Tools for displaying by yaofenjin


									11 IPT                                                                                           Displaying

                                  Tools for Displaying
Information systems produce output. Displaying is the process of presenting information and data as
output to the users. It is the presentation of information in the form of text, numerals, images, audio and
video. The output is created to meet a specific need.
Output can be of several forms:
             Visual output – able to be displayed on a monitor or VDU; printed or drawn on paper;
               or formed into a 3 –D shape by a milling machine for example.
             Aural output – able to be heard on a set of speakers, as music, speech or other sounds.
             Electronic output – on magnetic tape such as video or audio signals , altopugh this is
               technically a storage format as it still relies on visual or aural output devices to be

Display Issues
This is the measure of the quality of the display for paper, screen and audio-based displays. Higher
resolution will display more detail in the data.
Screen display – resolution is measured by pixels (the number of screen elements across by the number
of screen elements down the screen eg. 800 X 600). Sometimes a third number which describes the
number of colours in the display (bit depth). As the screen resolution increases, the pixels becomes
smaller and more detail is revealed, and more shades of colour will be visible.
Paper display – resolution is measured in dots per inch (dpi) A higher dpi will mean better quality
printed data (both image and text data).
Audio display – sound resolution is measured by the sampling rate (the number of sound
measurements made every second when the original sound was digitised). Audio CD’s usually have a
sampling rate of 44100 measurements every second. Bit depth adds a third dimension to sound quality.
It measures the number of different sound levels that can be recorded in each sample. Commonly it can
be recorded at 8 bit per sample (used for speech which has 256 different volume levels), 16 bit (used
for CD’s which has 65536 levels). Increasing quality can also be added by adding more sound channels
– left and right channels for stereo speakers, whilst ‘surround sound’ quality DVD’s use up to six
separate sound channels.

General page design principles for both paper and web pages include:
Paper layout –
    Consistency – layout is the same for all pages to make it easier to use.
    Simplicity – information is easy to scan visually (ie, like reading the headlines of a newspaper)
    White space – empty spaces on a page to make it easier to read because the page is less
    Graphics – drawings, graphs, logos, photos, boxes around text, etc that support the text to assist
       in the communication of the information
    Font – a complete collection of printable characters, all with consistent design, size and style.
    Typeface – a distinctive design for a set of characters. A typeface may have many different
       fonts. Typefaces are of two categories: serif (feet eg. New Times Roman) and sans serif
       (without feet eg. Arial)

Web layout –
   Useability –
Tools for Information Processes                                                                 Boughton05
11 IPT                                                                                        Displaying
             o Obvious navigation – simple and consistent in its design
             o Visible path to current location in the website
             o Obvious links
             o Simple and obvious search functions
             o Short pages – shorter pages load faster and are easier to browse
        Important things more obvious – use a larger font size
        Clear sections – a page frame can separate different parts of a web page
        Compatibility – ensure pages are accessible to as larger audience as possible. They should be
         viewable on a variety of screen resolutions, web browsers and internet connection speeds, and
         to users with special needs.
    Both paper page design and web page design are similar in many ways, however, web page design
    requires some special considerations.

Tools for Information Processes                                                              Boughton05

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