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BAU DA GWR DICTIONARY_ with etymologies _English alphabetical

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BAU DA GWR DICTIONARY_ with etymologies _English alphabetical Powered By Docstoc
					                      BAU DA GWR DICTIONARY, with etymologies


(English alphabetical order is followed, with some modifications)
Capitalized B,D,G,L are used to indicate the leniting consonants in reconstructed forms.
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(NB nyu or niw 'divide'?? (x-root of....) converse of maq-m-- *níbu> niw, *nibú > nyu (or
*ni()u)
[mo/mo:/maw/mò could be 'bravery, courage' N+....; adj form w/o N+...]
===========================
A
a:ng-hf tight, narrow; constricted *hálat see sha:q, daq
aq-h to bite (~aq-pa (hh) by sandhi < aq+fa) *hápa, see fa
a:q-hf that (far) *áhaC -q?
awq-h single, only **hatu < *had+hu
ay-h one; ay-nÿ-m a certain; *haD; fay-m first, fay-fay-m first of all (in a sequence) *m+haD
ayq-h bitter *hápit see fiq (see also dow)
ayq-m a tuberous food plant, vs. spp., cultivated by the Gwr , dial. **aydzi < ádi
B
ba-lr family *ŋabá
ba-m to discuss *dvpá(h?)
ba: lr under *babá (see baq)
ba:ng-l pot *bálang
ba:ng-m trust (n.) *báham (see fang)
bang-l good *bangi
baq-l bottom *bába (see ba:)
baq-m a box, carton, container *bápa
baq-m (used to mark future tense) < ba:q 'about to'
ba:q-l pillow, cushion *baGat
ba:q-m about to; can mark the future tense (dial **bart < bátur) see dr
baw-h great, big *gapáB (irreg.doublet *gÁpab > gawq l much, a lot of); baw du (h,lr)
      continent
baw-m widow(er) ba... (male), dza...(female) *báLu
bawng-m not yet; bawng-dung-mm still not yet *báLung, balúng
bawng-l lake *bángut
bawq-m growth, increase *m+páduq see toq
bayng-m a porch, covered portico *bálay see dè; bayng-bay (mh) pavilion, gazebo
bayq-l to jerk *batiq see dzeq
bay-lr brother (of opp.sex, older,younger) *gapáD
bay-m house *báhi
bè-m cooking oil (usu. < vegetable source) *báya
beq-m other, another *m+líat see lyaq, leq; beq-beq (mm) et cetera, and so forth
be:q-l to inlay *mamíq (e: < -əe-) see myayng
bèwq-lr a lamp
bi-bi (mm) several (redup. < *ngapí
bi:-m to cost *mibí see miw, biw
bing-l to call, summon *gapín, see gayq, jayq
bi:ng-l seed *bíngi
bi:ng-lr edge, rim *biDín see fi:ng
biq-lr to make heavy/heavier; to weight down; *ngamít see ngayng
biÿq-m ripeness; maturity *m+liÿq < *lípan, see liÿq, tsang
biw-l cheap, inexpensive < **no-miw, *míbi
biwq-l a drill, auger *bíqur see kr
bo-m to brush the fur *lamú see lawng
bo:-l fat; thick (of objects) *búBaw     see bwò, fwò
bò:-l to hunt *baGáw see bò:q      HUNTER???
bo-bwaq (lm) the feeling (real or imagined) of insects crawling on one's skin; see bwa:q
bong-m darkness, lack of light *m+raúm see long, lòng
bo:ng-l game (see dong
boq-l to tap (certain trees) for their sap *dabút, see dzòwq
bo:q-l the stomach *búqut
bò:q-l a hunt, hunting; a quest *bágaw (doubl. *baGáw see bò:)
bòw-l to teach, instruct *báBuh (irreg. báboh) (see fòw, mòw)
bòwng-l thunder *báBum see bo:ng
boyng-l praise *búlan see dwang
br-l gift, endowment (formal) *m-párad
1. br-m color *báran see dang
2. br-m (single) grain of s.t. e.g. sand, uku, etc. búrit see dwiq
3. br-m perfect, complete *búran see dwang; br-m traw-m full moon; (geom.) br-m kòng-l
       ko-h square; br-m hr-ko(lh) equilateral triangle
bu:-lr to heat *bubú see buq
bu-luÿng (l,hf) the moon Vuruna (< Kash id.), see traw
bung-m empty *buma see mwa
bu:ng-m sticky; bu-bu:ng (mm) slightly sticky, tacky *bulut; bu:-bi (mh )glue (n.) (sandhi
             bu:ng+mi), see also du:t
buq-l hot *búbu see bu
bu:q-l path; lane, street, road; baw-bu:q (hl) (main) road, highway; mi baw-bu:q canal (*búpu,
       see fu-lr); bu:q jo (lh) crossroads
bu:q-m wrapping, covering (n.); (sci.) membrane *búkus see guh
bu:q-lr to chew *mumút; see muq-muq
buÿ-m top surface of...   *buha
bÿyq-l a defeat búbir see bwr
bwa-lr top (point), apex; i...bwa-hu above, over (prep.) *buhá
bwa:q-l insect spp., ~spider *bawág
bweng-m greying, grizzled (of Gwr fur) *ubán
bwè-m to get rich, prosper *lumáy see loyng
bwi-l to take root *dubí see du:q, dzu:q
bwiq-m must/ought/should (moral oblig.) *mumít
bwò-lr to get fat (intr.); to fatten (trans.) *buBáw see bo:, fwò
bwr-lr to pull; tow *bawár; bwr-poyh (lm) (tone sandhi) barge
bwr-lr to defeat *bubír see bÿyq
bya-m proper, fitting, correct *mipá (V1 met.) see miq 'right'
byong-l cancer, cancerous *yabúng
byoq-m a borrower, person in one's debt **niq+moq see numáp
CH
cha-h to kick *kirá; see chr; cha-cha (hh) to prod, goad
chah-h slow? lazy?*ti(dh0)ás (chah (kg)i > Kash caki)
chang-h face; front < *kián
chaq-h rock, stone *tisák (via **tsyak, irreg. V1 met.)
chang-h the face *kián
chaw-h to speak, say *kiá(BL)w (see kew)
chaw-l hinder, get in the way *titáB (V1 met.)
chawng-h to read *kayam (via **kyam +breaking); chaw-jawng literature; see kè:ng
chawq-hf the cheeks <**chang+ko < *kián+kúa
chay-hf sharp, acrid *kiháD
chayq-m immoral; immorality *i+tákis see tayq, chih; jèq
chè-h to fight *kaláy see kayng, gwèng
che:-m to bake, roast *kiGíh see key
cheh-h (be) cold see chiÿ
cheng-hf (colloq.) the Cindu kilogram/litre (contraction of chih-peng (hm), now rare)
cheq-h to paint *kiDát see chiÿq
chi-h a lock **i+tsi < *nusí see nuh, tsi
chi-m awkward, gauche *kirí see kr 'left'
chi-cha (hl) a small lizard (< Kash cicak); chi-myèng (hm) spec., flying/gliding lizard spp. in
       genl. (~birds) (< chi+m+yè:ng)
chi-li (hm) the Cindu kilometre, 1000 li (1.1172km) (chih+li)
chiq-h a louse/flea-like insect that can infest the fur *ikit
chi:q-hf crowd, multitude, lots of... *kítis
chih-h thousand *kitís jih-m thousandth; chi-chih-hf thousands of..., by thousands
chih-m a dagger, knife for fighting *kirís
chih-lr lewd, lascivious *takís
ching-l war, warfare *pagíng
chi:ng-hf peak, summit, apex *kíngi
chiÿh-hf winter *kíDas see cheh
chiÿq-hf paint, painted *kíkat see cheq
cho-h if (conj.) *kiwá see kÿ-cho
chr-h to fence in, to enclose *yakár see ya:q
chr-hf a kick; urging; impetus see cha
chr-m to love *tidár (V1 met) see te:q; tiq-chr (hm) to adore, dote on, idolize see jr
1. chu-h to question, ask *kuyú (irreg. non-diphth.)
2. chu-h to give off sparks *kulú (see ku: < doubl. kúLu)
chu-m penis *kiBú
1. chung-h a funnel *kalúN
2. chung-h to descend, go down *kilún see kÿwng
chuq-h be in pain; painful *kVlút
chÿ-lr state, condition; nÿ-l shwi-m exist, existence (*s-niwí via tsyÿ))
D
da-h north *bVtá
da-l to argue *m-dah ?? bVdáh
dah-l (adult) woman (see dza) *dása
daq-m to constrict, tighten **m+lát < *hálat see a:ng, sha:q
da:q-l forest (dense) see also ga:
da-tsa (lm) effeminate (< dah+dza)
dang-lr to color, add color to *barán see br
da:q-m king *dádu (via **da:d spor.length) see also dzu
daw-h you (sg/pl), daw-de you-pl. *dáhu
daw-h (factually) true; luh daw (hh) “amen”, that's right! absolutely! so be it! *m+taB
dawh-m salt, salty *dásuk see dzuq
dawq-l ~daw-dawq (ll) chin-hairs, that if untrimmed will grow into a sort of "beard/goatee"
      *dágut
day-l give, endow, donate (formal) m-tay < paráD (see br);
day-m tree *dáhi
day-m give, lend *paráD (see pr); in several compds: day-tÿng (mh) to inform, make known;
      day-kew (mh) to communicate; day-sah (mh) to stare (at)
day-nyang (mh) to feed (lit. give-eat)
de- (part.) plural marker (follows base) *gvtáy (analog.)
de-l fathom (meas. of the outstretched arms, about 5ft) gatíh; ku:ng de (lr,l) half-fathom
        (outstretched arm to nose, about 2-1/2 ft.); see gayq
de-lr younger sister (of female) *gatíh
deh-h a jump, leap *niníh < *nih, see ne
dè-h much, many *gvtáy
dè-hf language *dáya
dè-lr roof *baláy see bayng
de:-hf to deliver *(bg)a(dt)íh
deng-hf food (*m+níang, see nyang)
dè:ng-m sunken/depressed place
deq-m ~deq-deq-m not very..., very little... (polite negative, ~Ml. kurang) < **no+teq < pitíq
     see teq
deq-lr younger bro. (of male) *gatíq
deÿ-l to simplify, make easy; to facilitate *madíG see mèyq
di da: (m-h) glad, joyful; rejoice (uncert. origin; see also tsi:
di-l (prep) alternative form of i: locative prep. *idi cd be < *adí, or shd be dzi?? irreg??
