the sky and see the sun, one end of heaven to the other, whether
moon, and stars – the whole heavenly there has ever been such a great thing as
creation – you must not be seduced to this, or even a rumor of it. 4:33 Have a
worship and serve them, for the LORD people ever heard the voice of God
your God has assigned them to all the speaking from the middle of fire, as you
people of the world. 4:20 You, however, yourselves have, and lived to tell about
the LORD has selected and brought from it? 4:34 Or has God ever before tried to
Egypt, that                                  deliver a nation from the middle of an-
iron-smelting furnace, to be his special other nation, accompanied by judgments,
people as you are today. 4:21 But the signs, wonders, war, strength, power, and
LORD became angry with me because of other very terrifying things like the LORD
you and vowed that I would never cross your God did for you in Egypt before
the Jordan nor enter the good land that your very eyes? 4:35 You have been
he is about to give you. 4:22 So I must taught that the LORD alone is God – there
die here in this land; I will not cross the is no other besides him. 4:36 From
Jordan. But you are going over and will heaven he spoke to you in order to teach
possess that good land. 4:23 Be on guard you, and on earth he showed you his
                                         369                    DEUTERONOMY 5:21
great fire from which you also heard his     them! 5:2 The LORD our God made a cove-
words. 4:37 Moreover, because he loved       nant with us at Horeb. 5:3 He did not
your ancestors, he chose their descen-       make this covenant with our ancestors
dants who followed them and personally       but with us, we who are here today, all of
brought you out of Egypt with his great      us living now. 5:4 The LORD spoke face to
power 4:38 to dispossess nations greater     face with you at the mountain, from the
and stronger than you and brought you        middle of the fire. 5:5 (I was standing
here this day to give you their land as      between the LORD and you at that time to
your property. 4:39 Today realize and        reveal to you the message of the LORD,
carefully consider that the LORD is God in   because you were afraid of the fire and
heaven above and on earth below – there      would not go up the mountain.) He said:
is no other! 4:40 Keep his statutes and
commandments that I am setting forth         The Ten Commandments
today so that it may go well with you and
                                                 5:6 “I am the LORD your God, he who
your descendants and that you may enjoy
longevity in the land that the LORD your     brought you from the land of Egypt, from
God is about to give you as a permanent      the place of slavery. 5:7 You must not
possession.                                  have any other gods besides me. 5:8 You
                                             must not
The Narrative Concerning Cities of Refuge    make for yourself an image of anything in
                                             heaven above, on earth below, or in the
    4:41 Then Moses selected three cit-      waters beneath. 5:9 You must not wor-
ies in the Transjordan, toward the east.     ship or serve them, for I, the LORD your
4:42 Anyone who accidentally killed          God, am a jealous God. I punish the sons,
someone without hating him at the time       grandsons, and great-grandsons for the
of the accident could flee to one of         sin of the fathers who reject me, 5:10
those cities and be safe. 4:43 These cit-    but I show covenant faithfulness to the
ies are Bezer, in the desert plateau, for    thousands who choose me and keep my
the Reubenites; Ramoth in Gilead for the     commandments. 5:11 You must not make
Gadites; and Golan in Bashan for the Ma-     use of the name of the LORD your God
nassehites.                                  for worthless purposes, for the LORD will
                                             not exonerate anyone who abuses his
The Setting and Introduction of the          name that way. 5:12 Be careful to ob-
Covenant                                     serve the Sabbath day just as the LORD
                                             your God has commanded you. 5:13 You
    4:44 This is the law that Moses set      are to work and do all your tasks in six
before the Israelites. 4:45 These are the    days, 5:14 but the seventh day is the
stipulations, statutes, and ordinances       Sabbath of the LORD your God. On that
that Moses spoke to the Israelites after     day you must not do any work, you, your
he had brought them out of Egypt‚ 4:46       son, your daughter, your male slave, your
in the Transjordan, in the valley opposite   female slave, your ox, your donkey, any
Beth Peor, in the land of King Sihon of      other animal, or the foreigner who lives
the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon. (It is   with you, so that your male and female
he whom Moses and the Israelites at-         slaves, like yourself, may have rest. 5:15
tacked after they came out of Egypt.         Recall that you were slaves in the land of
4:47 They possessed his land and that of     Egypt and that the LORD your God
King Og of Bashan – both of whom were        brought you out of there by strength and
Amorite kings in the Transjordan, to the     power. That is why the LORD your God
east. 4:48 Their territory extended from     has commanded you to observe the Sab-
Aroer at the edge of the Arnon valley as     bath day. 5:16 Honor your father and
far as Mount Siyon – that is, Hermon –       your mother just as the LORD your God
4:49 including all the Arabah of the         has commanded you to do, so that your
Transjordan in the east to the sea of the    days may be extended and that it may go
Arabah, beneath the watershed of Pis-        well with you in the land that he is about
gah.)                                        to give you. 5:17 You must not murder.
                                             5:18 You must not commit adultery. 5:19
The Opening Exhortation                      You must not steal. 5:20 You must not
    5:1 Then Moses called all the people     offer false testimony against another.
of Israel together and said to them:         5:21 You must not desire another man’s
“Listen, Israel, to the statutes and ordi-   wife, nor should you crave his house, his
nances that I am about to deliver to you     field, his male and female servants, his
today; learn them and be careful to keep     ox, his donkey, or anything else he owns.”
DEUTERONOMY 5:22                            370
The Narrative of the Sinai Revelation and     God that you will keep all his statutes and
                                              commandments that I am giving you –
Israel’s Response
                                              you, your children, and your grandchil-
    5:22 The LORD said these things to        dren – all your lives, to prolong your days.
your entire assembly at the mountain          6:3 Pay attention, Israel, and be careful
from the middle of the fire, the cloud,       to do this so that it may go well with you
and the darkness with a loud voice, and       and that you may increase greatly in
that was all he said. Then he inscribed       number – as the LORD, God of your ances-
the words on two stone tablets and gave       tors, said to you, you will have a land
them to me. 5:23 Then, when you heard         flowing with milk and honey.
the voice from the midst of the darkness
while the mountain was ablaze, all your       The Essence of the Covenant Principles
tribal leaders and elders approached me.         6:4 Listen, Israel: The LORD is our
5:24 You said, “The LORD our God has          God, the LORD is one! 6:5 You must love
shown us his great glory and we have          the LORD your God with your whole mind,
heard him speak from the middle of the        your whole being, and all your strength.
fire. It is now clear to us that God can
speak to human beings and they can keep       Exhortation to Teach the Covenant
on living. 5:25 But now, why should we die,   Principles
because this intense fire will consume us!
If we keep hearing the voice of the LORD         6:6 These words I am commanding you
our God we will die! 5:26 Who is there        today must be kept in mind, 6:7 and you
from the entire human race who has            must teach them to your children and
heard the voice of the living God speak-      speak of them as you sit in your house, as
ing from the middle of the fire as we         you walk along the road, as you lie down,
have, and has lived? 5:27 You go near so      and as you get up. 6:8 You should tie
that you can hear everything the LORD         them as a reminder on your forearm and
our God is saying and then you can tell us    fasten them as symbols on your fore-
whatever he says to you; then we will pay     head. 6:9 Inscribe them on the door-
attention and do it.” 5:28 When the LORD      frames of your houses and gates.
heard you speaking to me, he said to me,
“I have heard what these people have          Exhortation to Worship the LORD
said to you – they have spoken well. 5:29     Exclusively
If only it would really be their desire to
fear me and obey all my commandments              6:10 Then when the LORD your God
in the future, so that it may go well with    brings you to the land he promised your
them and their descendants forever.           ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to
5:30 Go and tell them, ‘Return to your        give you – a land with large, fine cities
tents!’ 5:31 But as for you, remain here      you did not build, 6:11 houses filled with
with me so I can declare to you all the       choice things you did not accumulate,
commandments, statutes, and ordinances        hewn out cisterns you did not dig, and
that you are to teach them, so that they      vineyards and olive groves you did not
can carry them out in the land I am           plant – and you eat your fill, 6:12 be
about to give them.” 5:32 Be careful,         careful not to forget the LORD who
therefore, to do exactly what the LORD        brought you out of Egypt, that place of
your God has commanded you; do not turn       slavery. 6:13 You must revere the LORD
right or left! 5:33 Walk just as he has       your God, serve him, and take oaths using
commanded you so that you may live, that      only his name. 6:14 You must not go after
it may go well with you, and that you may     other gods, those of the surrounding
live long in the land you are going to pos-   peoples, 6:15 for the LORD your God, who
sess.                                         is present among you, is a jealous God and
                                              his anger will erupt against you and re-
Exhortation to Keep the Covenant              move you from the land.
Principles
                                              Exhortation to Obey the LORD Exclusively
   6:1 Now these are the command-
ments, statutes, and ordinances that the          6:16 You must not put the LORD your
LORD your God instructed me to teach          God to the test as you did at Massah.
you so that you may carry them out in         6:17 Keep his commandments very care-
the land where you are headed 6:2 and         fully, as well as the stipulations and stat-
that you may so revere the LORD your          utes he commanded you to observe. 6:18
                                              Do whatever is proper and good before
                                         371                     DEUTERONOMY 7:26
the LORD so that it may go well with you     peoples. 7:8 Rather it is because of his
and that you may enter and occupy the        love for you and his faithfulness to the
good land that he promised your ances-       promise he solemnly vowed to your ances-
tors, 6:19 and that you may drive out all    tors that the LORD brought you out with
your enemies just as the LORD said.          great power, redeeming you from the
                                             place of slavery, from the power of Phar-
Exhortation to Remember the Past             aoh king of Egypt. 7:9 So realize that the
                                             LORD your God is the true God, the faith-
    6:20 When your children ask you later
                                             ful God who keeps covenant faithfully
on, “What are the stipulations, statutes,    with those who love him and keep his
and ordinances that the LORD our God         commandments, to a thousand genera-
commanded you?” 6:21 you must say to         tions, 7:10 but who pays back those who
them, “We were Pharaoh’s slaves in           hate him as they deserve and destroys
Egypt, but the LORD brought us out of        them. He will not ignore those who hate
Egypt in a powerful way. 6:22 And he         him but will repay them as they deserve!
brought signs and great, devastating         7:11 So keep the commandments, stat-
wonders on Egypt, on Pharaoh, and on his     utes, and ordinances that I today am
whole family before our very eyes. 6:23      commanding you to do.
He delivered us from there so that he
could give us the land he had promised       Promises of Good for Covenant Obedience
our ancestors. 6:24 The LORD commanded
us to obey all these statutes and to re-         7:12 If you obey these ordinances and
vere him so that it may always go well for   are careful to do them, the LORD your
us and he may preserve us, as he has to      God will faithfully keep covenant with you
this day. 6:25 We will be innocent if we     as he promised your ancestors. 7:13 He
carefully keep all these commandments        will love and bless you, and make you nu-
before the LORD our God, just as he de-      merous. He will bless you with many chil-
mands.”                                      dren, with the produce of your soil, your
                                             grain, your new wine, your oil, the off-
The Dispossession of Nonvassals              spring of your oxen, and the young of
                                             your flocks in the land which he promised
   7:1 When the LORD your God brings
                                             your ancestors to give you. 7:14 You will
you to the land that you are going to oc-    be blessed beyond all peoples; there will
cupy and forces out many nations before      be no barrenness among you or your live-
you – Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites,       stock. 7:15 The LORD will protect you
Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Je-     from all sickness, and you will not experi-
busites, seven nations more numerous and     ence any of the terrible diseases that
powerful than you – 7:2 and he delivers      you knew in Egypt; instead he will inflict
them over to you and you attack them,        them on all those who hate you.
you must utterly annihilate them. Make
no treaty with them and show them no         Exhortation to Destroy Canaanite
mercy! 7:3 You must not intermarry with
them. Do not give your daughters to their    Paganism
sons or take their daughters for your            7:16 You must destroy all the people
sons, 7:4 for they will turn your sons       whom the LORD your God is about to de-
away from me to worship other gods.          liver over to you; you must not pity them
Then the anger of the LORD will erupt        or worship their gods, for that will be a
against you and he will quickly destroy      snare to you. 7:17 If you think, “These
you. 7:5 Instead, this is what you must do   nations are more numerous than I – how
to them: You must tear down their altars,    can I dispossess them?” 7:18 you must
shatter their sacred pillars, cut down       not fear them. You must carefully recall
their sacred Asherah poles, and burn up      what the LORD your God did to Pharaoh
their idols. 7:6 For you are a people holy   and all Egypt, 7:19 the great judgments
to the LORD your God. He has chosen you      you saw, the signs and wonders, the
to be his people, prized above all others    strength and power by which he brought
on the face of the earth.                    you out – thus the LORD your God will do
                                             to all the people you fear. 7:20 Further-
The Basis of Israel’s Election               more, the LORD your God will release hor-
   7:7 It is not because you were more       nets among them until the very last ones
numerous than all the other peoples that     who hide from you perish. 7:21 You must
the LORD favored and chose you – for in      not tremble in their presence, for the
fact you were the least numerous of all      LORD your God, who is present among you,
DEUTERONOMY 7:22                           372
is a great and awesome God. 7:22 He, the       Exhortation to Remember That Blessing
God who leads you, will expel the nations
                                               Comes from God
little by little. You will not be allowed to
destroy them all at once lest the wild             8:11 Be sure you do not forget the
animals overrun you. 7:23 The LORD your        LORD your God by not keeping his com-
God will give them over to you; he will        mandments, ordinances, and statutes
throw them into a great panic until they       that I am giving you today. 8:12 When
are destroyed. 7:24 He will hand over          you eat your fill, when you build and oc-
their kings to you and you will erase their    cupy good houses, 8:13 when your cattle
very names from memory. Nobody will be         and flocks increase, when you have plenty
able to resist you until you destroy them.     of silver and gold, and when you have
7:25 You must burn the images of their         abundance of everything, 8:14 be sure
gods, but do not covet the silver and gold     you do not feel self-important and forget
that covers them so much that you take         the LORD your God who brought you from
it for yourself and thus become ensnared       the land of Egypt, the place of slavery,
by it; for it is abhorrent to the LORD         8:15 and who brought you through the
your God. 7:26 You must not bring any          great, fearful desert of venomous ser-
abhorrent thing into your house and            pents and scorpions, an arid place with no
thereby become an object of divine             water. He made water flow from a flint
wrath along with it. You must absolutely       rock and 8:16 fed you in the desert with
detest and abhor it, for it is an object of    manna (which your ancestors had never
divine wrath.                                  before known) so that he might by hum-
                                               bling you test you and eventually bring
The LORD’s Provision in the Desert             good to you. 8:17 Be careful not to say,
    8:1 You must keep carefully all these      “My own ability and skill have gotten me
commandments I am giving you today so          this wealth.” 8:18 You must remember
that you may live, increase in number, and     the LORD your God, for he is the one who
go in and occupy the land that the LORD        gives ability to get wealth; if you do this
promised to your ancestors. 8:2 Remem-         he will confirm his covenant that he made
ber the whole way by which he has              by oath to your ancestors, even as he has
brought you these forty years through          to this day. 8:19 Now if you forget the
the desert so that he might, by humbling       LORD your God at all and follow other
you, test you to see if you have it within     gods, worshiping and prostrating your-
you to keep his commandments or not. 8:3       selves before them, I testify to you to-
So he humbled you by making you hungry         day that you will surely be annihilated.
and then feeding you with unfamiliar           8:20 Just like the nations the LORD is
manna. He did this to teach you that hu-       about to destroy from your sight, so he
mankind cannot live by bread alone, but        will do to you because you would not obey
also by everything that comes from the         him.
