CASS COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY by yaofenji

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									Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan




                              COMPHREHENSIVE
                              HAZARD ANALYSIS

                                                      FOR


                        CASS COUNTY INDIANA



                                                      Prepared by:
                 CASS COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY
                               JANUARY 1 2004
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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan


                                             RECORD OF CHANGES



DATE        PAGES             DESCRIPTION                        SIGNED




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                        CASS COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY

                                                                             Introduction

Cass County is vulnerable to a wide range of natural, technological, and human-related hazards. Periodic disasters resulting from floods, tornadoes, winter storms, and
other similar events cause injuries and loss of life, disruption of services and the possibility of significant property damage in any community within the county. Such
events may have negative impact on the areas, in which they occur long after the event has taken place. Major disasters, such the Ohio River flooding of 1997, the
American Eagle crash of 1994 which killed 68 passengers and crew member and the blizzard of 1978, which shut down every county in the State for 5 days, have all
heightened Indiana’s awareness to the idea that all Hoosier are vulnerable to such events.

Advancements in technology and the increased development and use of hazardous materials have resulted in a new range of Technological threats virtually unknown 25
to 30 years ago. These threats can cause or contribute to significant injury, loss of life and property destruction. Events such as these may range from unintentional or
releases, to intentional acts of terrorism using Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).

Managing these various threats and protecting life and property are the challenges faced by Emergency Management personnel at all levels of government. In order to
attain an effective program of managing emergencies and disasters in Cass County, a comprehensive evaluation and understanding of the hazards that the State of
Indiana, over the obtained. This can be done through the development of a Comprehensive Hazard Analysis, and in turn, allow Cass County to mitigate against, prepare
for, respond to, and recover from any significant threat that may arise.

Through the process of conducting a detailed hazard analysis, emergency management personnel and community leaders will become better aware of the nature, extent,
and magnitude of the potential hazards that threaten our jurisdiction. By pinpointing the locations where these hazards have occurred in the past, and by examining our
knowledge of new or emerging risks, it is possible to determine the probability of such events occurring in a given area, as well as the vulnerability of people and
property. When coupled with the relevant land use and demographic information, a hazard analysis becomes a powerful tool that allows Indiana communities to set
priorities and goals for resource allocation and mitigation and preparedness activities.

The Cass County Emergency Management Agency in conjunction with various response and support agencies within the county have come together to build and
promulgate this comprehensive Hazard Analysis. The recent development of the Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan and the Terrorism
Consequence Management Planning Element has clearly shown the interest and need for an understanding of our jurisdiction and the hazards we face. A Community
Profile and Jurisdictional History will be provided in the Hazard Analysis as well as a detailed description of the hazards we have faced over the last several years.
Additionally, the guidelines for review, update and the changes to his Hazard Analysis will be provided.

Information provided has come from various pubic records, internet information sites, government agencies, and other invaluable sources. It is our hope that this
document will be a resource that will aid in providing a clear and focused approach in managing the various hazards and emergencies we face in the future.


________________________________                                       _____________________________________
President                                                              Alvin D. Beckman - Director
Cass County Commissioners                                              Cass County Emergency Management Agency

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                                                     -TABLE OF CONTENTS-


Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………i

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………ii

I.     Purpose……………………………………………………………………………………………1

II.    Scope………………………………………………………………………………………………1

III.   Mission…………………………………………………………………………………………….1

IV.    Jurisdictional Profile and Hazard Summary……………………………………………………1

       A.   Cass County: Facts and Figures                                 1

       B.   Cass County’s Hazard Base: A Summary                           2

       C.   Cass County Emergency Management: Focus on the Future          3

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HAZARDS…………………………………………………………………………………………………4

I.      Dam Failures                                                         5

II.     River Flooding                                                       8

III.    Drought                                                              12

IV.     Extreme Temperatures (Summer Heat and Winter Cold)                   18

V.      Tire Fires                                                           22

VI.     Structural Fires                                                     23

VII.    Wildfires                                                            26

VIII.   Hazardous Material Incidents (Fixed Sites/Transportation)            28

IX.     Earthquakes                                                          32

X.      Severe Spring and Summer Weather                                     34

XI.     Transportation Accidents                                             37

XII.    Civil Disturbances                                                   40

XIII.   Infrastructure Failures                                              42

XIV.    Petroleum and Natural Gas Pipelines Accidents                        45

XV.     Public Health Emergencies                                            47

XVI.    Animal Health Emergencies                                            49

XVII. Terrorism Incidents                                                    52


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XVIII. School and Workplace Violence                                                                   54

Informational Resource Listing…………………………………………………………………………63

National Weather Service Reported Events Summary..………………………………………….……64


                                          Cass County Comprehensive Hazard Analysis
I.     Purpose

       The purpose of this Comprehensive Hazard Analysis is to establish an awareness and deeper level of understanding of the various hazards that
       threaten the residents of Cass County and to ensure that Cass County Emergency Management, the elected and appointed officials, and the various
       response and support agencies are better prepared to plan for, respond to, and recover from the hazards
       identified as potentially causing loss of life of significant property destruction within our jurisdiction.

II.    Scope

       This document replaces all previous hazards analysis documents prepared by Cass County
       Emergency Management, and will be reviewed annually.

III.   Mission

       It is the mission of Emergency Management to save lives and protect property while minimizing the impact of catastrophic events on Cass County
       citizens. To be accomplished through comprehensive planning, mitigation activities, training and education, and coordination of response and
       recovery from any and all emergencies or disasters resulting from natural, technological, or man-made events.

