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BAU DA GWR DICTIONARY_ with etymologies _English alphabetical by ghkgkyyt

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									                      BAU DA GWR DICTIONARY, with etymologies


(English alphabetical order is followed, with some modifications)
Capitalized B,D,G,L are used to indicate the leniting consonants in reconstructed forms.
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(NB nyu or niw 'divide'?? (x-root of....) converse of maq-m-- *níbu> niw, *nibú > nyu (or
*ni()u)
[mo/mo:/maw/mò could be 'bravery, courage' N+....; adj form w/o N+...]
===========================
A
a:ng-hf tight, narrow; constricted *hálat see sha:q, daq
aq-h to bite (~aq-pa (hh) by sandhi < aq+fa) *hápa, see fa
a:q-hf that (far) *áhaC -q?
awq-h single, only **hatu < *had+hu
ay-h one; ay-nÿ-m a certain; *haD; fay-m first, fay-fay-m first of all (in a sequence) *m+haD
ayq-h bitter *hápit see fiq (see also dow)
ayq-m a tuberous food plant, vs. spp., cultivated by the Gwr , dial. **aydzi < ádi
B
ba-lr family *ŋabá
ba-m to discuss *dvpá(h?)
ba: lr under *babá (see baq)
ba:ng-l pot *bálang
ba:ng-m trust (n.) *báham (see fang)
bang-l good *bangi
baq-l bottom *bába (see ba:)
baq-m a box, carton, container *bápa
baq-m (used to mark future tense) < ba:q 'about to'
ba:q-l pillow, cushion *baGat
ba:q-m about to; can mark the future tense (dial **bart < bátur) see dr
baw-h great, big *gapáB (irreg.doublet *gÁpab > gawq l much, a lot of); baw du (h,lr)
      continent
baw-m widow(er) ba... (male), dza...(female) *báLu
bawng-m not yet; bawng-dung-mm still not yet *báLung, balúng
bawng-l lake *bángut
bawq-m growth, increase *m+páduq see toq
bayng-m a porch, covered portico *bálay see dè; bayng-bay (mh) pavilion, gazebo
bayq-l to jerk *batiq see dzeq
bay-lr brother (of opp.sex, older,younger) *gapáD
bay-m house *báhi
bè-m cooking oil (usu. < vegetable source) *báya
beq-m other, another *m+líat see lyaq, leq; beq-beq (mm) et cetera, and so forth
be:q-l to inlay *mamíq (e: < -əe-) see myayng
bèwq-lr a lamp
bi-bi (mm) several (redup. < *ngapí
bi:-m to cost *mibí see miw, biw
bing-l to call, summon *gapín, see gayq, jayq
bi:ng-l seed *bíngi
bi:ng-lr edge, rim *biDín see fi:ng
biq-lr to make heavy/heavier; to weight down; *ngamít see ngayng
biÿq-m ripeness; maturity *m+liÿq < *lípan, see liÿq, tsang
biw-l cheap, inexpensive < **no-miw, *míbi
biwq-l a drill, auger *bíqur see kr
bo-m to brush the fur *lamú see lawng
bo:-l fat; thick (of objects) *búBaw     see bwò, fwò
bò:-l to hunt *baGáw see bò:q      HUNTER???
bo-bwaq (lm) the feeling (real or imagined) of insects crawling on one's skin; see bwa:q
bong-m darkness, lack of light *m+raúm see long, lòng
bo:ng-l game (see dong
boq-l to tap (certain trees) for their sap *dabút, see dzòwq
bo:q-l the stomach *búqut
bò:q-l a hunt, hunting; a quest *bágaw (doubl. *baGáw see bò:)
bòw-l to teach, instruct *báBuh (irreg. báboh) (see fòw, mòw)
bòwng-l thunder *báBum see bo:ng
boyng-l praise *búlan see dwang
br-l gift, endowment (formal) *m-párad
1. br-m color *báran see dang
2. br-m (single) grain of s.t. e.g. sand, uku, etc. búrit see dwiq
3. br-m perfect, complete *búran see dwang; br-m traw-m full moon; (geom.) br-m kòng-l
       ko-h square; br-m hr-ko(lh) equilateral triangle
bu:-lr to heat *bubú see buq
bu-luÿng (l,hf) the moon Vuruna (< Kash id.), see traw
bung-m empty *buma see mwa
bu:ng-m sticky; bu-bu:ng (mm) slightly sticky, tacky *bulut; bu:-bi (mh )glue (n.) (sandhi
             bu:ng+mi), see also du:t
buq-l hot *búbu see bu
bu:q-l path; lane, street, road; baw-bu:q (hl) (main) road, highway; mi baw-bu:q canal (*búpu,
       see fu-lr); bu:q jo (lh) crossroads
bu:q-m wrapping, covering (n.); (sci.) membrane *búkus see guh
bu:q-lr to chew *mumút; see muq-muq
buÿ-m top surface of...   *buha
bÿyq-l a defeat búbir see bwr
bwa-lr top (point), apex; i...bwa-hu above, over (prep.) *buhá
bwa:q-l insect spp., ~spider *bawág
bweng-m greying, grizzled (of Gwr fur) *ubán
bwè-m to get rich, prosper *lumáy see loyng
bwi-l to take root *dubí see du:q, dzu:q
bwiq-m must/ought/should (moral oblig.) *mumít
bwò-lr to get fat (intr.); to fatten (trans.) *buBáw see bo:, fwò
bwr-lr to pull; tow *bawár; bwr-poyh (lm) (tone sandhi) barge
bwr-lr to defeat *bubír see bÿyq
bya-m proper, fitting, correct *mipá (V1 met.) see miq 'right'
byong-l cancer, cancerous *yabúng
byoq-m a borrower, person in one's debt **niq+moq see numáp
CH
cha-h to kick *kirá; see chr; cha-cha (hh) to prod, goad
chah-h slow? lazy?*ti(dh0)ás (chah (kg)i > Kash caki)
chang-h face; front < *kián
chaq-h rock, stone *tisák (via **tsyak, irreg. V1 met.)
chang-h the face *kián
chaw-h to speak, say *kiá(BL)w (see kew)
chaw-l hinder, get in the way *titáB (V1 met.)
chawng-h to read *kayam (via **kyam +breaking); chaw-jawng literature; see kè:ng
chawq-hf the cheeks <**chang+ko < *kián+kúa
chay-hf sharp, acrid *kiháD
chayq-m immoral; immorality *i+tákis see tayq, chih; jèq
chè-h to fight *kaláy see kayng, gwèng
che:-m to bake, roast *kiGíh see key
cheh-h (be) cold see chiÿ
cheng-hf (colloq.) the Cindu kilogram/litre (contraction of chih-peng (hm), now rare)
cheq-h to paint *kiDát see chiÿq
chi-h a lock **i+tsi < *nusí see nuh, tsi
chi-m awkward, gauche *kirí see kr 'left'
chi-cha (hl) a small lizard (< Kash cicak); chi-myèng (hm) spec., flying/gliding lizard spp. in
       genl. (~birds) (< chi+m+yè:ng)
chi-li (hm) the Cindu kilometre, 1000 li (1.1172km) (chih+li)
chiq-h a louse/flea-like insect that can infest the fur *ikit
chi:q-hf crowd, multitude, lots of... *kítis
chih-h thousand *kitís jih-m thousandth; chi-chih-hf thousands of..., by thousands
chih-m a dagger, knife for fighting *kirís
chih-lr lewd, lascivious *takís
ching-l war, warfare *pagíng
chi:ng-hf peak, summit, apex *kíngi
chiÿh-hf winter *kíDas see cheh
chiÿq-hf paint, painted *kíkat see cheq
cho-h if (conj.) *kiwá see kÿ-cho
chr-h to fence in, to enclose *yakár see ya:q
chr-hf a kick; urging; impetus see cha
chr-m to love *tidár (V1 met) see te:q; tiq-chr (hm) to adore, dote on, idolize see jr
1. chu-h to question, ask *kuyú (irreg. non-diphth.)
2. chu-h to give off sparks *kulú (see ku: < doubl. kúLu)
chu-m penis *kiBú
1. chung-h a funnel *kalúN
2. chung-h to descend, go down *kilún see kÿwng
chuq-h be in pain; painful *kVlút
chÿ-lr state, condition; nÿ-l shwi-m exist, existence (*s-niwí via tsyÿ))
D
da-h north *bVtá
da-l to argue *m-dah ?? bVdáh
dah-l (adult) woman (see dza) *dása
daq-m to constrict, tighten **m+lát < *hálat see a:ng, sha:q
da:q-l forest (dense) see also ga:
da-tsa (lm) effeminate (< dah+dza)
dang-lr to color, add color to *barán see br
da:q-m king *dádu (via **da:d spor.length) see also dzu
daw-h you (sg/pl), daw-de you-pl. *dáhu
daw-h (factually) true; luh daw (hh) “amen”, that's right! absolutely! so be it! *m+taB
dawh-m salt, salty *dásuk see dzuq
dawq-l ~daw-dawq (ll) chin-hairs, that if untrimmed will grow into a sort of "beard/goatee"
      *dágut
day-l give, endow, donate (formal) m-tay < paráD (see br);
day-m tree *dáhi
day-m give, lend *paráD (see pr); in several compds: day-tÿng (mh) to inform, make known;
      day-kew (mh) to communicate; day-sah (mh) to stare (at)
day-nyang (mh) to feed (lit. give-eat)
de- (part.) plural marker (follows base) *gvtáy (analog.)
de-l fathom (meas. of the outstretched arms, about 5ft) gatíh; ku:ng de (lr,l) half-fathom
        (outstretched arm to nose, about 2-1/2 ft.); see gayq
de-lr younger sister (of female) *gatíh
deh-h a jump, leap *niníh < *nih, see ne
dè-h much, many *gvtáy
dè-hf language *dáya
dè-lr roof *baláy see bayng
de:-hf to deliver *(bg)a(dt)íh
deng-hf food (*m+níang, see nyang)
dè:ng-m sunken/depressed place
deq-m ~deq-deq-m not very..., very little... (polite negative, ~Ml. kurang) < **no+teq < pitíq
     see teq
deq-lr younger bro. (of male) *gatíq
deÿ-l to simplify, make easy; to facilitate *madíG see mèyq
di da: (m-h) glad, joyful; rejoice (uncert. origin; see also tsi:
di-l (prep) alternative form of i: locative prep. *idi cd be < *adí, or shd be dzi?? irreg??