di-lr to pick up (lit. and fig.) *badí (via **bdəi); di-lliq (lm) steal s.t. surreptitiously, shop-lift
di:-dzu (h,lr) the supreme god in (most) Gwr religions (sandhi, m+ni:ng 'sun' +nyu: 'sky'-- the
       loss of length (u: > u) and resemblance to dzu 'rule' is fortuitous)
dih-h (slang) butt, ass (buttocks) *natís see nayq (has to be V1met.)
diq-lr to inherit *nganít see nyayng (V1 met.)
diw-l motion, movement, gesture *díGu (see dzu:) shd be dziw
dong-l to protrude, stick out *gadúng see gòwq
dòng-l to play; dò-dòng l-lr playful(ly) (*dáung; *daúng shd be dong lr 'game, sport?')
doq-m to stop (bg)Vtuq or *duqV
dow-m alga sp. from which a gelatin-like (ayq-dow) product is derived *dáwu
dowq-m (prep.) with, accompanying...
doy-l mix, combine *dúaD (dway)               (*dúiq > dÿq *duíq > dweq m) of *dáwi,
      duBG(ih,ay)
doyh-l life, existence *dúsaD see dzay
doÿq-l fruit; (fig.) yield; (fin.) interest *dúdaB see dzow
dòy-l flood (n.) *dáBiD see dwey:
dr-m to go (to); return to... *batúr see ba:q
du-m to soften *lumú see lu:ng
du-lr land *batú; du-llong (lm) peninsula (land+arm); du-ma: (lm) earthquake
du-chu (mm) the male organs, in genl.; (slang) a stud, very masculine man (duy+chu)
du: -l bloody *dúLu (doubl. *dulú see llu); du shiw (lm) dysentery (bloody stool)
du:-m to thresh uku *munú see mu:ng
dung-l cape (geog.) *dung see dong
du:ng-l guts, intestines *udúng
duh-h to answer *natús (see nawt)
duh-l black *dúsv
dung-h soup *(bgN)vtúng
du:q-m root *dubi (with V-length), see bwi, dzu:q
du:q-m to glue, attach *bulút see bu:ng
duy-m testicle(s) *dúBi see dwÿ, tsuy; duy-sÿ (mh) the scrotum (lit., testicle-place)
duÿng-m the back (anat.) *dúnud
dÿng-hf with great effort, forcefully (e.g. yuÿ-h dÿng-m push hard!) *dúin see dwing
dwa-m to smoke, give off smoke *nudá see nuq (doubl. núDa see nÿ:)
dwa:-l to fish with a net; to net *luBáG
dwang-lr to praise *bulán see boyng
dwang-m to perfect, to complete *burán see br
dwè-m few, a few < **no-day < naw+gVtay
dwèy-lr to flood *daBíD see dòy
dwi-lr rain *duhí; pi-twi (hl) drizzle (lit. little rain)
dwing-h to force, apply force to *duín see dÿng
dwiq-lr ear/stalk (of grain) *burít
dwi:q-m to tan hides for leather *widíb see wiÿq
dwr-m to measure *mudúr; see muÿq, myuÿq
dwÿ-l fertile (of males) *duBí see duy, tsuy
dwÿq-lr to ferment (esp. of certain tree-saps) *duBít, see dzuiq, tuyq
dÿ: -lr there is not (see nÿ) *na+níwi via nd-ə-iw
DZ
dza-dzay-mm lively; carbonated, fizzy (redup. of dusáD, see dzay)
dza-l to skin, flay *Ntusá (cf. tsa 'skin')
dza-l to nail, fasten with nails *gidá see jiq
dza-lr female *dasá; dza-tay (m-hf) daughter, cf. piq-tay-hm girl
dza-sÿ (lh) vagina; the female organs in genl. (lit. female-place) see dza:h
dza-m to speak (orate ~a language) *dayá see dè
dza:h (pejor.) c*nt, woman, broad, slut etc. (< dza-sÿ)
dza:ng-m load (n.) *i+dána see na:
dza:ng-m peel, rind, skin (of fruit,veg.) *i+dálap see llaq
dzaq-lr to replace, substitute *minág see me:ng
dzaq-m to sail *dihát; dzaq-jaq- to sail close to shore, sail coastwise (+ jaq 'shore')
dza:q-hf the large fireplace that heats many Gwr homes; modern, by ext., central heating
       *s+dádun see dzong
dzawng-m a strip of s.t.; long/thin/flexible in shape *i+dálaB (irreg. -aw-)
dzawq-l in weaving, the woof *i+dáqaw see kò
dzay-m to live, living, alive *dusáD (see doyh)
dzeng-m to control (vd)idáN ( (vd)iÿq)
dzeq-lr a tic, jerky motions **deq-deq < *batíq
dzi-l five; fifth *dVsí
dziq-m layer; in layers; story of a building *daDít
dziq-l motion, movement; gesture *dígu see ju
dzi:h song *dísis see jih
dzi:q-l ear(s) *dígis see jih
dziÿq-m sail(s) *díhat see dzaq
dzo-lr dead *m+tasúh see tawh, tso-tso
dzong-lr to dance *diwáng
dzong-m hearth, fireplace; home *dadún see dza:q
dzow-lr to bear fruit; (fig.) to yield, (fin.) to pay interest *dudáB see doÿq
dzòwq-l sap of trees, in genl.; liquids derived from plants, in genl. *i-dáBut (doubl. *dabut, see
     boq)
dzr-m finger *didír; tè-dzr (hm) toe
dzr-m to steam (food) *sudúr see suÿq
dzu-l to move (make a motion/gesture, change position) *diGú (see diw)
dzu-lr to rule, to reign *dadú, see da:q
dzung-h to kneel *m+tutúl see tsu:q
dzuq-l time period; when *dvsúC; see jo-juq (lm), ji-juq (hm) ALSO 'THEN' (TIME-
       FUTURE)
dzuq-h to salt, preserve by salting *dasúk see dawh
dzu:q-m take root, be rooted, (fig.) established *i+dúbi see du:q, bwi
dzuyq-m the fermented sap of certain trees *i+dúBit, see dwÿq
E
e: -hf (~ye) yes *íDa (irreg.via íya > e0ə > e: -- ye is analogical)
e(:) -l hesitation particle; well, er; e ya lh (narr.part.) and so, so then (analogical form)
eq-h unripe; raw, uncooked *íat
eq-m and *at; eq yo: (mm) and so, therefore (*at+yúGaw)
È
F
fa-h pay attention, be alert (*piqá; see peq) fa-faq (hl) look out! careful! (tones by analogy)
fa-h tooth *hapá see aq; fa lawng (hh) toothbrush
fa-m to pack in a box, crate, container etc. *bapá see baq
fa-l to approach, come near *sibá see shiq
fang-h strong *samál see sa:ng-hf
fang-lr to trust *bahám (see ba:ng)
fang-m eight, pang-m eighth (< Kash fanu)
fawh-h current, stream; fawh lliÿ (h-lr) electric current *s-páhus fuh?
fay-m first, fay-fay-m first of all (in a sequence) (< *m+had 'one')
feh-m turn, revolve *sabís (sayq)
fèng-m snow; to snow *piqán WRONG
feq-h upset, bothered (*pVpíq or *pVpát ??)
fèyng-m ~fè:ng bathroom, bathing place *s+mánid
fi-h to lie (tell a lie) *supí see suq, fi:
fi:-h a lie, falsehood; fi-fi: (hh) lying, mendacious **y+fi < *supí
fih-h silver *hipís
fi:ng-m seed-bed (place where one starts seeds) *s+bíngi
fi:ng-hf precipice; cliff *s+bíDin
fiq-h to make bitter (flavoring); fig. to embitter *hapít see ayq
fiq-l a burden *s+biq < *ngabít
fi:q-m a factory *s+míkim see ging, mi:q
fiw-m vicious, nasty, horrible *qapíB
fo-h to correct, amend; to edit *pasúh see su:h, so
foq-h a boil, cyst *s-púak see pwaq, poq
fòw-l lesson, instruction *s-báBuh (irregl -oh) (see bòw)
fr-m thatch (for roofing) *qapár
fu-lr to walk *bupú (see bu:q-l)
fu-m to blow (on...)
fu-h dust, dusty *hapú
fuh-h to flow pahús (see fawh)
fung-l to boil (trans/intr.) *sabúN
1. fuq-h ashes (also: pi: fuq mh) (contr. < **pi: púk *kapúk)
2. fuq-h flatulence, fart (polite) *pasút see pawh
fÿ:-h skinny (of people) redup of pÿ 'thin' with analog. long V
fwa-m a drain; to drain; fwa mi (mh) sewer, drainage system; fwa ka (mh) sewage
fwiq-h a fart; to fart (analog. < fuq)
fwi-h to pretend, feign *supí (V1 met.) , see su-pwi
fwiq-m bony, skinny, emaciated *musít (V1 met.) see muyh
fwò-m thickness **s+buBáw see bo:
fya-m package **i+fa < *bapá, see fa, baq
fyaw-h to travel *sibáL (V1 met.) see se:q; fyaw-tung (hh) to tour, inspect; ne-pyaw (hh)
      traveller, tourist;
fyo-m rough (of water) *wiwá, see wÿ:
G
ga:-l the chest *gáGa
ga:-lr obscure, mysterious, murky see da:q
gaq-l thick, bulky (like a tree) *gágu see gu
ga:q-l pus *ngakáq
gang-h coal (the fuel) *bukáN
gawng-l early morning *gáLang; gawng-ji (ll) dew
gawng-l hand (*gáhung, rel. to 'four') see jawng, gòng-koh
gawq-l much, a lot of *gáLuC
gayng-l even (of numbers) *gálit see jiq, jayng
gayq-m to measure by fathoms *gátih see de
gayq-l a call, summons *gápin, see bing, jayq
gè-l to have (in one's possession), possess *gáya; gè-ja to control (redup. *gáya-gayá)
gè-h to stab *nakáy; see also gè-m, tsèq
gè-m to penetrate, go into/through **m+nakáy
geh-lr to appear, show up, come into view, arise *nangís see nayng
gèq-l the womb, uterus *gáik
gèq-m a bite (wound) *m+kákir (irreg. è) see xèq
ging-lr to make, to do *mikim; see mi:q, fi:q
go-lr trousers *magú; ba:-go (lm) leggings; long underwear
go: -l to count *m-gúah (irreg. o:)
go: -m number (luh-l go-m 'prime no.') *gúah (irreg. o:, tone by analogy); (postposed to
       number) forms ordinals for 8,9, and all others that lack a specific ordinal form, colloq.