IV.    Jurisdictional Profile and Hazards Summary

       A. Cass County: Facts and Figures

          Cass County contains a total land area of 413 square miles with a population of, according to latest census figures, of 40,930 people. The
          County has fourteen (14) townships, which are Adams, Bethlehem, Boone, Clay, Clinton, Deer Creek, Eel, Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson,
          Miami, Noble, Tipton and Washington. There are five (5) incorporated towns, which are the City of Logansport, Onward, Royal Center,
          Galveston and Walton. The highest concentrations of residents live in Logansport. The population of the communities in the county are:

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         Logansport (19,466), Galveston (1497), Walton (1053), Royal Center (827), Twelve Mile (225), New Waverly (150), Lucerne (130), Clymers
         (120), Lake Cicott (100) and Onward (84). Other communities in the county generally have a low population base.

         Cass County has several levels of government ranging from the County Board of Commissioners and County Council, the Mayor of
         Logansport and City Council to the Town Boards of Royal Center, Onward, Galveston ad Walton. Additionally, the fourteen townships have
         Trustees, which also contribute to the overall leadership of the County.

         Cass County is located in the north central portion of Indiana counties, bounded on the north by Pulaski and Fulton counties, on the west by
         White and Carroll counties, on the south by Howard and Carroll County and on the east by Miami county.

         Statewide, Cass County ranks 35th in total population. Cass County is primarily agricultural with a small manufacturing base. 80 percent of the
         county’s approximately 265,000 acres is cropland.

         People with the community are known to help each other during times of disasters.

         US 24 runs east/west through Lake Cicott, and bypasses around Logansport and New Waverly. US 35 runs north/south through Royal Center,
         Logansport, Walton and Galveston. SR 25 runs north/south through Metea, Logansport and Clymers. SR 16 runs east/west through Royal
         Center, Lucerne, Metea and Twelve Mile. SR 17 begins in Logansport on Third Street and runs directly north. SR 29 begins in Logansport on
         Third Street on runs south. SR 218 runs east/west through Walton. SR 18 runs east/west through Young America and Galveston. The only
         airport is approximately three miles south of Logansport. Norfolk/Southern Railroad line runs east/west through Clymers, Logansport and
         New Waverly, and Rail America operates lines that run through Logansport and smaller communities in the county. We have several natural
         gas, petroleum and ammonia pipelines that run throughout the county.

      B. Cass County’s Hazard Base: A Summary

         Cass County’s hazard base is somewhat neutral – however, there are some changes due to land use changes, technological advances, and new
         emerging threats such as terrorism incidents and the use of weapons of mass destruction. For this reason, Cass County’s ability to prepare, and
         respond to these wide range of hazards must be flexible. In keeping with the “all hazards, all risks” approach adopted by the Indiana State
         Emergency Management Agency and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the county has built an effective emergency management
         system that is able to address the multitude of hazards that are prevalent in our jurisdiction. Those hazards – natural, technological, and human
         related – present a wide variety of challenges to the Cass County government agencies, communities, businesses, and the general public.
         While some hazards may not impact our lives on a daily basis, the threat is always there. It must be addressed through comprehensive
         emergency planning and preparedness efforts, not just at the county level, but at all levels of government. Failure to provide proactive
         programs or detailed assessments of the hazards that threaten us can result in a needless and tragic loss of life and property, as well as
         emotional and economic impacts that will felt long after the hazards have gone.


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         Due to its geography and geographic location, the principle natural hazard threats to Cass County are (not in order of priority): 1) tornadoes,
         which have occurred, however not created any substantial damage; 2) river flooding, which most often occurs because of severe storms and
         spring rains; 3) severe winds that accompany thunderstorms; and 4) severe winter weather, which includes snow storms as well as sleet and ice
         storms.

         Cass County’s principle technological hazard threats (not in order of priority) include: 1) hazardous material incidents fixed-sites and
         transportation-related); 2) air transportation accidents; 3) structural fires; 4) tire fires which an burn for weeks and cause serious environmental
         damage; 5) disaster-related infrastructure failures, which can result in millions of dollars of damage and severely impact public health and
         public safety in all areas of the county.

         Human-related hazards such as electrical blackouts and brown outs, water and sewage treatment failures, and other accidental or unintentional
         failures of infrastructure and critical services, can also cause public health and safety concerns. Take for example a heat wave. If one occurs,
         they are often not given a passing thought by county residents However, if a power outage knocks or air conditioning systems, or when the
         heat wave lasts for several days, serious problems will occur, most of which, may be more felt by the very young, the elderly and by other
         special needs populations In that situation, a simple situation can be a deadly and significant hazard.


      C. Cass County Emergency Management: Focus for the Future

         Cass County, like most of the other 91 counties in the State of Indiana will always be threatened by natural hazards. County government in
         partnership with State government must make a commitment to prepare for the management of those types of events, if and when they occur.
         Likewise, the Cass County manufacturing base almost ensures that the county will remain vulnerable to hazardous material incidents and other
         technological threats. However, with the county elected and appointed officials becoming informed leaders on the subject of community
         hazards, they will be able to set and direct policies that will enable emergency management and county response agencies to effectively plan,
         train and exercise to meet these types of occurrences. The end result will be a stronger community and a better place to work, live and grow.




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                                  HAZARDS

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                                                          FLOODING HAZARDS

I.    Dam Failure

      A.      Definition: The collapse or failure of an impoundment resulting in downstream flooding.

      B.      Hazard Description

      A dam failure can result in the loss of life and extensive property or natural resource damages for miles downstream from a dam that has been
      compromised. Dam failures occur not only during flooding or significant weather events, but also as a result of poor operation, lack of
      maintenance and repair, and vandalism. Such failures can be catastrophic because they occur unexpectedly, with little or no time for evacuation.