di-lr to pick up (lit. and fig.) *badí (via **bdəi); di-lliq (lm) steal s.t. surreptitiously, shop-lift
di:-dzu (h,lr) the supreme god in (most) Gwr religions (sandhi, m+ni:ng 'sun' +nyu: 'sky'-- the
       loss of length (u: > u) and resemblance to dzu 'rule' is fortuitous)
dih-h (slang) butt, ass (buttocks) *natís see nayq (has to be V1met.)
diq-lr to inherit *nganít see nyayng (V1 met.)
diw-l motion, movement, gesture *díGu (see dzu:) shd be dziw
dong-l to protrude, stick out *gadúng see gòwq
dòng-l to play; dò-dòng l-lr playful(ly) (*dáung; *daúng shd be dong lr 'game, sport?')
doq-m to stop (bg)Vtuq or *duqV
dow-m alga sp. from which a gelatin-like (ayq-dow) product is derived *dáwu
dowq-m (prep.) with, accompanying...
doy-l mix, combine *dúaD (dway)               (*dúiq > dÿq *duíq > dweq m) of *dáwi,
      duBG(ih,ay)
doyh-l life, existence *dúsaD see dzay
doÿq-l fruit; (fig.) yield; (fin.) interest *dúdaB see dzow
dòy-l flood (n.) *dáBiD see dwey:
dr-m to go (to); return to... *batúr see ba:q
du-m to soften *lumú see lu:ng
du-lr land *batú; du-llong (lm) peninsula (land+arm); du-ma: (lm) earthquake
du-chu (mm) the male organs, in genl.; (slang) a stud, very masculine man (duy+chu)
du: -l bloody *dúLu (doubl. *dulú see llu); du shiw (lm) dysentery (bloody stool)
du:-m to thresh uku *munú see mu:ng
dung-l cape (geog.) *dung see dong
du:ng-l guts, intestines *udúng
duh-h to answer *natús (see nawt)
duh-l black *dúsv
dung-h soup *(bgN)vtúng
du:q-m root *dubi (with V-length), see bwi, dzu:q
du:q-m to glue, attach *bulút see bu:ng
duy-m testicle(s) *dúBi see dwÿ, tsuy; duy-sÿ (mh) the scrotum (lit., testicle-place)
duÿng-m the back (anat.) *dúnud
dÿng-hf with great effort, forcefully (e.g. yuÿ-h dÿng-m push hard!) *dúin see dwing
dwa-m to smoke, give off smoke *nudá see nuq (doubl. núDa see nÿ:)
dwa:-l to fish with a net; to net *luBáG
dwang-lr to praise *bulán see boyng
dwang-m to perfect, to complete *burán see br
dwè-m few, a few < **no-day < naw+gVtay
dwèy-lr to flood *daBíD see dòy
dwi-lr rain *duhí; pi-twi (hl) drizzle (lit. little rain)
dwing-h to force, apply force to *duín see dÿng
dwiq-lr ear/stalk (of grain) *burít
dwi:q-m to tan hides for leather *widíb see wiÿq
dwr-m to measure *mudúr; see muÿq, myuÿq
dwÿ-l fertile (of males) *duBí see duy, tsuy
dwÿq-lr to ferment (esp. of certain tree-saps) *duBít, see dzuiq, tuyq
dÿ: -lr there is not (see nÿ) *na+níwi via nd-ə-iw
DZ
dza-dzay-mm lively; carbonated, fizzy (redup. of dusáD, see dzay)
dza-l to skin, flay *Ntusá (cf. tsa 'skin')
dza-l to nail, fasten with nails *gidá see jiq
dza-lr female *dasá; dza-tay (m-hf) daughter, cf. piq-tay-hm girl
dza-sÿ (lh) vagina; the female organs in genl. (lit. female-place) see dza:h
dza-m to speak (orate ~a language) *dayá see dè
dza:h (pejor.) c*nt, woman, broad, slut etc. (< dza-sÿ)
dza:ng-m load (n.) *i+dána see na:
dza:ng-m peel, rind, skin (of fruit,veg.) *i+dálap see llaq
dzaq-lr to replace, substitute *minág see me:ng
dzaq-m to sail *dihát; dzaq-jaq- to sail close to shore, sail coastwise (+ jaq 'shore')
dza:q-hf the large fireplace that heats many Gwr homes; modern, by ext., central heating
       *s+dádun see dzong
dzawng-m a strip of s.t.; long/thin/flexible in shape *i+dálaB (irreg. -aw-)
dzawq-l in weaving, the woof *i+dáqaw see kò
dzay-m to live, living, alive *dusáD (see doyh)
dzeng-m to control (vd)idáN ( (vd)iÿq)
dzeq-lr a tic, jerky motions **deq-deq < *batíq
dzi-l five; fifth *dVsí
dziq-m layer; in layers; story of a building *daDít
dziq-l motion, movement; gesture *dígu see ju
dzi:h song *dísis see jih
dzi:q-l ear(s) *dígis see jih
dziÿq-m sail(s) *díhat see dzaq
dzo-lr dead *m+tasúh see tawh, tso-tso
dzong-lr to dance *diwáng
dzong-m hearth, fireplace; home *dadún see dza:q
dzow-lr to bear fruit; (fig.) to yield, (fin.) to pay interest *dudáB see doÿq
dzòwq-l sap of trees, in genl.; liquids derived from plants, in genl. *i-dáBut (doubl. *dabut, see
     boq)
dzr-m finger *didír; tè-dzr (hm) toe
dzr-m to steam (food) *sudúr see suÿq
dzu-l to move (make a motion/gesture, change position) *diGú (see diw)
dzu-lr to rule, to reign *dadú, see da:q
dzung-h to kneel *m+tutúl see tsu:q
dzuq-l time period; when *dvsúC; see jo-juq (lm), ji-juq (hm) ALSO 'THEN' (TIME-
       FUTURE)
dzuq-h to salt, preserve by salting *dasúk see dawh
dzu:q-m take root, be rooted, (fig.) established *i+dúbi see du:q, bwi
dzuyq-m the fermented sap of certain trees *i+dúBit, see dwÿq
E
e: -hf (~ye) yes *íDa (irreg.via íya > e0ə > e: -- ye is analogical)
e(:) -l hesitation particle; well, er; e ya lh (narr.part.) and so, so then (analogical form)
eq-h unripe; raw, uncooked *íat
eq-m and *at; eq yo: (mm) and so, therefore (*at+yúGaw)
È
F
fa-h pay attention, be alert (*piqá; see peq) fa-faq (hl) look out! careful! (tones by analogy)
fa-h tooth *hapá see aq; fa lawng (hh) toothbrush
fa-m to pack in a box, crate, container etc. *bapá see baq
fa-l to approach, come near *sibá see shiq
fang-h strong *samál see sa:ng-hf
fang-lr to trust *bahám (see ba:ng)
fang-m eight, pang-m eighth (< Kash fanu)
fawh-h current, stream; fawh lliÿ (h-lr) electric current *s-páhus fuh?
fay-m first, fay-fay-m first of all (in a sequence) (< *m+had 'one')
feh-m turn, revolve *sabís (sayq)
fèng-m snow; to snow *piqán WRONG
feq-h upset, bothered (*pVpíq or *pVpát ??)
fèyng-m ~fè:ng bathroom, bathing place *s+mánid
fi-h to lie (tell a lie) *supí see suq, fi:
fi:-h a lie, falsehood; fi-fi: (hh) lying, mendacious **y+fi < *supí
fih-h silver *hipís
fi:ng-m seed-bed (place where one starts seeds) *s+bíngi
fi:ng-hf precipice; cliff *s+bíDin
fiq-h to make bitter (flavoring); fig. to embitter *hapít see ayq
fiq-l a burden *s+biq < *ngabít
fi:q-m a factory *s+míkim see ging, mi:q
fiw-m vicious, nasty, horrible *qapíB
fo-h to correct, amend; to edit *pasúh see su:h, so
foq-h a boil, cyst *s-púak see pwaq, poq
fòw-l lesson, instruction *s-báBuh (irregl -oh) (see bòw)
fr-m thatch (for roofing) *qapár
fu-lr to walk *bupú (see bu:q-l)
fu-m to blow (on...)
fu-h dust, dusty *hapú
fuh-h to flow pahús (see fawh)
fung-l to boil (trans/intr.) *sabúN
1. fuq-h ashes (also: pi: fuq mh) (contr. < **pi: púk *kapúk)
2. fuq-h flatulence, fart (polite) *pasút see pawh
fÿ:-h skinny (of people) redup of pÿ 'thin' with analog. long V
fwa-m a drain; to drain; fwa mi (mh) sewer, drainage system; fwa ka (mh) sewage
fwiq-h a fart; to fart (analog. < fuq)
fwi-h to pretend, feign *supí (V1 met.) , see su-pwi
fwiq-m bony, skinny, emaciated *musít (V1 met.) see muyh
fwò-m thickness **s+buBáw see bo:
fya-m package **i+fa < *bapá, see fa, baq
fyaw-h to travel *sibáL (V1 met.) see se:q; fyaw-tung (hh) to tour, inspect; ne-pyaw (hh)
      traveller, tourist;
fyo-m rough (of water) *wiwá, see wÿ:
G
ga:-l the chest *gáGa
ga:-lr obscure, mysterious, murky see da:q
gaq-l thick, bulky (like a tree) *gágu see gu
ga:q-l pus *ngakáq
gang-h coal (the fuel) *bukáN
gawng-l early morning *gáLang; gawng-ji (ll) dew
gawng-l hand (*gáhung, rel. to 'four') see jawng, gòng-koh
gawq-l much, a lot of *gáLuC
gayng-l even (of numbers) *gálit see jiq, jayng
gayq-m to measure by fathoms *gátih see de
gayq-l a call, summons *gápin, see bing, jayq
gè-l to have (in one's possession), possess *gáya; gè-ja to control (redup. *gáya-gayá)
gè-h to stab *nakáy; see also gè-m, tsèq
gè-m to penetrate, go into/through **m+nakáy
geh-lr to appear, show up, come into view, arise *nangís see nayng
gèq-l the womb, uterus *gáik
gèq-m a bite (wound) *m+kákir (irreg. è) see xèq
ging-lr to make, to do *mikim; see mi:q, fi:q
go-lr trousers *magú; ba:-go (lm) leggings; long underwear
go: -l to count *m-gúah (irreg. o:)
go: -m number (luh-l go-m 'prime no.') *gúah (irreg. o:, tone by analogy); (postposed to
       number) forms ordinals for 8,9, and all others that lack a specific ordinal form, colloq.