       for all numbers (entire compd = mid tone); na-h kwèy-hu (f-h) go:-m “Fibonacci”
       numbers
gò-l hard (not soft) *gáwa, see gwa
gò-lr hunter *bagáw see bò:q, bò:
gòng-koh (lh) a handspan (about 9") irreg. < gawng+hoh 'hand-wide'
goq-l to kill *gúaq (guáC > gwaq-lr if C=voiceless)
gowq-l a protruberance; knob; visible growth/tumor on the body *gádung see dong
gr-m to do, to act *mikúr (see miwq)
gr-l storm, to storm *gúraL see jaw
gu:-l to bruise *mugú see mu:q
gu: lr trunk of a tree *gagú
guh-h to wrap, wrap up *bukús see bu:q
guh-m cloud, cloudy *gúsi
gu:q-l ditch, moat *gútuk      duq??
guÿ-l sexual, pertaining to sex *gúBa; guÿ-guÿ (ll) sexually exciting, pornographic; "turn-on"
guÿng-l (n) story *gúlap
gwa-lr to harden *gawá
gwang-h to close the eyes *dukám (V1 met.)
gwaq-l swallow *ngugáC; gwaq shu (l-l) esophagus (doubl *ngúGaC >ngo:q-l throat?)
gwaq-lr ...... *gaBáq
gwèng-lr (mil.) a battle; to battle (**baw+kayng, irreg. è); pi-kwèng (mil.) skirmish (sandhi,
      piq+...)
gwo-m (of an animal) to attack with the horns; to gore *nukúh (V1 met.) see nu:q
gwo-l sex (acts) in genl., sexuality *guBá see guÿ
gwò-h to accompany, go with *dukáw (V1 met.) see doq
gwr-lr free *guBÁr or gaBAr NugAr
H
hang-h be born *hVháN (V1 del.) see ya:ng
ha:q-m a stick *háqat      see xaq
haw-h (n.) taste (of s.t.) *haháB [áhab would > aw(q), perhaps a:q via a:p??]
haw-hf (v) to taste, test *hahaB (tone by analog.)
hayh-hf arrival *hásay see shè
hayq-m outside, outdoors; exterior *qáqit see hiq; (as prep.) i-l.....hayq-hu (m)
he(:)-h (interj.) hey! Hail! (to call attention)
heq-m personal, private, one's own (by anal. < hi pers.article) heq kèy (mm)personal(given)
      name
hew-m smell, odor (bad) redup. *qi-qiB see qew
heyq-m poor *híqis see hih
hi paq (h-h) smaller moon (Lalap) (note xi = drunk? also in pu xi alcohol?)
hi- (part.) personal article (precedes, takes tone of next word) *hi (irreg. h-)
hi-hi: (lh) to laugh (irreg. < *qíhi-qihí, tones by imit.) see ki-hi:
hih-m to become poor *hiqís, see heq, shih
hing-m bright, shiny *huqíN (huyq) see shuyq
hiq-m to go out, exit *qaqít see hayq
ho-m six *huh go? ngo?-m sixth
hoh-h wide *húas        see hwa
hoq-m head *qVhúq
hoq-h to enter--go in, come in *huq see shoq
how-hf the nose *húhaw see also hwò
howq-h smell (pleasant/neutral) ult. < ?hò-hu with added final, see hwò
hoyq-m the neck *qúqin see xwing
hr-lr three *hvhVr ngr? gr? dr? third tone?
hr-hf to flee, escape *huhír see hwr
hu- (postposed part.) possessive marker *hu (irreg. h-)
hu: -m all *qvhuB or irreg. -h
hu: -h breast(s) of woman *húhu; day-hu (mh) to suckle a child (give+*huhú)
hu:ng-hf breath; hu:ng shu (h-hf) trachea *húhung
hu:ng-m to breathe *huhúng
huÿh-hf fear (n.) *húsak see shwaq
hwah-h to widen *huás
hwò-h ~hò: to sniff/smell s.t. (trans.) *huháw (V1 met.)
hwr-hr flight, escape, "on the lam" *húhir see hr
hyu:ng-h to destroy *yuhúng see y:ung, myu:ng
I
i: -hf this *ihi ? ; see ji-juq (hm)
i: -l locative prep. *idi (see also di)
ing-h the present *híli see li; ing-li (hh) nowadays, at present, currently
ing-l
i:ng ....? (rel. to 'two' < *híni, and ?fi:ng > m+híni?)
i:q-h tool, in genl. *íLit; i:-qoq a plow (< i:q-oq < úqi, see kwi)
iÿq-h the forehead, brow *íkan
J
ja-l what? *girá; ja-ngu: (ll) how? (manner) (+ngu-hu); ja-chÿw how? (condition) (+chÿ-hu)
ja-lr older brother (of male) *gará
jang-m in i-l .....jang-hu-m in front of... (<*di+ikán, V1 met.)
jaq-h in dzaq-jaq (mh) sail along the coast, sail coastwise (irreg. < *yuyák)
ja:q-lr brain *garáp (old: marrow, pith)
jaw-lr to storm, rant, rave, show great anger *guráL see gr
jawng-l to hold (esp. in the hand) *i+gáhung; jaw-jawng (ll) stingy, miserly
jay-l to believe *giháD; see tay-jay
jayng-m balance, equilibrium **y+gálit see jiq, gayng
jayq-hf be called/named *i+gápin, see bing, gayq
jeh-lr to freeze *giDás see jiÿh
jèq-m prostitution (irreg. è < m+chayq, see chih, tayq, chayq
jey-l a coat (clothing) *gíGay; baw-jey (hl) overcoat (heavy, for winter)
ji-l wet, damp *gi
ji-juq (hm) now, at this time (present); ....so (hmm) right now < di i dzuq
jih-lr to hear *digís see dzi:q
jih-m to sing *disís (V1 met.) see dzi:h
ji:h-l to rise, go up, ascend *ringís see li:ng
jiq-l a nail *gída see dza
jiq-lr to balance, be in equilibrium *galít see gayng
jiÿh-m frozen *gíDas see jeh
jiw-l to defecate (**m+shiw, analog. < shiw)
jo-juq (lm) then, at that time (in the past); ....so (lmm) just/exactly then (<di o dzuq)
jo-l who? *giBá
jo-h branching, having branches; jo-ni (hh) to bifurcate; ti-jo (hh) the crotch (anat.)
jò-m room, chamber *didáw
1. joq-lr there (at+there/that)
2. joq-lr tell a story, narrate *gulá(ptk) (see guÿng)
jow-l rubbing; a massage *rugáB see loÿq
jr-l odd (of numbers) *gí( )Vr
jr-h adoration, veneration **m-chr < *titár
ju-l to move, be in motion *digú see dziq
ju-ju (ll) to nudge/push, with the elbow *lagú see lawq
jung-l sweet *lugúm (doubl. lúGum see lu:ng)
juq-lr convex, in-curving *gulúp see
juÿng-m in i-l.....juÿng-hu-m in back of..., behind... (<*di+dúnud
juÿq-m a fantasy, day-dream *i+gúhat see kweq
K
ka-h dregs, residue, sediment; stuff (genl) *puká (see puq)
ka-l to want, desire *tugá see tuq
ka-m male (adj.) *niqá see neq, kang; ka-tay (h-hf) son, cf. piq-tay-hm boy
1. kah-h lazy (pejor.); see also kaw
2. kah-h ~ka(h)-shi (hl) Kash (borrowed [kaši])
kang-h to come *pikám
kang-m (adult) man, male person *niqáng
kaq-h to know (a person) *káta
ka:q-h nail, claw *kákiw; ka:q dzr (hm) fingernail, ka:q tè (hh) toenail; see kÿ
kaw-m lazy *miqáL      see also mewq
kawh-hf rafters of a house *kásaw
kawng-hf a mammal sp. capable of flight/gliding *káLung
kayh-h a hammer (dial. **kashi < *kási) see xiq
kayng-hf a (physical) fight *kálay see chè
kay-lay (lh) greedy, covetous (ult. < tugá hiláD, see ka, lyay)
kayng-hf a fight (physical) *kalay see chè
kayq-m viciousness; horror, horrifying event *m+qápiB see fiw
ke-h useless, pointless, futile *kía
ke-cha (hh) in vain (redup. *kía+kiá)
keq-h fish-hook *kíat see kyaq
kew-h word *kíaw
kew-hf a bee-like insect **kíyo < *kíyuh; kew-mi (hh) the honey-like nectar produced by
      them
kè-h plaza, square, open space *tikáy
kè:ng-hf book *káyam (irreg. è: < èÿ), see chawng
kèy-m name *káGi (*kaGí > kè:) kèy noq (mm) clan name, kèy ba (m,lr) family name; heq
      kèy (mm) personal (given) name
key-hf baked, roasted **kíGe < *kíGih see che:
ki:-m get/make drunk *N+qíhi
ki-hi: (lh) laughter **m+hi-hi:
ki-tsi (hh) itch (n. or vb) *kíti-kití
king-h (fulcrum: yah king= old yas king) *kíma (*kimá > nga-h)
kiÿq-hf paint, painted *kíkat see cheq
kiwh-h sharp (of a tool) *kíhus see xuh
kiwng-hf a blanket *kímut see muq
ko-h side *kúa see kwa-kwa; hr ko (lh) triangle and sim. for other geom.figures
ko-l to drink *ngiqú see ngiwq
ko-m question particle, precedes and follows (ult. < *kuq, with lost final by analogy)or *kuá??
ko-tso (l-l) ancient, antique; ho-tso guÿng history (by sandhi < hoq dzo)
kò-m a loom for weaving *daqáw see dzawq
kòng-l four *káhung (irreg. ò,tone) gòng fourth (*m-kòng); kòng+ko (lh) (side '4-lateral', luh
       kòng ko 'square'
koq-l old *gahúC; koq dzo (l-l) past, gone by (irreg. V1 met.)