      The construction of three dams and reservoirs (Mississinewa, Salamonie, and the Edward Roush) has greatly improved the threats of flooding in
      Cass County. The collapse of one or more of these dams would seriously impact Cass County. Our biggest risk of a dam failure would come from
      the Mississinewa Dam. In the summer of 2000, construction on the Mississinewa Dam began to make repairs to possible problems with in the
      structure of the dam. The completion date for this project will be the year 2005. In the meantime, Cass County has had to implement a specific
      plan for the event of a failure of the dam during construction. The Mississinewa Dam and the others fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army
      Corp of Engineers.

      Located in the county are (2) two privately owned dams at Lake Perry just northeast of Logansport, and at Ridgeview Estates near Georgetown.
      These dams also propose certain risks related to the failure of these earthen structures.

      C.      Significant Events

      Fortunately Cass County has not faced any major events relating to a dam failure, however the dam at Ridgeview Estates has had problems on two
      different occasions. The last problem was during the July 2003 storms.

      D.      Programs and initiatives

      Dams are an important part of the state and county infrastructure and provide numerous benefits to all citizens. However, as history has
      demonstrated in some communities, dams may fail with disastrous consequences causing unfortunate loss of life and destruction of property and
      natural resources. Many dams within the state are becoming older and some are even built in extremely hazardous flood-prone area. Having
      specific mitigative efforts many not totally eliminate the risk associated with dam breaches and down stream flooding. Knowing where the
      potential hazard may occur, who and what is may effect, and having the procedures to meet these challenges are all the key aspects in managing
      this kind of hazard.

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II.   River Flooding

      A.      Definition: The overflowing of rivers, streams, drains, and lakes from excess rainfall, rapid snowfall or ice.


B.    Hazard Description

      Flooding of land adjoining the normal course of a stream or river has been a natural occurrence since the beginning of time. If these flood plain
      areas where left in their natural state, floods would not cause the significant damage we have had in modern times. Human development has
      increased the potential for serious flooding because rainfall that used to soak into the ground or take several days to reach a river via a natural
      drainage basin now quickly runs off streets, parking lots, rooftops, and through man-make pipes, channels and sewage systems.

      Quite noticeable, flooding can damage or totally destroy both public and private property and may also disable utilities, make roads impassable,
      destroy agricultural areas and crops, cause disruption to emergency services, and may claim the lives of people, pets, and farm animals.

      Floodprone areas are found throughout the state and with Cass County simply because every lake, river and stream (as well as man-made drainage
      systems) have a floodplain (or floodplains) in which they empty. As stated earlier, human development and the specific types of structures created
      will be good indicators as to whether areas will be floodprone and what the extent of damage will be. The Indiana Department of Natural
      Resources, Water Division, estimates that about 4 % of Cass County’s land is floodprone.

      The primary sources of flooding for Cass County are the Eel River and Wabash River. The Eel River, a tributary of the Wabash River, flows from
      the northeast part of the county to where it drains into the Wabash River in Logansport. The Eel River is impacted by conditions in Miami County
      and other counties to the east, which cause the river to rise rapidly. The Wabash River flows from the east to the southwest as it passes thru the
      communities of Lewisburg, Logansport, and Georgetown. We have several residences that live along the river in these communities, and they can
      be affected with the rise of the river. Most of these residences are in the form of trailers and cottages, and are summer residences.

      Cass County has several creeks, both large and small, that can and have been affected by heavy rainfalls and/or spring thaws. The main creeks that
      would have an affect on housing are Deer Creek in southern Cass County near Galveston, Rock Creek in south central Cass County, Pipe Creek in
      east central Cass County, Crooked Creek in west central Cass County and the Twelve Mile Creek near Twelve Mile.

      Severe thunderstorms may cause flooding during the summer or fall, but tends to be localized and has more of an impact on watercourses with
      smaller drainage areas. Often times, flooding may not be indirectly attributable to a river, stream or lake overflowing its banks. Rather, it may
      simply be that an excessive rainfall, a heavily saturated ground, and inadequate drainage may make the conditions right for a severe flooding
      event. With no place to go, the water will find the lowest points into – areas that are often not in the floodplain. That type of flooding is becoming
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      more prevalent in Cass County, as areas within the jurisdiction, through increased development, are directly hindered in their ability to drain
      properly, causing significant problems for whole communities. Predominantly, storm drains and sewer systems are the ones most affected. The
      outcome is sometimes the back up of water, sewage, and debris into homes and basements, causing structural and mechanical damage as well as
      creating public health concerns and unsafe conditions.
C.    Significant Events

      Over the past several years, Cass County has experienced numerous small flooding events.
      These flood events have caused thousands of dollars in damages to homes, business, personal property, and agriculture. The July 4th storms of
      2003 caused severe damage throughout the county, which resulted in a Federal Disaster Declaration.

      Periodically there are situations of flooding in the county, but in order for the county to be majorly impacted we have to receive significant rainfall,
      as was the event during the July storms of 2003.

D.    Programs and Initiatives

      National Weather Service Doppler Radar – The National Weather service has developed a system of weather monitoring and prediction that has
      been unheard of in decades past. Real time weather information can now be observed and information on the storm and weather systems that can
      produce thunderstorms, tornadoes, and significant flooding can be relayed to state and local officials more readily.

      National Weather Service Watches and Warnings- When information on significant weather events has been collected and determined to be a
      threat to the State, then warnings or watches are issued. The information contained in the messages will be the strength, magnitude, duration, and
      location of the occurrence. Most of these warnings or watches will instruct the specified areas to watch television and listen to radio programs to
      gain additional details or instruction if the event is imminent to include evacuation, shelter locations, and care for family member. Watches mean
      that conditions are right for these types of events to occur and Warnings mean that the area or jurisdiction is directly threatened by weather event.