LORD’s mouth. 8:4 Your clothing did not
wear out nor did your feet swell all these     Theological Justification of the Conquest
forty years. 8:5 Be keenly aware that              9:1 Listen, Israel: Today you are
just as a parent disciplines his child, the    about to cross the Jordan so you can
LORD your God disciplines you. 8:6 So you      dispossess the nations there, people
must keep his commandments, live ac-           greater and stronger than you who live in
cording to his standards, and revere him.      large cities with extremely high fortifi-
8:7 For the LORD your God is bringing you      cations. 9:2 They include the Anakites, a
to a good land, a land of brooks, springs,     numerous and tall people whom you know
and fountains flowing forth in valleys and     about and of whom it is said, “Who is able
hills, 8:8 a land of wheat, barley, vines,     to resist the Anakites?” 9:3 Understand
fig trees, and pomegranates, of olive          today that the LORD your God who goes
trees and honey, 8:9 a land where you          before you is a devouring fire; he will
may eat food in plenty and find no lack of     defeat and subdue them before you. You
anything, a land whose stones are iron         will dispossess and destroy them quickly
and from whose hills you can mine copper.      just as he has told you. 9:4 Do not think
8:10 You will eat your fill and then praise    to yourself after the LORD your God has
the LORD your God because of the good          driven them out before you, “Because of
land he has given you.                         my own righteousness the LORD has
                                               brought me here to possess this land.” It
                                               is because of the wickedness of these
                                               nations that the LORD is driving them out
                                         373                     DEUTERONOMY 10:5
ahead of you. 9:5 It is not because of       of all the sin you had committed, doing
your righteousness, or even your inner       such evil before the LORD as to enrage
uprightness, that you have come here to      him. 9:19 For I was terrified at the
possess their land. Instead, because of      LORD’s intense anger that threatened to
the wickedness of these nations the LORD     destroy you. But he listened to me this
your God is driving them out ahead of you    time as well. 9:20 The LORD was also an-
in order to confirm the promise he made      gry enough at Aaron to kill him, but at
on oath to your ancestors, to Abraham,       that time I prayed for him too. 9:21 As
Isaac, and Jacob. 9:6 Understand, there-     for your sinful thing that you had made,
fore, that it is not because of your         the calf, I took it, melted it down, ground
righteousness that the LORD your God is      it up until it was as fine as dust, and
about to give you this good land as a pos-   tossed the dust into the stream that
session, for you are a stubborn people!      flows down the mountain. 9:22 Moreover,
                                             you continued to provoke the LORD at
The History of Israel’s Stubbornness         Taberah,      Massah,      and     Kibroth-
                                             Hattaavah. 9:23 And when he sent you
   9:7 Remember – don’t ever forget –
                                             from Kadesh-Barnea and told you, “Go up
how you provoked the LORD your God in        and possess the land I have given you,”
the desert; from the time you left the       you rebelled against the LORD your God
land of Egypt until you came to this place   and would neither believe nor obey him.
you were constantly rebelling against him.   9:24 You have been rebelling against him
9:8 At Horeb you provoked him and he
                                             from the very first day I knew you!
was angry enough with you to destroy
you. 9:9 When I went up the mountain to      Moses’ Plea on Behalf of the LORD’s
receive the stone tablets, the tablets of
the covenant that the LORD made with         Reputation
you, I remained there forty days and             9:25 I lay flat on the ground before
nights, eating and drinking nothing. 9:10    the LORD for forty days and nights, for
The LORD gave me the two stone tablets,      he had said he would destroy you. 9:26 I
written by the very finger of God, and on    prayed to him: O, Lord GOD, do not de-
them was everything he said to you at        stroy your people, your valued property
the mountain from the midst of the fire      that you have powerfully redeemed,
at the time of that assembly. 9:11 Now       whom you brought out of Egypt by your
at the end of the forty days and nights      strength. 9:27 Remember your servants
the LORD presented me with the two           Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; ignore the
stone tablets, the tablets of the cove-      stubbornness, wickedness, and sin of
nant. 9:12 And he said to me, “Get up, go    these people. 9:28 Otherwise the people
down at once from here because your          of the land from which you brought us
people whom you brought out of Egypt         will say, “The LORD was unable to bring
have sinned! They have quickly turned        them to the land he promised them, and
from the way I commanded them and            because of his hatred for them he has
have made for themselves a cast metal        brought them out to kill them in the de-
image.” 9:13 Moreover, he said to me, “I     sert.” 9:29 They are your people, your
have taken note of these people; they        valued property, whom you brought out
are a stubborn lot! 9:14 Stand aside and     with great strength and power.
I will destroy them, obliterating their
very name from memory, and I will make       The Opportunity to Begin Again
you into a stronger and more numerous
nation than they are.”                           10:1 At that same time the LORD said
   9:15 So I turned and went down the        to me, “Carve out for yourself two stone
mountain while it was blazing with fire;     tablets like the first ones and come up
the two tablets of the covenant were in      the mountain to me; also make for your-
my hands. 9:16 When I looked, you had        self a wooden ark. 10:2 I will write on the
indeed sinned against the LORD your God      tablets the same words that were on the
and had cast for yourselves a metal calf;    first tablets you broke, and you must put
you had quickly turned aside from the        them into the ark.” 10:3 So I made an ark
way he had commanded you! 9:17 I             of acacia wood and carved out two stone
grabbed the two tablets, threw them          tablets just like the first ones. Then I
down, and shattered them before your         went up the mountain with the two tab-
very eyes. 9:18 Then I again fell down       lets in my hands. 10:4 The LORD then
before the LORD for forty days and           wrote on the tablets the same words, the
nights; I ate and drank nothing because      ten commandments, which he had spoken
DEUTERONOMY 10:5                         374
to you at the mountain from the middle       Egypt. 10:20 Revere the LORD your God,
of the fire at the time of that assembly,    serve him, be loyal to him and take oaths
and he gave them to me. 10:5 Then I          only in his name. 10:21 He is the one you
turned, went down the mountain, and          should praise; he is your God, the one
placed the tablets into the ark I had        who has done these great and awesome
made – they are still there, just as the     things for you that you have seen. 10:22
LORD commanded me.                           When your ancestors went down to
                                             Egypt, they numbered only seventy, but
Conclusion of the Historical Resume          now the LORD your God has made you as
                                             numerous as the stars of the sky.
    10:6 “During those days the Israelites
traveled from Beeroth Bene-Yaaqan to         Reiteration of the Call to Obedience
Moserah. There Aaron died and was bur-
ied, and his son Eleazar became priest in     11:1 You must love the LORD your God
his place. 10:7 From there they traveled  and do what he requires; keep his stat-
to Gudgodah, and from Gudgodah to Jot-    utes, ordinances, and commandments at
bathah, a place of flowing streams. 10:8  all times. 11:2 Bear in mind today that I
At that time the LORD set apart the       am not speaking to your children who
tribe of Levi to carry the ark of the     have not personally experienced the
LORD’s covenant, to stand before the      judgments of the LORD your God, which
LORD to serve him, and to formulate       revealed his greatness, strength, and
blessings in his name, as they do to this power. 11:3 They did not see the awe-
very day. 10:9 Therefore Levi has no al-  some deeds he performed in the midst of
lotment or inheritance among his broth-   Egypt against Pharaoh king of Egypt and
ers; the LORD is his inheritance just as  his whole land, 11:4 or what he did to the
the LORD your God told him. 10:10 As for  army of Egypt, including their horses and
me, I stayed at the mountain as I did the chariots, when he made the waters of
first time, forty days and nights. The    the Red Sea overwhelm them while they
LORD listened to me that time as well and were pursuing you and he annihilated
decided not to destroy you. 10:11 Then    them. 11:5 They did not see what he did
he said to me, “Get up, set out leading   to you in the desert before you reached
the people so they may go and possess     this place, 11:6 or what he did to Dathan
the land I promised to give to their an-  and Abiram, sons of Eliab the Reubenite,
cestors.”                                 when the earth opened its mouth in the
                                          middle of the Israelite camp and swal-
An Exhortation to Love Both God and       lowed them, their families, their tents,
People                                    and all the property they brought with
                                          them. 11:7 I am speaking to you because
    10:12 Now, Israel, what does the you are the ones who saw all the great
LORD your God require of you except to deeds of the LORD!
revere him, to obey all his command-
ments, to love him, to serve him with all The Abundance of the Land of Promise
your mind and being, 10:13 and to keep
the LORD’s commandments and statutes          11:8 Now pay attention to all the
that I am giving you today for your own   commandments I am giving you today, so
good? 10:14 The heavens – indeed the that you may be strong enough to enter
highest heavens – belong to the LORD and possess the land where you are
your God, as does the earth and every- headed, 11:9 and that you may enjoy long
thing in it. 10:15 However, only to your life in the land the LORD promised to give
ancestors did he show his loving favor, to your ancestors and their descendants,
and he chose you, their descendants, a land flowing with milk and honey. 11:10
from all peoples – as is apparent today. For the land where you are headed is not
10:16 Therefore, cleanse your heart and like the land of Egypt from which you
stop being so stubborn! 10:17 For the came, a land where you planted seed and
LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of which you irrigated by hand like a vege-
lords, the great, mighty, and awesome table garden. 11:11 Instead, the land you
God who is unbiased and takes no bribe, are crossing the Jordan to occupy is one
10:18 who justly treats the orphan and of hills and valleys, a land that drinks in
widow, and who loves resident foreigners, water from the rains, 11:12 a land the
giving them food and clothing. 10:19 So LORD your God looks after. He is con-
you must love the resident foreigner be- stantly attentive to it from the beginning
cause you were foreigners in the land of to the end of the year. 11:13 Now, if you
                                          375                  DEUTERONOMY 12:14
pay close attention to my commandments      gods you have not known. 11:29 When the
that I am giving you today and love the     LORD your God brings you into the land
LORD your God and serve him with all your   you are to possess, you must pronounce
mind and being, 11:14 then he promises,     the blessing on Mount Gerizim and the
“I will send rain for your land in its sea- curse on Mount Ebal. 11:30 Are they not
son, the autumn and the spring rains, so    across the Jordan River, toward the
that you may gather in your grain, new      west, in the land of the Canaanites who
wine, and olive oil. 11:15 I will provide   live in the Arabah opposite Gilgal near
pasture for your livestock and you will     the oak of Moreh? 11:31 For you are
eat your fill.”                             about to cross the Jordan to possess the
                                            land the LORD your God is giving you, and
Exhortation to Instruction and Obedience you will possess and inhabit it. 11:32 Be
                                            certain to keep all the statutes and ordi-
    11:16 Make sure you do not turn away
                                            nances that I am presenting to you today.
to serve and worship other gods! 11:17
Then the anger of the LORD will erupt The Central Sanctuary
against you and he will close up the sky so
that it does not rain. The land will not        12:1 These are the statutes and ordi-
yield its produce, and you will soon be nances you must be careful to obey as
removed from the good land that the long as you live in the land the LORD, the
LORD is about to give you. 11:18 Fix these God of your ancestors, has given you to
words of mine into your mind and being, possess. 12:2 You must by all means de-
and tie them as a reminder on your hands stroy all the places where the nations you
and let them be symbols on your fore- are about to dispossess worship their
head. 11:19 Teach them to your children gods – on the high mountains and hills and
and speak of them as you sit in your under every leafy tree. 12:3 You must
house, as you walk along the road, as you tear down their altars, shatter their sa-
lie down, and as you get up. 11:20 In- cred pillars, burn up their sacred
scribe them on the doorframes of your Asherah poles, and cut down the images
houses and on your gates 11:21 so that of their gods; you must eliminate their
your days and those of your descendants very memory from that place. 12:4 You
may be extended in the land which the must not worship the LORD your God the
LORD promised to give to your ancestors, way they worship. 12:5 But you must seek
like the days of heaven itself. 11:22 For only the place he chooses from all your
if you carefully observe all of these tribes to establish his name as his place
commandments I am giving you and love of residence, and you must go there. 12:6
the LORD your God, live according to his And there you must take your burnt of-
standards, and remain loyal to him, 11:23 ferings, your sacrifices, your tithes, the
then he will drive out all these nations personal offerings you have prepared,
ahead of you, and you will dispossess na- your votive offerings, your freewill of-
tions greater and stronger than you. ferings, and the firstborn of your herds
11:24 Every place you set your foot will and flocks. 12:7 Both you and your fami-
be yours; your border will extend from lies must feast there before the LORD
the desert to Lebanon and from the your God and rejoice in all the output of
River (that is, the Euphrates) as far as your labor with which he has blessed you.
the Mediterranean Sea. 11:25 Nobody 12:8 You must not do like we are doing
will be able to resist you; the LORD your here today, with everyone doing what
God will spread the fear and terror of seems best to him, 12:9 for you have not
you over the whole land on which you yet come to the final stop and inheri-
walk, just as he promised you.              tance the LORD your God is giving you.
                                            12:10 When you do go across the Jordan
Anticipation of a Blessing and Cursing      River and settle in the land he is granting
Ceremony                                    you as an inheritance and you find relief
                                            from all the enemies who surround you,
    11:26 Take note – I am setting before you will live in safety. 12:11 Then you
you today a blessing and a curse: 11:27 must come to the place the LORD your
the blessing if you take to heart the God chooses for his name to reside,
commandments of the LORD your God bringing everything I am commanding you
that I am giving you today, 11:28 and the – your burnt offerings, sacrifices, tithes,
curse if you pay no attention to his com- the personal offerings you have pre-
mandments and turn from the way I am pared, and all your choice votive offer-
setting before you today to pursue other ings which you devote to him. 12:12 You
DEUTERONOMY 12:13                         376
shall rejoice in the presence of the LORD     LORD will choose. 12:27 You must offer
your God, along with your sons, daugh-        your burnt offerings, both meat and
ters, male and female servants, and the       blood, on the altar of the LORD your God;
Levites in your villages (since they have     the blood of your other sacrifices you
no allotment or inheritance with you).        must pour out on his altar while you eat
12:13 Make sure you do not offer burnt        the meat. 12:28 Pay careful attention to
offerings in any place you wish, 12:14 for    all these things I am commanding you so
you may do so only in the place the LORD      that it may always go well with you and
chooses in one of your tribal areas –         your children after you when you do what
there you may do everything I am com-         is good and right in the sight of the LORD
manding you.                                  your God.
Regulations for Profane Slaughter             The Abomination of Pagan Gods
    12:15 On the other hand, you may             12:29 When the LORD your God elimi-
slaughter and eat meat as you please          nates the nations from the place where
when the LORD your God blesses you in all     you are headed and you dispossess them,
your villages. Both the ritually pure and     you will settle down in their land. 12:30
impure may eat it, whether it is a gazelle    After they have been destroyed from
or an ibex. 12:16 However, you must not       your presence, be careful not to be en-
eat blood – pour it out on the ground like    snared like they are; do not pursue their
water. 12:17 You will not be allowed to       gods and say, “How do these nations
eat in your villages your tithe of grain,     serve their gods? I will do the same.”
new wine, olive oil, the firstborn of your    12:31 You must not worship the LORD
herd and flock, any votive offerings you      your God the way they do! For everything
have vowed, or your freewill and personal     that is abhorrent to him, everything he
offerings. 12:18 Only in the presence of      hates, they have done when worshiping
the LORD your God may you eat these, in       their gods. They even burn up their sons
the place he chooses. This applies to you,    and daughters before their gods!
your son, your daughter, your male and
female servants, and the Levites in your      Idolatry and False Prophets
villages. In that place you will rejoice
                                                 12:32 (13:1) You must be careful to do
before the LORD your God in all the out-
put of your labor. 12:19 Be careful not to    everything I am commanding you. Do not
overlook the Levites as long as you live in   add to it or subtract from it! 13:1 Sup-
the land.                                     pose a prophet or one who foretells by
                                              dreams should appear among you and
The Sanctity of Blood                         show you a sign or wonder, 13:2 and the
                                              sign or wonder should come to pass con-
    12:20 When the LORD your God ex-          cerning what he said to you, namely, “Let
tends your borders as he said he would        us follow other gods” – gods whom you
do and you say, “I want to eat meat just      have not previously known – “and let us
as I please,” you may do so as you wish.      serve them.” 13:3 You must not listen to
12:21 If the place he chooses to locate       the words of that prophet or dreamer,
his name is too far for you, you may          for the LORD your God will be testing you
slaughter any of your herd and flock he       to see if you love him with all your mind
has given you just as I have stipulated;      and being. 13:4 You must follow the LORD
you may eat them in your villages just as     your God and revere only him; and you
you wish. 12:22 Like you eat the gazelle      must observe his commandments, obey
or ibex, so you may eat these; the ritually   him, serve him, and remain loyal to him.
impure and pure alike may eat them.           13:5 As for that prophet or dreamer, he
12:23 However, by no means eat the            must be executed because he encouraged
blood, for the blood is life itself – you     rebellion against the LORD your God who
must not eat the life with the meat!          brought you from the land of Egypt, re-
12:24 You must not eat it! You must pour      deeming you from that place of slavery,
it out on the ground like water. 12:25 You    and because he has tried to entice you
must not eat it so that it may go well        from the way the LORD your God has
with you and your children after you; you     commanded you to go. In this way you
will be doing what is right in the LORD’s     must purge out evil from within.
sight. 12:26 Only the holy things and vo-
tive offerings that belong to you, you
must pick up and take to the place the
                                           377                    DEUTERONOMY 14:29
False Prophets in the Family                   dead. 14:2 For you are a people holy to
                                               the LORD your God. He has chosen you to
   13:6 Suppose your own full brother,         be his people, prized above all others on
your son, your daughter, your beloved          the face of the earth. 14:3 You must not
wife, or your closest friend should se-        eat any forbidden thing. 14:4 These are
duce you secretly and encourage you to         the animals you may eat: the ox, the
go and serve other gods that neither you       sheep, the goat, 14:5 the ibex, the ga-
nor your ancestors have previously             zelle, the deer, the wild
known, 13:7 the gods of the surrounding        goat, the antelope, the wild oryx, and the
people (whether near you or far from           mountain sheep. 14:6 You may eat any
you, from one end of the earth to the          animal that has hooves divided into two
other). 13:8 You must not give in to him       parts and that chews the cud. 14:7 How-
or even listen to him; do not feel sympa-      ever, you may not eat the following ani-
thy for him or spare him or cover up for       mals among those that chew the cud or
him. 13:9 Instead, you must kill him with-     those that have divided hooves: the
out fail! Your own hand must be the first      camel, the hare, and the rock badger.
to strike him, and then the hands of the       (Although they chew the cud, they do not
whole community. 13:10 You must stone          have divided hooves and are therefore
him to death because he tried to entice        ritually impure to you). 14:8 Also the pig
you away from the LORD your God, who           is ritually impure to you; though it has
delivered you from the land of Egypt,          divided hooves, it does not chew the cud.
that place of slavery. 13:11 Thus all Is-      You may not eat their meat or even touch
rael will hear and be afraid; no longer will   their remains. 14:9 These you may eat
they continue to do evil like this among       from among water creatures: anything
you.                                           with fins and scales you may eat, 14:10
                                               but whatever does not have fins and
Punishment of Community Idolatry               scales you may not eat; it is ritually im-
    13:12 Suppose you should hear in one
                                               pure to you. 14:11 All ritually clean birds
of your cities, which the LORD your God is     you may eat. 14:12 These are the ones
giving you as a place to live, that 13:13      you may not eat: the eagle, the vulture,
some evil people have departed from            the black vulture, 14:13 the kite, the
among you to entice the inhabitants of         black kite, the dayyah after its species,
                                               14:14 every raven after its species, 14:15
their cities, saying, “Let’s go and serve
other gods” (whom you have not known           the ostrich, the owl, the seagull, the fal-
before). 13:14 You must investigate            con after its species, 14:16 the little owl,
thoroughly and inquire carefully. If it is     the long-eared owl, the white owl, 14:17
indeed true that such a disgraceful thing      the jackdaw, the carrion vulture, the
is being done among you, 13:15 you must        cormorant, 14:18 the stork, the heron
by all means slaughter the inhabitants of      after its species, the hoopoe, the bat,
                                               14:19 and any winged thing on the ground
that city with the sword; annihilate with
the sword everyone in it, as well as the       are impure to you – they may not be
livestock. 13:16 You must gather all of its    eaten. 14:20 You may eat any clean bird.