kòÿ-hf the kawu, a food-animal; the meat is sim. to beef *káwa (irreg.diphth.)
kòÿng-l bare, leafless, of trees; deciduous (**no-qángul) see qòÿng
kòy-hf to doze off, take a nap *káway; kòy-kòy (hm) sleepy, nodding off; not paying
      attention, see kwè
kr-hf metal in genl. *kírV(C?)
kr-m left (hand, side) *kíri see chi
kr-lr to drill *biqúr see biwq
ku-l a hole in the ground; excavation *qigú see qewq
ku: -h spark *kúLu see chu
ku-shing (lm) small cat-like animal (< Kash kusimi)
ku:ng-lr half *gahúng (via breaking, irreg.length) rel. to gawng 'hand'
ku:ng-hf tumor/growth *kúBung
kuq-hf plant sp., an extract of the root is used to stun fish in streams *kuba (perh. < Kash, or
      vice-versa)
kuq-h (colloq.) OK, fine (see su:q, ult. < sukúp)
ku:q-hf a torch *kútum
kuÿq-m mouldy, mildewed *m+qu:q < *qúgub
kuÿq-hf fist *kúbap see also kwaq
kÿ-hf (n) question *kúyu (see chu)
kÿ-h to claw, scratch with the nails/claws *kakíw (see ka:q) shd be xÿ
kÿ-cho (hh) (tech.) if and only if... (redup. kíwa-kiwá, see cho)
kÿng-h (prep., adv.) down, downwards (irreg. < kÿwng)
kÿwng-hf descent, decline *kílun see chung, kÿng; ni:ng-kÿwng (h,hf) sunset
kwa-h same as, equal *.....?; ADJ kwa N as ADJ as (a) N kuhá or kawá or irreg. tugá (V1
      met)
kwa-kwa (hh) side by side
kwaq-h to hit with the fist, to punch *kuBáp (dial., irreg. a)
kweq-lr to imagine, to fantasize, day-dream *guhát (V1 del, a-affect) see juÿq;
      kwe-kweq (lm) supposing..., suppose that...
kwè-m to nod the head (as greeting; as assent) *kawáy, see kòy-kòy
kwi-m to plow **m+qwi < uqí
kyaq-h to fish with hook and line *kiát see keq
kyu-lr to tie (with ropes) *ngiqú; kyu loÿ (lm) to tie/make nets; see ngeq
L
la-h thing *halá
lah-hf to cut off, remove; amputate *lása; lah tsa hh to skin/flay
lang-h full *láni see lle
lang-m fragrant *ráni
la:ng-h thread *lála; la:ng-dzawng (hm) in weaving, the warp threads (lit. long thread)
laq-laq-h damned, accursed      *lá(C)V
laq-h to float, drift *látV
laq-m crusted/accumulated dirt on the fur/skin *ráki
lawh-m requirement, obligation, duty, task *ráhus see loh
lawng-hf a brush (for personal grooming) *lámu (dipth.) see bo
lawq-hf the elbow *lágu see ju
lay-hf what, that which (rel.pron.) **la-de (lit. things)
lay-m ???*raD
layng-h more (in comparisons) *lan (breaking) see llang, shang
layq-h to spatter, splash *látip
layq-m distilled; hard liquor *ráqih see xye; lay-layq (mm) (colloq.) liquor, booze; ne-layq
      (mm) (colloq.) heavy drinker, sot, drunkard
lè: -hf to run *laGí see shèy
lèy-hf bowl *laDay
le-m (as particle) lacking in..., -less e.g. le-su:h (mh) careless, imprecise (< le: 'without')
le:-m without (prep.) *ríha (irreg. e:) (see lya)
leng-m sudden, fast; leng-leng mm suddenly *ran
leq-h different *líat see lyaq, beq
leq-m wall *rati (**rat with a-affect)
lèw-hf progressive marker, be...ing *láyaw
lèÿng-hf to wait *láyaN (yang < **lyaN)
li-h now *hilí see ing
li-m the Cindu equiv. of the metre, approx. 1.1171m, 44 in. *ri (anciently, one pace);
       li-li (mm) to measure (roughly) by pacing off
li:-m to clear (esp. of fields); open, unecumbered *harí see shr
li:h-h snake *lísiL see shi:
li:ng-h light (weight) *línih see lle
ling-hf (prep., adv.) up, upwards *ríngis (irreg. short i) see ji:h; NB ling pa:ng (hf,h) up
       (a,the) hill vs. pa:ng ling (h,hf) uphill
liÿq-hf ripe; adult *lípan see tsang, biÿq
liwng-hf calm, serene *língu (irreg. diphth.) (ju/jÿ < lingú)
liwng-h the chin *límut
lo-h sated, filled; satisfied   *luh or lúa or halú (v1met.)
lo-m clay, esp. potter's clay *arú (via **rəu);
loh-m (aux) have to, must *rahús see lawh; see also mwiq
long-m dark *raúm; bong-m darkness (m+raúm) see lòng
lòng-h (prep.) from, out of *láun; lò-ngo (hh) since (temporal) (sandhi, from+that)
lòng-m shadow; (fig.) soul *ráum; ghost (spec. of a person) lo-dòng (mm) (sandhi < redup.
      *raum) see also long
loq-m hundred (< Kash rongo via **loNk); doq-m hundredth; lo-loq-m hundreds of..., by
      hundreds
loq-m to fuck *rúqa; lo-cha (mm) of animals, to mate (irreg. < loq-xya); loq-ka (mm) (male)
      sodomy, sodomite (generic, does not refer to any specific act)
lòwh-l fringe *ráBus
lòy-m the human body *lawe irreg. < *láwih; dzo-lòy l-lr (l-m?) dead body= corpse; lòy-yòy
       (mm) the navel; REFLEX.PRON ...lòy-hu -self
loyng-m rich, wealthy *lúmay see bwè
loÿ-hr fishing net, seine *lúBaG see also dwa:
loÿ-m tendon, sinew *raúG
lòÿ-m ~llu-lòÿ (mm) vein *ráuG see loÿ
loÿq-m to rub, massage *rugáB see jow
lr-m gall, bile *rúLur (dbl. *rúlur) see llr
lu-m sand, *arú; lu-jaq (mm) beach (*arú+yudák);
lu-nyòy the waist (< lu:ng+yòy 'soft center')
lu-truh (hh) an explosion; explosive (redup. lútus-lutús)
lu:-hf foam, foamy *lúBu
luh-h clean *lus
luh-l pure *wvlús (no V1 met) luh-l go-m prime number; lu-tsa (lm) virgin (fem.), lu-xa (lh)
       virgin (masc.)-- these by sandhi (**luh-dza, luh-ka)
luh-m village, small settlement *rusi see shwi
lung-h thorn *lúla, see lla
lu:ng-h soft *lúmu du see lu-nyòy
lu:ng-hf sugar *lúGum see jung
lu:q-h to explode *lútus, see truh, lyu:q, lu-truh
luyh-hf part, section, division *lúsing see shing; see lÿ-fiq
luÿh-m a list, listing *rúsan see shwang; lÿ-lu:h (hm) calendar (contr. < lÿ:q+luÿh 'year+list')
luÿng-hf thick, viscous *lúlum see llung, lyuÿng
luÿng-m the gall-bladder *rúlur see llr, lr
lwang-m to scale a fish *urám (see qe-r)
lÿ-fiq (hh) some (of...) < luyh+piq < pítiq)
lÿng-m the tongue *ríum see lyung; pi-lÿng (mm) flame(s)
lÿ:q-hf year *lúyat; lÿ:q lweq (hh) year after year, years on end
lwih-m to write *urís see yr
lya-lr to lack, be lacking; to need *rihá (see le:)
lyaq-h to differ, be different *liát see leq, beq
lyay-h to wish for, desire, yearn for *hiláD see yay
lyung-m to lick *riúm
lyuÿng-hf thickening agent, starch *i+lúlum see luÿng
LL
lla-m older sister (of female) *dalá
lla-h thorny, prickly *lulá see lung
lla-lr barren, infertile (of a woman, colloq.) **no-tra 'unable'
llang-l marker of superlative; llang ADJ llang 'as ....as possible' redup. **la-laN see layng,
        shang
llaq-m to disappear, vanish *lanáp
llaq-h to sew *lalát (ult. < *lala, see la:ng)
llang-lr beautiful *daráng
llaq-lr to peel (the skin/rind from...) *daláp see dza:ng (see also llaw)
llaw-lr to strip off (usu.with the hand); remove clothes *daláB (irreg.doubl. *daláp) see also
        dzawng
lle-h to lighten, ease *liníh see li:ng
lle-m to fill *laní see lang
lleng-m in a row, in a line, line(d) up *nirám see nr
lleq-m worm *liríq
llè-m to patrol, make one's rounds        *diláy deyng
lli-l light *dv(rl)í
lliq-m steal *dulíp
lliÿ -l electric; dzay lliÿ (m-lr) electricity (maybe hf?)
lliÿ -lr lightning *dvlíG
llo-ba (hl) the forearm (elbow to hand) **llong+ba
llong-m the arm (entire, shoulder to hand) *lilám (irreg.breaking) see also llo-ba, tayq
llr-m bitter (taste) *rulúr see lr
llu-m blood *dulú see du:ng)
llu:h-m to clean (redup. *luh)
llu-keng (ml) to shoot with a stun-gun (< Kash lulukeñ)
llung-l to thicken (e.g. a mixture) *lulúm see luÿng, lyuÿng
lluq-lr to bleed *dulút (*dúlut > **du:q??)
lluÿ-m to bite into s.t., to bite off *rudúG; luÿq-m a bite of food, a mouthful *rúduG
llÿ:q-hf yearly, annual *m+líwat
M
ma- (maq-m with sandhi, often in old compds) ma-kr (hl) tempest (maq-gr); ma-pu: (hm)
      typhoon (mu: 'wind')
ma:-lr to tremble, shiver/shake *maGá; see du-ma:
mah-m to pry up, work with lever (*m+ási)
ma:ng-l father (less formal ma:-l) *máma; vocative ba: lr; ma:ng me (lm) parents
mang-m gathering place, hall, auditorium; (pej.) dive, disreputable bar *tumám
maq nyu (m-lr) heavens, firmament
maq-h ten (ni maq 20, hr maq 30 etc.) *kvmáC; baq-m tenth
maq-m vast, huge; (math) to the power of...; (**g|maC < *m-kvmáC ??