      Cass County Primary Warning Point- The Cass County Sheriff’s Department dispatch center has been designated as the County Primary Warning
      Point for Civil Disturbances and severe Weather situation. This warning point monitors the Law Enforcement Information Network, he Nation
      Oceanic and Atmospheric administration, and National Weather Service websites and will warn the public when information is received to save
      lives and to minimize the risk to public and private property.

      Cass County Emergency Management Agency- Local Emergency Management maintains a direct link with the Indiana State Emergency
      Management Agency during times of potential flooding and other significant weather events. They also monitor the Emergency Management
      Weather Information Network which is a web-based program that gives up to date and timely weather information and reporting that can be useful
      in preparing resources, briefing volunteers, and warning the public. Additionally, Emergency Management volunteers such as the Cass County
      Storm Spotters can also provide detailed information directly from the field or site of the actual weather event for rapid warning of the public.


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      Severe Weather Awareness Week – Each spring, Cass County in conjunction with the Indiana State Emergency Management Agency, the Indiana
      State Police, and the National Weather focuses on severe weather hazards such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, lightning, hail high winds, and of
      course, flooding. Informational materials on flooding and other severe weather hazards are disseminated to schools, hospitals, nursing homes,
      community groups and facilities, and the general public.
      Indiana Code Title 14 – This State Code is what regulates and provides information on levees, dams and drainage, flood control, and rivers,
      stream and waterways within Indiana.

              IC 14-27: Levees, Dams and Drainage- This portion of the code covers the provisions for regulating the control of levees and dams,
              provides information on the grants and loans for maintaining such structures, establishes the state drainage districts, and outlines what
              certain commissions, groups or organizations can and cannot do as it relates to levees, dams and drainage

              IC 14-28: Flood Control- This portion of the code covers the provisions for regulating flood control portions with the state by establishing
              the definitions and terms associated with flood management programs, defining a clear purpose for establishing commissions and
              additional laws to manage flooding events, providing guidance on the construction and engineering practices for building or developing in
              flood prone area, and explaining the need for the development of comprehensive flood control plans.

              IC 14-29: Rivers Streams and Waterways – This purpose of the code covers the provisions for regulating the control of rivers, streams and
              waterways by providing information on navigable systems and streams, establishing guidelines for developing new channels and dredging
              operations, changing water courses and constructing highways, providing guidance on preserving recreational streams and waterways, and
              establishing jurisdictional commissions that will enforce and ensure that this code is followed and maintained.

      National Flood Insurance Program- For many years, responding to and reducing flood damages centered around simply building dams and
      levees, and making channel modification to existing waterways. However, this approach could not keep up with the rising costs associated with
      other significant flood recovery costs. Additionally, many individuals could not purchase insurance to protect themselves from this damage, and it
      became apparent that a different approach was needed.

      The National Flood Insurance Program was instituted in 1968 to make flood insurance available in those communities agreeing to regulate future
      floodplain development. As a participant in the National Flood Insurance Program, Cass County must adopt regulations that: 1) require any new
      residential construction within the 100-year floodplain to have the lowest floor, including the basement, elevated above the 100-year flood
      elevation; 2) allow non-residential structures to be elevated of dry floodproofed (the proofing must be certified by a registered professional
      engineer or architect; 3) require anchoring of manufactured homes in floodprone areas. Cass County must also maintain a record of all lowest floor
      elevations or the elevations to which buildings in the flood hazard areas have been floodproofed. In return for adopting floodplain management
      regulations, the federal government will make flood insurance available to the citizens of the county. In 1973, the National Flood Insurance
      Program was amended to mandate the purchase of flood insurance as a condition of any federally regulated, supervised or insured loan on any
      construction or building within the 100-year floodplain.


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      Currently, only a few residents in Cass County have flood insurance. Additional programs ad initiatives are still be developed and implemented
      with the county to impart to the individual residents how important and how cost effective flood insurance would be to lessen the burden on
      themselves and the county as a whole.

      Flood Mitigation Assistance Program – With the passage of the National Flood Insurance Reform Act of 1994, Congress authorized the
      establishment of a federal grant program to provide financial assistance to local communities for flood mitigation planning and activities. The
      Federal Emergency Management Agency has designed this as the Flood Mitigation Assistance Program. The funds associated with this program
      can be used to fund activities that reduce the risk of flood damage to structures that are insurable under the National Flood Insurance Program.

      There are three types of Flood Mitigation Assistance Program grants available. 1) Planning Grants to assist local communities in developing
      flood mitigation plans; 2) Project Grants to fund eligible flood mitigation projects, with the emphasis on repetitively or substantially-damaged
      structures insured under the National Flood Insurance Program; and 3) Technical Assistance Grants to assist the communities within the state in
      obtaining technical assistance in implementing approved projects.

      Cass County Area Plan – The Cass County Commissioners adopted a resolution naming the Cass County Area Plan Department as the
      coordinating agency for flood plain management issues. Some of the responsibilities that have been tasked are to institute sound flood mitigation
      programs within the county that will enable the community to better prevent, respond, and educated the public on the dangers of flooding. The
      Cass County Emergency Management Agency works closely with the department on this program.

D.    Analysis and Impact

      It is widely known that controlling floodplain development is the key to reducing flood-related damages. Although there are state and local
      programs to regulate mew development of substantial improvements in flood prone areas, floodplain development in many communities still
      continues to increase. Cass County however, controls and monitors the construction of homes and business within these areas. Leadership within
      the county has determined that proper land use management coupled with strict enforcement of building codes can make Cass County safer from
      flood hazards and will aid in reducing the high costs of flood losses.