       for all numbers (entire compd = mid tone); na-h kwèy-hu (f-h) go:-m “Fibonacci”
       numbers
gò-l hard (not soft) *gáwa, see gwa
gò-lr hunter *bagáw see bò:q, bò:
gòng-koh (lh) a handspan (about 9") irreg. < gawng+hoh 'hand-wide'
goq-l to kill *gúaq (guáC > gwaq-lr if C=voiceless)
gowq-l a protruberance; knob; visible growth/tumor on the body *gádung see dong
gr-m to do, to act *mikúr (see miwq)
gr-l storm, to storm *gúraL see jaw
gu:-l to bruise *mugú see mu:q
gu: lr trunk of a tree *gagú
guh-h to wrap, wrap up *bukús see bu:q
guh-m cloud, cloudy *gúsi
gu:q-l ditch, moat *gútuk      duq??
guÿ-l sexual, pertaining to sex *gúBa; guÿ-guÿ (ll) sexually exciting, pornographic; "turn-on"
guÿng-l (n) story *gúlap
gwa-lr to harden *gawá
gwang-h to close the eyes *dukám (V1 met.)
gwaq-l swallow *ngugáC; gwaq shu (l-l) esophagus (doubl *ngúGaC >ngo:q-l throat?)
gwaq-lr ...... *gaBáq
gwèng-lr (mil.) a battle; to battle (**baw+kayng, irreg. è); pi-kwèng (mil.) skirmish (sandhi,
      piq+...)
gwo-m (of an animal) to attack with the horns; to gore *nukúh (V1 met.) see nu:q
gwo-l sex (acts) in genl., sexuality *guBá see guÿ
gwò-h to accompany, go with *dukáw (V1 met.) see doq
gwr-lr free *guBÁr or gaBAr NugAr
H
hang-h be born *hVháN (V1 del.) see ya:ng
ha:q-m a stick *háqat      see xaq
haw-h (n.) taste (of s.t.) *haháB [áhab would > aw(q), perhaps a:q via a:p??]
haw-hf (v) to taste, test *hahaB (tone by analog.)
hayh-hf arrival *hásay see shè
hayq-m outside, outdoors; exterior *qáqit see hiq; (as prep.) i-l.....hayq-hu (m)
he(:)-h (interj.) hey! Hail! (to call attention)
heq-m personal, private, one's own (by anal. < hi pers.article) heq kèy (mm)personal(given)
      name
hew-m smell, odor (bad) redup. *qi-qiB see qew
heyq-m poor *híqis see hih
hi paq (h-h) smaller moon (Lalap) (note xi = drunk? also in pu xi alcohol?)
hi- (part.) personal article (precedes, takes tone of next word) *hi (irreg. h-)
hi-hi: (lh) to laugh (irreg. < *qíhi-qihí, tones by imit.) see ki-hi:
hih-m to become poor *hiqís, see heq, shih
hing-m bright, shiny *huqíN (huyq) see shuyq
hiq-m to go out, exit *qaqít see hayq
ho-m six *huh go? ngo?-m sixth
hoh-h wide *húas        see hwa
hoq-m head *qVhúq
hoq-h to enter--go in, come in *huq see shoq
how-hf the nose *húhaw see also hwò
howq-h smell (pleasant/neutral) ult. < ?hò-hu with added final, see hwò
hoyq-m the neck *qúqin see xwing
hr-lr three *hvhVr ngr? gr? dr? third tone?
hr-hf to flee, escape *huhír see hwr
hu- (postposed part.) possessive marker *hu (irreg. h-)
hu: -m all *qvhuB or irreg. -h
hu: -h breast(s) of woman *húhu; day-hu (mh) to suckle a child (give+*huhú)
hu:ng-hf breath; hu:ng shu (h-hf) trachea *húhung
hu:ng-m to breathe *huhúng
huÿh-hf fear (n.) *húsak see shwaq
hwah-h to widen *huás
hwò-h ~hò: to sniff/smell s.t. (trans.) *huháw (V1 met.)
hwr-hr flight, escape, "on the lam" *húhir see hr
hyu:ng-h to destroy *yuhúng see y:ung, myu:ng
I
i: -hf this *ihi ? ; see ji-juq (hm)
i: -l locative prep. *idi (see also di)
ing-h the present *híli see li; ing-li (hh) nowadays, at present, currently
ing-l
i:ng ....? (rel. to 'two' < *híni, and ?fi:ng > m+híni?)
i:q-h tool, in genl. *íLit; i:-qoq a plow (< i:q-oq < úqi, see kwi)
iÿq-h the forehead, brow *íkan
J
ja-l what? *girá; ja-ngu: (ll) how? (manner) (+ngu-hu); ja-chÿw how? (condition) (+chÿ-hu)
ja-lr older brother (of male) *gará
jang-m in i-l .....jang-hu-m in front of... (<*di+ikán, V1 met.)
jaq-h in dzaq-jaq (mh) sail along the coast, sail coastwise (irreg. < *yuyák)
ja:q-lr brain *garáp (old: marrow, pith)
jaw-lr to storm, rant, rave, show great anger *guráL see gr
jawng-l to hold (esp. in the hand) *i+gáhung; jaw-jawng (ll) stingy, miserly
jay-l to believe *giháD; see tay-jay
jayng-m balance, equilibrium **y+gálit see jiq, gayng
jayq-hf be called/named *i+gápin, see bing, gayq
jeh-lr to freeze *giDás see jiÿh
jèq-m prostitution (irreg. è < m+chayq, see chih, tayq, chayq
jey-l a coat (clothing) *gíGay; baw-jey (hl) overcoat (heavy, for winter)
ji-l wet, damp *gi
ji-juq (hm) now, at this time (present); ....so (hmm) right now < di i dzuq
jih-lr to hear *digís see dzi:q
jih-m to sing *disís (V1 met.) see dzi:h
ji:h-l to rise, go up, ascend *ringís see li:ng
jiq-l a nail *gída see dza
jiq-lr to balance, be in equilibrium *galít see gayng
jiÿh-m frozen *gíDas see jeh
jiw-l to defecate (**m+shiw, analog. < shiw)
jo-juq (lm) then, at that time (in the past); ....so (lmm) just/exactly then (<di o dzuq)
jo-l who? *giBá
jo-h branching, having branches; jo-ni (hh) to bifurcate; ti-jo (hh) the crotch (anat.)
jò-m room, chamber *didáw
1. joq-lr there (at+there/that)
2. joq-lr tell a story, narrate *gulá(ptk) (see guÿng)
jow-l rubbing; a massage *rugáB see loÿq
jr-l odd (of numbers) *gí( )Vr
jr-h adoration, veneration **m-chr < *titár
ju-l to move, be in motion *digú see dziq
ju-ju (ll) to nudge/push, with the elbow *lagú see lawq
jung-l sweet *lugúm (doubl. lúGum see lu:ng)
juq-lr convex, in-curving *gulúp see
juÿng-m in i-l.....juÿng-hu-m in back of..., behind... (<*di+dúnud
juÿq-m a fantasy, day-dream *i+gúhat see kweq
K
ka-h dregs, residue, sediment; stuff (genl) *puká (see puq)
ka-l to want, desire *tugá see tuq
ka-m male (adj.) *niqá see neq, kang; ka-tay (h-hf) son, cf. piq-tay-hm boy
1. kah-h lazy (pejor.); see also kaw
2. kah-h ~ka(h)-shi (hl) Kash (borrowed [kaši])
kang-h to come *pikám
kang-m (adult) man, male person *niqáng
kaq-h to know (a person) *káta
ka:q-h nail, claw *kákiw; ka:q dzr (hm) fingernail, ka:q tè (hh) toenail; see kÿ
kaw-m lazy *miqáL      see also mewq
kawh-hf rafters of a house *kásaw
kawng-hf a mammal sp. capable of flight/gliding *káLung
kayh-h a hammer (dial. **kashi < *kási) see xiq
kayng-hf a (physical) fight *kálay see chè
kay-lay (lh) greedy, covetous (ult. < tugá hiláD, see ka, lyay)
kayng-hf a fight (physical) *kalay see chè
kayq-m viciousness; horror, horrifying event *m+qápiB see fiw
ke-h useless, pointless, futile *kía
ke-cha (hh) in vain (redup. *kía+kiá)
keq-h fish-hook *kíat see kyaq
kew-h word *kíaw
kew-hf a bee-like insect **kíyo < *kíyuh; kew-mi (hh) the honey-like nectar produced by
      them
kè-h plaza, square, open space *tikáy
kè:ng-hf book *káyam (irreg. è: < èÿ), see chawng
kèy-m name *káGi (*kaGí > kè:) kèy noq (mm) clan name, kèy ba (m,lr) family name; heq
      kèy (mm) personal (given) name
key-hf baked, roasted **kíGe < *kíGih see che:
ki:-m get/make drunk *N+qíhi
ki-hi: (lh) laughter **m+hi-hi:
ki-tsi (hh) itch (n. or vb) *kíti-kití
king-h (fulcrum: yah king= old yas king) *kíma (*kimá > nga-h)
kiÿq-hf paint, painted *kíkat see cheq
kiwh-h sharp (of a tool) *kíhus see xuh
kiwng-hf a blanket *kímut see muq
ko-h side *kúa see kwa-kwa; hr ko (lh) triangle and sim. for other geom.figures
ko-l to drink *ngiqú see ngiwq
ko-m question particle, precedes and follows (ult. < *kuq, with lost final by analogy)or *kuá??
ko-tso (l-l) ancient, antique; ho-tso guÿng history (by sandhi < hoq dzo)
kò-m a loom for weaving *daqáw see dzawq
kòng-l four *káhung (irreg. ò,tone) gòng fourth (*m-kòng); kòng+ko (lh) (side '4-lateral', luh
       kòng ko 'square'
koq-l old *gahúC; koq dzo (l-l) past, gone by (irreg. V1 met.)
kòÿ-hf the kawu, a food-animal; the meat is sim. to beef *káwa (irreg.diphth.)