                                               14:21 You may not eat any corpse, though
plunder into the middle of the plaza and
burn the city and all its plunder as a         you may give it to the resident foreigner
whole burnt offering to the LORD your          who is living in your villages and he may
God. It will be an abandoned ruin forever      eat it, or you may sell it to a foreigner.
– it must never be rebuilt again. 13:17        You are a people holy to the LORD your
You must not take for yourself anything        God. Do not boil a young goat in its
that has been placed under judgment.           mother’s milk.
Then the LORD will relent from his in-         The Offering of Tribute
tense anger, show you compassion, have
mercy on you, and multiply you as he         14:22 You must be certain to tithe all
promised your ancestors. 13:18 Thus you  the produce of your seed that comes
must obey the LORD your God, keeping all from the field year after year. 14:23 In
his commandments that I am giving you    the presence of the LORD your God you
today and doing what is right before him.must eat from the tithe of your grain,
                                         your new wine, your olive oil, and the
The Holy and the Profane                 firstborn of your herds and flocks in the
   14:1 You are children of the LORD place he chooses to locate his name, so
your God. Do not cut yourselves or shave that you may learn to revere the LORD
your forehead bald for the sake of the your God always. 14:24 When he blesses
DEUTERONOMY 14:25                         378
you, if the place where he chooses to         your attitude be wrong toward your im-
locate his name is distant, 14:25 you may     poverished fellow Israelite and you do
convert the tithe into money, secure the      not lend him anything; he will cry out to
money, and travel to the place the LORD       the LORD against you and you will be re-
your God chooses for himself. 14:26 Then      garded as having sinned. 15:10 You must
you may spend the money however you           by all means lend to him and not be upset
wish for cattle, sheep, wine, beer, or        by doing it, for because of this the LORD
whatever you desire. You and your house-      your God will bless you in all your work
hold may eat there in the presence of         and in everything you attempt. 15:11
the LORD your God and enjoy it. 14:27 As      There will never cease to be some poor
for the Levites in your villages, you must    people in the land; therefore, I am com-
not ignore them, for they have no allot-      manding you to make sure you open your
ment or inheritance along with you. 14:28     hand to your fellow Israelites who are
At the end of every three years you           needy and poor in your land.
must bring all the tithe of your produce,
in that very year, and you must store it      Release of Debt Slaves
up in your villages. 14:29 Then the Levites
                                                  15:12 If your fellow Hebrew –
(because they have no allotment or in-
heritance with you), the resident for-        whether male or female – is sold to you
eigners, the orphans, and the widows of       and serves you for six years, then in the
your villages may come and eat their fill     seventh year you must let that servant
so that the LORD your God may bless you       go free. 15:13 If you set them free, you
in all the work you do.                       must not send them away empty-handed.
                                              15:14 You must supply them generously
Release for Debt Slaves                       from your flock, your threshing floor,
                                              and your winepress – as the LORD your
    15:1 At the end of every seven years      God has blessed you, you must give to
you must declare a cancellation of debts.     them. 15:15 Remember that you were a
15:2 This is the nature of the cancella-      slave in the land of Egypt and the LORD
tion: Every creditor must remit what he       your God redeemed you; therefore, I am
has loaned to another person; he must         commanding you to do this thing today.
not force payment from his fellow Isra-       15:16 However, if the servant says to
elite, for it is to be recognized as “the     you, “I do not want to leave you,” because
LORD’s cancellation of debts.” 15:3 You       he loves you and your household, since he
may exact payment from a foreigner, but       is well off with you, 15:17 you shall take
whatever your fellow Israelite owes you,      an awl and pierce a hole through his ear
you must remit. 15:4 However, there           to the door. Then he will become your
should not be any poor among you, for         servant permanently (this applies to your
the LORD will surely bless you in the land    female servant as well). 15:18 You should
that he is giving you as an inheritance,      not consider it difficult to let him go
15:5 if you carefully obey him by keeping     free, for he will have served you for six
all these commandments that I am giving       years, twice the time of a hired worker;
you today. 15:6 For the LORD your God         the LORD your God will bless you in every-
will bless you just as he has promised;       thing you do.
you will lend to many nations but will not
borrow from any, and you will rule over Giving God the Best
many nations but they will not rule over
                                               15:19 You must set apart for the
you.
                                           LORD your God every firstborn male born
The Spirit of Liberality                   to your herds and flocks. You must not
                                           work the firstborn of your bulls or shear
    15:7 If a fellow Israelite from one of the firstborn of your flocks. 15:20 You
your villages in the land that the LORD and your household must eat them annu-
your God is giving you should be poor, you ally before the LORD your God in the
must not harden your heart or be insen- place he chooses. 15:21 If they have any
sitive to his impoverished condition. 15:8 kind of blemish – lameness, blindness, or
Instead, you must be sure to open your anything else – you may not offer them
hand to him and generously lend him as a sacrifice to the LORD your God.
whatever he needs. 15:9 Be careful lest 15:22 You may eat it in your villages,
you entertain the wicked thought that whether you are ritually impure or clean,
the seventh year, the year of cancella- just as you would eat a gazelle or an ibex.
tion of debts, has almost arrived, and 15:23 However, you must not eat its
                                         379                   DEUTERONOMY 17:7
blood; you must pour it out on the ground 16:14 You are to rejoice in your festival,
like water.                                you, your son, your daughter, your male
                                           and female slaves, the Levites, the resi-
The Passover-Unleavened Bread Festival     dent foreigners, the orphans, and the
                                           widows who are in your villages. 16:15 You
    16:1 Observe the month Abib and
                                           are to celebrate the festival seven days
keep the Passover to the LORD your God, before the LORD your God in the place he
for in that month he brought you out of chooses, for he will bless you in all your
Egypt by night. 16:2 You must sacrifice productivity and in whatever you do; so
the Passover animal (from the flock or you will indeed rejoice! 16:16 Three times
the herd) to the LORD your God in the a year all your males must appear before
place where he chooses to locate his the LORD your God in the place he
name. 16:3 You must not eat any yeast chooses for the Festival of Unleavened
with it; for seven days you must eat Bread, the Festival of Weeks, and the
bread made without yeast, symbolic of Festival of Temporary Shelters; and they
affliction, for you came out of Egypt must not appear before him empty-
hurriedly. You must do this so you will handed. 16:17 Every one of you must give
remember for the rest of your life the as you are able, according to the blessing
day you came out of the land of Egypt. of the LORD your God that he has given
16:4 There must not be a scrap of yeast
                                           you.
within your land for seven days, nor can
any of the meat you sacrifice on the eve- Provision for Justice
ning of the first day remain until the
next morning. 16:5 You may not sacrifice       16:18 You must appoint judges and
the Passover in just any of your villages civil servants for each tribe in all your
that the LORD your God is giving you,      villages that the LORD your God is giving
16:6 but you must sacrifice it in the eve- you, and they must judge the people
ning in the place where he chooses to fairly. 16:19 You must not pervert justice
locate his name, at sunset, the time of or show favor. Do not take a bribe, for
day you came out of Egypt. 16:7 You must bribes blind the eyes of the wise and
cook and eat it in the place the LORD your distort the words of the righteous. 16:20
God chooses; you may return the next You must pursue justice alone so that you
morning to your tents. 16:8 You must eat may live and inherit the land the LORD
bread made without yeast for six days. your God is giving you.
The seventh day you are to hold an as-
sembly for the LORD your God; you must Examples of Legal Cases
not do any work on that day.
                                               16:21 You must not plant any kind of
The Festival of Weeks                      tree as a sacred Asherah pole near the
                                           altar of the LORD your God which you
    16:9 You must count seven weeks; you build for yourself. 16:22 You must not
must begin to count them from the time erect a sacred pillar, a thing the LORD
you begin to harvest the standing grain. your God detests. 17:1 You must not sac-
16:10 Then you are to celebrate the Fes- rifice to him a bull or sheep that has a
tival of Weeks before the LORD your God blemish or any other defect, because
with the voluntary offering that you will that is considered offensive to the LORD
bring, in proportion to how he has your God. 17:2 Suppose a man or woman is
blessed you. 16:11 You shall rejoice be- discovered among you – in one of your
fore him – you, your son, your daughter, villages that the LORD your God is giving
your male and female slaves, the Levites you – who sins before the LORD your God
in your villages, the resident foreigners, and breaks his covenant 17:3 by serving
the orphans, and the widows among you – other gods and worshiping them – the
in the place where the LORD chooses to sun, moon, or any other heavenly bodies
locate his name. 16:12 Furthermore, re- which I have not permitted you to wor-
member that you were a slave in Egypt, ship. 17:4 When it is reported to you and
and so be careful to observe these stat- you hear about it, you must investigate
utes.                                      carefully. If it is indeed true that such a
                                           disgraceful thing is being done in Israel,
The Festival of Temporary Shelters         17:5 you must bring to your city gates
                                           that man or woman who has done this
    16:13 You must celebrate the Festival
                                           wicked thing – that very man or woman –
of Temporary Shelters for seven days, at and you must stone that person to death.
the time of the grain and grape harvest.
DEUTERONOMY 17:6                           380
17:6 At the testimony of two or three          exalt himself above his fellow citizens or
witnesses they must be executed. They          turn from the commandments to the
cannot be put to death on the testimony        right or left, and he and his descendants
of only one witness. 17:7 The witnesses        will enjoy many years ruling over his king-
must be first to begin the execution, and      dom in Israel.
then all the people are to join in after-
ward. In this way you will purge evil from     Provision for Priests and Levites
among you.
                                                   18:1 The Levitical priests – indeed,
Appeal to a Higher Court                       the entire tribe of Levi – will have no al-
                                               lotment or inheritance with Israel; they
    17:8 If a matter is too difficult for      may eat the burnt offerings of the LORD
you to judge – bloodshed, legal claim, or      and of his inheritance. 18:2 They will
assault – matters of controversy in your       have no inheritance in the midst of their
villages – you must leave there and go up      fellow Israelites; the LORD alone is their
to the place the LORD your God chooses.        inheritance, just as he had told them.
17:9 You will go to the Levitical priests      18:3 This shall be the priests’ fair allot-
and the judge in office in those days and      ment from the people who offer sacri-
seek a solution; they will render a ver-       fices, whether bull or sheep – they must
dict. 17:10 You must then do as they have      give to the priest the shoulder, the jowls,
determined at that place the LORD              and the stomach. 18:4 You must give
chooses. Be careful to do just as you are      them the best of your grain, new wine,
taught. 17:11 You must do what you are         and olive oil, as well as the best of your
instructed, and the verdict they pro-          wool when you shear your flocks. 18:5 For
nounce to you, without fail. Do not devi-      the LORD your God has chosen them and
ate right or left from what they tell you.     their sons from all your tribes to stand
17:12 The person who pays no attention         and serve in his name permanently. 18:6
to the priest currently serving the LORD       Suppose a Levite comes by his own free
your God there, or to the verdict – that       will from one of your villages, from any
person must die, so that you may purge         part of Israel where he is living, to the
evil from Israel. 17:13 Then all the peo-      place the LORD chooses 18:7 and serves in
ple will hear and be afraid, and not be so     the name of the LORD his God like his
presumptuous again.                            fellow Levites who stand there before
                                               the LORD. 18:8 He must eat the same
Provision for Kingship                         share they do, despite any profits he may
                                               gain from the sale of his family’s inheri-
    17:14 When you come to the land the
                                               tance.
LORD your God is giving you and take it
over and live in it and then say, “I will      Provision for Prophetism
select a king like all the nations surround-
ing me,” 17:15 you must select without             18:9 When you enter the land the
fail a king whom the LORD your God             LORD your God is giving you, you must not
chooses. From among your fellow citizens       learn the abhorrent practices of those
you must appoint a king – you may not          nations. 18:10 There must never be found
designate a foreigner who is not one of        among you anyone who sacrifices his son
your fellow Israelites. 17:16 Moreover,        or daughter in the fire, anyone who prac-
he must not accumulate horses for him-         tices divination, an omen reader, a sooth-
self or allow the people to return to          sayer, a sorcerer, 18:11 one who casts
Egypt to do so, for the LORD has said you      spells, one who conjures up spirits, a
must never again return that way. 17:17        practitioner of the occult, or a necro-
Furthermore, he must not marry many            mancer. 18:12 Whoever does these
wives lest his affections turn aside, and      things is abhorrent to the LORD and be-
he must not accumulate much silver and         cause of these detestable things the
gold. 17:18 When he sits on his royal          LORD your God is about to drive them out
throne he must make a copy of this             from before you. 18:13 You must be
law on a scroll given to him by the Leviti-    blameless before the LORD your God.
cal priests. 17:19 It must be with him         18:14 Those nations that you are about
constantly and he must read it as long as      to dispossess listen to omen readers and
he lives, so that he may learn to revere       diviners, but the LORD your God has not
the LORD his God and observe all the           given you permission to do such things.
words of this law and these statutes and           18:15 The LORD your God will raise up
carry them out. 17:20 Then he will not         for you a prophet like me from among you
                                          381                     DEUTERONOMY 20:9
– from your fellow Israelites; you must       as he promised your ancestors and gives
listen to him. 18:16 This accords with        you all the land he pledged to them, 19:9
what happened at Horeb in the day of          and then you are careful to observe all
the assembly. You asked the LORD your         these commandments I am giving you to-
God: “Please do not make us hear the          day (namely, to love the LORD your God
voice of the LORD our God any more or         and to always walk in his ways), then you
see this great fire any more lest we die.”    must add three more cities to these
18:17 The LORD then said to me, “What         three. 19:10 You must not shed innocent
they have said is good. 18:18 I will raise    blood in your land that the LORD your God
up a prophet like you for them from           is giving you as an inheritance, for that
among their fellow Israelites. I will put     would make you guilty. 19:11 However,
my words in his mouth and he will speak       suppose a person hates someone else and
to them whatever I command. 18:19 I will      stalks him, attacks him, kills him, and
personally hold responsible anyone who        then flees to one of these cities. 19:12
then pays no attention to the words that      The elders of his own city must send for
prophet speaks in my name.                    him and remove him from there to de-
    18:20 “But if any prophet presumes to     liver him over to the blood avenger to
speak anything in my name that I have         die. 19:13 You must not pity him, but
not authorized him to speak, or speaks in     purge out the blood of the innocent from
the name of other gods, that prophet          Israel, so that it may go well with you.
must die. 18:21 Now if you say to your-
selves, ‘How can we tell that a message is    Laws Concerning Witnesses
not from the LORD?’ – 18:22 whenever a
                                                  19:14 You must not encroach on your
prophet speaks in my name and the pre-
diction is not fulfilled, then I have not     neighbor’s property, which will have been
spoken it; the prophet has presumed to        defined in the inheritance you will obtain
speak it, so you need not fear him.”          in the land the LORD your God is giving
                                              you.