      The following is a map showing the flood zones within Cass County. It is important to note that although programs for flood mitigation and flood
      management have been established within Cass County, weather conditions such as prolonged rainfall and sometimes significant thawing, could
      tax those programs. Thus, every waterway, river, or stream has the very real possibility to be a potential flood hazard.

      * NOTE: the map to be updated and then presented into the plan.




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                                                                  DROUGHT HAZARD
II.   Drought

      A. Definition: A water shortage within a community or region that is caused by a deficiency of rainfall, generally lasting for an
         extended period of time.

      B. Hazard Description

         Drought is a normal part of the climate of the State of Indiana and Cass County, and every other part of the nation and the world. This
         included area of not only light rainfall, but also areas on high rainfall averages. Drought differs from normal arid conditions found in low
         rainfall area in that aridity is a general characteristic of that area and drought is the consequence of a reduction in amount of precipitation over
         an undetermined length of time (usually a growing season or more in length). The severity of a drought depends not only on its location,
         duration, and geographical extent, but also in the water supply and usage demands made by human activities and vegetation or agricultural
         operations.

         Additionally droughts differ from other natural hazards in several ways:

             1. It is difficult to determine the exact beginning or end of drought period, since its effects
                may accumulate slowly and linger even after the event is generally thought of as being over.

             2. The lack of a clear-out definition of drought often makes it difficult to determine whether
                one actually exists, and if it does, its degree of severity.

             3. Drought impacts are often less obvious than natural hazards and are typically spread over
                a much larger geographical area.

             4. Most communities do not have any type of contingency planning in place that addresses
                Drought situation. This lack of planning can greatly hinder a community’s ability to manage drought situations.

      Droughts can severely impact communities and regions and may cause a large series of problems or difficulties, which include:

             1. Water shortages for human consumption, industrial, business and agricultural uses, power
                generation, recreational activities, and basic transportation uses.

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             2. A drop of significant decrease in the quantity and quality of agricultural products.

             3. Decline of water quality in lakes, streams, and other natural bodies of water.

             4. Malnourishment of wildlife and livestock.

             5. Increase in wildfires and fire-related losses to timber, homes, and other kinds of public and private property.
             6. Declines in tourism in areas dependent upon water-related activities.

             7. Declines in land use values due to physical damage from the drought conditions and/or
                decreased economic or functional use of the property.

             8. Increases in insect infestations, plant disease, and wind erosion.

             9. Possible loss of human life due to food shortages, extreme heat, fire and other health related
                problems such as diminished sewage flows and increased pollutant concentrations in
                surface water.

      C. Significant Events

             As stated earlier, Indiana is no unique in the potential threat to drought conditions. The
             following is a brief summary of the drought related events that have affected Cass County.


                                                                          1999 Drought

             Significant lack of rain and prolonged high temperatures brought about drought conditions
             that held much of the country throughout most of 1999 and well into 2000. Hardest hit
             was the eastern and Midwestern portions of the United States, with Indiana facing hard-felt
             crop and other agricultural losses.

                                                                              1988

             In 1988, much like the drought of 1999, the state of Indiana as well as much of Cass County
             was under extreme temperatures and prolonged periods of little or no rain. Several hundreds
             of thousands of dollars in crops and agricultural losses were felt within the county.
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                                                                             1964

             During the summer 1964, the United States went through one of the worst droughts since the
             1930’s and the Dust Bowl. There was a significant period where much of the Midwest and
             central portions of the county received very little or trace amounts of precipitation. Coupled with the high temperatures, the conditions
             caused large crop losses.

             It was also during this time, a researcher and meteorologist named W. C. Palmer developed a system to evaluate precipitation and
             temperatures to gauge the severity of drought or significant rainfall during a specified period of time. In 1965 this system was introduced
             and is mow widely used and accepted by many government agencies as the primary means to evaluate drought conditions.

      D. Programs and Initiatives

        No one single agency within the United States monitor droughts. In fact, the State of Indiana does
        Not keep a running log or detailed information on the specifics of drought events. Rather, it is
        group of agencies or departments at the federal and state levels that have established programs
        that collectively evaluate, research and assess rainfall, temperature, economic and social
        impacts, and the environmental damages that drought events may bring about. The following is a
        listing of the major agencies that have contributed information to this Hazard Analysis.

             1. U.S. Geological Survey – This federal agency is one of the primary agencies responsible
                For collecting and analyzing streamflow data, which can be used in establishing a viable index for determining the severity of drought

             2. National Weather Service – The National Weather Service is the primary federal agency
                that collects and publishes data on precipitation and weather-related events from weather
                offices all over the county. This data is generated in many different in many different
                styles of reports, but the information can be made applicable to specific states or regions,
                and can readily be accessible from numerous offices within the state. Following the
                information from the National Weather Service can provide valuable indicators to
                determine whether a drought may be possible.

             3. United State Department of Agriculture- This agency has a variety of programs that may be able to provide assistance to farmers and
                other agricultural businesses within Cass County that may be adversely impacted by natural disaster – specifically drought. The United
                States department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency can provide emergency loans to farmers, ranchers, or agricultural operators
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                 who have suffered significant property or economic losses. These loans are made to qualified applicants within Cass County that have
                 been designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency as eligible for federal assistance while under a Presidential Disaster
                 Declaration. Additionally, loans may be available through a secretary of Agriculture Disaster Declaration as well as being provided
                 technical assistance for land and water conservation efforts aimed at recovering from the effects of drought.