mayq-m each *matid
me-m mother (irreg. < *mai (more formal, and as term of address to older women:: me:-l)
     ma:ng me (lm) parents *mía vocative mya??
me:ng-l replacement, substitution *mínag see dzaq
meq-m to chisel out, gouge out *pamíq see payng
meq-m (conj.) although, even if... *míqi
mewq-m sloth, idleness, laziness *míqaL see also kaw
mèyng-m to bathe (trans/intrans.) *mánid see fèyng
mèyq-m ~mè:q simple, not complex; easy *mádiG see deÿ
mi-h water; mi baw-bu:q hhl canal (*pamí); mi shiw (hm) diarrhea; mi-oÿh hh vinegar
mi-llo (hm) (fine) porcelain ware (sandhi < ming-lo, see ming)
mi:ng-m air, atmosphere *míni
ming-h white; bright (*piním, pi:ng < *pínim); ming-lo (hm) kaolin, porcelain clay
miq-m right (hand,side) *mipa see miq
mi:q-m product, s.t. made *i+míkim see ging, fi:q; mi:q-m (+material) made of..., mi:q-m
      (+place) made in...
miÿ-l end (n.) *miG (doubl. *mig) see miÿq
miÿ-m table *míDa
miÿq-l tail (of animals) *mig (breaking); see miÿ
miwq-l expensive **mib (breaking) < *míbi see bi:
miwq-m deed, action (see gr) *míkur
mo-m (pron.) I *múa
moq-m to borrow *numap (o irreg. < -wa-) see byoq, nyuÿng
mow-m brave, courageous *múaw
mòw-l to learn, study (irreg < báBoh, see bòw, fòw1,2)
mr-l when, while *mára
mr-m to rinse the mouth, swish s.t. around in the mouth *múrum; mr-mr (mm) the sound
      of....
mu-h south, southern *tvmú
mu-l day *m-tvmú; i-mu (hl) today; sha-bu (ml) yesterday (sandhi shang-mu); NB NUM sha-
      bu NUM days ago vs. sha-bu shang day before yesterday; ka-bu (hl) tomorrow (sandhi
      kang-mu); NUM ka-bu NUM days from now vs. ka-bu-kang day after tomorrow.
mu:-m wind *múhu, see fu
muh-m picture *m+usu see shu; muh-baq (mm) a camera (picture+box)
mung-m to suck on s.t. in the mouth (e.g. a piece of candy) *mum; mu-mung (mm) sucking
     sounds
mu:ng-m threshed uku (ready to be cooked) *múnu, see du:
muq-muq (mm) chewing noises (ult. < *múmut, see bu:q)
mu:q-m do not *múku [m-mukú (>mbugu> gwu > gu:-l to forbid??]
mu:q-l a bruise, bruised see gu:
muq-h to cover (for warmth) *kimút see kiwng
muÿq-m measurement(s), dimension(s) *múdur see dwr, myuÿq
muyh-m bone *músit see also fwiq; muyh dèyq (mm) rib-bone(s) see dziq, *dáDit
mÿ :-m the mouth *múya
mwa-lr to empty *bumá see bung, fwa
mwaq-m to shade (cast a shadow) *umáp see shuÿng
mweq-m the lips *muyák
mwÿ-m to flower, bloom *m+wíwi see wÿ
myayng-m inlay work, marquetry *i+mámiq see be:q
myè:ng-m the "wings" of flying/gliding animals *m+yè:ng; see also syn. pèyng
myò:ng-lr to oil, to lubricate *m+yaGun see yòwng
myu:ng-m destruction *m+yúhung see yu:ng, hyu:ng; myu:ng-ching (ml) The Destruction
     (nuclear war of 2701? p.m.)
myuÿq-m one foot (old measurement, approx. 10 in.) i+múdur see dwr
N
na-l no *vd-v-ná
na:-m to carry (genl.) *daná see dza:ng
na:h-hf enemy *násag
naq-h to cook (in genl.) *nap; pi:-naq (mh) to broil, cook over a fire; hi-nap (h) a cook, chef
naq-m to conceal, hide s.t. *sunát (see suÿng)
na:q-h animal, in genl. *nátak; sÿ naq (hh) stable, barn; na:-tsa (hh) hide, animal's skin; na:-
       pyèng (hm) animals (genl.) capable of flight/gliding (sandhi **naq+m-yè:ng)
na:q-m last, final; na-na:q-m finally *náCaC
naw-l not *vd-v-náB [or by analog. < “no”?]
nawh-hf to swim (< Kash nawus)
nawq-hf (n) answer, response *nátus       (*natús > doh-m)
nay-h a small insect spp. ~ants; nay-nay (hh) a sp. that destroys wood *naD
nayng-hf in ni:-nayng (hm) sunrise, traw-nayng (mh) moonrise (Vuruna) and
      sim.constructions relating to the appearance of heavenly bodies; *nángis see geh
nayq-h the buttocks *nátis see dih
ne-h to jump *nih see deh
nè-m to sink *danáy see dè:ng; nè-mi (mh) to drown
ne(q)- (toneless) combining form of neq 'person', often with sandhi, as ne-tru (mm) (old)
       aristocracy, upper class; nobility (people+blood); ne-kwr (ll) common people (neq+gwr),
       ne-pyaw (hh) traveller (neq+fyaw); ne-tu: (hm) ethnic group
neq-m person *níqa (see ka, nyeq, kang)-- often colloq. for "man, guy"
nèw-l air, nè-nèw (m-l) gas *náyu
ni-h two *hvní di-m second (if *hini, then *híni > i:ng-?)
ni:ng-hf sun *níngi (*ningí > gi:)
niq-h to jump     *niCV
niq-m ghost *qanít
niw-hf (math.) division *níhu see nyu
niw-m (math.) (square) root of... e.g. ay-h loq-m niw-m square root of 100; fang-m
      niw-hr (m,lr) cube root of eight (tone by analogy with maq-m)
niÿng-hf edible *i+niáng, see nyang, deng
no-m (colloq.) no, not; as pfx. un- *naB, see naw
noq-m together; combine, mix *núak noq-m ba-lr clan
noyng-hf an axe *náwiN see nweng
nr-hf (of things in a line), queue; series *níram see lleng
nu:-h the lopa, a domesticated sheep/goat-like animal; *unú
nuh-h a key *núsi see tsi, chi
nung-hf small flying insect, gnat *núni; nung-dih (hm) (insulting term, 'gnat's ass')
nuq-h smoked (of foods) *núda; see dwa; nge-nuq (lh) to smoke (food)
nu:q-h horn, of certain animals; horny núkuh see also gwo
nÿ-m there is (see dÿ:) *níwi (see shwi-lr)
nÿ:-m smoke *núDa see dwa
nÿ:q-hf a wound; wounded *níwak, see nyoq
nweng-lr to chop (with an axe) *nawíN see nòyng
nyang-h to eat *niáng see deng
nyang-tay (hm) twin (children) < *ni-hang tay '2 born children')
nyaq-m car, vehicle; (older, wagon) (*ni(h)áq)
nyaw-m, ngew-l onomat. for animal's whining, crying etc.
nyayng-lr inheritance, bequest *i+ngánit see diq
nyeq-h person, someone *y+níqa see neq, ka
nÿng-m ice, icy    *níwin (V2loss)
nyoq-h to wound, injure *niwák see nÿ:q
nyò-m gold; golden *niáw
nyr-lr star *ngiwár (irreg. ng > n/_y)
nyu-h to divide, split *nihú see niw
nyu: -lr sky niúB; nyu-l chÿ-m weather, climate (*níbu(bg) > niw; níuB > nÿw
nyung-hf not clear, vague, obscure **no+yung
nyuÿng-hf a loan; s.t. lent or borrowed *i+númap see moq
ŋ
nga:h-l hate, hatred *ngásag see xaq
ngaw-l pain, ache (esp. of head or body) *ngaLu
ngayng-l heavy *ngámit
nge-l to preserve, keep, save *ngih; nge-nuq (lh) to smoke (food), preserve by smoking; see
       nuq
ngeq-l rope *ngíqu     see kyu
ngew-m see nyaw-m
ngiwq-l a drink, beverage *ngíqu see ko
ngo:q-l throat (o: < oÿ) *ngúGaC (doubl. of ngugaC see gwaq ??)
ngòÿ-l pertaining to the family or household; domestic *ŋáBa (doubl. ŋabá, see ba)
ngu-l using/by means of/with (< ngung by anal.)
ngung-l to use *ngúmi (*ngumí > bwi ~bÿ)
nguy-l (animal's) snout, muzzle; (pejor) (human) face; *nguBi see also ngwÿ
ngwa-lr real, true, genuine *nguhá [*ngúha > nguÿ-l]
ngwÿ-l (of animals) to sniff *nguBí; ngwÿ-xyo (lm) to root in the ground; ngÿ-ngwÿ (ll) to
      sniff around, nose around, to pry
O
o-h it, that (near), the; it (non m/f), o-de they (non m/f) *(h?)ua
oÿh-h sour *úsam
Ò
P
pa-l tall (of people, objects) (*tabá, see taq-m)
pa-lo (hl) a cloak, cape, poncho, body-wrap for warmth (< Kash palo 'sarong')
pang-h fluid, liquid in genl. *pami see mi
pang-gr (lh) an orange fruit (< Kash pangoyor)
pa:ng-h hill, hilly *páhan
paq-h tattered, ragged *pátV; see hi paq
pa:q-hf shoe(s) *apád
paq-lò-she (mhl) ~paq-che (hl) an edible crustacean (loanword, see yeq)
pawh-h stomach gas *pásut see fuq; pa-pawh-hf to belch
payng-m a chisel (often in compd. with ...saw-h '...tool') *pámiq see ngung-payng, meq
payng-hf to meet, encounter *páDing
payng-ting hm friend, comrade (redupl doubl. *páDing-padíng)
payq-hf a root/bulb used in cooking, ~garlic *pátip
peng-l plank, board *pabán (with a-affect)
peng-m (unit of measure) gram, millilitre (equiv.in the Cindu metric system) *píam see cheng
peng-hf stinging feeling (also peng-juq 'stinging pain' +chuq); insect bite *páyiN see pyeng
pèq-hf to stand up (from sitting/lying) (*pátid irreg. è, see ti: leg)
peq-m stand up, perk up (of the ears); (interj.) pay attention! *píqa    ( *piqá > fa-h)
pewq-hf knife *pídaw see tò
pèyng-hf "wings" of flying animals (in disuse, see myè:ng) *pánid
pi- (usu with sandhi, < piq 'little' in old compds.)-- pi-kr (hl) pond, pool, pi-shèng
       (h,hf) stream, creek; pi-twi (hl) drizzle, mist; pi-sÿ: (hm) haze
pi:-l the lower leg, shin *tibí; bo-pi: (ll) the calf (< bo:+pi:)
pi: -m fire *tibíD pi:-m chaq-h flint (fire-stone) (see tsiÿq); pi-miÿ (ml) embers, glowing
       coals (...+miÿ 'end')
pih-h to win, conquer *tabís, see tsoyh
pi:h-h least < **pif < pi+pítiq see teq
pih-bÿng (hl) a k.o. flute *pis? (vl)Vpis?? + bang (breaking), bíwiN
pi-liq-hl a hot, pepper-like spice (< Kash pirit)
ping-h to think, ping-ping think over, ponder, consider *pila ???