kòÿng-l bare, leafless, of trees; deciduous (**no-qángul) see qòÿng
kòy-hf to doze off, take a nap *káway; kòy-kòy (hm) sleepy, nodding off; not paying
      attention, see kwè
kr-hf metal in genl. *kírV(C?)
kr-m left (hand, side) *kíri see chi
kr-lr to drill *biqúr see biwq
ku-l a hole in the ground; excavation *qigú see qewq
ku: -h spark *kúLu see chu
ku-shing (lm) small cat-like animal (< Kash kusimi)
ku:ng-lr half *gahúng (via breaking, irreg.length) rel. to gawng 'hand'
ku:ng-hf tumor/growth *kúBung
kuq-hf plant sp., an extract of the root is used to stun fish in streams *kuba (perh. < Kash, or
      vice-versa)
kuq-h (colloq.) OK, fine (see su:q, ult. < sukúp)
ku:q-hf a torch *kútum
kuÿq-m mouldy, mildewed *m+qu:q < *qúgub
kuÿq-hf fist *kúbap see also kwaq
kÿ-hf (n) question *kúyu (see chu)
kÿ-h to claw, scratch with the nails/claws *kakíw (see ka:q) shd be xÿ
kÿ-cho (hh) (tech.) if and only if... (redup. kíwa-kiwá, see cho)
kÿng-h (prep., adv.) down, downwards (irreg. < kÿwng)
kÿwng-hf descent, decline *kílun see chung, kÿng; ni:ng-kÿwng (h,hf) sunset
kwa-h same as, equal *.....?; ADJ kwa N as ADJ as (a) N kuhá or kawá or irreg. tugá (V1
      met)
kwa-kwa (hh) side by side
kwaq-h to hit with the fist, to punch *kuBáp (dial., irreg. a)
kweq-lr to imagine, to fantasize, day-dream *guhát (V1 del, a-affect) see juÿq;
      kwe-kweq (lm) supposing..., suppose that...
kwè-m to nod the head (as greeting; as assent) *kawáy, see kòy-kòy
kwi-m to plow **m+qwi < uqí
kyaq-h to fish with hook and line *kiát see keq
kyu-lr to tie (with ropes) *ngiqú; kyu loÿ (lm) to tie/make nets; see ngeq
L
la-h thing *halá
lah-hf to cut off, remove; amputate *lása; lah tsa hh to skin/flay
lang-h full *láni see lle
lang-m fragrant *ráni
la:ng-h thread *lála; la:ng-dzawng (hm) in weaving, the warp threads (lit. long thread)
laq-laq-h damned, accursed      *lá(C)V
laq-h to float, drift *látV
laq-m crusted/accumulated dirt on the fur/skin *ráki
lawh-m requirement, obligation, duty, task *ráhus see loh
lawng-hf a brush (for personal grooming) *lámu (dipth.) see bo
lawq-hf the elbow *lágu see ju
lay-hf what, that which (rel.pron.) **la-de (lit. things)
lay-m ???*raD
layng-h more (in comparisons) *lan (breaking) see llang, shang
layq-h to spatter, splash *látip
layq-m distilled; hard liquor *ráqih see xye; lay-layq (mm) (colloq.) liquor, booze; ne-layq
      (mm) (colloq.) heavy drinker, sot, drunkard
lè: -hf to run *laGí see shèy
lèy-hf bowl *laDay
le-m (as particle) lacking in..., -less e.g. le-su:h (mh) careless, imprecise (< le: 'without')
le:-m without (prep.) *ríha (irreg. e:) (see lya)
leng-m sudden, fast; leng-leng mm suddenly *ran
leq-h different *líat see lyaq, beq
leq-m wall *rati (**rat with a-affect)
lèw-hf progressive marker, be...ing *láyaw
lèÿng-hf to wait *láyaN (yang < **lyaN)
li-h now *hilí see ing
li-m the Cindu equiv. of the metre, approx. 1.1171m, 44 in. *ri (anciently, one pace);
       li-li (mm) to measure (roughly) by pacing off
li:-m to clear (esp. of fields); open, unecumbered *harí see shr
li:h-h snake *lísiL see shi:
li:ng-h light (weight) *línih see lle
ling-hf (prep., adv.) up, upwards *ríngis (irreg. short i) see ji:h; NB ling pa:ng (hf,h) up
       (a,the) hill vs. pa:ng ling (h,hf) uphill
liÿq-hf ripe; adult *lípan see tsang, biÿq
liwng-hf calm, serene *língu (irreg. diphth.) (ju/jÿ < lingú)
liwng-h the chin *límut
lo-h sated, filled; satisfied   *luh or lúa or halú (v1met.)
lo-m clay, esp. potter's clay *arú (via **rəu);
loh-m (aux) have to, must *rahús see lawh; see also mwiq
long-m dark *raúm; bong-m darkness (m+raúm) see lòng
lòng-h (prep.) from, out of *láun; lò-ngo (hh) since (temporal) (sandhi, from+that)
lòng-m shadow; (fig.) soul *ráum; ghost (spec. of a person) lo-dòng (mm) (sandhi < redup.
      *raum) see also long
loq-m hundred (< Kash rongo via **loNk); doq-m hundredth; lo-loq-m hundreds of..., by
      hundreds
loq-m to fuck *rúqa; lo-cha (mm) of animals, to mate (irreg. < loq-xya); loq-ka (mm) (male)
      sodomy, sodomite (generic, does not refer to any specific act)
lòwh-l fringe *ráBus
lòy-m the human body *lawe irreg. < *láwih; dzo-lòy l-lr (l-m?) dead body= corpse; lòy-yòy
       (mm) the navel; REFLEX.PRON ...lòy-hu -self
loyng-m rich, wealthy *lúmay see bwè
loÿ-hr fishing net, seine *lúBaG see also dwa:
loÿ-m tendon, sinew *raúG
lòÿ-m ~llu-lòÿ (mm) vein *ráuG see loÿ
loÿq-m to rub, massage *rugáB see jow
lr-m gall, bile *rúLur (dbl. *rúlur) see llr
lu-m sand, *arú; lu-jaq (mm) beach (*arú+yudák);
lu-nyòy the waist (< lu:ng+yòy 'soft center')
lu-truh (hh) an explosion; explosive (redup. lútus-lutús)
lu:-hf foam, foamy *lúBu
luh-h clean *lus
luh-l pure *wvlús (no V1 met) luh-l go-m prime number; lu-tsa (lm) virgin (fem.), lu-xa (lh)
       virgin (masc.)-- these by sandhi (**luh-dza, luh-ka)
luh-m village, small settlement *rusi see shwi
lung-h thorn *lúla, see lla
lu:ng-h soft *lúmu du see lu-nyòy
lu:ng-hf sugar *lúGum see jung
lu:q-h to explode *lútus, see truh, lyu:q, lu-truh
luyh-hf part, section, division *lúsing see shing; see lÿ-fiq
luÿh-m a list, listing *rúsan see shwang; lÿ-lu:h (hm) calendar (contr. < lÿ:q+luÿh 'year+list')
luÿng-hf thick, viscous *lúlum see llung, lyuÿng
luÿng-m the gall-bladder *rúlur see llr, lr
lwang-m to scale a fish *urám (see qe-r)
lÿ-fiq (hh) some (of...) < luyh+piq < pítiq)
lÿng-m the tongue *ríum see lyung; pi-lÿng (mm) flame(s)
lÿ:q-hf year *lúyat; lÿ:q lweq (hh) year after year, years on end
lwih-m to write *urís see yr
lya-lr to lack, be lacking; to need *rihá (see le:)
lyaq-h to differ, be different *liát see leq, beq
lyay-h to wish for, desire, yearn for *hiláD see yay
lyung-m to lick *riúm
lyuÿng-hf thickening agent, starch *i+lúlum see luÿng
LL
lla-m older sister (of female) *dalá
lla-h thorny, prickly *lulá see lung
lla-lr barren, infertile (of a woman, colloq.) **no-tra 'unable'
llang-l marker of superlative; llang ADJ llang 'as ....as possible' redup. **la-laN see layng,
        shang
llaq-m to disappear, vanish *lanáp
llaq-h to sew *lalát (ult. < *lala, see la:ng)
llang-lr beautiful *daráng
llaq-lr to peel (the skin/rind from...) *daláp see dza:ng (see also llaw)
llaw-lr to strip off (usu.with the hand); remove clothes *daláB (irreg.doubl. *daláp) see also
        dzawng
lle-h to lighten, ease *liníh see li:ng
lle-m to fill *laní see lang
lleng-m in a row, in a line, line(d) up *nirám see nr
lleq-m worm *liríq
llè-m to patrol, make one's rounds        *diláy deyng
lli-l light *dv(rl)í
lliq-m steal *dulíp
lliÿ -l electric; dzay lliÿ (m-lr) electricity (maybe hf?)
lliÿ -lr lightning *dvlíG
llo-ba (hl) the forearm (elbow to hand) **llong+ba
llong-m the arm (entire, shoulder to hand) *lilám (irreg.breaking) see also llo-ba, tayq
llr-m bitter (taste) *rulúr see lr
llu-m blood *dulú see du:ng)
llu:h-m to clean (redup. *luh)
llu-keng (ml) to shoot with a stun-gun (< Kash lulukeñ)
llung-l to thicken (e.g. a mixture) *lulúm see luÿng, lyuÿng
lluq-lr to bleed *dulút (*dúlut > **du:q??)
lluÿ-m to bite into s.t., to bite off *rudúG; luÿq-m a bite of food, a mouthful *rúduG
llÿ:q-hf yearly, annual *m+líwat
M
ma- (maq-m with sandhi, often in old compds) ma-kr (hl) tempest (maq-gr); ma-pu: (hm)
      typhoon (mu: 'wind')
ma:-lr to tremble, shiver/shake *maGá; see du-ma:
mah-m to pry up, work with lever (*m+ási)
ma:ng-l father (less formal ma:-l) *máma; vocative ba: lr; ma:ng me (lm) parents
mang-m gathering place, hall, auditorium; (pej.) dive, disreputable bar *tumám
maq nyu (m-lr) heavens, firmament
maq-h ten (ni maq 20, hr maq 30 etc.) *kvmáC; baq-m tenth
maq-m vast, huge; (math) to the power of...; (**g|maC < *m-kvmáC ??