             4. National Drought Mitigation Center – This agency is a major and information center
                whose mission is to assist the public and other agencies within the United States to
                develop and implement measures to reduce their vulnerability to drought. Throughout
                various programs, the National Drought Mitigation Center stresses prevention and risk
                management rather than consequence management. It also continues with work that is
                being completed by the International Drought Mitigation Center. The International
                Drought Information Center is basically a clearing house for drought-related research,
                policy and planning assistance, training and educational programs, and general
                information sharing. Both of these agencies are vital in coordinating drought-related
                programs and initiatives.

      E. Analysis and Impact

        Cass County as well as the rest of the State is subject to the consequences of drought. However,
        there are some areas that are more vulnerable than others. These include both urbanized and rural
        areas that are more vulnerable than others. These in include both urbanized and rural areas, each of which, Cass County has.

          Urbanized areas such as the City of Logansport is vulnerable to water shortages during drought
          because these conditions can cause business disruptions due to the sheer number of water users
         that may be competing for the limited water resources. In all incorporated cities, water
         management strategies have been established to deal with these issues, also taking into
         consideration public health and safety concerns, such as having an adequate water supply for
         firefighting and addressing the needs of the elderly, children, hospitals, and impoverished
         residents.

        In the rural areas of the county, drought beings several different problems that must be addressed.
        The quality and quantity of cops, livestock, and other agricultural activities will be affected during
        prolonged drought.




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          Because drought is such a low-profile hazard, it does not receive as much attention as it should from most community leaders, emergency
          management officials, and the public in general. AS a result, many jurisdictions have drought contingency planning at the lower end of the list
          of the priorities for their communities.

III Extreme Temperatures

   A. Definition: Prolonged periods of very high or very low temperatures, often accompanied by extreme meteorological conditions.

   B. Hazard Description

      Periods of extreme temperatures, whether they are from summer heat or blistering winter cold, can pose severe and often life-threatening problems
      for the residents of Cass County. Although these hazard extremes are radically different in their onset and potential magnitude, they do share a
      common factor in that they both primarily affect the most vulnerable segments of the population – the elderly, children, those in poor health and
      the impoverished.

          1. Extreme Summer Heat – Extreme summer weather is characterized by a combination of very high temperatures and in the State of
             Indiana, exceptionally humid conditions. When this condition persists over a long period of time, this phenomenon is commonly called a
             heat wave. Listed below are the two major threats associated with extreme high temperatures:

                    a. Heatstroke: Extremely high body-core temperatures that result in a body being unable to effectively cool itself, and in many
                       cases, losing its ability to sweat. This condition can bring about delirium, stupors, a coma-like state, and in severe cases, death.
                       Rapid, immediate cooling is essential in counteracting the effects of this condition.
                    b. Heat exhaustion: This is a lesser condition than heatstroke and is the result of a fluid imbalance due to increased perspiration
                       resulting from intense heat. It may cause dizziness, weakness, and fatigue. Treatment usually consists of restoring fluids and
                       trying to cool the body temperature to normal levels.

          2. Extreme Winter Cold- Like heat waves, periods of unusually cold weather can result in a significant number of temperature-related
             deaths. Below are listed the major threats associated with extreme winter cold:

                    a. Hypothermia: This is a condition that is brought about when the body-core
                       temperature is lowered to 95 degrees or less, in effect, making the body unable to adequately warm itself or carry out basic body
                        functions. This condition, if proper re-warning isn’t done during the earliest onset, could result in confusion, loss of
                        consciousness, and even death. Hypothermia is predominantly felt in young individual who are unaccustomed or inexperienced
                        in dealing with the cold temperatures during outdoor winter activities. However, this condition may also affect the elderly and
                        very young children who may be relatively vulnerable to cold temperatures.


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                   b. Frostbite: This is a condition in which certain part if the body, after being exposed to significantly cold temperatures, actually
                      starts to freeze, causing potential tissue death of the affected area, and in extreme cases, secondary infections of the body. The
                      treatment for frostbite is limited to trying to prevent further injury to the unaffected areas of the body and a gradual re-warming
                      of the affected areas. It should be noted that re-warming should be done in a medical facility, if possible, due to extreme pain,
                      bleeding and the risks of infection to the victim.

                   Considering the differences in heatstroke, heat exhaustion, hypothermia, and frostbite, a very significant fact must be understood.
                   That is, once an individual has had these types of conditions, they are more susceptible to re-injury or at greater health risk to other
                   heat or cold related conditions.




  C. Significant Events

         1. Extreme Summer Heat- Cass County has been fortunate in the fact that there has not been a significant of long-term period of extremely
            high temperatures that have caused the deaths of numerous residents. However, as noted earlier, primarily the elderly feels this condition.

                   a. In 1974, summer temperatures reached all time highs is much of the Central and South United States resulting in numerous
                      deaths throughout the country.
                   b. In 1988, much of the country was experiencing drought conditions with extremely high temperatures. In Cass County, and
                      across the state many communities had to deal with the situation of elderly residents still did not have air conditioning or even
                      fans to lessen the burden of the heat.
                   c. In 1993, significant high Cass County very uncomfortable and potentially dangerous.
                   d. 1995 was much like 1993, with high temperatures and high humidity. These conditions were felt unusually early in May,
                      catching many Cass County residents off guard.
                   e. In 1999, Cass County suffered with the drought conditions that gripped much of the eastern and mid-western portions of the
                      United States.

         2. Extreme Winter Cold- Deaths due to extreme winter cold are often not associated with particular weather events. Rather, they are the
            result of a one-time, over-exposure to severe cold weather (i.e. a hiker lost in the woods), or more commonly from continuous exposure to
            moderate cold temperatures by persons who are susceptible to these kinds of conditions such as the elderly and the very young. In some
            cases, hypothermia deaths can be linked to extreme winter weather such as snowstorms or blizzards, where the victim is caught
            unprepared for the severe weather event. As mentioned earlier, many cold temperature-related deaths involve the exacerbation of an
            existing, serious medical condition such as heart disease or pneumonia.