pi-pò (hl) a sip of s.t., a little taste/drink irreg. < *pibáw see pò
piq-h little, pi-piq-h a little bit *píki; piq-ka boy, piq-tsa girl
piq-hf door *pídu
piw-hf to win over, persuade, entice *(k)VpiB
piwq-h mud, muddy *pítup
poq-h swollen *púak see pwaq, foq
po:q-m dull (not sharp, of a tool) *púad (with lengthening)
pò-l ~ pò-pò (lm) to sip *pibáw see pi-pò
pòw-lr learning, knowledge gained thru study; (modern) science (*t-babúh) (see mòq, fòw,
       bòw)
poy-hf memory (ability) *páwiG see pyoy, pwiÿ
poyh-h boat *pósi (< Kash)
pr hf gift *párad (see day)
pr m market *páray (irreg. *paráy > trè m) (source of Kash fale)
pr-h (open) sore *pírih
pr-te (hh) (of sores) to fester redup. pírih-piríh
pr-m ~pr-hu (m) usually (adv.) *pírud see tuy, tsuy
pu:-h shirt *púLu
pu: xi (mm) alcohol, alcoholic beverage (< *pu:ng+xi)
puh-h wife *pus
pung-h husband *pung; pung-bu (hh) husband and wife (no children); pu:-tay (hm) husband,
      wife and child/children ~family
pu:ng-m (n) reason, cause *púdung (see tu:ng); pu:-ngu-m (sandhi) because, since
puq-h dust; *puka (see ka-h, fuq)
puÿ-h palm of the hand *púha; tè-puÿ (h,h) sole of the foot
puÿh-hf inland, interior (land); countryside (dial **puÿf < *púpiw)
pÿ-h thin *píwi; see fÿ:
pÿng-m teens (pÿng ay, pÿng ni etc.) *píum       (piúm > pyung)
pwa-m flat *puhá see puÿ pwa-du flat land, plains
pwa-po (h) the popo, a commercially raised "lizard" ~food redup. *pua
pwaq-h to swell *puák, see poq, foq
pwr-m to heal; to treat medically *tubár (doubl. tuBár), see twr, tswr
pyèq-h suffering (n.); physical/emotional suffering/burden *i+pátin (irreg. è)
pyo-h to gouge, gouge out *piDúh
pwiÿ-hf to remember *pawíG (V1 del.); see also poy, pyoy
pwÿq-h to rot *puyút
pÿwq-hf rotten *púyut
pyeng-h to sting; stinging, astringent *payíN see peng
pyeq-hf clothing (genl.) *i+pádit (irreg. e) see tiq
pyoy-h a memory; memento, souvenir *i+páwiG, see pwiÿ
Q
qa:q-m liver *qátaD
qa:q-tay mh “heart and soul”, inmost being *qátaD-qatáD
qaw-ku: (mm) mossy; velvety in texture (redup. *qákuB-qakúB)
qe-r (mm) scales (of fish, certain "lizards") qeÿ +*úram; see lwang
qeng-m eye-brow, the brow-ridge of Gwr *qína
qew-m to stink, smell bad *qiB see hew
qewq-m to dig *qigu see ku; qewq-waw (+material) (mm) to mine for....
qeÿ-m fish, in genl. *qiGa
qoq-m (adv.) even *qup(V)
qò-m an orchard, or other grove of productive trees *qáwa
qòÿng-m leaf *qángul see ngung, kòÿng
qoyq-m cloth (genl.) *qáwit
qu:q-m a kiss *quLup (doubl. qulúp, see shuq)
quÿq-m mould, mildew *qúgub see kuÿq
qÿ:q-m vomitus *qúyak see xyaq
qÿ:ng-m round (circular, spherical) *qiBám see xyong, shÿ:ng
R
r-m to shape, to form, to mold *áru see lo
S
sah-h 1. the eye 2. window *sási
sa:ng-hf strength *sámal see fang-h (compd. sang-fang '....'?)
sa:ng-m throw away, discard *sámat
sang-m nine, tsang-go: (mm) ninth (< Kash sana)
saw-h tool, utensil, in genl. (often the 2nd member of compds with names of tools) *sáLa
sawh-h the shoulder *sásut see tsuq
sayq-hf revolution, cycle; season (of the year) *sábis see feh
seq-seq (hh) trade, commerce; also in toy-seq (fin.) exchange rate *síkar (irreg. e), see xr
sawng-hf danger, jeopardy *sa(N)u with diphth.
sayng-h coral; a reef *sánay
se:q-hf a trip, journey *síbaL see fyaw
sèÿng-hf river *sáDan; pi-sheng (hhf) (old irreg.compd.) small stream, creek (**piti+sèÿng)
sèÿq-hf a slash, gash (deep wound) *sáyat see sheq
sèw-h watch, observe sáyu [sayú > shò-h]
sèw-hf sad *sáDu see tsèw
so (toneless postposition) emphatic particle: just..., exactly..., precisely... *suh see su:h
so:ng-hf voice *súngaL       tsaw
sòng-hf refined, elegant *sáluh (irreg. ò; see sho; see also tsòng)
soq-h to like *suaq
sr-m (prep.) for, for the benefit of, on behalf of *sur
sr-h a mold, pattern *s+áru see r
sr-hf a sale, transaction; (idiom) for sale *súram see shong
su-pwi (hh) as if (conj.) < sandhi *suq+fwi
su:h-h (also redup. so-su:h-h) exact, precise, painstaking; correct (true) *súsuh, see fo, so
suq-h pretense, sham; (adj.) fake *súpi see fwi, su-pwi
su:q-h satisfaction, satiety *súkuq see xuq; su:-kuq (sandhi) satisfactory, OK (redup.sukup)
suÿ-h young, immature
suÿh-hf regret, sorrow *súsuL
suÿng-m s.t. hidden, stash, cache *súnat
suÿq-hf steam (n.) *súdur, see dzr
sÿ-h place, location *súi
sÿ:-h happening, event, occurrence *súya see shwe, shÿ:
sÿq-hf we *síwiC
sÿwq-hf sick *súyut see shwÿq, tsÿwq
sÿyng-hf difficult *súlid see shwiq; see also tsuyq
SH
sha-h to seem, appear to be...; sha-sha-h seemingly, apparently; as if *siá
sha-m which? *sirá (sh also < sv(kqgh)V- and (kgqh)vsV)
sha-m to smooth *sirá see shr
shang-h excess, remainder; as adv. too, too much *y+lan; see layng, llang
shang-h to wield/handle (e.g. weapon), to maneuver s.t. *sVlán
shang-m pass, elapse (of time); the past *saDáng/??; with time words, ...ago
1. sha:q-h a narrow/tight place *s+hálat; tru:-sha:q (hh) straits (geog.); see a:q
2. sha:q-h fenced in place, corral, pen, *s+yákar see ya:q, chr
shè-h to arrive *hasáy see hayh
sheq-m to defend *siDáC
sheq-h to slash *sayát (V1 del., a-affect) see sè
shèy-m a race (contest) *y+láGi
shi-h urine *sihí; shi sÿ (hh) toilet, privy, latrine (fèyng is more polite)
shi-m to transport, carry from one place to another *rVsí (*rAsi > lVh-m )
shi:-h to urinate *síhi
shi:-m to slither, crawl (like a snake) *lisíL see li:h
shih-m poverty **s+hih < *hiqís
shi:ng-h easy *sílip
shing-h island *hisín (hi:h 'surround/isolate?' *hísin)
shing-h to divide, divide up, apportion *lusíng, see luyh
shiq-h smooth(ly), effortlessly; fluently *silíp (see shi:ng)
shiq-m mail, letter(s) *qusiC see xiq, xyuyh
shiq-h to slide, glide *sílip (*silíp > shiq-m)
shiq-hf near, nearby
shiÿq-h a chair *sítaq see tsaq
shiÿng-hf long ago *síDang; ay ~ a:q __ intro.narr.particle, 'once, once upon a time, long ago';
      shing-h sheng-hf a very long time ago, far in the past (tone by modification) Irreg.
      shing < shiÿng
shiw-m excrement *sihíB see jiw, tsiw, shÿq-tsÿ
shiwng-hf moon, satellite *símu; shiw-pu (hm) full moon (redup. *símu-simú)
shiwq-hf rent (money paid or received) *síGut see shu:q
sho-h who, which, that (rel.pron.) *siúh
sho-h fine, delicate *salúh see sòng
sho-m who (indirect Q) *siúh (tone by analg.)
sho-m fog *siwá see pi-sÿ:
sho:-h to wash (things, not the body) *suyuh (irreg. o:) see tsÿw
shong-m to sell *surám (breaking), see sr (> Kash *sërum?)
shoq-h entrance, entryway
shoq-m to open up, lay open *hisúq
shr-hf seven *si(vd)vr jr-m seventh
shr-m in order to (conj.) *suqír
shr-m smooth (of a surface) *síra see also sha
shr-h ~shr da:q (hl) clearing in the forest
shu-l tube *sihú
shu-h to draw (make a picture) *usú see muh
shu- (toneless part.) (do something) wrongly/accidentally, mis- irreg. < i+súpi; e.g.chaw-shu
       (h) misspeak, gwaq-shu (l) swallow the wrong way, gag/choke on s.t.; muyh-shu (h)
       ~uh-shu (l) ( to sprain, put out of joint, etc..