mayq-m each *matid
me-m mother (irreg. < *mai (more formal, and as term of address to older women:: me:-l)
     ma:ng me (lm) parents *mía vocative mya??
me:ng-l replacement, substitution *mínag see dzaq
meq-m to chisel out, gouge out *pamíq see payng
meq-m (conj.) although, even if... *míqi
mewq-m sloth, idleness, laziness *míqaL see also kaw
mèyng-m to bathe (trans/intrans.) *mánid see fèyng
mèyq-m ~mè:q simple, not complex; easy *mádiG see deÿ
mi-h water; mi baw-bu:q hhl canal (*pamí); mi shiw (hm) diarrhea; mi-oÿh hh vinegar
mi-llo (hm) (fine) porcelain ware (sandhi < ming-lo, see ming)
mi:ng-m air, atmosphere *míni
ming-h white; bright (*piním, pi:ng < *pínim); ming-lo (hm) kaolin, porcelain clay
miq-m right (hand,side) *mipa see miq
mi:q-m product, s.t. made *i+míkim see ging, fi:q; mi:q-m (+material) made of..., mi:q-m
      (+place) made in...
miÿ-l end (n.) *miG (doubl. *mig) see miÿq
miÿ-m table *míDa
miÿq-l tail (of animals) *mig (breaking); see miÿ
miwq-l expensive **mib (breaking) < *míbi see bi:
miwq-m deed, action (see gr) *míkur
mo-m (pron.) I *múa
moq-m to borrow *numap (o irreg. < -wa-) see byoq, nyuÿng
mow-m brave, courageous *múaw
mòw-l to learn, study (irreg < báBoh, see bòw, fòw1,2)
mr-l when, while *mára
mr-m to rinse the mouth, swish s.t. around in the mouth *múrum; mr-mr (mm) the sound
      of....
mu-h south, southern *tvmú
mu-l day *m-tvmú; i-mu (hl) today; sha-bu (ml) yesterday (sandhi shang-mu); NB NUM sha-
      bu NUM days ago vs. sha-bu shang day before yesterday; ka-bu (hl) tomorrow (sandhi
      kang-mu); NUM ka-bu NUM days from now vs. ka-bu-kang day after tomorrow.
mu:-m wind *múhu, see fu
muh-m picture *m+usu see shu; muh-baq (mm) a camera (picture+box)
mung-m to suck on s.t. in the mouth (e.g. a piece of candy) *mum; mu-mung (mm) sucking
     sounds
mu:ng-m threshed uku (ready to be cooked) *múnu, see du:
muq-muq (mm) chewing noises (ult. < *múmut, see bu:q)
mu:q-m do not *múku [m-mukú (>mbugu> gwu > gu:-l to forbid??]
mu:q-l a bruise, bruised see gu:
muq-h to cover (for warmth) *kimút see kiwng
muÿq-m measurement(s), dimension(s) *múdur see dwr, myuÿq
muyh-m bone *músit see also fwiq; muyh dèyq (mm) rib-bone(s) see dziq, *dáDit
mÿ :-m the mouth *múya
mwa-lr to empty *bumá see bung, fwa
mwaq-m to shade (cast a shadow) *umáp see shuÿng
mweq-m the lips *muyák
mwÿ-m to flower, bloom *m+wíwi see wÿ
myayng-m inlay work, marquetry *i+mámiq see be:q
myè:ng-m the "wings" of flying/gliding animals *m+yè:ng; see also syn. pèyng
myò:ng-lr to oil, to lubricate *m+yaGun see yòwng
myu:ng-m destruction *m+yúhung see yu:ng, hyu:ng; myu:ng-ching (ml) The Destruction
     (nuclear war of 2701? p.m.)
myuÿq-m one foot (old measurement, approx. 10 in.) i+múdur see dwr
N
na-l no *vd-v-ná
na:-m to carry (genl.) *daná see dza:ng
na:h-hf enemy *násag
naq-h to cook (in genl.) *nap; pi:-naq (mh) to broil, cook over a fire; hi-nap (h) a cook, chef
naq-m to conceal, hide s.t. *sunát (see suÿng)
na:q-h animal, in genl. *nátak; sÿ naq (hh) stable, barn; na:-tsa (hh) hide, animal's skin; na:-
       pyèng (hm) animals (genl.) capable of flight/gliding (sandhi **naq+m-yè:ng)
na:q-m last, final; na-na:q-m finally *náCaC
naw-l not *vd-v-náB [or by analog. < “no”?]
nawh-hf to swim (< Kash nawus)
nawq-hf (n) answer, response *nátus       (*natús > doh-m)
nay-h a small insect spp. ~ants; nay-nay (hh) a sp. that destroys wood *naD
nayng-hf in ni:-nayng (hm) sunrise, traw-nayng (mh) moonrise (Vuruna) and
      sim.constructions relating to the appearance of heavenly bodies; *nángis see geh
nayq-h the buttocks *nátis see dih
ne-h to jump *nih see deh
nè-m to sink *danáy see dè:ng; nè-mi (mh) to drown
ne(q)- (toneless) combining form of neq 'person', often with sandhi, as ne-tru (mm) (old)
       aristocracy, upper class; nobility (people+blood); ne-kwr (ll) common people (neq+gwr),
       ne-pyaw (hh) traveller (neq+fyaw); ne-tu: (hm) ethnic group
neq-m person *níqa (see ka, nyeq, kang)-- often colloq. for "man, guy"
nèw-l air, nè-nèw (m-l) gas *náyu
ni-h two *hvní di-m second (if *hini, then *híni > i:ng-?)
ni:ng-hf sun *níngi (*ningí > gi:)
niq-h to jump     *niCV
niq-m ghost *qanít
niw-hf (math.) division *níhu see nyu
niw-m (math.) (square) root of... e.g. ay-h loq-m niw-m square root of 100; fang-m
      niw-hr (m,lr) cube root of eight (tone by analogy with maq-m)
niÿng-hf edible *i+niáng, see nyang, deng
no-m (colloq.) no, not; as pfx. un- *naB, see naw
noq-m together; combine, mix *núak noq-m ba-lr clan
noyng-hf an axe *náwiN see nweng
nr-hf (of things in a line), queue; series *níram see lleng
nu:-h the lopa, a domesticated sheep/goat-like animal; *unú
nuh-h a key *núsi see tsi, chi
nung-hf small flying insect, gnat *núni; nung-dih (hm) (insulting term, 'gnat's ass')
nuq-h smoked (of foods) *núda; see dwa; nge-nuq (lh) to smoke (food)
nu:q-h horn, of certain animals; horny núkuh see also gwo
nÿ-m there is (see dÿ:) *níwi (see shwi-lr)
nÿ:-m smoke *núDa see dwa
nÿ:q-hf a wound; wounded *níwak, see nyoq
nweng-lr to chop (with an axe) *nawíN see nòyng
nyang-h to eat *niáng see deng
nyang-tay (hm) twin (children) < *ni-hang tay '2 born children')
nyaq-m car, vehicle; (older, wagon) (*ni(h)áq)
nyaw-m, ngew-l onomat. for animal's whining, crying etc.
nyayng-lr inheritance, bequest *i+ngánit see diq
nyeq-h person, someone *y+níqa see neq, ka
nÿng-m ice, icy    *níwin (V2loss)
nyoq-h to wound, injure *niwák see nÿ:q
nyò-m gold; golden *niáw
nyr-lr star *ngiwár (irreg. ng > n/_y)
nyu-h to divide, split *nihú see niw
nyu: -lr sky niúB; nyu-l chÿ-m weather, climate (*níbu(bg) > niw; níuB > nÿw
nyung-hf not clear, vague, obscure **no+yung
nyuÿng-hf a loan; s.t. lent or borrowed *i+númap see moq
ŋ
nga:h-l hate, hatred *ngásag see xaq
ngaw-l pain, ache (esp. of head or body) *ngaLu
ngayng-l heavy *ngámit
nge-l to preserve, keep, save *ngih; nge-nuq (lh) to smoke (food), preserve by smoking; see
       nuq
ngeq-l rope *ngíqu     see kyu
ngew-m see nyaw-m
ngiwq-l a drink, beverage *ngíqu see ko
ngo:q-l throat (o: < oÿ) *ngúGaC (doubl. of ngugaC see gwaq ??)
ngòÿ-l pertaining to the family or household; domestic *ŋáBa (doubl. ŋabá, see ba)
ngu-l using/by means of/with (< ngung by anal.)
ngung-l to use *ngúmi (*ngumí > bwi ~bÿ)
nguy-l (animal's) snout, muzzle; (pejor) (human) face; *nguBi see also ngwÿ
ngwa-lr real, true, genuine *nguhá [*ngúha > nguÿ-l]
ngwÿ-l (of animals) to sniff *nguBí; ngwÿ-xyo (lm) to root in the ground; ngÿ-ngwÿ (ll) to
      sniff around, nose around, to pry
O
o-h it, that (near), the; it (non m/f), o-de they (non m/f) *(h?)ua
oÿh-h sour *úsam
Ò
P
pa-l tall (of people, objects) (*tabá, see taq-m)
pa-lo (hl) a cloak, cape, poncho, body-wrap for warmth (< Kash palo 'sarong')
pang-h fluid, liquid in genl. *pami see mi
pang-gr (lh) an orange fruit (< Kash pangoyor)
pa:ng-h hill, hilly *páhan
paq-h tattered, ragged *pátV; see hi paq
pa:q-hf shoe(s) *apád
paq-lò-she (mhl) ~paq-che (hl) an edible crustacean (loanword, see yeq)
pawh-h stomach gas *pásut see fuq; pa-pawh-hf to belch
payng-m a chisel (often in compd. with ...saw-h '...tool') *pámiq see ngung-payng, meq
payng-hf to meet, encounter *páDing
payng-ting hm friend, comrade (redupl doubl. *páDing-padíng)
payq-hf a root/bulb used in cooking, ~garlic *pátip
peng-l plank, board *pabán (with a-affect)
peng-m (unit of measure) gram, millilitre (equiv.in the Cindu metric system) *píam see cheng
peng-hf stinging feeling (also peng-juq 'stinging pain' +chuq); insect bite *páyiN see pyeng
pèq-hf to stand up (from sitting/lying) (*pátid irreg. è, see ti: leg)
peq-m stand up, perk up (of the ears); (interj.) pay attention! *píqa    ( *piqá > fa-h)
pewq-hf knife *pídaw see tò
pèyng-hf "wings" of flying animals (in disuse, see myè:ng) *pánid
pi- (usu with sandhi, < piq 'little' in old compds.)-- pi-kr (hl) pond, pool, pi-shèng
       (h,hf) stream, creek; pi-twi (hl) drizzle, mist; pi-sÿ: (hm) haze
pi:-l the lower leg, shin *tibí; bo-pi: (ll) the calf (< bo:+pi:)
pi: -m fire *tibíD pi:-m chaq-h flint (fire-stone) (see tsiÿq); pi-miÿ (ml) embers, glowing
       coals (...+miÿ 'end')
pih-h to win, conquer *tabís, see tsoyh
pi:h-h least < **pif < pi+pítiq see teq
pih-bÿng (hl) a k.o. flute *pis? (vl)Vpis?? + bang (breaking), bíwiN
pi-liq-hl a hot, pepper-like spice (< Kash pirit)
ping-h to think, ping-ping think over, ponder, consider *pila ???