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                    a. The winter of 1978 was the year that Cass County and the State of Indiana experienced the worst blizzard on record. It hit the
                       region on the 25th through the 27th of January and dumped up to 20 inches of snow on the central and southern portions of the
                       State. Even worse were the powerful wind gusts that reached up to 55 miles per hour which caused snow drifting that reached in
                       excess of 10 to 20 feet and deadly wind chills as low as –59. A Federal State of Emergency was declared for this event and a
                       total of 9 people lost their lives as result of the extreme conditions associated with this storm.
                    b. In January of 1979, significant snows fell again, but ice storms cam with them making the state virtually stand still for two
                       weeks. There were significant power outages, collapsed trees, and commercial and residential property damages all over Cass
                       County and the rest of the state. A Federal Disaster Declaration was given to this event to assist in cleaning up and promoting
                       severe winter weather education programs for the County.
                    c. In late December of 1999 and in early January 2000, the state once again felt the grip of both ice and heavy snowfalls. 26
                       counties in north central, central and south central Indiana experienced a series of storms that first produced 8 inches of snow,
                       followed again by 6 inches of snow. All the main roads including major interstates and state highway were closed over the New
                       Years holiday and up to a week after as city and county crews tried to free the residents from their homes and neighborhood.
                       This event also called for a Federal Declaration.

 D. Programs and Initiatives

      1. Extreme Heat- Heat waves severe enough to threaten the health of Cass County residents do not occur every year and several relatively mild
         summers may intervene between major heat waves. This erratic occurrence hinders effective planning and prevention efforts. The problem is
         also complicated by the fact that long-term weather forecasts cannot reliably predict extended periods of extreme summer heat. Short-term
         forecasting of hot weather are more accurate, but there is often little time for mobilizing the efforts of a community to meet the needs to
         effectively combat this hazard.

      2. Extreme Winter Cold – Death and hypothermia are rare occurrences in the winter months. But because of the nature of this threat, no one is
      truly without risk of falling victims to the hazard. It has been stated that the elderly and the extremely young are more vulnerable to cold-related
      injuries, but also noted were those individuals that were inexperienced in dealing with the cold, who may be good physical condition, with no
      critical health problems.

         In Cass County, the American Red Cross Chapter and Emergency Management initiate annual programs during the winter months to educate
         the elderly and children on the dangers of severe cold. Additionally, many non-profit agencies promote coat drives and provide assistance with
         utility expenses for those residents that may require such assistance.

         Although these programs may not totally prevent the loss of life to Cass County residents, they do address informing the public of the
         importance of being educated on these hazards. These programs also promote ways that everyone is Cass County can get involved to make a
         difference in where they love and could quite possibly save someone’s life.


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   D. Analysis and Impact

       1. Extreme Summer Heat – As stated in the above sections, Cass County is extremely vulnerable to high temperatures and the dangers associated
       with prolonged exposure to heat. Our urban areas, mainly the City of Logansport, are of particular risk due to the high number of residents and the
       concentrated number of people who may be at higher risk of failing victims to such hazard. Human service agencies, volunteer organizations, the
       Cass County Health Department, medical and health care facilities, and schools all have definite roles to play in educating, planning and
       responding to extreme heat conditions and the injuries associated with them.

       2. Extreme Winter Cold – Indiana winters are extremely unpredictable, ranging from very mild to blizzard like conditions. Cass County like
       many other jurisdictions has faced winter storm emergencies on numerous occasions and has prepared themselves for the worst from these
       events. However, in order to understand the dangers of extreme winter cold, additional community outreach programs must be developed and
       make available all county residents, with special considerations make for the elderly and the young. It is also equally important to explain now to
       protect oneself during power failures, what to do during the loss of heat, and to do if they are unable to leave their homes because of the weather
       conditions.

         Five times since 1977, extreme winter weather has caused the declaration of snow emergencies. January 1977, December 1983, February 1985,
         January 1987, January 1999. There were no unusual problems other than those normally accompanying this type of weather, such as roads
         impassable due to the blowing and drifting snow.

IV. Tire Fires

    A. Definition: A large fire that in which new, used or discarded tires are set on fire in approved or
       unapproved storage locations.

     B. Hazard Description

        The State of Indiana generates thousands of scrap tires annually. Many of those tires find themselves
        in approved storage sites that are carefully regulated and controlled by both state and federal
        officials. However, there are tires that are intentionally dumped in unapproved locations throughout
        the state. Cass County has no approved locations for tire disposal and storage, but the numbers for unapproved locations cannot be readily
        determined. Illegal sites owned by private residents who have been continually dumping waste and refuse, to include tires, at those locations for
        many years, contribute not only to the potential fire hazard, but to the threat of infectious insects and disease carrying rodents.

         Tire disposal and new tire storage sites can be fire hazards due to large part to the enormous numbers of tires typically present at one site. This
       large amount of “fuel” and the fact that the shape of a tire allows airflow into the interior of a large tire pile, renders standard fire fighting practices
       nearly useless. Flowing and burning oil released by the tires can spread the fire to adjacent areas.
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       Tire Fires differ from conventional fires in the following respects:

       1. Relatively small scrap tire fires can require significant fire resources to control and extinguish.

       2. Those resources often cost much more than Cass County government can absorb compared to standard fire responses.

       3. There may be significant environmental consequences of a major tire fire, because extreme heat can convert a standard passenger tire into
          about two gallons of oily residue, which may leach into the soil or migrate to streams and waterways.