shu-m thigh *wisú
shu:-h yellow *sulú
shu:h-hf advantage, benefit; usefulness *i+súsur see sr, tsr
shuq-h false, wrong *i+súpi, see fi, fi:
shuq-m to kiss *qulúp see qu:q
shuq-hf rule, law *súpus; shuq-bay (hm) court of law        [supús > fu:h -h]
shu:q-m to rent, hire *siGut see shiwq
shung-m clear, transparent *s-yum see nyung
shuyq-hf reflection, *s+húqiN see hing
shuÿng-hf shade *s+úmap see mwaq
shÿ:-h (aux.) marker of the accidental passive, 'to get (verb)ed' *i+súya, see shwe, sÿ:
shÿq-h (slang, curse) shit; shÿq-tsÿ (lit., fig.) asshole (analog. < shiw+tsiw)
shÿ:ng-m a circle
shwang-m to list, itemize *rusán (V1 met.) see luÿh
shwaq-h to fear, be afraid *husák see huÿh
shwayq-m betting place, casino *sÿ+wágit see wayq, yoyq
shwe-h to happen, take place, occur *suyá see sÿ:, shÿ:
shwi-m to settle, establish (a community) *rusí (V1 met.) or ?*suí see luh
shwiq-h difficulty, problem *súlid see sÿyng
shwÿ-h a decorative garden *w+wiwi, see wÿ
shwÿq-h to get sick (intr.), to sicken (trans.) *suyút
T
ta:ng-hf (old) royal, pertaining to royalty *tálaD see tray
ta:q-h to fall down (of person)
ta:q-hf otap plants in genl., various types (sim. to Cucurbita) *táhap
tang-h machine, device *parál
taq-m high, height; in taq baw mh impressive, magnificent (*tába; pa-l < *tabá)
1. taw-h truth *taB see daw
2. taw-h a plant and its extract, analgesic properties *táLu
tawh-hf to die *tásuh see dzo, tso-tso
tawq-m (useful) plant (n) *tátung see tsung, tsawq
tay-hf child; tay-tay m childish *táhi see also s.v. ga, dza
tay-lr sister of opp.sex (older/younger) *daháD
tay-jay to believe in...
tay-sèw-hm disappointed (heart+sad) see qa:q, sèw
tayh-hf mountain *tásid; pi:-tayh (mh) volcano; redup. tay-tsiq (hh) mountain range
tayq-hf the upper arm (shoulder to elbow) *tákir
tayq-h in tayq-dah (hl) (fem.) prostitute (pron. [tay-tah]); tayq-ka [tay-xa] (hm) id. (male)
       *tákis see chih
te-h to fry *kutíh; te-bè (hm) to deep-fry in oil
teng-h ...... *tan (with a-affect)
teq-m nothing; (math.) zero *tíqi
te:q-m love see chr, jr
tè-h the foot *lipáy; leyq-tè on foot, to go by foot, walk
tèy-hf month *táGi         (taGí > te:)
ti:-h leg *patíD (V1 met., **təiD)
ti:h-h a leak, drip; dripping *tísit see tsiq
ti-tsi:q (lh) a sneeze (onomat., irreg.tones) ult. < tihík, see tsiq
ting-h to suffer *patín (V1 met. **təin)
tiq-h to wear; to dress (trans.) *padít (V1 met.) see pyeq
to:h-hf iron *túdad (irreg. o: < oə); to-fang (hh) steel
tò-h cut with a knife, to slice *pidáw see pewq
toq-m the skull *túqu
toq-h to grow, increase *padúq
toy-h money *túaD see tway, tsway
toy-hf wood, wooden **tuGe < *tuGih
tòÿ-hf poison, venom *táwiw see twÿ
tòyq-hf coarse (texture) *táwig see twe:q
tu-h or (conj.) *tu; tu-tu (hh) ...or so, about, approximately
tu-l poem *kidú
tu:-hf group (esp. of people) *túLu; ne-tu: (hm) ethnic group
tu-br (hh) during (prep.), while (conj.), meanwhile (adv.); sandhi < tuÿng-mr < redup. túmar-
       tumár, see tuÿng
tu-keng (ml) stun-gun (< Kash kandukeñ) see llu-keng
tu-tra (hh) perhaps, maybe, it could be... (redup. *túla-tulá see tra)
tu:h-h protection, shelter *tusum see tsung, tsu:h
tung-h to look at *túli; ne-tung (hh) inspector (police, military etc.-- ne 'person' +...)
tung-hf a ladder *tunga
tu:ng-l to cause *pudúng (irreg. V1 met.)
tuq-h to knock *tuk; tuq-tuq (hh) sound of knocking
tuq-hf want, desire (n.) *túga see ka; NB SUBJ-hu tuq-hu 'SUBJ. would like...(polite request)'
tu:q-h to sleep *túku see tsu:q
tuq-hf far, far away, distant *tuta see tsa; tuq tsr (hf,h) the horizon
tuÿ-h so..., so much..., such... *túha
tuy-m common, usual, ordinary *pirúD see pr, tsuy
tuy-hf fur, hair (of Gwr, not of animals) *túBi see twÿ
tuyng-l thief (*k-dúlip) tru:-h tuyng-l (sea-)pirate
tuyq-m (natural) fermentation, leavening; any agent thereof e.g. yeast *k+dúbit (doubl. duBit)
tuÿ-hf ability, talent *túLa (doubl. *tula see tra)
tuÿng-hf interval, interim *túmar see tu-br
tÿ-hf boot(s) *tíwi
tÿng-hf knowledge (*tíwim) (see tsÿng)
tÿyng-hf suspicion *túliG
twa-h quantity, amount *tuhá see tuÿ
twaq-m to loosen, slacken *watát see wa:q
tway-h to earn *tuáD see toy, tsway
twe:q-m to coarsen (texture), to abrade, roughen *tawíg, see toyq
twr-m medical doctor *túBar; see also pwr, tswr
twr-h to curtain off, hide/conceal s.t.
twÿ-h fur (of animals), furry *tubí
twÿ-m to poison *tawíw see tòÿ
TR
tr-h prep., through *táru (see truq)
tr-hr a curtain *táwir see twr
tra-m can, be able *tulá (doubl. *túLa > tuÿ-hf
trang-h to try, attempt *talám
trang-m red *tVrán; trang-kr (m,hf) copper
traw-m (usu. hi traw) the larger moon of Cindu (Vuruna) *tvraB, see also bu-luÿng; br-m
      traw-m full moon
tray-h mansion; any large imposing building; in compds museum, auditorium, library etc.
       (old: palace) *taláD, see ta:ng <tálaD
tray-m floor *ratáD
trè-m to peddle (esp. if itinerant or on the sly) (*paráy); hi trè (mm) itinerant peddler
       (modern, traveling salesman)
treng-m red *tV(rl)án
treq-m rip apart/violently *taríq (irr. V1 met.)
tri-m (and) then, next *tvrí
tri-tri (hh) happiness redup. *tilí, see tsi:ng,
tring-h dry *taríN; tring-tsu (hm) straw; tring-du (h,lr) mainland; also, the planet they live
       on (Kash cindu is borrowed); tring-yung (h,lr) desert (sandhi, pronunc. [tri nyung])
triq-h to retreat, go back (to...) *tVrip
triÿ-m to suspect; (passive) be suspected of... *tulíG see tÿyng
trong-m tusk; fang *ratám
tru:-h sea, ocean *rutúB
truh-h to burst *lutús; see lu:q, lyu:q, lu-truh
truq-m go through, penetrate *tarú(tk)
truq-h to dip, immerse *talúp; truq-dang (hl) to dye see dang
TS
1. tsa-h (n) skin *tusá (see dza-l)
2. tsa-h to go away; depart *tutá see tuq
tsang-h to ripen, to age *lipán (V1 met.) see liÿq, biÿq
tsaq-h kitchen *s+nap see naq
tsaq-m to sit *sitáq see siÿq
tsaw-h honest, upright *tataB (redup. of taB, see taw)
tsawq-m (small) vegegable garden *s+tátung
tsay-l new *tasáD; ta-tah-h recent, recently; see tsè; tsay-tsè (ll) to renew (many senses)
tseq-h a skewer; to skewer *s+nákay
tsè-l again, anew; as post.part., re- e.g dè-tsè to re-roof *tasáD (irreg. è, tone)
tsèw-h sadness (redup. **sV-sáDu; see sèw)
tsi-h to lock *nusí see nuh, nyuh
tsi-bang (lh) (interj.) That's enough! Basta! (< Kash timbani)
tsi:ng-h happy *tili; no-tsi:ng (mh) unhappy see tri-tri
tsiq-h to drip, leak *tisít see ti:h
tsi:q-h to sneeze *tihík; see ti-tsiq
tsiw-h the anus *s+sihiB see shiw, jiw, shÿq-tsÿ
tsiÿ-hf work *tíG; tsi-doy (hm) wages, salary (old, < tiG+toy)
tsiÿng-hf to cut *tínim; tsi:-go:q (hl) to slaughter an animal (lit. cut-throat, sandhi < tsiÿng-
       ngo:q)
tsiÿq-hf to burn, be on fire (< *tíbiD, via tíi:b see pi:)
tso-tso (hh) dying, moribund *tasúh see tawh, dzo
tsòng-m coarse, inelegant (of behavior) **no-sòng ult. < *sáluh see sòng
tsoyh-hf victory *i+táBis (doubl. *tabis, see pih); tso-tsoy (hm) victorious
tsr-h a line (in drawing, math.), queue *s+níram see lleng; tuq tsr (hf,h) horizon
tsr-m to benefit; give advantage, be advantageous *susúr, see sr, shr
tsu:-hf grass *tiGu; tring-tsu
tsu:-h to regret, be sorry *susúL see suÿh
tsu:h-h refuge, place where one seeks shelter/safety *s+túsum see tsung
tsu:q-h knee *s+tútul see dzung
tsung-h west, western *sVsún
tsung-m to plant *tatúng see tawq
tsung-m to protect; tsung-dwi (ml) umbrella, tung-ning (mh) parasol, sun-shade        *tusúm
tsuq-h to carry s.t. on the shoulder *sasút see sawh
tsu:q-h bed, sleeping place *s+túku; tsu:-xiwng (hh) bedding (blankets etc. see kiwng);
       tsu:q-tswr (hm) hospital (pron. [tsu:tswr])
tsuy-m custom, usual practice *s+tuy < *pirúD see tuy, pr
tsuy-m (slang) the "balls" (scrotum) (s+duy < *dúBi) see duy, dwi, duy-sÿ
tsu-tsuyq (hh) hinder, get in the way, obstruct (redup. of tsuyq < *súlit)
tsuÿq-h the lap *s+tútak ('sit-place')
tsuyq-h obstacle, hindrance *s+súlit see tsu-tsuyq
tsÿng-hf to know (things); know how to... *tiwím (see tÿyng)
tsÿng-m (conj) but *timu (via **tim+irreg. breaking)
tsÿw-hf laundry (place) *s+súyuh see sho
tsÿwq-m sickness, epidemic *m+sÿwq < *súyut
tsway-h income, earnings *i+tuáD see tway, toy
tswing-h to choose *susín see suyh
tswr-m (public) clinic < s+twr *tuBár; tsu:q-tswr (hm) hospital (pron. [tsu:tswr]
U
u- (part.) just, only *hu SAME AS -SO
uh-l tendon; sinew *úsV; uh shi llu (l-l-m) artery (tendon-move-blood) (usA > šwV
u:q-h the food-grain uku *úku (< Kash?)