pi-pò (hl) a sip of s.t., a little taste/drink irreg. < *pibáw see pò
piq-h little, pi-piq-h a little bit *píki; piq-ka boy, piq-tsa girl
piq-hf door *pídu
piw-hf to win over, persuade, entice *(k)VpiB
piwq-h mud, muddy *pítup
poq-h swollen *púak see pwaq, foq
po:q-m dull (not sharp, of a tool) *púad (with lengthening)
pò-l ~ pò-pò (lm) to sip *pibáw see pi-pò
pòw-lr learning, knowledge gained thru study; (modern) science (*t-babúh) (see mòq, fòw,
       bòw)
poy-hf memory (ability) *páwiG see pyoy, pwiÿ
poyh-h boat *pósi (< Kash)
pr hf gift *párad (see day)
pr m market *páray (irreg. *paráy > trè m) (source of Kash fale)
pr-h (open) sore *pírih
pr-te (hh) (of sores) to fester redup. pírih-piríh
pr-m ~pr-hu (m) usually (adv.) *pírud see tuy, tsuy
pu:-h shirt *púLu
pu: xi (mm) alcohol, alcoholic beverage (< *pu:ng+xi)
puh-h wife *pus
pung-h husband *pung; pung-bu (hh) husband and wife (no children); pu:-tay (hm) husband,
      wife and child/children ~family
pu:ng-m (n) reason, cause *púdung (see tu:ng); pu:-ngu-m (sandhi) because, since
puq-h dust; *puka (see ka-h, fuq)
puÿ-h palm of the hand *púha; tè-puÿ (h,h) sole of the foot
puÿh-hf inland, interior (land); countryside (dial **puÿf < *púpiw)
pÿ-h thin *píwi; see fÿ:
pÿng-m teens (pÿng ay, pÿng ni etc.) *píum       (piúm > pyung)
pwa-m flat *puhá see puÿ pwa-du flat land, plains
pwa-po (h) the popo, a commercially raised "lizard" ~food redup. *pua
pwaq-h to swell *puák, see poq, foq
pwr-m to heal; to treat medically *tubár (doubl. tuBár), see twr, tswr
pyèq-h suffering (n.); physical/emotional suffering/burden *i+pátin (irreg. è)
pyo-h to gouge, gouge out *piDúh
pwiÿ-hf to remember *pawíG (V1 del.); see also poy, pyoy
pwÿq-h to rot *puyút
pÿwq-hf rotten *púyut
pyeng-h to sting; stinging, astringent *payíN see peng
pyeq-hf clothing (genl.) *i+pádit (irreg. e) see tiq
pyoy-h a memory; memento, souvenir *i+páwiG, see pwiÿ
Q
qa:q-m liver *qátaD
qa:q-tay mh “heart and soul”, inmost being *qátaD-qatáD
qaw-ku: (mm) mossy; velvety in texture (redup. *qákuB-qakúB)
qe-r (mm) scales (of fish, certain "lizards") qeÿ +*úram; see lwang
qeng-m eye-brow, the brow-ridge of Gwr *qína
qew-m to stink, smell bad *qiB see hew
qewq-m to dig *qigu see ku; qewq-waw (+material) (mm) to mine for....
qeÿ-m fish, in genl. *qiGa
qoq-m (adv.) even *qup(V)
qò-m an orchard, or other grove of productive trees *qáwa
qòÿng-m leaf *qángul see ngung, kòÿng
qoyq-m cloth (genl.) *qáwit
qu:q-m a kiss *quLup (doubl. qulúp, see shuq)
quÿq-m mould, mildew *qúgub see kuÿq
qÿ:q-m vomitus *qúyak see xyaq
qÿ:ng-m round (circular, spherical) *qiBám see xyong, shÿ:ng
R
r-m to shape, to form, to mold *áru see lo
S
sah-h 1. the eye 2. window *sási
sa:ng-hf strength *sámal see fang-h (compd. sang-fang '....'?)
sa:ng-m throw away, discard *sámat
sang-m nine, tsang-go: (mm) ninth (< Kash sana)
saw-h tool, utensil, in genl. (often the 2nd member of compds with names of tools) *sáLa
sawh-h the shoulder *sásut see tsuq
sayq-hf revolution, cycle; season (of the year) *sábis see feh
seq-seq (hh) trade, commerce; also in toy-seq (fin.) exchange rate *síkar (irreg. e), see xr
sawng-hf danger, jeopardy *sa(N)u with diphth.
sayng-h coral; a reef *sánay
se:q-hf a trip, journey *síbaL see fyaw
sèÿng-hf river *sáDan; pi-sheng (hhf) (old irreg.compd.) small stream, creek (**piti+sèÿng)
sèÿq-hf a slash, gash (deep wound) *sáyat see sheq
sèw-h watch, observe sáyu [sayú > shò-h]
sèw-hf sad *sáDu see tsèw
so (toneless postposition) emphatic particle: just..., exactly..., precisely... *suh see su:h
so:ng-hf voice *súngaL       tsaw
sòng-hf refined, elegant *sáluh (irreg. ò; see sho; see also tsòng)
soq-h to like *suaq
sr-m (prep.) for, for the benefit of, on behalf of *sur
sr-h a mold, pattern *s+áru see r
sr-hf a sale, transaction; (idiom) for sale *súram see shong
su-pwi (hh) as if (conj.) < sandhi *suq+fwi
su:h-h (also redup. so-su:h-h) exact, precise, painstaking; correct (true) *súsuh, see fo, so
suq-h pretense, sham; (adj.) fake *súpi see fwi, su-pwi
su:q-h satisfaction, satiety *súkuq see xuq; su:-kuq (sandhi) satisfactory, OK (redup.sukup)
suÿ-h young, immature
suÿh-hf regret, sorrow *súsuL
suÿng-m s.t. hidden, stash, cache *súnat
suÿq-hf steam (n.) *súdur, see dzr
sÿ-h place, location *súi
sÿ:-h happening, event, occurrence *súya see shwe, shÿ:
sÿq-hf we *síwiC
sÿwq-hf sick *súyut see shwÿq, tsÿwq
sÿyng-hf difficult *súlid see shwiq; see also tsuyq
SH
sha-h to seem, appear to be...; sha-sha-h seemingly, apparently; as if *siá
sha-m which? *sirá (sh also < sv(kqgh)V- and (kgqh)vsV)
sha-m to smooth *sirá see shr
shang-h excess, remainder; as adv. too, too much *y+lan; see layng, llang
shang-h to wield/handle (e.g. weapon), to maneuver s.t. *sVlán
shang-m pass, elapse (of time); the past *saDáng/??; with time words, ...ago
1. sha:q-h a narrow/tight place *s+hálat; tru:-sha:q (hh) straits (geog.); see a:q
2. sha:q-h fenced in place, corral, pen, *s+yákar see ya:q, chr
shè-h to arrive *hasáy see hayh
sheq-m to defend *siDáC
sheq-h to slash *sayát (V1 del., a-affect) see sè
shèy-m a race (contest) *y+láGi
shi-h urine *sihí; shi sÿ (hh) toilet, privy, latrine (fèyng is more polite)
shi-m to transport, carry from one place to another *rVsí (*rAsi > lVh-m )
shi:-h to urinate *síhi
shi:-m to slither, crawl (like a snake) *lisíL see li:h
shih-m poverty **s+hih < *hiqís
shi:ng-h easy *sílip
shing-h island *hisín (hi:h 'surround/isolate?' *hísin)
shing-h to divide, divide up, apportion *lusíng, see luyh
shiq-h smooth(ly), effortlessly; fluently *silíp (see shi:ng)
shiq-m mail, letter(s) *qusiC see xiq, xyuyh
shiq-h to slide, glide *sílip (*silíp > shiq-m)
shiq-hf near, nearby
shiÿq-h a chair *sítaq see tsaq
shiÿng-hf long ago *síDang; ay ~ a:q __ intro.narr.particle, 'once, once upon a time, long ago';
      shing-h sheng-hf a very long time ago, far in the past (tone by modification) Irreg.
      shing < shiÿng
shiw-m excrement *sihíB see jiw, tsiw, shÿq-tsÿ
shiwng-hf moon, satellite *símu; shiw-pu (hm) full moon (redup. *símu-simú)
shiwq-hf rent (money paid or received) *síGut see shu:q
sho-h who, which, that (rel.pron.) *siúh
sho-h fine, delicate *salúh see sòng
sho-m who (indirect Q) *siúh (tone by analg.)
sho-m fog *siwá see pi-sÿ:
sho:-h to wash (things, not the body) *suyuh (irreg. o:) see tsÿw
shong-m to sell *surám (breaking), see sr (> Kash *sërum?)
shoq-h entrance, entryway
shoq-m to open up, lay open *hisúq
shr-hf seven *si(vd)vr jr-m seventh
shr-m in order to (conj.) *suqír
shr-m smooth (of a surface) *síra see also sha
shr-h ~shr da:q (hl) clearing in the forest
shu-l tube *sihú
shu-h to draw (make a picture) *usú see muh
shu- (toneless part.) (do something) wrongly/accidentally, mis- irreg. < i+súpi; e.g.chaw-shu
       (h) misspeak, gwaq-shu (l) swallow the wrong way, gag/choke on s.t.; muyh-shu (h)
       ~uh-shu (l) ( to sprain, put out of joint, etc..