Laws Concerning Manslaughter                      19:15 A single witness may not testify
                                              against another person for any trespass
    19:1 When the LORD your God de-           or sin that he commits. A matter may be
stroys the nations whose land he is about     legally established only on the testimony
to give you and you dispossess them and       of two or three witnesses. 19:16 If a
settle in their cities and houses, 19:2 you   false witness testifies against another
must set apart for yourselves three cit-      person and accuses him of a crime, 19:17
ies in the middle of your land that the       then both parties to the controversy
LORD your God is giving you as a posses-      must stand before the LORD, that is, be-
sion. 19:3 You shall build a roadway and      fore the priests and judges who will be in
divide into thirds the whole extent of        office in those days. 19:18 The judges
your land that the LORD your God is pro-      will thoroughly investigate the matter,
viding as your inheritance; anyone who        and if the witness should prove to be
kills another person should flee to the       false and to have given false testimony
closest of these cities. 19:4 Now this is     against the accused, 19:19 you must do to
the law pertaining to one who flees there     him what he had intended to do to the
in order to live, if he has accidentally      accused. In this way you will purge evil
killed another without hating him at the      from among you. 19:20 The rest of the
time of the accident. 19:5 Suppose he         people will hear and become afraid to
goes with someone else to the forest to       keep doing such evil among you. 19:21 You
cut wood and when he raises the ax to         must not show pity; the principle will be a
cut the tree, the ax head flies loose         life for a life, an eye for an eye, a tooth
from the handle and strikes his fellow        for a tooth, a hand for a hand, and a foot
worker so hard that he dies. The person       for a foot.
responsible may then flee to one of these
cities to save himself. 19:6 Otherwise        Laws Concerning War with Distant
the blood avenger will chase after the        Enemies
killer in the heat of his anger, eventually
overtake him, and kill him, though this is        20:1 When you go to war against your
not a capital case since he did not hate      enemies and see chariotry and troops
him at the time of the accident. 19:7         who outnumber you, do not be afraid of
Therefore, I am commanding you to set         them, for the LORD your God, who
apart for yourselves three cities. 19:8 If    brought you up out of the land of Egypt,
the LORD your God enlarges your borders       is with you. 20:2 As you move forward for
DEUTERONOMY 20:3                            382
battle, the priest will approach and say        your God. 20:19 If you besiege a city for
to the soldiers, 20:3 “Listen, Israel! To-      a long time while attempting to capture
day you are moving forward to do battle         it, you must not chop down its trees, for
with your enemies. Do not be faint-             you may eat fruit from them and should
hearted. Do not fear and tremble or be          not cut them down. A tree in the field is
terrified because of them, 20:4 for the         not human that you should besiege it!
LORD your God goes with you to fight on         20:20 However, you may chop down any
your behalf against your enemies to give        tree you know is not suitable for food,
you victory.” 20:5 Moreover, the officers       and you may use it to build siege works
are to say to the troops, “Who among you        against the city that is making war with
has built a new house and not dedicated         you until that city falls.
it? He may go home, lest he die in battle
and someone else dedicate it. 20:6 Or           Laws Concerning Unsolved Murder
who among you has planted a vineyard and
                                                    21:1 If a homicide victim should be
not benefited from it? He may go home,
lest he die in battle and someone else          found lying in a field in the land the LORD
benefit from it. 20:7 Or who among you          your God is giving you, and no one knows
has become engaged to a woman but has           who killed him, 21:2 your elders and
not married her? He may go home, lest           judges must go out and measure how far
he die in battle and someone else marry         it is to the cities in the vicinity of the
her.” 20:8 In addition, the officers are to     corpse. 21:3 Then the elders of the city
say to the troops, “Who among you is            nearest to the corpse must take from
afraid and fainthearted? He may go              the herd a heifer that has not been
home so that he will not make his fellow        worked – that has never pulled with the
soldier’s heart as fearful as his own.”         yoke – 21:4 and bring the heifer down to
20:9 Then, when the officers have fin-
                                                a wadi with flowing water, to a valley that
ished speaking, they must appoint unit          is neither plowed nor sown. There at the
commanders to lead the troops.                  wadi they are to break the heifer’s neck.
                                                21:5 Then the Levitical priests will ap-
    20:10 When you approach a city to
wage war against it, offer it terms of          proach (for the LORD your God has cho-
peace. 20:11 If it accepts your terms and       sen them to serve him and to pronounce
submits to you, all the people found in it      blessings in his name, and to decide every
will become your slaves. 20:12 If it does       judicial verdict) 21:6 and all the elders of
not accept terms of peace but makes war         that city nearest the corpse must wash
with you, then you are to lay siege to it.      their hands over the heifer whose neck
20:13 The LORD your God will deliver it
                                                was broken in the valley. 21:7 Then they
over to you and you must kill every single      must proclaim, “Our hands have not
male by the sword. 20:14 However, the           spilled this blood, nor have we witnessed
women, little children, cattle, and any-        the crime. 21:8 Do not blame your people
thing else in the city – all its plunder –      Israel whom you redeemed, O LORD, and
you may take for yourselves as spoil. You       do not hold them accountable for the
may take from your enemies the plunder          bloodshed of an innocent person.” Then
that the LORD your God has given you.           atonement will be made for the blood-
20:15 This is how you are to deal with all
                                                shed. 21:9 In this manner you will purge
those cities located far from you, those        out the guilt of innocent blood from
that do not belong to these nearby na-          among you, for you must do what is right
tions.                                          before the LORD.

Laws Concerning War with Canaanite              Laws Concerning Wives
Nations                                             21:10 When you go out to do battle
                                                with your enemies and the LORD your God
    20:16 As for the cities of these peo-       allows you to prevail and you take prison-
ples that the LORD your God is going to         ers, 21:11 if you should see among them
give you as an inheritance, you must not        an attractive woman whom you wish to
allow a single living thing to survive. 20:17   take as a wife, 21:12 you may bring her
Instead you must utterly annihilate them        back to your house. She must shave her
– the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Per-      head, trim her nails, 21:13 discard the
izzites, Hivites, and Jebusites – just as       clothing she was wearing when captured,
the LORD your God has commanded you,            and stay in your house, lamenting for her
20:18 so that they cannot teach you all         father and mother for a full month. Af-
the abhorrent ways they worship their           ter that you may have sexual relations
gods, causing you to sin against the LORD
                                         383                     DEUTERONOMY 22:19
with her and become her husband and          must return it to him. 22:3 You shall do
she your wife. 21:14 If you are not          the same to his donkey, his clothes, or
pleased with her, then you must let her      anything else your neighbor has lost and
go where she pleases. You cannot in any      you have found; you must not refuse to
case sell her; you must not take advan-      get involved. 22:4 When you see your
tage of her, since you have already hu-      neighbor’s donkey or ox fallen along the
miliated her.                                road, do not ignore it; instead, you must
                                             be sure to help him get the animal on its
Laws Concerning Children                     feet again.
                                                 22:5 A woman must not wear men’s
    21:15 Suppose a man has two wives,
                                             clothing, nor should a man dress up in
one whom he loves more than the other,       women’s clothing, for anyone who does
and they both bear him sons, with the        this is offensive to the LORD your God.
firstborn being the child of the less            22:6 If you happen to notice a bird’s
loved wife. 21:16 In the day he divides      nest along the road, whether in a tree or
his inheritance he must not appoint as       on the ground, and there are chicks or
firstborn the son of the favorite wife in    eggs with the mother bird sitting on
place of the other wife’s son who is actu-   them, you must not take the mother from
ally the firstborn. 21:17 Rather, he must    the young. 22:7 You must be sure to let
acknowledge the son of the less loved        the mother go, but you may take the
wife as firstborn and give him the double    young for yourself. Do this so that it may
portion of all he has, for that son is the   go well with you and you may have a long
beginning of his father’s procreative        life.
power – to him should go the right of the        22:8 If you build a new house, you
firstborn.                                   must construct a guard rail around your
    21:18 If a person has a stubborn, re-
                                             roof to avoid being culpable in the event
bellious son who pays no attention to his    someone should fall from it.
father or mother, and they discipline him
to no avail, 21:19 his father and mother     Illustrations of the Principle of Purity
must seize him and bring him to the eld-
ers at the gate of his city. 21:20 They         22:9 You must not plant your vineyard
must declare to the elders of his city,      with two kinds of seed; otherwise the
“Our son is stubborn and rebellious and      entire yield, both of the seed you plant
pays no attention to what we say – he is a   and the produce of the vineyard, will be
glutton and drunkard.” 21:21 Then all the    defiled. 22:10 You must not plow with an
men of his city must stone him to death.     ox and a donkey harnessed together.
In this way you will purge out wickedness    22:11 You must not wear clothing made
from among you, and all Israel will hear     with wool and linen meshed together.
about it and be afraid.                      22:12 You shall make yourselves tassels
                                             for the four corners of the clothing you
Disposition of a Criminal’s Remains          wear.
    21:22 If a person commits a sin pun-     Purity in the Marriage Relationship
ishable by death and is executed, and you
hang the corpse on a tree, 21:23 his body        22:13 Suppose a man marries a woman,
must not remain all night on the tree;       has sexual relations with her, and then
instead you must make certain you bury       rejects her, 22:14 accusing her of impro-
him that same day, for the one who is        priety and defaming her reputation by
left exposed on a tree is cursed by God.     saying, “I married this woman but when I
You must not defile your land which the      had sexual relations with her I discov-
LORD your God is giving you as an inheri-    ered she was not a virgin!” 22:15 Then
tance.                                       the father and mother of the young
                                             woman must produce the evidence of vir-
Laws Concerning Preservation of Life         ginity for the elders of the city at the
                                             gate. 22:16 The young woman’s father
   22:1 When you see your neighbor’s ox
                                             must say to the elders, “I gave my
or sheep going astray, do not ignore it;     daughter to this man and he has rejected
you must return it without fail to your      her. 22:17 Moreover, he has raised accu-
neighbor. 22:2 If the owner does not live    sations of impropriety by saying, ‘I dis-
near you or you do not know who the          covered your daughter was not a virgin,’
owner is, then you must corral the animal    but this is the evidence of my daughter’s
at your house and let it stay with you       virginity!” The cloth must then be spread
until the owner looks for it; then you
DEUTERONOMY 22:18                         384
out before the city’s elders. 22:18 The       LORD; to the tenth generation no one re-
elders of that city must then seize the       lated to him may do so.
man and punish him. 22:19 They will fine          23:3 An Ammonite or Moabite may not
him one hundred shekels of silver and         enter the assembly of the LORD; to the
give them to the young woman’s father,        tenth generation none of their descen-
for the man who made the accusation           dants shall ever do so, 23:4 for they did
ruined the reputation of an Israelite vir-    not meet you with food and water on the
gin. She will then become his wife and he     way as you came from Egypt, and fur-
may never divorce her as long as he lives.    thermore, they hired Balaam son of Beor
    22:20 But if the accusation is true and   of Pethor in Aram Naharaim to curse you.
the young woman was not a virgin, 22:21       23:5 But the LORD your God refused to
the men of her city must bring the young      listen to Balaam and changed the curse to
woman to the door of her father’s house       a blessing, for the LORD your God loves
and stone her to death, for she has done      you. 23:6 You must not seek peace and
a disgraceful thing in Israel by behaving     prosperity for them through all the ages
like a prostitute while living in her fa-     to come. 23:7 You must not hate an
ther’s house. In this way you will purge      Edomite, for he is your relative; you must
evil from among you.                          not hate an Egyptian, for you lived as a
    22:22 If a man is caught having sexual    foreigner in his land. 23:8 Children of the
relations with a married woman both the       third generation born to them may enter
man who had relations with the woman          the assembly of the LORD.
and the woman herself must die; in this
way you will purge evil from Israel.          Purity in Personal Hygiene
    22:23 If a virgin is engaged to a man
                                                  23:9 When you go out as an army
and another man meets her in the city
and has sexual relations with her, 22:24      against your enemies, guard yourselves
you must bring the two of them to the         against anything impure. 23:10 If there is
gate of that city and stone them to           someone among you who is impure be-
death, the young woman because she did        cause of some nocturnal emission, he
not cry out though in the city and the        must leave the camp; he may not reenter
man because he violated his neighbor’s        it immediately. 23:11 When evening ar-
fiancée; in this way you will purge evil      rives he must wash himself with water
from among you. 22:25 But if the man          and then at sunset he may reenter the
came across the engaged woman in the          camp.
                                                  23:12 You are to have a place outside
field and overpowered her and raped her,
then only the rapist must die. 22:26 You      the camp to serve as a latrine. 23:13 You
must not do anything to the young woman       must have a spade among your other
– she has done nothing deserving of           equipment and when you relieve yourself
death. This case is the same as when          outside you must dig a hole with the
someone attacks another person and            spade and then turn and cover your ex-
murders him, 22:27 for the man met her        crement. 23:14 For the LORD your God
in the field and the engaged woman cried      walks about in the middle of your camp to
out, but there was no one to rescue her.      deliver you and defeat your enemies for
    22:28 Suppose a man comes across a
                                              you. Therefore your camp should be holy,
virgin who is not engaged and overpowers      so that he does not see anything indecent
and rapes her and they are discovered.        among you and turn away from you.
22:29 The man who has raped her must          Purity in the Treatment of the
pay her father fifty shekels of silver and
she must become his wife because he has       Nonprivileged
violated her; he may never divorce her as         23:15 You must not return an escaped
long as he lives.                             slave to his master when he has run away
    22:30 (23:1) A man may not marry his      to you. 23:16 Indeed, he may live among
father’s former wife and in this way dis-     you in any place he chooses, in whichever
honor his father.                             of your villages he prefers; you must not
Purity in Public Worship                      oppress him.

   23:1 A man with crushed or severed Purity in Cultic Personnel
genitals may not enter the assembly of     23:17 There must never be a sacred
the LORD. 23:2 A person of illegitimate prostitute among the young women of
birth may not enter the assembly of the Israel nor a sacred male prostitute
                                        among the young men of Israel. 23:18 You
                                           385                    DEUTERONOMY 24:22
must never bring the pay of a female              24:7 If a man is found kidnapping a
prostitute or the wage of a male prosti-       person from among his fellow Israelites,
tute into the temple of the LORD your          and regards him as mere property and
God in fulfillment of any vow, for both of     sells him, that kidnapper must die. In this
these are abhorrent to the LORD your           way you will purge evil from among you.
God.
                                               Respect for Human Dignity
Respect for Others’ Property
                                                   24:8 Be careful during an outbreak of
   23:19 You must not charge interest on       leprosy to follow precisely all that the
a loan to your fellow Israelite, whether       Levitical priests instruct you; as I have
on money, food, or anything else that has      commanded them, so you should do. 24:9
been loaned with interest. 23:20 You may       Remember what the LORD your God did to
lend with interest to a foreigner, but not     Miriam along the way after you left
to your fellow Israelite; if you keep this     Egypt.
command the LORD your God will bless               24:10 When you make any kind of loan
you in all you undertake in the land you       to your neighbor, you may not go into his
are about to enter to possess. 23:21           house to claim what he is offering as se-
When you make a vow to the LORD your           curity. 24:11 You must stand outside and
God you must not delay in fulfilling it, for   the person to whom you are making the
otherwise he will surely hold you ac-          loan will bring out to you what he is of-
countable as a sinner. 23:22 If you re-        fering as security. 24:12 If the person is
frain from making a vow, it will not be        poor you may not use what he gives you
sinful. 23:23 Whatever you vow, you must       as security for a covering. 24:13 You
be careful to do what you have promised,       must by all means return to him at sunset
such as what you have vowed to the LORD        the item he gave you as security so that
your God as a freewill offering. 23:24         he may sleep in his outer garment and
When you enter the vineyard of your            bless you for it; it will be considered a
neighbor you may eat as many grapes as         just deed by the LORD your God.
you please, but you must not take away             24:14 You must not oppress a lowly
any in a container. 23:25 When you go          and poor servant, whether one from
into the ripe grain fields of your neigh-      among your fellow Israelites or from the
bor you may pluck off the kernels with         resident foreigners who are living in your
your hand, but you must not use a sickle       land and villages. 24:15 You must pay his
on your neighbor’s ripe grain.                 wage that very day before the sun sets,
    24:1 If a man marries a woman and          for he is poor and his life depends on it.
she does not please him because he has         Otherwise he will cry out to the LORD
found something offensive in her, then         against you, and you will be guilty of sin.
he may draw up a divorce document, give            24:16 Fathers must not be put to
it to her, and evict her from his house.       death for what their children do, nor
24:2 When she has left him she may go          children for what their fathers do; each
and become someone else’s wife. 24:3 If        must be put to death for his own sin.
the second husband rejects her and then            24:17 You must not pervert justice
divorces her, gives her the papers, and        due a resident foreigner or an orphan, or
evicts her from his house, or if the sec-      take a widow’s garment as security for a
ond husband who married her dies, 24:4         loan. 24:18 Remember that you were
her first husband who divorced her is not      slaves in Egypt and that the LORD your
permitted to remarry her after she has         God redeemed you from there; therefore
become ritually impure, for that is offen-     I am commanding you to do all this. 24:19
sive to the LORD. You must not bring guilt     Whenever you reap your harvest in your
on the land which the LORD your God is         field and leave some unraked grain there,
giving you as an inheritance.                  you must not return to get it; it should go
    24:5 When a man is newly married, he       to the resident foreigner, orphan, and
need not go into the army nor be obli-         widow so that the LORD your God may
gated in any way; he must be free to stay      bless all the work you do. 24:20 When you
at home for a full year and bring joy to       beat your olive tree you must not repeat
the wife he has married.                       the procedure; the remaining olives be-
    24:6 One must not take either lower        long to the resident foreigner, orphan,
or upper millstones as security on a loan,     and widow. 24:21 When you gather the
for that is like taking a life itself as se-   grapes of your vineyard you must not do
curity.                                        so a second time; they should go to the
                                               resident foreigner, orphan, and widow.