Ÿ
W
wa: -lr night *waGá
wa:ng-m the heart (anat.) *wáma
wa:ng-lr beast, (large) wild animal *waGáng
waq-hf (~wa:q, emph.) (interj.) cry of pain/amazement *wak (irr.tone)
wa:q-m loose, slack *wátat see twaq
waw-m cave *huáw; (metal/etc)+waw-m ...mine
wawng-m to plod, move w/difficulty but determination *wáLung (doubl. *walung > _ong??
wayq-l to bet, wager *wágit see yoyq, shwayq
wiÿq-m leather *wídib see dwi:q
wÿ-m flower *wíwi see mwÿ, shwÿ
wy:-m wave(s), surf *wíwa see fyo
X
xaq-h to beat with a stick; (agric.) to use a flail to thresh grain *qahát see ha:q
xaq-l to hate *ngaság see nga:h
xawq-h a cough *kákuq see xoq
xay-h (chem.) acid *kiháD (irreg.)
xè-h to shout *kikáy see xeyq
xèq-h to bite (of animals; or people/non-food) *kákir (irreg. è); see gèq
xeyq-h a shout, loud call *kíkay see xè, xi-kè; xey-keyq shouting, loud commotion
xi-kè (hh) to cry out (redup./sandhi *kíka-kikáy)
xi-m drunk, dizzy *qihí (see ki: < *N+qíhi)
xiq-h plate *kíka
xiq-m to communicate (with); to contact *m+qusíC see shiq
xiq-h to hammer, pound with a hammer *kasík see kayh
xoq-m a bridge *kúqu
xoq-m to cough *kakúq see xawq
xoq-h to squat *sikúq
xowq-m the other/opposite side of..., *kúqul; as prep. i-l.....xowq-hu (m) across... see xung
xr-h to exchange, trade, swap *sikár see seq
xu:-m moss, lichen *qakúB see qaw-ku
xuh-h to sharpen, hone *kihús (V1 del.)
xung-m to cross, cross over *kuqúl, see xowq
xu:ng-m bay (geog.) *s+gúlup see juq
xuq-h enough, sufficient *sukúp            su:q-h
xwè-h to murder, kill violently *qukáy         [qúkay > qò:q-m?]
xwè-m to collide, hit (object) *quqáy (V2 met)
xwing-m to choke, strangle *quqín see hoyq
xwr-m motor, engine; nyaw-xwr (mm) spec., automobile, motorcar wVqAr
xyaq-m to vomit *quyák (V1 del.), see qÿ:q
xye-m to distill *raqíh see layq
xyo-m dirt, soil, earth, the ground
xyong-m a ball, sphere, round object in genl. *qíBam; xyong-bè (mm) a deep-fried fritter or
      similar delicacy.
xyuyh-m communication, contact *i+qúsiC see xiq, shiq
Y
ya-h a push, shove *yulá (doubl. *yúLa see yuÿ)
ya-l hesitation particle, er..., well...
ya:ng-m bad (genl.) *yámah; ya:-nya:ng evil (adj, n.)
ya:ng-h to give birth; birth (n.) i+háhaN see hang
ya:q-h a fence *yákar see chr, sha:q
yay-h a wish, strong desire *híLaD (doubl. *hiláD, see lyay)
yah-m a lever; see mah-m (*y+ási) (*así via **səi > si-h)
yawq-h dibble-stick (for planting) *yáqu (spor.diphth.)
ye-m he, ye-de they (m/pl) *(hi)+ía
yeh-h she, yeh-de they (f/pl) *(hi)+ia+s ??
yeq-lr crustacean spp. sim. to shrimp *iDák; sè:-nyeq (hl) fresh-water (river+..., sandhi sèÿng-
       yeq), tru-yeq (hl) (salt-water, sea+... -- an imported variety is called paq-lò-she (mhl)
       ~paq-che (hl) < Kash pakivak roçe)
yè-l east, eastern *(h)iDáy ((h)íDay > ey)
yè:ng-hf to fly/glide (as certain animals can do) *yáyang (è: < èə) (often yèng in compds.)
yo-h branch *yuh, see also jo
yo:-l result, consequence *yúGaw (irreg. o: < ow); eq yo: (mm) therefore
yoh-m nice, pleasant *yúas
yò-lr room (place) *iDáw (ew < íDaw)
yòq-m dirty *yáquh see also xyo
yòy-m center; lòy-yòy (mm) the navel (*yáwi)
yoyq-m a bet, wager *i+wágit see wayq, shwayq
yòwng-hf pitch, tar (naturally occurring), yòwng-du (h,lr) oil (petroleum) *yaGun +du 'land'
yr-hf something written: a letter, document, message; inscription *i+úris see lwih
yr-h pottery, ceramics in genl. *i+áru see r, lo
yung-lr moor, wasteland, deserted/empty land *hiDún (*híDun > iwng???)
yung-m crystal; glass? *yum; yung tray (m-hf) Crystal Palace (historical) [see shung]
yu:ng-hf to break apart, to smash *yúhung, see hyu:ng, myu:ng
yuq-h insect/bug, in genl. *yúpu yè-nyuq-h flying insects in genl. (<yè:ng-yuq)
yu:q-m a root/bulb used in cooking, ~onion *yug (spor.length)
yuÿ-h to push *yúLa see ya
yÿ:q-m shore, shoreline; coast *yúyak see jaq




GWR LOAN WORDS IN KASH (not necessarily < Baw Da)
hang dzong du 'birth hearth land' > hanjo/mim
fal (dial.) strong in hece/fal 'steel'
tèng pong (name) inventor of cardboard > temboñ
..... 'pyramid' > kehomak
key gang > kekañ 'charcoal'
....nèw 'deadly air' > koneyu Carbon monoxide
ka lang bo (name, dwarf) > kambo myth.dwarf
kung da pr (myth) dragon-like beast > kundapor
kuq baw ..... > kupo 'parallel'
ku shing (lh) < Kash, the "kusimi"
.... > caki 'late'
luq fa ???.... ??? > ca/lupa 'big mess'
.... > ceho 'liberty, freedom'
chay nèw 'sharp air' > ceneyu 'ozone'
chih mang 'dance hall' > cifañ
tring du 'dry land' > cindu
dzo nèw ..... > coneyu 'nitrogen'
dzo yuq nèw .... > coyungeyu, coyuk 'methane'
ni kr (hh) two metal > nikor 'alloy of metals'
nyu shwi (not BD) > ñuçiyu 'weather, climate'
yas king (old) > yakiñ 'fulcrum of lever'
yas (old) lever, pry up? > e/yas 'lever', in yayas 'pry up with lever
sah ka shi <-->? sásakaç 'bigfoot type creature'
taw ko (kò?) trade name, ointment > id or tuko
taw (shii) trade name, ointment > tuçi
.....   > yawundu, yundu 'petroleum'
yaw gÿh 'moose-like anim., (dial. yalgəs)' > yawungos
tè mo heart/soul (bravery??)? > temo 'hero'
...nèw 'alive+air” > tundeyu CO2
taw baw .... > tombo 'magnificent, splendid' ???
Na Kwèy-Hu (name) mathematician > nakuweyu
nèw 'air' > ne/neyu 'gas'
pi: 'fire' in nika/pi/ki 'match'
ceng (trade name) in nimu ceñ 'crock pot'
ning naw br (sun stand still???) > nindopor 'Solstice'
noq ba clan > nopa (old) clan, later(obs.): moeity > other
nung diq > nundik 'noodnik'
nyaq-m > ??? ñaki 'car'
nyò feng “sherbet, gold snow” > ñofeñ
lu(s)-lus (old)clean?? k.o. soap?? > lambin/dulus 'hand/face soap'
law pa (flat bread) > lawu-pwa
le ba (math.) > lemba 'area (of a figure)'
lu nèw 'pure air' > luneyu oxygen
baw du 'great land' > pawundu, pandu 'continent'
pel mang (Old or dial.) > pel-mañ a constellation
pem (old) (fluid measure?) in pem, cipem etc.
..... > pinduka 'Carbon'
pi nèw 'fire-air' > pineyu 'Hydrogen'
pih bÿng 'flute, recorder-type' > pipoñ
pòw tsi yò 'science work room' > pociyo 'laboratory'
pr maw/mo .... > kaçe/pombro MRI, X-ray??
uy yawq 'plow' > pr/iyo (par+...) to farm; kepriyo farmer
pu: xi alcohol > puhi id.
maq maq tsung '100 squares' game > mamak-cuñ, mamacuñ id.
mey lat (dial.) .... > melat 'cannon'
.... trade name ~picture box??? > mupak 'camera'
wor sèt (vel sim., dial.) .... > voroset 'dome'
gwr (ethnonym) > angur id.
sha kong (myth) dragon <--->? açakon id, and a constellation
(ay to) '~agar-agar' > ayi-to id.
mi baw-bu:q > imbovu 'canal'
r po 'clay craftsman' > epro 'potter'
shu tube > eçu id.
r lo 'potter's clay' ??? > oro id.
r lo ming kaolin, porcelain clay > oromiñ id.
apral machine < *parál
ciñuñ desert (tring-yung)

				
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