shu-m thigh *wisú
shu:-h yellow *sulú
shu:h-hf advantage, benefit; usefulness *i+súsur see sr, tsr
shuq-h false, wrong *i+súpi, see fi, fi:
shuq-m to kiss *qulúp see qu:q
shuq-hf rule, law *súpus; shuq-bay (hm) court of law        [supús > fu:h -h]
shu:q-m to rent, hire *siGut see shiwq
shung-m clear, transparent *s-yum see nyung
shuyq-hf reflection, *s+húqiN see hing
shuÿng-hf shade *s+úmap see mwaq
shÿ:-h (aux.) marker of the accidental passive, 'to get (verb)ed' *i+súya, see shwe, sÿ:
shÿq-h (slang, curse) shit; shÿq-tsÿ (lit., fig.) asshole (analog. < shiw+tsiw)
shÿ:ng-m a circle
shwang-m to list, itemize *rusán (V1 met.) see luÿh
shwaq-h to fear, be afraid *husák see huÿh
shwayq-m betting place, casino *sÿ+wágit see wayq, yoyq
shwe-h to happen, take place, occur *suyá see sÿ:, shÿ:
shwi-m to settle, establish (a community) *rusí (V1 met.) or ?*suí see luh
shwiq-h difficulty, problem *súlid see sÿyng
shwÿ-h a decorative garden *w+wiwi, see wÿ
shwÿq-h to get sick (intr.), to sicken (trans.) *suyút
T
ta:ng-hf (old) royal, pertaining to royalty *tálaD see tray
ta:q-h to fall down (of person)
ta:q-hf otap plants in genl., various types (sim. to Cucurbita) *táhap
tang-h machine, device *parál
taq-m high, height; in taq baw mh impressive, magnificent (*tába; pa-l < *tabá)
1. taw-h truth *taB see daw
2. taw-h a plant and its extract, analgesic properties *táLu
tawh-hf to die *tásuh see dzo, tso-tso
tawq-m (useful) plant (n) *tátung see tsung, tsawq
tay-hf child; tay-tay m childish *táhi see also s.v. ga, dza
tay-lr sister of opp.sex (older/younger) *daháD
tay-jay to believe in...
tay-sèw-hm disappointed (heart+sad) see qa:q, sèw
tayh-hf mountain *tásid; pi:-tayh (mh) volcano; redup. tay-tsiq (hh) mountain range
tayq-hf the upper arm (shoulder to elbow) *tákir
tayq-h in tayq-dah (hl) (fem.) prostitute (pron. [tay-tah]); tayq-ka [tay-xa] (hm) id. (male)
       *tákis see chih
te-h to fry *kutíh; te-bè (hm) to deep-fry in oil
teng-h ...... *tan (with a-affect)
teq-m nothing; (math.) zero *tíqi
te:q-m love see chr, jr
tè-h the foot *lipáy; leyq-tè on foot, to go by foot, walk
tèy-hf month *táGi         (taGí > te:)
ti:-h leg *patíD (V1 met., **təiD)
ti:h-h a leak, drip; dripping *tísit see tsiq
ti-tsi:q (lh) a sneeze (onomat., irreg.tones) ult. < tihík, see tsiq
ting-h to suffer *patín (V1 met. **təin)
tiq-h to wear; to dress (trans.) *padít (V1 met.) see pyeq
to:h-hf iron *túdad (irreg. o: < oə); to-fang (hh) steel
tò-h cut with a knife, to slice *pidáw see pewq
toq-m the skull *túqu
toq-h to grow, increase *padúq
toy-h money *túaD see tway, tsway
toy-hf wood, wooden **tuGe < *tuGih
tòÿ-hf poison, venom *táwiw see twÿ
tòyq-hf coarse (texture) *táwig see twe:q
tu-h or (conj.) *tu; tu-tu (hh) ...or so, about, approximately
tu-l poem *kidú
tu:-hf group (esp. of people) *túLu; ne-tu: (hm) ethnic group
tu-br (hh) during (prep.), while (conj.), meanwhile (adv.); sandhi < tuÿng-mr < redup. túmar-
       tumár, see tuÿng
tu-keng (ml) stun-gun (< Kash kandukeñ) see llu-keng
tu-tra (hh) perhaps, maybe, it could be... (redup. *túla-tulá see tra)
tu:h-h protection, shelter *tusum see tsung, tsu:h
tung-h to look at *túli; ne-tung (hh) inspector (police, military etc.-- ne 'person' +...)
tung-hf a ladder *tunga
tu:ng-l to cause *pudúng (irreg. V1 met.)
tuq-h to knock *tuk; tuq-tuq (hh) sound of knocking
tuq-hf want, desire (n.) *túga see ka; NB SUBJ-hu tuq-hu 'SUBJ. would like...(polite request)'
tu:q-h to sleep *túku see tsu:q
tuq-hf far, far away, distant *tuta see tsa; tuq tsr (hf,h) the horizon
tuÿ-h so..., so much..., such... *túha
tuy-m common, usual, ordinary *pirúD see pr, tsuy
tuy-hf fur, hair (of Gwr, not of animals) *túBi see twÿ
tuyng-l thief (*k-dúlip) tru:-h tuyng-l (sea-)pirate
tuyq-m (natural) fermentation, leavening; any agent thereof e.g. yeast *k+dúbit (doubl. duBit)
tuÿ-hf ability, talent *túLa (doubl. *tula see tra)
tuÿng-hf interval, interim *túmar see tu-br
tÿ-hf boot(s) *tíwi
tÿng-hf knowledge (*tíwim) (see tsÿng)
tÿyng-hf suspicion *túliG
twa-h quantity, amount *tuhá see tuÿ
twaq-m to loosen, slacken *watát see wa:q
tway-h to earn *tuáD see toy, tsway
twe:q-m to coarsen (texture), to abrade, roughen *tawíg, see toyq
twr-m medical doctor *túBar; see also pwr, tswr
twr-h to curtain off, hide/conceal s.t.
twÿ-h fur (of animals), furry *tubí
twÿ-m to poison *tawíw see tòÿ
TR
tr-h prep., through *táru (see truq)
tr-hr a curtain *táwir see twr
tra-m can, be able *tulá (doubl. *túLa > tuÿ-hf
trang-h to try, attempt *talám
trang-m red *tVrán; trang-kr (m,hf) copper
traw-m (usu. hi traw) the larger moon of Cindu (Vuruna) *tvraB, see also bu-luÿng; br-m
      traw-m full moon
tray-h mansion; any large imposing building; in compds museum, auditorium, library etc.
       (old: palace) *taláD, see ta:ng <tálaD
tray-m floor *ratáD
trè-m to peddle (esp. if itinerant or on the sly) (*paráy); hi trè (mm) itinerant peddler
       (modern, traveling salesman)
treng-m red *tV(rl)án
treq-m rip apart/violently *taríq (irr. V1 met.)
tri-m (and) then, next *tvrí
tri-tri (hh) happiness redup. *tilí, see tsi:ng,
tring-h dry *taríN; tring-tsu (hm) straw; tring-du (h,lr) mainland; also, the planet they live
       on (Kash cindu is borrowed); tring-yung (h,lr) desert (sandhi, pronunc. [tri nyung])
triq-h to retreat, go back (to...) *tVrip
triÿ-m to suspect; (passive) be suspected of... *tulíG see tÿyng
trong-m tusk; fang *ratám
tru:-h sea, ocean *rutúB
truh-h to burst *lutús; see lu:q, lyu:q, lu-truh
truq-m go through, penetrate *tarú(tk)
truq-h to dip, immerse *talúp; truq-dang (hl) to dye see dang
TS
1. tsa-h (n) skin *tusá (see dza-l)
2. tsa-h to go away; depart *tutá see tuq
tsang-h to ripen, to age *lipán (V1 met.) see liÿq, biÿq
tsaq-h kitchen *s+nap see naq
tsaq-m to sit *sitáq see siÿq
tsaw-h honest, upright *tataB (redup. of taB, see taw)
tsawq-m (small) vegegable garden *s+tátung
tsay-l new *tasáD; ta-tah-h recent, recently; see tsè; tsay-tsè (ll) to renew (many senses)
tseq-h a skewer; to skewer *s+nákay
tsè-l again, anew; as post.part., re- e.g dè-tsè to re-roof *tasáD (irreg. è, tone)
tsèw-h sadness (redup. **sV-sáDu; see sèw)
tsi-h to lock *nusí see nuh, nyuh
tsi-bang (lh) (interj.) That's enough! Basta! (< Kash timbani)
tsi:ng-h happy *tili; no-tsi:ng (mh) unhappy see tri-tri
tsiq-h to drip, leak *tisít see ti:h
tsi:q-h to sneeze *tihík; see ti-tsiq
tsiw-h the anus *s+sihiB see shiw, jiw, shÿq-tsÿ
tsiÿ-hf work *tíG; tsi-doy (hm) wages, salary (old, < tiG+toy)
tsiÿng-hf to cut *tínim; tsi:-go:q (hl) to slaughter an animal (lit. cut-throat, sandhi < tsiÿng-
       ngo:q)
tsiÿq-hf to burn, be on fire (< *tíbiD, via tíi:b see pi:)
tso-tso (hh) dying, moribund *tasúh see tawh, dzo
tsòng-m coarse, inelegant (of behavior) **no-sòng ult. < *sáluh see sòng
tsoyh-hf victory *i+táBis (doubl. *tabis, see pih); tso-tsoy (hm) victorious
tsr-h a line (in drawing, math.), queue *s+níram see lleng; tuq tsr (hf,h) horizon
tsr-m to benefit; give advantage, be advantageous *susúr, see sr, shr
tsu:-hf grass *tiGu; tring-tsu
tsu:-h to regret, be sorry *susúL see suÿh
tsu:h-h refuge, place where one seeks shelter/safety *s+túsum see tsung
tsu:q-h knee *s+tútul see dzung
tsung-h west, western *sVsún
tsung-m to plant *tatúng see tawq
tsung-m to protect; tsung-dwi (ml) umbrella, tung-ning (mh) parasol, sun-shade        *tusúm
tsuq-h to carry s.t. on the shoulder *sasút see sawh
tsu:q-h bed, sleeping place *s+túku; tsu:-xiwng (hh) bedding (blankets etc. see kiwng);
       tsu:q-tswr (hm) hospital (pron. [tsu:tswr])
tsuy-m custom, usual practice *s+tuy < *pirúD see tuy, pr
tsuy-m (slang) the "balls" (scrotum) (s+duy < *dúBi) see duy, dwi, duy-sÿ
tsu-tsuyq (hh) hinder, get in the way, obstruct (redup. of tsuyq < *súlit)
tsuÿq-h the lap *s+tútak ('sit-place')
tsuyq-h obstacle, hindrance *s+súlit see tsu-tsuyq
tsÿng-hf to know (things); know how to... *tiwím (see tÿyng)
tsÿng-m (conj) but *timu (via **tim+irreg. breaking)
tsÿw-hf laundry (place) *s+súyuh see sho
tsÿwq-m sickness, epidemic *m+sÿwq < *súyut
tsway-h income, earnings *i+tuáD see tway, toy
tswing-h to choose *susín see suyh
tswr-m (public) clinic < s+twr *tuBár; tsu:q-tswr (hm) hospital (pron. [tsu:tswr]
U
u- (part.) just, only *hu SAME AS -SO
uh-l tendon; sinew *úsV; uh shi llu (l-l-m) artery (tendon-move-blood) (usA > šwV
u:q-h the food-grain uku *úku (< Kash?)