DEUTERONOMY 24:22                         386
24:22 Remember that you were slaves in        weight and an accurate and correct
the land of Egypt; therefore, I am com-       measuring container, so that your life
manding you to do all this.                   may be extended in the land the LORD
    25:1 If controversy arises between        your God is about to give you. 25:16 For
people, they should go to court for judg-     anyone who acts dishonestly in these
ment. When the judges hear the case,          ways is abhorrent to the LORD your God.
they shall exonerate the innocent but
condemn the guilty. 25:2 Then, if the         Treatment of the Amalekites
guilty person is sentenced to a beating,
                                                  25:17 Remember what the Amalekites
the judge shall force him to lie down and
be beaten in his presence with the num-       did to you on your way from Egypt, 25:18
ber of blows his wicked behavior de-          how they met you along the way and cut
serves. 25:3 The judge may sentence him       off all your stragglers in the rear of the
to forty blows, but no more. If he is         march when you were exhausted and
struck with more than these, you might        tired; they were unafraid of God. 25:19
view your fellow Israelite with contempt.     So when the LORD your God gives you
    25:4 You must not muzzle your ox
                                              relief from all the enemies who surround
when it is treading grain.                    you in the land he is giving you as an in-
                                              heritance, you must wipe out the memory
Respect for the Sanctity of Others            of the Amalekites from under heaven –
                                              do not forget!
    25:5 If brothers live together and
one of them dies without having a son,        Presentation of the First Fruits
the dead man’s wife must not remarry
                                                  26:1 When you enter the land that
someone outside the family. Instead, her
late husband’s brother must go to her,        the LORD your God is giving you as an in-
marry her, and perform the duty of a          heritance, and you occupy it and live in it,
                                              26:2 you must take the first of all the
brother-in-law. 25:6 Then the first son
she bears will continue the name of the       ground’s produce you harvest from the
dead brother, thus preventing his name        land the LORD your God is giving you,
from being blotted out of Israel. 25:7        place it in a basket, and go to the place
But if the man does not want to marry         where he chooses to locate his name.
                                              26:3 You must go to the priest in office
his brother’s widow, then she must go to
the elders at the town gate and say, “My      at that time and say to him, “I declare
husband’s brother refuses to preserve         today to the LORD your God that I have
his brother’s name in Israel; he is unwill-   come into the land that the LORD prom-
ing to perform the duty of a brother-in-      ised to our ancestors to give us.” 26:4
law to me!” 25:8 Then the elders of his       The priest will then take the basket from
city must summon him and speak to him.        you and set it before the altar of the
If he persists, saying, “I don’t want to      LORD your God. 26:5 Then you must af-
marry her,” 25:9 then his sister-in-law       firm before the LORD your God, “A wan-
must approach him in view of the elders,      dering Aramean was my ancestor, and he
remove his sandal from his foot, and spit     went down to Egypt and lived there as a
in his face. She will then respond, “Thus     foreigner with a household few in num-
may it be done to any man who does not        ber, but there he became a great, power-
maintain his brother’s family line!” 25:10    ful, and numerous people. 26:6 But the
His family name will be referred to in        Egyptians mistreated and oppressed us,
Israel as “the family of the one whose        forcing us to do burdensome labor. 26:7
sandal was removed.”                          So we cried out to the LORD, the God of
    25:11 If two men get into a hand-to-
                                              our ancestors, and he heard us and saw
hand fight, and the wife of one of them       our humiliation, toil, and oppression. 26:8
gets involved to help her husband against     Therefore the LORD brought us out of
his attacker, and she reaches out her         Egypt with tremendous strength and
hand and grabs his genitals, 25:12 then       power, as well as with great awe-inspiring
you must cut off her hand – do not pity       signs and wonders. 26:9 Then he brought
her.                                          us to this place and gave us this land, a
    25:13 You must not have in your bag
                                              land flowing with milk and honey. 26:10
different stone weights, a heavy and a        So now, look! I have brought the first of
light one. 25:14 You must not have in your    the ground’s produce that you, LORD,
house different measuring containers, a       have given me.” Then you must set it
large and a small one. 25:15 You must         down before the LORD your God and wor-
have an accurate and correct stone            ship before him. 26:11 You will celebrate
                                          387                    DEUTERONOMY 27:26
all the good things that the LORD your        with milk and honey just as the LORD, the
God has given you and your family, along      God of your ancestors, said to you. 27:4
with the Levites and the resident for-        So when you cross the Jordan you must
eigners among you.                            erect on Mount Ebal these stones about
                                              which I am commanding you today, and
Presentation of the Third-year Tithe          you must cover them with plaster. 27:5
                                              Then you must build an altar there to the
    26:12 When you finish tithing all your
                                              LORD your God, an altar of stones – do
income in the third year (the year of         not use an iron tool on them. 27:6 You
tithing), you must give it to the Levites,    must build the altar of the LORD your
the resident foreigners, the orphans, and     God with whole stones and offer burnt
the widows so that they may eat to their      offerings on it to the LORD your God.
satisfaction in your villages. 26:13 Then     27:7 Also you must offer fellowship of-
you shall say before the LORD your God,       ferings and eat them there, rejoicing
“I have removed the sacred offering           before the LORD your God. 27:8 You must
from my house and given it to the             inscribe on the stones all the words of
Levites, the resident foreigners, the or-     this law, making them clear.”
phans, and the widows just as you have            27:9 Then Moses and the Levitical
commanded me. I have not violated or          priests spoke to all Israel: “Be quiet and
forgotten your commandments. 26:14 I          pay attention, Israel. Today you have
have not eaten anything when I was in         become the people of the LORD your God.
mourning, or removed any of it while          27:10 You must obey him and keep his
ceremonially unclean, or offered any of it    commandments and statutes that I am
to the dead; I have obeyed you and have       giving you today.” 27:11 Moreover, Moses
done everything you have commanded me.        commanded the people that day: 27:12
26:15 Look down from your holy dwelling
                                              “The following tribes must stand to bless
place in heaven and bless your people Is-     the people on Mount Gerizim when you
rael and the land you have given us, just     cross the Jordan: Simeon, Levi, Judah,
as you promised our ancestors – a land        Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin. 27:13
flowing with milk and honey.”                 And these other tribes must stand for
Narrative Interlude                           the curse on Mount Ebal: Reuben, Gad,
                                              Asher, Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali.
    26:16 Today the LORD your God is
commanding you to keep these statutes         The Covenant Curses
and ordinances, something you must do             27:14 “The Levites will call out to
with all your heart and soul. 26:17 Today     every Israelite with a loud voice: 27:15
you have declared the LORD to be your         ‘Cursed is the one who makes a carved or
God, and that you will walk in his ways,      metal image – something abhorrent to
keep his statutes, commandments, and          the LORD, the work of the craftsman –
ordinances, and obey him. 26:18 And to-       and sets it up in a secret place.’ Then all
day the LORD has declared you to be his       the people will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:16 ‘Cursed
special people (as he already promised        is the one who disrespects his father and
you) so you may keep all his command-         mother.’ Then all the people will say,
ments. 26:19 Then he will elevate you         ‘Amen!’ 27:17 ‘Cursed is the one who
above all the nations he has made and you     moves his neighbor’s boundary marker.’
will receive praise, fame, and honor. You     Then all the people will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:18
will be a people holy to the LORD your        ‘Cursed is the one who misleads a blind
God, as he has said.                          person on the road.’ Then all the people
The Assembly at Shechem                       will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:19 ‘Cursed is the one
                                              who perverts justice for the resident
    27:1 Then Moses and the elders of         foreigner, the orphan, and the widow.’
Israel commanded the people: “Pay at-         Then all the people will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:20
tention to all the commandments I am          ‘Cursed is the one who has sexual rela-
giving you today. 27:2 When you cross         tions with his father’s former wife, for
the Jordan River to the land the LORD         he dishonors his father.’ Then all the
your God is giving you, you must erect        people will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:21 ‘Cursed is
great stones and cover them with plas-        the one who commits bestiality.’ Then all
ter. 27:3 Then you must inscribe on them      the people will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:22 ‘Cursed
all the words of this law when you cross      is the one who has sexual relations with
over, so that you may enter the land the      his sister, the daughter of either his
LORD your God is giving you, a land flowing   father or mother.’ Then all the people will
DEUTERONOMY 27:23                          388
say, ‘Amen!’ 27:23 ‘Cursed is the one who      Curses as Reversal of Blessings
has sexual relations with his mother-in-
law.’ Then all the people will say, ‘Amen!’        28:15 “But if you ignore the LORD your
27:24 ‘Cursed is the one who kills his         God and are not careful to keep all his
neighbor in private.’ Then all the people      commandments and statutes I am giving
will say, ‘Amen!’ 27:25 ‘Cursed is the one     you today, then all these curses will come
who takes a bribe to kill an innocent per-     upon you in full force: 28:16 You will be
son.’ Then all the people will say, ‘Amen!’    cursed in the city and cursed in the field.
27:26 ‘Cursed is the one who refuses to        28:17 Your basket and your mixing bowl
keep the words of this law.’ Then all the      will be cursed. 28:18 Your children will be
people will say, ‘Amen!’                       cursed, as well as the produce of your
                                               soil, the calves of your herds, and the
The Covenant Blessings                         lambs of your flocks. 28:19 You will be
                                               cursed when you come in and cursed when
    28:1 “If you indeed obey the LORD          you go out.
your God and are careful to observe all
his commandments I am giving you today,        Curses by Disease and Drought
the LORD your God will elevate you above
all the nations of the earth. 28:2 All             28:20 “The LORD will send on you a
these blessings will come to you in abun-      curse, confusing you and opposing you in
dance if you obey the LORD your God:           everything you undertake until you are
28:3 You will be blessed in the city and       destroyed and quickly perish because of
blessed in the field. 28:4 Your children       the evil of your deeds, in that you have
will be blessed, as well as the produce of     forsaken me. 28:21 The LORD will plague
your soil, the offspring of your livestock,    you with deadly diseases until he has
the calves of your herds, and the lambs        completely removed you from the land
of your flocks. 28:5 Your basket and your      you are about to possess. 28:22 He will
mixing bowl will be blessed. 28:6 You will     afflict you with weakness, fever, inflam-
be blessed when you come in and blessed        mation, infection, sword, blight, and mil-
when you go out. 28:7 The LORD will cause      dew; these will attack you until you per-
your enemies who attack you to be struck       ish. 28:23 The sky above your heads will
down before you; they will attack you          be bronze and the earth beneath you
from one direction but flee from you in        iron. 28:24 The LORD will make the rain of
seven different directions. 28:8 The           your land powder and dust; it will come
LORD will decree blessing for you with         down on you from the sky until you are
respect to your barns and in everything        destroyed.
you do – yes, he will bless you in the land
he is giving you. 28:9 The LORD will desig-    Curses by Defeat and Deportation
nate you as his holy people just as he             28:25 “The LORD will allow you to be
promised you, if you keep his command-         struck down before your enemies; you
ments and obey him. 28:10 Then all the         will attack them from one direction but
peoples of the earth will see that you         flee from them in seven directions and
belong to the LORD, and they will respect      will become an object of terror to all the
you. 28:11 The LORD will greatly multiply      kingdoms of the earth. 28:26 Your car-
your children, the offspring of your live-     casses will be food for every bird of the
stock, and the produce of your soil in the     sky and wild animal of the earth, and
land which he promised your ancestors he       there will be no one to chase them off.
would give you. 28:12 The LORD will open       28:27 The LORD will afflict you with the
for you his good treasure house, the           boils of Egypt and with tumors, eczema,
heavens, to give you rain for the land in      and scabies, all of which cannot be
its season and to bless all you do; you will   healed. 28:28 The LORD will also subject
lend to many nations but you will not bor-     you to madness, blindness, and confusion
row from any. 28:13 The LORD will make         of mind. 28:29 You will feel your way
you the head and not the tail, and you will    along at noon like the blind person does in
always end up at the top and not at the        darkness and you will not succeed in any-
bottom, if you obey his commandments           thing you do; you will be constantly op-
which I am urging you today to be careful      pressed and continually robbed, with no
to do. 28:14 But you must not turn away        one to save you. 28:30 You will be en-
from all the commandments I am giving          gaged to a woman and another man will
you today, to either the right or left, nor    rape her. You will build a house but not
pursue other gods and worship them.            live in it. You will plant a vineyard but not
                                               even begin to use it. 28:31 Your ox will be
                                          389                    DEUTERONOMY 28:68
slaughtered before your very eyes but         The Curse of Military Siege
you will not eat of it. Your donkey will be
stolen from you as you watch and will not         28:47 “Because you have not served
be returned to you. Your flock of sheep       the LORD your God joyfully and whole-
will be given to your enemies and there       heartedly with the abundance of every-
will be no one to save you. 28:32 Your        thing you have, 28:48 instead in hunger,
sons and daughters will be given to an-       thirst, nakedness, and poverty you will
other people while you look on in vain all    serve your enemies whom the LORD will
day, and you will be powerless to do any-     send against you. They will place an iron
thing about it. 28:33 As for the produce      yoke on your neck until they have de-
of your land and all your labor, a people     stroyed you. 28:49 The LORD will raise up
you do not know will consume it, and you      a distant nation against you, one from the
will be nothing but oppressed and             other side of the earth as the eagle
crushed for the rest of your lives. 28:34     flies, a nation whose language you will not
You will go insane from seeing all this.      understand, 28:50 a nation of stern ap-
28:35 The LORD will afflict you in your       pearance that will have no regard for the
knees and on your legs with painful, in-      elderly or pity for the young. 28:51 They
curable boils – from the soles of your        will devour the offspring of your live-
feet to the top of your head. 28:36 The       stock and the produce of your soil until
LORD will force you and your king whom        you are destroyed. They will not leave
you will appoint over you to go away to a     you with any grain, new wine, olive oil,
people whom you and your ancestors have       calves of your herds, or lambs of your
not known, and you will serve other gods      flocks until they have destroyed you.
of wood and stone there. 28:37 You will       28:52 They will besiege all of your vil-
become an occasion of horror, a proverb,      lages until all of your high and fortified
and an object of ridicule to all the peo-     walls collapse – those in which you put
ples to whom the LORD will drive you.         your confidence throughout the land.
                                              They will besiege all your villages
The Curse of Reversed Status                  throughout the land the LORD your God
                                              has given you. 28:53 You will then eat
    28:38 “You will take much seed to the     your own offspring, the flesh of the sons
field but gather little harvest, because      and daughters the LORD your God has
locusts will consume it. 28:39 You will       given you, because of the severity of the
plant vineyards and cultivate them, but       siege by which your enemies will con-
you will not drink wine or gather in          strict you. 28:54 The man among you who
grapes, because worms will eat them.          is by nature tender and sensitive will turn
28:40 You will have olive trees through-      against his brother, his beloved wife, and
out your territory but you will not anoint    his remaining children. 28:55 He will
yourself with olive oil, because the olives   withhold from all of them his children’s
will drop off the trees while still unripe.   flesh that he is eating (since there is
28:41 You will bear sons and daughters        nothing else left), because of the sever-
but not keep them, because they will be       ity of the siege by which your enemy will
taken into captivity. 28:42 Whirring lo-      constrict you in your villages. 28:56 Like-
custs will take over every tree and all the   wise, the most tender and delicate of
produce of your soil. 28:43 The foreign-      your women, who would never think of
ers who reside among you will become          putting even the sole of her foot on the
higher and higher over you and you will       ground because of her daintiness, will
become lower and lower. 28:44 They will       turn against her beloved husband, her
lend to you but you will not lend to them;    sons and daughters, 28:57 and will se-
they will become the head and you will        cretly eat her afterbirth and her new-
become the tail!                              born children (since she has nothing
    28:45 All these curses will fall on you,  else), because of the severity of the
pursuing and overtaking you until you are     siege by which your enemy will constrict
destroyed, because you would not obey         you in your villages.
the LORD your God by keeping his com-
mandments and statutes that he has The Curse of Covenant Termination
given you. 28:46 These curses will be a
perpetual sign and wonder with reference        28:58 “If you refuse to obey all the
to you and your descendants.                 words of this law, the things written in
                                             this scroll, and refuse to fear this glori-
                                             ous and awesome name, the LORD your
                                             God, 28:59 then the LORD will increase
DEUTERONOMY 28:60                         390
your punishments and those of your de-        this very day the LORD has not given you
scendants – great and long-lasting afflic-    an understanding mind, perceptive eyes,
tions and severe, enduring illnesses. 28:60   or discerning ears! 29:5 I have led you
He will infect you with all the diseases of   through the desert for forty years. Your
Egypt that you dreaded, and they will         clothing has not worn out nor have your
persistently afflict you. 28:61 Moreover,     sandals deteriorated. 29:6 You have
the LORD will bring upon you every kind of    eaten no bread and drunk no wine or beer
sickness and plague not mentioned in this     – all so that you might know that I am
scroll of commandments, until you have        the LORD your God! 29:7 When you came
perished. 28:62 There will be very few of     to this place King Sihon of Heshbon and
you left, though at one time you were as      King Og of Bashan came out to make war
numerous as the stars in the sky, because     and we defeated them. 29:8 Then we
you will have disobeyed the LORD your         took their land and gave it as an inheri-
God. 28:63 This is what will happen: Just     tance to Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe
as the LORD delighted to do good for you      of Manasseh.
and make you numerous, he will take de-
light in destroying and decimating you.       The Present Covenant Setting
You will be uprooted from the land you
                                                  29:9 “Therefore, keep the terms of
are about to possess. 28:64 The LORD will
scatter you among all nations, from one       this covenant and obey them so that you
end of the earth to the other. There you      may be successful in everything you do.
                                              29:10 You are standing today, all of you,
will worship other gods that neither you
nor your ancestors have known, gods of        before the LORD your God – the heads of
wood and stone. 28:65 Among those na-         your tribes, your elders, your officials,
tions you will have no rest nor will there    every Israelite man, 29:11 your infants,
be a place of peaceful rest for the soles     your wives, and the foreigners living in
of your feet, for there the LORD will give    your encampment, those who chop wood
you an anxious heart, failing eyesight, and   and those who carry water – 29:12 so
a spirit of despair. 28:66 Your life will     that you may enter by oath into the
hang in doubt before you; you will be ter-    covenant the LORD your God is making
rified by night and day and will have no      with you today. 29:13 Today he will af-
certainty of surviving from one day to        firm that you are his people and that he
the next. 28:67 In the morning you will       is your God, just as he promised you and
say, ‘If only it were evening!’ And in the    as he swore by oath to your ancestors
evening you will say, ‘I wish it were morn-   Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 29:14 It is
ing!’ because of the things you will fear     not with you alone that I am making this
and the things you will see. 28:68 Then       covenant by oath, 29:15 but with whoever
the LORD will make you return to Egypt        stands with us here today before the
by ship, over a route I said to you that      LORD our God as well as those not with us
you would never see again. There you will     here today.
sell yourselves to your enemies as male       The Results of Disobedience
and female slaves, but no one will buy
you.”                                            29:16 “(For you know how we lived in
                                              the land of Egypt and how we crossed
Narrative Interlude                           through the nations as we traveled. 29:17
   29:1 (28:69) These are the words of
                                              You have seen their detestable things
the covenant that the LORD commanded          and idols of wood, stone, silver, and gold.)
                                              29:18 Beware that the heart of no man,
Moses to make with the people of Israel
in the land of Moab, in addition to the       woman, clan, or tribe among you turns
covenant he had made with them at             away from the LORD our God today to
Horeb.                                        pursue and serve the gods of those na-
                                              tions; beware that there is among you no
The Exodus, Wandering, and Conquest           root producing poisonous and bitter fruit.
                                              29:19 When such a person hears the
Reviewed                                      words of this oath he secretly blesses
    29:2 Moses proclaimed to all Israel as    himself and says, “I will have peace
follows: “You have seen all that the LORD     though I continue to walk with a stub-
did in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, all      born spirit.” This will destroy the wa-
his servants, and his land. 29:3 Your eyes    tered ground with the parched. 29:20
have seen the great judgments, those          The LORD will be unwilling to forgive him,
signs and mighty wonders. 29:4 But to         and his intense anger will rage against
                                           391                    DEUTERONOMY 30:20
that man; all the curses written in this       possess it; he will do better for you and
scroll will fall upon him and the LORD will    multiply you more than he did your ances-
obliterate his name from memory. 29:21         tors. 30:6 The LORD your God will also
The LORD will single him out for judgment      cleanse your heart and the hearts of
from all the tribes of Israel according to     your descendants so that you may love
all the curses of the covenant written in      him with all your mind and being and so
this scroll of the law. 29:22 The genera-      that you may live. 30:7 Then the LORD
tion to come – your descendants who will       your God will put all these curses on your
rise up after you, as well as the foreigner    enemies, on those who hate you and per-
who will come from distant places – will       secute you. 30:8 You will return and obey
see the afflictions of that land and the       the LORD, keeping all his commandments I
illnesses that the LORD has brought on it.     am giving you today. 30:9 The LORD your
29:23 The whole land will be covered with      God will make the labor of your hands
brimstone, salt, and burning debris; it will   abundantly successful and multiply your
not be planted nor will it sprout or pro-      children, the offspring of your cattle,
duce grass. It will resemble the destruc-      and the produce of your soil. For the
tion of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and          LORD your God will once more rejoice
Zeboiim, which the LORD destroyed in his       over you to make you prosperous just as
intense anger. 29:24 Then all the nations      he rejoiced over your ancestors, 30:10 if
will ask, “Why has the LORD done all this      you obey the LORD your God and keep his
to this land? What is this fierce, heated      commandments and statutes that are
display of anger all about?” 29:25 Then        written in this scroll of the law. But you
people will say, “Because they abandoned       must turn to him with your whole mind
the covenant of the LORD, the God of           and being.
their ancestors, which he made with
them when he brought them out of the           Exhortation to Covenant Obedience
land of Egypt. 29:26 They went and
                                                   30:11 “This commandment I am giving
served other gods and worshiped them,
gods they did not know and that he did         you today is not too difficult for you, nor
not permit them to worship. 29:27 That is      is it too remote. 30:12 It is not in heaven,
why the LORD’s anger erupted against           as though one must say, “Who will go up
this land, bringing on it all the curses       to heaven to get it for us and proclaim it
written in this scroll. 29:28 So the LORD      to us so we may obey it?” 30:13 And it is
has uprooted them from their land in           not across the sea, as though one must
anger, wrath, and great rage and has de-       say, “Who will cross over to the other
ported them to another land, as is clear       side of the sea and get it for us and pro-
today.” 29:29 Secret things belong to the      claim it to us so we may obey it?” 30:14
LORD our God, but those that are re-           For the thing is very near you – it is in
vealed belong to us and our descendants        your mouth and in your mind so that you
forever, so that we might obey all the         can do it.
                                                   30:15 “Look! I have set before you
words of this law.
                                               today life and prosperity on the one
The Results of Covenant Reaffirmation          hand, and death and disaster on the
                                               other. 30:16 What I am commanding you
    30:1 “When you have experienced all        today is to love the LORD your God, to
these things, both the blessings and the       walk in his ways, and to obey his com-
curses I have set before you, you will         mandments, his statutes, and his ordi-
reflect upon them in all the nations           nances. Then you will live and become
where the LORD your God has banished           numerous and the LORD your God will
you. 30:2 Then if you and your descen-         bless you in the land which you are about
dants turn to the LORD your God and            to possess. 30:17 However, if you turn
obey him with your whole mind and being        aside and do not obey, but are lured away
just as I am commanding you today, 30:3        to worship and serve other gods, 30:18 I
the LORD your God will reverse your cap-       declare to you this very day that you will
tivity and have pity on you. He will turn      certainly perish! You will not extend your
and gather you from all the peoples            time in the land you are crossing the
among whom he has scattered you. 30:4          Jordan to possess. 30:19 Today I invoke
Even if your exiles are in the most dis-       heaven and earth as a witness against you
tant land, from there the LORD your God        that I have set life and death, blessing
will gather you and bring you back. 30:5       and curse, before you. Therefore choose
Then he will bring you to the land your        life so that you and your descendants
ancestors possessed and you also will          may live! 30:20 I also call on you to love
DEUTERONOMY 31:1                        392
the LORD your God, to obey him and be the land you are crossing the Jordan to
loyal to him, for he gives you life and en- possess.”
ables you to live continually in the land
the LORD promised to give to your ances- The Commissioning of Joshua
tors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.”
                                               31:14 Then the LORD said to Moses,
Succession of Moses by Joshua               “The day of your death is near. Summon
                                            Joshua and present yourselves in the
    31:1 Then Moses went and spoke tent of meeting so that I can commission
these words to all Israel. 31:2 He said to him.” So Moses and Joshua presented
them, “Today I am a hundred and twenty themselves in the tent of meeting. 31:15
years old. I am no longer able to get The LORD appeared in the tent in a pillar
about, and the LORD has said to me, ‘You of cloud that stood above the door of
will not cross the Jordan.’ 31:3 As for the tent. 31:16 Then the LORD said to
the LORD your God, he is about to cross Moses, “You are about to die, and then
over before you; he will destroy these these people will begin to prostitute
nations before you and dispossess them. themselves with the foreign gods of the
As for Joshua, he is about to cross be- land into which they are going. They will
fore you just as the LORD has said. 31:4 reject me and break my covenant that I
The LORD will do to them just what he did have made with them. 31:17 At that time
to Sihon and Og, the Amorite kings, and my anger will erupt against them and I
to their land, which he destroyed. 31:5 will abandon them and hide my face from
The LORD will deliver them over to you them until they are devoured. Many dis-
and you will do to them according to the asters and distresses will overcome them
whole commandment I have given you. so that they will say at that time, ‘Have
31:6 Be strong and courageous! Do not not these disasters overcome us because
fear or tremble before them, for the our God is not among us?’ 31:18 But I will
LORD your God is the one who is going certainly hide myself at that time be-
with you. He will not fail you or abandon cause of all the wickedness they will have
you!” 31:7 Then Moses called out to done by turning to other gods. 31:19 Now
Joshua in the presence of all Israel, “Be write down for yourselves the following
strong and courageous, for you will ac- song and teach it to the Israelites. Put it
company these people to the land that into their very mouths so that this song
the LORD promised to give their ances- may serve as my witness against the Is-
tors, and you will enable them to inherit raelites! 31:20 For after I have brought
it. 31:8 The LORD is indeed going before them to the land I promised to their an-
you – he will be with you; he will not fail cestors – one flowing with milk and honey
you or abandon you. Do not be afraid or – and they eat their fill and become fat,
discouraged!”                               then they will turn to other gods and
                                            worship them; they will reject me and
The Deposit of the Covenant Text            break my covenant. 31:21 Then when
                                            many disasters and distresses overcome
    31:9 Then Moses wrote down this law
                                            them this song will testify against them,
and gave it to the Levitical priests, who for their descendants will not forget it. I
carry the ark of the LORD’s covenant, and know the intentions they have in mind
to all Israel’s elders. 31:10 He com- today, even before I bring them to the
manded them: “At the end of seven land I have promised.” 31:22 So on that
years, at the appointed time of the can- day Moses wrote down this song and
cellation of debts, at the Feast of Tem- taught it to the Israelites, 31:23 and the
porary Shelters, 31:11 when all Israel LORD commissioned Joshua son of Nun,
comes to appear before the LORD your “Be strong and courageous, for you will
God in the place he chooses, you must take the Israelites to the land I have
read this law before them within their promised them, and I will be with you.”
hearing. 31:12 Gather the people – men,
women, and children, as well as the resi- Anticipation of Disobedience
dent foreigners in your villages – so they
may hear and thus learn about and fear         31:24 When Moses finished writing on
the LORD your God and carefully obey all a scroll the words of this law in their
the words of this law. 31:13 Then their entirety,
children, who have not known this law, will 31:25 he commanded the Levites who
also hear about and learn to fear the carried the ark of the LORD’s covenant,
LORD your God for as long as you live in 31:26 “Take this scroll of the law and
                                          393                DEUTERONOMY 32:18
place it beside the ark of the covenant         when he divided up humankind,
of the LORD your God. It will remain            he set the boundaries of the
there as a witness against you, 31:27 for       peoples,
I know about your rebellion and stub-           according to the number of the
bornness. Indeed, even while I have been        heavenly assembly.
living among you to this very day, you          32:9 For the LORD’s allotment is his
have rebelled against the LORD; you will        people,
be even more rebellious after my death!         Jacob is his special possession.
31:28 Gather to me all your tribal elders       32:10 The LORD found him in a
                                                desolate land,
and officials so I can speak to them di-        in an empty wasteland where animals
rectly about these things and call the          howl.
heavens and the earth to witness against        He continually guarded him and
them. 31:29 For I know that after I die         taught him;
you will totally corrupt yourselves and         he continually protected him like the
turn away from the path I have com-             pupil of his eye.
manded you to walk. Disaster will con-          32:11 Like an eagle that stirs up its
front you in the days to come because           nest,
you will act wickedly before the LORD,          that hovers over its young,
inciting him to anger because of your ac-       so the LORD spread out his wings and
tions.” 31:30 Then Moses recited the            took him,
words of this song from start to finish in      he lifted him up on his pinions.
the hearing of the whole assembly of            32:12 The LORD alone was guiding
Israel.                                         him,
                                                no foreign god was with him.
Invocation of Witnesses                         32:13 He enabled him to travel over
                                                the high terrain of the land,
     32:1 Listen, O heavens, and I will         and he ate of the produce of the
     speak;                                     fields.
     hear, O earth, the words of my             He provided honey for him from the
     mouth.                                     cliffs,
     32:2 My teaching will drop like the        and olive oil from the hardest of
     rain,                                      rocks,
     my sayings will drip like the dew,         32:14 butter from the herd
     as rain drops upon the grass,              and milk from the flock,
     and showers upon new growth.               along with the fat of lambs,
     32:3 For I will proclaim the name of       rams and goats of Bashan,
     the LORD;                                  along with the best of the kernels
     you must acknowledge the greatness         of wheat;
     of our God.                                and from the juice of grapes you
     32:4 As for the Rock, his work is          drank wine.
     perfect,
     for all his ways are just.            Israel’s Rebellion
     He is a reliable God who is never
     unjust,                                    32:15 But Jeshurun became fat and
     he is fair and upright.                    kicked,
     32:5 His people have been                  you got fat, thick, and stuffed!
     unfaithful to him;                         Then he deserted the God who
     they have not acted like his children      made him,
     – this is their sin.                       and treated the Rock who saved him
     They are a perverse and deceitful          with contempt.
     generation.                                32:16 They made him jealous with
     32:6 Is this how you repay the             other gods,
     LORD,                                      they enraged him with abhorrent
     you foolish, unwise people?                idols.
     Is he not your father, your creator?       32:17 They sacrificed to demons,
     He has made you and established you.       not God,
     32:7 Remember the ancient days;            to gods they had not known;
     bear in mind the years of past             to new gods who had recently come
     generations.                               along,
     Ask your father and he will inform         gods your ancestors had not known
     you,                                       about.
     your elders, and they will tell you.       32:18 You have forgotten the Rock
     32:8 When the Most High gave the           who fathered you,
     nations their inheritance,
DEUTERONOMY 32:19                           394
    and put out of mind the God who               32:30 How can one man chase a
    gave you birth.                               thousand of them,
                                                  and two pursue ten thousand;
A Word of Judgment                                unless their Rock had delivered
                                                  them up,
    32:19 But the LORD took note and              and the LORD had handed them
    despised them                                 over?
    because his sons and daughters                32:31 For our enemies’ rock is not
    enraged him.                                  like our Rock,
    32:20 He said, “I will reject them,           as even our enemies concede.
    I will see what will happen to them;          32:32 For their vine is from the
    for they are a perverse generation,           stock of Sodom,
    children who show no loyalty.                 and from the fields of Gomorrah.