Ÿ
W
wa: -lr night *waGá
wa:ng-m the heart (anat.) *wáma
wa:ng-lr beast, (large) wild animal *waGáng
waq-hf (~wa:q, emph.) (interj.) cry of pain/amazement *wak (irr.tone)
wa:q-m loose, slack *wátat see twaq
waw-m cave *huáw; (metal/etc)+waw-m ...mine
wawng-m to plod, move w/difficulty but determination *wáLung (doubl. *walung > _ong??
wayq-l to bet, wager *wágit see yoyq, shwayq
wiÿq-m leather *wídib see dwi:q
wÿ-m flower *wíwi see mwÿ, shwÿ
wy:-m wave(s), surf *wíwa see fyo
X
xaq-h to beat with a stick; (agric.) to use a flail to thresh grain *qahát see ha:q
xaq-l to hate *ngaság see nga:h
xawq-h a cough *kákuq see xoq
xay-h (chem.) acid *kiháD (irreg.)
xè-h to shout *kikáy see xeyq
xèq-h to bite (of animals; or people/non-food) *kákir (irreg. è); see gèq
xeyq-h a shout, loud call *kíkay see xè, xi-kè; xey-keyq shouting, loud commotion
xi-kè (hh) to cry out (redup./sandhi *kíka-kikáy)
xi-m drunk, dizzy *qihí (see ki: < *N+qíhi)
xiq-h plate *kíka
xiq-m to communicate (with); to contact *m+qusíC see shiq
xiq-h to hammer, pound with a hammer *kasík see kayh
xoq-m a bridge *kúqu
xoq-m to cough *kakúq see xawq
xoq-h to squat *sikúq
xowq-m the other/opposite side of..., *kúqul; as prep. i-l.....xowq-hu (m) across... see xung
xr-h to exchange, trade, swap *sikár see seq
xu:-m moss, lichen *qakúB see qaw-ku
xuh-h to sharpen, hone *kihús (V1 del.)
xung-m to cross, cross over *kuqúl, see xowq
xu:ng-m bay (geog.) *s+gúlup see juq
xuq-h enough, sufficient *sukúp            su:q-h
xwè-h to murder, kill violently *qukáy         [qúkay > qò:q-m?]
xwè-m to collide, hit (object) *quqáy (V2 met)
xwing-m to choke, strangle *quqín see hoyq
xwr-m motor, engine; nyaw-xwr (mm) spec., automobile, motorcar wVqAr
xyaq-m to vomit *quyák (V1 del.), see qÿ:q
xye-m to distill *raqíh see layq
xyo-m dirt, soil, earth, the ground
xyong-m a ball, sphere, round object in genl. *qíBam; xyong-bè (mm) a deep-fried fritter or
      similar delicacy.
xyuyh-m communication, contact *i+qúsiC see xiq, shiq
Y
ya-h a push, shove *yulá (doubl. *yúLa see yuÿ)
ya-l hesitation particle, er..., well...
ya:ng-m bad (genl.) *yámah; ya:-nya:ng evil (adj, n.)
ya:ng-h to give birth; birth (n.) i+háhaN see hang
ya:q-h a fence *yákar see chr, sha:q
yay-h a wish, strong desire *híLaD (doubl. *hiláD, see lyay)
yah-m a lever; see mah-m (*y+ási) (*así via **səi > si-h)
yawq-h dibble-stick (for planting) *yáqu (spor.diphth.)
ye-m he, ye-de they (m/pl) *(hi)+ía
yeh-h she, yeh-de they (f/pl) *(hi)+ia+s ??
yeq-lr crustacean spp. sim. to shrimp *iDák; sè:-nyeq (hl) fresh-water (river+..., sandhi sèÿng-
       yeq), tru-yeq (hl) (salt-water, sea+... -- an imported variety is called paq-lò-she (mhl)
       ~paq-che (hl) < Kash pakivak roçe)
yè-l east, eastern *(h)iDáy ((h)íDay > ey)
yè:ng-hf to fly/glide (as certain animals can do) *yáyang (è: < èə) (often yèng in compds.)
yo-h branch *yuh, see also jo
yo:-l result, consequence *yúGaw (irreg. o: < ow); eq yo: (mm) therefore
yoh-m nice, pleasant *yúas
yò-lr room (place) *iDáw (ew < íDaw)
yòq-m dirty *yáquh see also xyo
yòy-m center; lòy-yòy (mm) the navel (*yáwi)
yoyq-m a bet, wager *i+wágit see wayq, shwayq
yòwng-hf pitch, tar (naturally occurring), yòwng-du (h,lr) oil (petroleum) *yaGun +du 'land'
yr-hf something written: a letter, document, message; inscription *i+úris see lwih
yr-h pottery, ceramics in genl. *i+áru see r, lo
yung-lr moor, wasteland, deserted/empty land *hiDún (*híDun > iwng???)
yung-m crystal; glass? *yum; yung tray (m-hf) Crystal Palace (historical) [see shung]
yu:ng-hf to break apart, to smash *yúhung, see hyu:ng, myu:ng
yuq-h insect/bug, in genl. *yúpu yè-nyuq-h flying insects in genl. (<yè:ng-yuq)
yu:q-m a root/bulb used in cooking, ~onion *yug (spor.length)
yuÿ-h to push *yúLa see ya
yÿ:q-m shore, shoreline; coast *yúyak see jaq




GWR LOAN WORDS IN KASH (not necessarily < Baw Da)
hang dzong du 'birth hearth land' > hanjo/mim
fal (dial.) strong in hece/fal 'steel'
tèng pong (name) inventor of cardboard > temboñ
..... 'pyramid' > kehomak
key gang > kekañ 'charcoal'
....nèw 'deadly air' > koneyu Carbon monoxide
ka lang bo (name, dwarf) > kambo myth.dwarf
kung da pr (myth) dragon-like beast > kundapor
kuq baw ..... > kupo 'parallel'
ku shing (lh) < Kash, the "kusimi"
.... > caki 'late'
luq fa ???.... ??? > ca/lupa 'big mess'
.... > ceho 'liberty, freedom'
chay nèw 'sharp air' > ceneyu 'ozone'
chih mang 'dance hall' > cifañ
tring du 'dry land' > cindu
dzo nèw ..... > coneyu 'nitrogen'
dzo yuq nèw .... > coyungeyu, coyuk 'methane'
ni kr (hh) two metal > nikor 'alloy of metals'
nyu shwi (not BD) > ñuçiyu 'weather, climate'
yas king (old) > yakiñ 'fulcrum of lever'
yas (old) lever, pry up? > e/yas 'lever', in yayas 'pry up with lever
sah ka shi <-->? sásakaç 'bigfoot type creature'
taw ko (kò?) trade name, ointment > id or tuko
taw (shii) trade name, ointment > tuçi
.....   > yawundu, yundu 'petroleum'
yaw gÿh 'moose-like anim., (dial. yalgəs)' > yawungos
tè mo heart/soul (bravery??)? > temo 'hero'
...nèw 'alive+air” > tundeyu CO2
taw baw .... > tombo 'magnificent, splendid' ???
Na Kwèy-Hu (name) mathematician > nakuweyu
nèw 'air' > ne/neyu 'gas'
pi: 'fire' in nika/pi/ki 'match'
ceng (trade name) in nimu ceñ 'crock pot'
ning naw br (sun stand still???) > nindopor 'Solstice'
noq ba clan > nopa (old) clan, later(obs.): moeity > other
nung diq > nundik 'noodnik'
nyaq-m > ??? ñaki 'car'
nyò feng “sherbet, gold snow” > ñofeñ
lu(s)-lus (old)clean?? k.o. soap?? > lambin/dulus 'hand/face soap'
law pa (flat bread) > lawu-pwa
le ba (math.) > lemba 'area (of a figure)'
lu nèw 'pure air' > luneyu oxygen
baw du 'great land' > pawundu, pandu 'continent'
pel mang (Old or dial.) > pel-mañ a constellation
pem (old) (fluid measure?) in pem, cipem etc.
..... > pinduka 'Carbon'
pi nèw 'fire-air' > pineyu 'Hydrogen'
pih bÿng 'flute, recorder-type' > pipoñ
pòw tsi yò 'science work room' > pociyo 'laboratory'
pr maw/mo .... > kaçe/pombro MRI, X-ray??
uy yawq 'plow' > pr/iyo (par+...) to farm; kepriyo farmer
pu: xi alcohol > puhi id.
maq maq tsung '100 squares' game > mamak-cuñ, mamacuñ id.
mey lat (dial.) .... > melat 'cannon'
.... trade name ~picture box??? > mupak 'camera'
wor sèt (vel sim., dial.) .... > voroset 'dome'
gwr (ethnonym) > angur id.
sha kong (myth) dragon <--->? açakon id, and a constellation
(ay to) '~agar-agar' > ayi-to id.
mi baw-bu:q > imbovu 'canal'
r po 'clay craftsman' > epro 'potter'
shu tube > eçu id.
r lo 'potter's clay' ??? > oro id.
r lo ming kaolin, porcelain clay > oromiñ id.
apral machine < *parál
ciñuñ desert (tring-yung)

								
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