    32:21 They have made me jealous               Their grapes contain venom,
    with false gods,                              their clusters of grapes are bitter.
    enraging me with their worthless              32:33 Their wine is snakes’ poison,
    gods;                                         the deadly venom of cobras.
    so I will make them jealous with a            32:34 “Is this not stored up with
    people they do not recognize,                 me?” says the LORD,
    with a nation slow to learn I will            “Is it not sealed up in my
    enrage them.                                  storehouses?
    32:22 For a fire has been kindled by          32:35 I will get revenge and pay
    my anger,                                     them back
    and it burns to lowest Sheol;                 at the time their foot slips;
    it consumes the earth and its                 for the day of their disaster is
    produce,                                      near,
    and ignites the foundations of the            and the impending judgment is
    mountains.                                    rushing upon them!”
    32:23 I will increase their disasters,        32:36 The LORD will judge his people,
    I will use up my arrows on them.              and will change his plans concerning
    32:24 They will be starved by                 his servants;
    famine,                                       when he sees that their power has
    eaten by plague, and bitterly stung;          disappeared,
    I will send the teeth of wild animals         and that no one is left, whether
    against them,                                 confined or set free.
    along with the poison of creatures            32:37 He will say, “Where are their
    that crawl in the dust.                       gods,
    32:25 The sword will make people              the rock in whom they sought
    childless outside,                            security,
    and terror will do so inside;                 32:38 who ate the best of their
    they will destroy both the young              sacrifices,
    man and the virgin,                           and drank the wine of their drink
    the infant and the gray-haired man.           offerings?
                                                  Let them rise and help you;
The Weakness of Other Gods                        let them be your refuge!
    32:26 “I said, ‘I want to cut them in
    pieces.                                   The Vindication of the LORD
    I want to make people forget they             32:39 “See now that I, indeed I, am
    ever existed.                                 he!” says the LORD,
    32:27 But I fear the reaction of              “and there is no other god besides
    their enemies,                                me.
    for their adversaries would                   I kill and give life,
    misunderstand                                 I smash and I heal,
    and say, “Our power is great,                 and none can resist my power.
    and the LORD has not done all this!”’         32:40 For I raise up my hand to
    32:28 They are a nation devoid of             heaven,
    wisdom,                                       and say, ‘As surely as I live forever,
    and there is no understanding among           32:41 I will sharpen my lightning-like
    them.                                         sword,
    32:29 I wish that they were wise              and my hand will grasp hold of the
    and could understand this,                    weapon of judgment;
    and that they could comprehend                I will execute vengeance on my foes,
    what will happen to them.”                    and repay those who hate me!
                                          395                    DEUTERONOMY 33:12
     32:42 I will make my arrows drunk             and came forth with ten thousand
     with blood,                                   holy ones.
     and my sword will devour flesh –              With his right hand he gave a fiery
     the blood of the slaughtered and              law to them.
     captured,                                     33:3 Surely he loves the people;
     the chief of the enemy’s leaders!’”           all your holy ones are in your power.
     32:43 Cry out, O nations, with his            And they sit at your feet,
     people,                                       each receiving your words.
     for he will avenge his servants’              33:4 Moses delivered to us a law,
     blood;                                        an inheritance for the assembly of
     he will take vengeance against his            Jacob.
     enemies,                                      33:5 The LORD was king over
     and make atonement for his land and           Jeshurun,
     people.                                       when the leaders of the people
                                                   assembled,
Narrative Interlude                                the tribes of Israel together.
    32:44 Then Moses went with Joshua Blessing on Reuben
son of Nun and recited all the words of
this song to the people. 32:45 When           33:6 May Reuben live and not die,
Moses finished reciting all these words       and may his people multiply.
to all Israel 32:46 he said to them, “Keep
in mind all the words I am solemnly pro- Blessing on Judah
claiming to you today; you must command       33:7 And this is the blessing to
your children to observe carefully all the    Judah. He said,
words of this law. 32:47 For this is no idle  Listen, O LORD, to Judah’s voice,
word for you – it is your life! By this word  and bring him to his people.
you will live a long time in the land you     May his power be great,
are about to cross the Jordan to pos-         and may you help him against his
sess.”                                        foes.
Instructions about Moses’ Death               Blessing on Levi
    32:48 Then the LORD said to Moses              33:8 Of Levi he said:
that same day, 32:49 “Go up to this                Your Thummim and Urim belong to
Abarim hill country, to Mount Nebo                 your godly one,
(which is in the land of Moab opposite             whose authority you challenged at
Jericho) and look at the land of Canaan            Massah,
that I am giving to the Israelites as a            and with whom you argued at the
possession. 32:50 You will die on the              waters of Meribah.
                                                   33:9 He said to his father and
mountain that you ascend and join your
deceased ancestors, just as Aaron your             mother, “I have not seen him,”
                                                   and he did not acknowledge his own
brother died on Mount Hor and joined his           brothers
deceased ancestors, 32:51 for both of              or know his own children,
you rebelled against me among the Isra-            for they kept your word,
elites at the waters of Meribah Kadesh             and guarded your covenant.
in the desert of Zin when you did not              33:10 They will teach Jacob your
show me proper respect among the Isra-             ordinances
elites. 32:52 You will see the land before         and Israel your law;
you, but you will not enter the land that I        they will offer incense as a pleasant
am giving to the Israelites.”                      odor,
                                                   and a whole offering on your altar.
Introduction to the Blessing of Moses              33:11 Bless, O LORD, his goods,
                                                   and be pleased with his efforts;
    33:1 This is the blessing Moses the            undercut the legs of any who attack
man of God pronounced upon the Israel-             him,
ites before his death. 33:2 He said:               and of those who hate him, so that
A Historical Review                                they cannot stand.

     The LORD came from Sinai            Blessing on Benjamin
     and revealed himself to Israel from      33:12 Of Benjamin he said:
     Seir.                                    The beloved of the LORD will live
     He appeared in splendor from Mount       safely by him;
     Paran,
DEUTERONOMY 33:13                       396
     he protects him all the time,               he came with the leaders of the
     and the LORD places him on his              people,
     chest.                                      he obeyed the righteous laws of the
Blessing on Joseph                               LORD
                                                 and his ordinances with Israel.
     33:13 Of Joseph he said:
     May the LORD bless his land            Blessing on Dan
     with the harvest produced by the            33:22 Of Dan he said:
     sky, by the dew,                            Dan is a lion’s cub;
     and by the depths crouching                 he will leap forth from Bashan.
     beneath;
     33:14 with the harvest produced by     Blessing on Naphtali
     the daylight
     and by the moonlight;                       33:23 Of Naphtali he said:
     33:15 with the best of the ancient          O Naphtali, overflowing with favor,
     mountains                                   and full of the LORD’s blessing,
     and the harvest produced by the             possess the west and south.
     age-old hills;
     33:16 with the harvest of the earth    Blessing on Asher
     and its fullness
     and the pleasure of him who resided         33:24 Of Asher he said:
     in the burning bush.                        Asher is blessed with children,
     May blessing rest on Joseph’s head,         may he be favored by his brothers
     and on the top of the head of the           and may he dip his foot in olive oil.
     one set apart from his brothers.            33:25 The bars of your gates will be
     33:17 May the firstborn of his bull         made of iron and bronze,
     bring him honor,                            and may you have lifelong strength.
     and may his horns be those of a wild
     ox;                                    General Praise and Blessing
     with them may he gore all peoples,          33:26 There is no one like God, O
     all the far reaches of the earth.           Jeshurun,
     They are the ten thousands of               who rides through the sky to help
     Ephraim,                                    you,
     and they are the thousands of               on the clouds in majesty.
     Manasseh.                                   33:27 The everlasting God is a
Blessing on Zebulun and Issachar                 refuge,
                                                 and underneath you are his eternal
     33:18 Of Zebulun he said:                   arms;
     Rejoice, Zebulun, when you go               he has driven out enemies before
     outside,                                    you,
     and Issachar, when you are in your          and has said, “Destroy!”
     tents.                                      33:28 Israel lives in safety,
     33:19 They will summon peoples to           the fountain of Jacob is quite
     the mountain,                               secure,
     there they will sacrifice proper            in a land of grain and new wine;
     sacrifices;                                 indeed, its heavens rain down dew.
     for they will enjoy the abundance of        33:29 You have joy, Israel! Who is
     the seas,                                   like you?
     and the hidden treasures of the             You are a people delivered by the
     shores.                                     LORD,
                                                 your protective shield
Blessing on Gad                                  and your exalted sword.
                                                 May your enemies cringe before you;
     33:20 Of Gad he said:                       may you trample on their backs.
     Blessed be the one who enlarges
     Gad.                                   The Death of Moses
     Like a lioness he will dwell;
     he will tear at an arm – indeed, a        34:1 Then Moses ascended from the
     scalp.                                 deserts of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the
     33:21 He has selected the best part    summit of Pisgah, which is opposite
     for himself,                           Jericho. The LORD showed him the whole
     for the portion of the ruler is set    land – Gilead to Dan, 34:2 and all of
     aside there;                           Naphtali, the land of Ephraim and Ma-
                                            nasseh, all the land of Judah as far as
                                          397   DEUTERONOMY 34:12
the distant sea, 34:3 the Negev, and the
plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of
the date palm trees, as far as Zoar. 34:4
Then the LORD said to him, “This is the
land I promised to Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob when I said, ‘I will give it to your
descendants.’ I have let you see it, but
you will not cross over there.”
    34:5 So Moses, the servant of the
LORD, died there in the land of Moab as
the LORD had said. 34:6 He buried him in
the land of Moab near Beth Peor, but no
one knows his exact burial place to this
very day. 34:7 Moses was 120 years old
when he died, but his eye was not dull nor
had his vitality departed. 34:8 The Isra-
elites mourned for Moses in the deserts
of Moab for thirty days; then the days
of mourning for Moses ended.
The Epitaph of Moses
    34:9 Now Joshua son of Nun was full
of the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had
placed his hands on him; and the Israel-
ites listened to him and did just what the
LORD had commanded Moses. 34:10 No
prophet ever again arose in Israel like
Moses, who knew the LORD face to face.
34:11 He did all the signs and wonders
the LORD had sent him to do in the land
of Egypt, to Pharaoh, all his servants, and
the whole land, 34:12 and he displayed
great power and awesome might in view
of all Israel.
                           Joshua
The LORD Commissions Joshua                   must cross over armed for battle ahead
                                              of your brothers. You must help them
    1:1 After Moses the LORD’s servant        1:15 until the LORD gives your brothers a
died, the LORD said to Joshua son of Nun,     place like yours to settle and they con-
Moses’ assistant: 1:2 “Moses my servant       quer the land the LORD your God is ready
is dead. Get ready! Cross the Jordan          to hand over to them. Then you may go
River! Lead these people into the land        back to your allotted land and occupy the
which I am ready to hand over to them.        land Moses the LORD’s servant assigned
1:3 I am handing over to you every place      you east of the Jordan.”
you set foot, as I promised Moses. 1:4           1:16 They told Joshua, “We will do
Your territory will extend from the wil-      everything you say. We will go wherever
derness in the south to Lebanon in the        you send us. 1:17 Just as we obeyed
north. It will extend all the way to the      Moses, so we will obey you. But may the
great River Euphrates in the east (includ-    LORD your God be with you as he was with
ing all of Syria) and all the way to the      Moses! 1:18 Any man who rebels against
Mediterranean Sea in the west. 1:5 No         what you say and does not obey all your
one will be able to resist you all the days   commands will be executed. But be
of your life. As I was with Moses, so I       strong and brave!”
will be with you. I will not abandon you or
leave you alone. 1:6 Be strong and brave!     Joshua Sends Spies into the Land
You must lead these people in the con-
quest of this land that I solemnly prom-          2:1 Joshua son of Nun sent two spies
ised their ancestors I would hand over to     out from Shittim secretly and instructed
them. 1:7 Make sure you are very strong       them: “Find out what you can about the
and brave! Carefully obey all the law my      land, especially Jericho.” They stopped at
servant Moses charged you to keep! Do         the house of a prostitute named Rahab
not swerve from it to the right or to the     and spent the night there. 2:2 The king
left, so that you may be successful in all    of Jericho received this report: “Note
you do. 1:8 This law scroll must not leave    well! Israelite men have come here to-
your lips! You must memorize it day and       night to spy on the land.” 2:3 So the king
night so you can carefully obey all that is   of Jericho sent this order to Rahab:
written in it. Then you will prosper and be   “Turn over the men who came to you –
successful. 1:9 I repeat, be strong and       the ones who came to your house – for
brave! Don’t be afraid and don’t panic, for   they have come to spy on the whole land!”
I, the LORD your God, am with you in all      2:4 But the woman hid the two men and
you do.”                                      replied, “Yes, these men were clients of
                                              mine, but I didn’t know where they came
Joshua Prepares for the Invasion              from. 2:5 When it was time to shut the
                                              city gate for the night, the men left. I
    1:10 Joshua instructed the leaders of     don’t know where they were heading.
the people: 1:11 “Go through the camp         Chase after them quickly, for you have
and command the people, ‘Prepare your         time to catch them!” 2:6 (Now she had
supplies, for within three days you will      taken them up to the roof and had hid-
cross the Jordan River and begin the          den them in the stalks of flax she had
conquest of the land the LORD your God        spread out on the roof.) 2:7 Meanwhile
is ready to hand over to you.’”               the king’s men tried to find them on the
    1:12 Joshua told the Reubenites, Ga-      road to the Jordan River near the fords.
dites, and the half tribe of Manasseh:        The city gate was shut as soon as they
1:13 “Remember what Moses the LORD’s          set out in pursuit of them.
servant commanded you. The LORD your              2:8 Now before the spies went to
God is giving you a place to settle and is    sleep, Rahab went up to the roof. 2:9 She
handing this land over to you. 1:14 Your      said to the men, “I know the LORD is
wives, children and cattle may stay in the    handing this land over to you. We are
land that Moses assigned to you east of       absolutely terrified of you, and all who
the Jordan River. But all you warriors        live in the land are cringing before you.
                                          421
JOSHUA 2:10                                422
2:10 For we heard how the LORD dried up        Israel Crosses the Jordan
the water of the Red Sea before you
when you left Egypt and how you annihi-            3:1 Bright and early the next morning
lated the two Amorite kings, Sihon and         Joshua and the Israelites left Shittim
Og, on the other side of the Jordan. 2:11      and came to the Jordan. They camped
When we heard the news we lost our             there before crossing the river. 3:2 Af-
courage and no one could even breathe          ter three days the leaders went through
for fear of you. For the LORD your God is      the camp 3:3 and commanded the people:
God in heaven above and on earth below!        “When you see the ark of the covenant
2:12 So now, promise me this with an           of the LORD your God being carried by
oath sworn in the LORD’s name. Because I       the Levitical priests, you must leave here
have shown allegiance to you, show alle-       and walk behind it. 3:4 But stay about
giance to my family. Give me a solemn          three thousand feet behind it. Keep your
pledge 2:13 that you will spare the lives      distance so you can see which way you
of my father, mother, brothers, sisters,       should go, for you have not traveled this
and all who belong to them, and rescue us      way before.”
from death.” 2:14 The men said to her,             3:5 Joshua told the people, “Ritually
“If you die, may we die too! If you do not     consecrate yourselves, for tomorrow the
report what we’ve been up to, then, when       LORD will perform miraculous deeds
the LORD hands the land over to us, we         among you.” 3:6 Joshua told the priests,
will show unswerving allegiance to you.”       “Pick up the ark of the covenant and pass
    2:15 Then Rahab let them down by a         on ahead of the people.” So they picked
rope through the window. (Her house was        up the ark of the covenant and went
built as part of the city wall; she lived in   ahead of the people.
the wall.) 2:16 She told them, “Head to            3:7 The LORD told Joshua, “This very
the hill country, so the ones chasing you      day I will begin to honor you before all
don’t find you. Hide from them there for       Israel so they will know that I am with
three days, long enough for those chasing      you just as I was with Moses. 3:8 In-
you to return. Then you can be on your         struct the priests carrying the ark of
way.” 2:17 The men said to her, “We are        the covenant, ‘When you reach the bank
not bound by this oath you made us swear       of the Jordan River, wade into the wa-
unless the following conditions are met:       ter.’”
2:18 When we invade the land, tie this             3:9 Joshua told the Israelites, “Come
red rope in the window through which you       here and listen to the words of the LORD
let us down, and gather together in your       your God!” 3:10 Joshua continued, “This
house your father, mother, brothers, and       is how you will know the living God is
all who live in your father’s house. 2:19      among you and that he will truly drive out
Anyone who leaves your house will be re-       before you the Canaanites, Hittites, Hiv-
sponsible for his own death – we are in-       ites, Perizzites, Girgashites, Amorites,
nocent in that case! But if anyone with        and Jebusites. 3:11 Look! The ark of the
you in the house is harmed, we will be         covenant of the Ruler of the whole earth
responsible. 2:20 If you should report         is ready to enter the Jordan ahead of
what we’ve been up to, we are not bound        you. 3:12 Now select for yourselves
by this oath you made us swear.” 2:21          twelve men from the tribes of Israel,
She said, “I agree to these conditions.”       one per tribe. 3:13 When the feet of the
She sent them on their way and then tied       priests carrying the ark of the LORD, the
the red rope in the window. 2:22 They          Ruler of the whole earth, touch the wa-
went to the hill country and stayed there      ter of the Jordan, the water coming
for three days, long enough for those          downstream toward you will stop flowing
chasing them to return. Their pursuers         and pile up.”
looked all along the way but did not find          3:14 So when the people left their
them. 2:23 Then the two men returned –         tents to cross the Jordan, the priests
they came down from the hills, crossed         carrying the ark of the covenant went
the river, came to Joshua son of Nun,          ahead of them. 3:15 When the ones car-
and reported to him all they had discov-       rying the ark reached the Jordan and the
ered. 2:24 They told Joshua, “Surely the       feet of the priests carrying the ark
LORD is handing over all the land to us! All   touched the surface of the water – (the
who live in the land are cringing before       Jordan is at flood stage all during har-
us!”                                           vest time) – 3:16 the water coming down-
                                               stream toward them stopped flowing. It
                                               piled up far upstream at Adam (the city
                                               near Zarethan); there was no water at all
                                         423                             JOSHUA 5:9
flowing to the sea of the Arabah (the        About forty thousand battle-ready
Salt Sea). The people crossed the river      troops marched past the LORD to fight on
opposite Jericho. 3:17 The priests carry-    the plains of Jericho. 4:14 That day the
ing the ark of the covenant of the LORD      LORD brought honor to Joshua before all
stood firmly on dry ground in the middle     Israel. They respected him all his life,
of the Jordan. All Israel crossed over on    just as they had respected Moses.
dry ground until the entire nation was on       4:15 The LORD told Joshua, 4:16 “In-
the other side.                              struct the priests carrying the ark of
                                             the covenantal laws to come up from the
Israel Commemorates the Crossing             Jordan.” 4:17 So Joshua instructed the
                                             priests, “Come up from the Jordan!” 4:18
    4:1 When the entire nation was on the
                                             The priests carrying the ark of the cove-
other side, the LORD told Joshua, 4:2        nant of the LORD came up from the mid-
“Select for yourselves twelve men from       dle of the Jordan, and as soon as they
the people, one per tribe. 4:3 Instruct      set foot on dry land, the water of the
them, ‘Pick up twelve stones from the        Jordan flowed again and returned to
middle of the Jordan, from the very          flood stage.
place where the priests stand firmly, and       4:19 The people went up from the
carry them over with you and put them in     Jordan on the tenth day of the first
the place where you camp tonight.’”          month and camped in Gilgal on the east-
    4:4 Joshua summoned the twelve men
                                             ern border of Jericho. 4:20 Now Joshua
he had appointed from the Israelites,        set up in Gilgal the twelve stones they
one per tribe. 4:5 Joshua told them, “Go     had taken from the Jordan. 4:21 He told
in front of the ark of the LORD your God     the Israelites, “When your children
to the middle of the Jordan. Each of you     someday ask their fathers, ‘What do
is to put a stone on his shoulder, accord-   these stones represent?’ 4:22 explain to
ing to the number of the Israelite tribes.   your children, ‘Israel crossed the Jordan
4:6 The stones will be a reminder to you.
                                             River on dry ground.’ 4:23 For the LORD
When your children ask someday, ‘Why         your God dried up the water of the Jor-
are these stones important to you?’ 4:7      dan before you while you crossed over. It
tell them how the water of the Jordan        was just like when the LORD your God
stopped flowing before the ark of the        dried up the Red Sea before us while we
covenant of the LORD. When it crossed        crossed it. 4:24 He has done this so all
the Jordan, the water of the Jordan          the nations of the earth might recognize
stopped flowing. These stones will be a      the LORD’s power and so you might always
lasting memorial for the Israelites.”        obey the LORD your God.”
    4:8 The Israelites did just as Joshua
                                                5:1 When all the Amorite kings on the
commanded. They picked up twelve             west side of the Jordan and all the Ca-
stones, according to the number of the       naanite kings along the seacoast heard
Israelite tribes, from the middle of the     how the LORD had dried up the water of
Jordan as the LORD had instructed            the Jordan before the Israelites while
Joshua. They carried them over with          they crossed, they lost their courage and
them to the camp and put them there.         could not even breathe for fear of the
4:9 Joshua also set up twelve stones in
                                             Israelites.
the middle of the Jordan in the very
place where the priests carrying the ark     A New Generation is Circumcised
of the covenant stood. They remain
there to this very day.                         5:2 At that time the LORD told
    4:10 Now the priests carrying the ark    Joshua, “Make flint knives and circumcise
of the covenant were standing in the         the Israelites once again.” 5:3 So Joshua
middle of the Jordan until everything the    made flint knives and circumcised the
LORD had commanded Joshua to tell the        Israelites on the Hill of the Foreskins.
people was accomplished, in accordance       5:4 This is why Joshua had to circumcise
with all that Moses had commanded            them: All the men old enough to fight
Joshua. The people went across quickly,      when they left Egypt died on the journey
4:11 and when all the people had finished    through the desert after they left
crossing, the ark of the LORD and the        Egypt. 5:5 Now all the men who left were
priests crossed as the people looked on.     circumcised, but all the sons born on the
4:12 The Reubenites, Gadites, and the        journey through the desert after they
half-tribe of Manasseh crossed over          left Egypt were uncircumcised. 5:6 In-
armed for battle ahead of the Israelites,    deed, for forty years the Israelites
just as Moses had instructed them. 4:13      traveled through the desert until all the
JOSHUA 5:7                               424
men old enough to fight when they left       the ark of the covenant, and seven
Egypt, the ones who had disobeyed the        priests must carry seven rams’ horns in
LORD, died off. For the LORD had sworn a     front of the ark of the LORD.” 6:7 And he
solemn oath to them that he would not        told the army, “Move ahead and march
let them see the land he had sworn on        around the city, with armed troops going
oath to give them, a land rich in milk and   ahead of the ark of the LORD.”
honey. 5:7 He replaced them with their           6:8 When Joshua gave the army its
sons, whom Joshua circumcised. They          orders, the seven priests carrying the
were uncircumcised; their fathers had        seven rams’ horns before the LORD moved
not circumcised them along the way. 5:8      ahead and blew the horns as the ark of
When all the men had been circumcised,       the covenant of the LORD followed be-
they stayed there in the camp until they     hind. 6:9 Armed troops marched ahead of
had healed. 5:9 The LORD said to Joshua,     the priests blowing the horns, while the
“Today I have taken away the disgrace of     rear guard followed along behind the ark
Egypt from you.” So that place is called     blowing rams’ horns. 6:10 Now Joshua had
Gilgal even to this day.                     instructed the army, “Do not give a bat-
    5:10 So the Israelites camped in Gil-    tle cry or raise your voices; say nothing
gal and celebrated the Passover in the       until the day I tell you, ‘Give the battle
evening of the fourteenth day of the         cry.’ Then give the battle cry!” 6:11 So
month on the plains of Jericho. 5:11 They    Joshua made sure they marched the ark
ate some of the produce of the land the      of the LORD around the city one time.
day after the Passover, including unleav-    Then they went back to the camp and
ened bread and roasted grain. 5:12 The       spent the night there.
manna stopped appearing the day they             6:12 Bright and early the next morn-
ate some of the produce of the land; the     ing Joshua had the priests pick up the
Israelites never ate manna again.            ark of the LORD. 6:13 The seven priests
                                             carrying the seven rams’ horns before
Israel Conquers Jericho                      the ark of the LORD marched along blow-
                                             ing their horns. Armed troops marched
   5:13 When Joshua was near Jericho,
                                             ahead of them, while the rear guard fol-
he looked up and saw a man standing in       lowed along behind the ark of the LORD
front of him holding a drawn sword.          blowing rams’ horns. 6:14 They marched
Joshua approached him and asked him,         around the city one time on the second
“Are you on our side or allied with our      day, then returned to the camp. They did
enemies?” 5:14 He answered, “Truly I am      this six days in all.
the commander of the LORD’s army. Now            6:15 On the seventh day they were up
I have arrived!” Joshua bowed down with      at the crack of dawn and marched around
his face to the ground and asked, “What      the city as before – only this time they
does my master want to say to his ser-       marched around it seven times. 6:16 The
vant?” 5:15 The commander of the LORD’s      seventh time around, the priests blew
army answered Joshua, “Remove your           the rams’ horns and Joshua told the
sandals from your feet, because the          army, “Give the battle cry, for the LORD
place where you stand is holy.” Joshua       is handing the city over to you! 6:17 The
did so.                                      city and all that is in it must be set apart
   6:1 Now Jericho was shut tightly be-
                                             for the LORD, except for Rahab the pros-
cause of the Israelites. No one was al-      titute and all who are with her in her
lowed to leave or enter. 6:2 The LORD        house, because she hid the spies we sent.
told Joshua, “See, I am about to defeat      6:18 But be careful when you are setting
Jericho for you, along with its king and     apart the riches for the LORD. If you
its warriors. 6:3 Have all the warriors      take any of it, you will make the Israelite
march around the city one time; do this      camp subject to annihilation and cause a
for six days. 6:4 Have seven priests         disaster. 6:19 All the silver and gold, as
carry seven rams’ horns in front of the      well as bronze and iron items, belong to
ark. On the seventh day march around         the LORD. They must go into the LORD’s
the city seven times, while the priests      treasury.”
blow the horns. 6:5 When you hear the            6:20 The rams’ horns sounded and
signal from the ram’s horn, have the         when the army heard the signal, they
whole army give a loud battle cry. Then      gave a loud battle cry. The wall collapsed
the city wall will collapse and the warri-   and the warriors charged straight ahead
ors should charge straight ahead.”           into the city and captured it. 6:21 They
   6:6 So Joshua son of Nun summoned
                                             annihilated with the sword everything
the priests and instructed them, “Pick up
                                          425                              JOSHUA 7:21
that breathed in the city, including men      Amorites so they could destroy us? 7:8
and women, young and old, as well as cat-     If only we had been satisfied to live on
tle, sheep, and donkeys. 6:22 Joshua told     the other side of the Jordan! O Lord,
the two men who had spied on the land,        what can I say now that Israel has re-
“Enter the prostitute’s house and bring       treated before its enemies? 7:9 When
out the woman and all who belong to her       the Canaanites and all who live in the land
as you promised her.” 6:23 So the young       hear about this, they will turn against us
spies went and brought out Rahab, her         and destroy the very memory of us from
father, mother, brothers, and all who         the earth. What will you do to protect
belonged to her. They brought out her         your great reputation?”
whole family and took them to a place             7:10 The LORD responded to Joshua,
outside the Israelite camp. 6:24 But they     “Get up! Why are you lying there face
burned the city and all that was in it,       down? 7:11 Israel has sinned; they have
except for the silver, gold, and bronze       violated my covenantal commandment!
and iron items they put in the treasury       They have taken some of the riches; they
of the LORD’s house. 6:25 Yet Joshua          have stolen them and deceitfully put
spared Rahab the prostitute, her fa-          them among their own possessions. 7:12
ther’s family, and all who belonged to her.   The Israelites are unable to stand be-
She lives in Israel to this very day be-      fore their enemies; they retreat because
cause she hid the messengers Joshua           they have become subject to annihilation.
sent to spy on Jericho. 6:26 At that time     I will no longer be with you, unless you
Joshua made this solemn declaration:          destroy what has contaminated you. 7:13
“The man who attempts to rebuild this         Get up! Ritually consecrate the people
city of Jericho will stand condemned be-      and tell them this: ‘Ritually consecrate
fore the LORD. He will lose his firstborn     yourselves for tomorrow, because the
son when he lays its foundations and his      LORD God of Israel says, “You are con-
youngest son when he erects its gates!”       taminated, O Israel! You will not be able
6:27 The LORD was with Joshua and he          to stand before your enemies until you
became famous throughout the land.            remove what is contaminating you.” 7:14
                                              In the morning you must approach in
Achan Sins and is Punished                    tribal order. The tribe the LORD selects
                                              must approach by clans. The clan the
    7:1 But the Israelites disobeyed the
                                              LORD selects must approach by families.
command about the city’s riches. Achan        The family the LORD selects must ap-
son of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah,     proach man by man. 7:15 The one caught
from the tribe of Judah, stole some of        with the riches must be burned up along
the riches. The LORD was furious with         with all who belong to him, because he
the Israelites.                               violated the LORD’s covenant and did such
    7:2 Joshua sent men from Jericho to
                                              a disgraceful thing in Israel.’”
Ai (which is located near Beth Aven, east         7:16 Bright and early the next morn-
of Bethel) and instructed them, “Go up        ing Joshua made Israel approach in tribal
and spy on the land.” So the men went up      order and the tribe of Judah was se-
and spied on Ai. 7:3 They returned and        lected. 7:17 He then made the clans of
reported to Joshua, “Don’t send the           Judah approach and the clan of the Ze-
whole army. About two or three thousand       rahites was selected. He made the clan
men are adequate to defeat Ai. Don’t tire     of the Zerahites approach and Zabdi was
out the whole army, for Ai is small.”         selected. 7:18 He then made Zabdi’s fam-
    7:4 So about three thousand men
                                              ily approach man by man and Achan son
went up, but they fled from the men of        of Carmi, son of Zabdi, son of Zerah,
Ai. 7:5 The men of Ai killed about thirty-    from the tribe of Judah, was selected.
six of them and chased them from in           7:19 So Joshua said to Achan, “My son,
front of the city gate all the way to the     honor the LORD God of Israel and give
fissures and defeated them on the steep       him praise! Tell me what you did; don’t
slope. The people’s courage melted away       hide anything from me!” 7:20 Achan told
like water.                                   Joshua, “It is true. I have sinned against
    7:6 Joshua tore his clothes; he and
                                              the LORD God of Israel in this way: 7:21 I
the leaders of Israel lay face down on        saw among the goods we seized a nice
the ground before the ark of the LORD         robe from Babylon, two hundred silver
until evening and threw dirt on their         pieces, and a bar of gold weighing fifty
heads. 7:7 Joshua prayed, “O, Master,         shekels. I wanted them, so I took them.
LORD! Why did you bring these people          They are hidden in the ground right in
across the Jordan to hand us over to the
JOSHUA 7:22                               426
the middle of my tent with the silver         the city. They camped north of Ai on the
underneath.”                                  other side of the valley. 8:12 He took
    7:22 Joshua sent messengers who ran       five thousand men and set an ambush
to the tent. The things were hidden right     west of the city between Bethel and Ai.
in his tent, with the silver underneath.      8:13 The army was in position – the main
7:23 They took it all from the middle of      army north of the city and the rear
the tent, brought it to Joshua and all the    guard west of the city. That night
Israelites, and placed it before the LORD.    Joshua went into the middle of the val-
7:24 Then Joshua and all Israel took          ley.
Achan, son of Zerah, along with the sil-          8:14 When the king of Ai saw Israel,
ver, the robe, the bar of gold, his sons,     he and his whole army quickly got up the
daughters, ox, donkey, sheep, tent, and       next day and went out to fight Israel at
all that belonged to him and brought          the meeting place near the Arabah. But
them up to the Valley of Disaster. 7:25       he did not realize men were hiding behind
Joshua said, “Why have you brought dis-       the city. 8:15 Joshua and all Israel pre-
aster on us? The LORD will bring disaster     tended to be defeated by them and they
on you today!” All Israel stoned him to       retreated along the way to the desert.
death. (They also stoned and burned the       8:16 All the reinforcements in Ai were
others.) 7:26 Then they erected over him      ordered to chase them; they chased
a large pile of stones (it remains to this    Joshua and were lured away from the
very day) and the LORD’s anger subsided.      city. 8:17 No men were left in Ai or
So that place is called the Valley of Dis-    Bethel; they all went out after Israel.
aster to this very day.                       They left the city wide open and chased
                                              Israel.
Israel Conquers Ai                                8:18 The LORD told Joshua, “Hold out
                                              toward Ai the curved sword in your hand,
    8:1 The LORD told Joshua, “Don’t be
                                              for I am handing the city over to you.” So
afraid and don’t panic! Take the whole        Joshua held out toward Ai the curved
army with you and march against Ai! See,      sword in his hand. 8:19 When he held out
I am handing over to you the king of Ai,      his hand, the men waiting in ambush rose
along with his people, city, and land. 8:2    up quickly from their place and attacked.
Do to Ai and its king what you did to         They entered the city, captured it, and
Jericho and its king, except you may          immediately set it on fire. 8:20 When the
plunder its goods and cat