   C. Significant Events

      Cass County has been fortunate in that there have not been any large-scale scrap tire fires in the county. Many factors have contributed to this,
      such as tighter state and local regulations regarding the disposal and storage of such materials, larger fines and more severe punishments for illegal
      dumping, and guidelines making illegal disposal much easier to prosecute.

   D. Programs and Initiatives

      The Indiana department of Environment Management regulates the policies and guidelines that aid local jurisdictions in establishing scrap tire
      management programs. Overall, this agency promotes the development of management concepts, which minimize the environmental, public
      health and pest and vector concerns. Because of this, the Indiana department of Environmental Management works hands with Cass County
      elected officials, state businesses and industry leaders, local and state public health officials, the State Fire Marshals Office, and the Department of
      Natural resources.

      These agencies provide much needed technical assistance, but funding or monies to assist in developing and maintaining programs such as this
      may be accessible through the State Waste Tire Management Fund. This fund was created in response to large number of storage sites around the
      state and the potential risk to health that tires force communities to plan for.

   E. Analysis and Impact

      Although there are no real tire storage concerns within Cass County, the community leaders must continue to maintain existing regulations to be
      able to mitigate any situations that may occur due to the establishment of facilities in the future. The county will still need to coordinate recycling
      and re-use programs in Cass County and support programs statewide.

      To be truly effective, scrap tire management must be viewed from two perspectives:


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       1. First, establish methods for dealing with the overwhelming number of scrap tires generated in the state each year. Political committees have
          determined that this can be done through recycling or re-use. However, because of the very nature of the tire itself, this may not be the most
          financially effective or practical method.
       2. There must also be measures or regulations regarding the sites around the state for those tire that already exist and haven’t gone anywhere for
          quite some time. Clean-up, disposal, equipment, personnel, and in many cases, prosecution expenses take time and money.

       It is not foreseen in the very near future that the problem of scrap tires storage sites will be an issue, but hope that that any future sites will be kept
       on check with the guidelines currently in place, which assist in controlling the risks of public health.

V. Structure Fires

   A. Definition: Fires of any origin that ignites one or more structures, causing damage, or loss of life or property.

   A. Hazard Description

       In terms of average annual loss of life and property, structural fires can be one of the most potentially devastating hazards facing Cass County.
       Direct property losses die to fire could exceed hundreds of thousands of dollars for Cass County. Although these figures seem quite low, structural
       fires, either accidental or intentional, can result in even greater numbers of death, injuries or property losses if the location and conditions are right,
       pushing the figures well beyond what Cass County may be able to financially or physically recover from.

   B. Significant Events

       Although Cass County is relatively small compared to many of the larger metropolitan areas in the State and in the Midwest, it has in fact
       experience its share of large structural fires. Thankfully, there have not been any that have had significant numbers of deaths or injuries, but like
       most hazards, total prevention of loss and major property damage is not feasible.

       In June of 1998, the Cole Hardwood Lumber Company suffered the total destruction of there facility in a fire that took over one week to be put
       out, and had the response of over 30 fire departments from the surrounding area. A fire followed that event in October 2003 at Tierney Warehouse,
       in which there were 17 fire departments called to the scene, and took almost 24 hours to put out.

   C. Programs and Initiatives

                                                             Indiana State Fire Marshals Office

       The State Fire Marshals Office performs a number of significant tasks aimed at developing, improving, and enhancing the training of firefighters
       in Indiana and Cass County. It primarily does this through developing standards for selecting firefighters, establishing qualifications and
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      certifications for all fire instructors, and assisting local fire departments around the state with fire training programs aimed at improving and
      maintaining the fire fighters proficiency at suppressing fires.

                                                        Indiana State Emergency Management Agency

      The State Emergency Management Agency is the overall agency to which the State Fire Marshals Office, the Emergency Medical Services,,
      Emergency Management, and the Public Safety Training Institute all belong. As an umbrella organization, resources for additional fire support,
      supplemental training, grants and supporting funds can be more readily accessible for Cass County and the other 91 counties within the state,
      Additionally, the State Emergency Management Agency also provides technical assistance in developing a wide range of public safety programs,
      not only addressing fire safety, but all hazards and all risks planning.

                                                              National Fire Protection Association

      The National Fire Protection Association for will over 100 years has been one of the primary organizations in the United Fire Codes which sets the
      standards for fire safety and building and construction requirements for virtually every building that is erected today. These codes are not only
      important here in the United States, but many other countries have used tem as a guideline and model for developing their fire protection and
      construction programs. In doing so, the National Fire Protection Association help to reduce the overall fire threat in Cass County, as well as the
      rest of the world.

                                                               United States Fire Administration

      The United Fire Administration provides leadership, coordination and support for the nation’s fire prevention and control, fire training and
      education. and emergency medical service activities. This organization, which is a branch of the Federal Emergency Management Agency,
      conducts training for firefighters through the National Fire Academy, located in Emmetsburg, Maryland. Many firefighters around the state have
      attended training there, obtaining valuable technical information through the many courses that they offer.

      The United State Fire Administration also supports the National Fire Incident Reporting System. This system provides a means for collecting and
      analyzing information on fire frequency and causes, as well as deaths, injuries and property losses associated with fires. Fire departments in Cass
      County have volunteered to use this system, sending all of this pertinent data to the State Fire Marshals Office for further compilation and study.

                                                                 Cass County Fire Association

      The Cass County Fire Association gathers regularly as a collective body whose main mission is to provide a positive and constructive means of
      preventing fires and fire-related incidents within the county. Their main method for doing this is to provide training for all fire service personnel
      and to establish community outreach programs focused on fire safety for children, homes, and businesses. The County Fire Association’s
      Organization has been a major partner with the Cass County Emergency Management Agency in providing comprehensive public safety programs
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       by sharing information, resources, and technical support with other county, state, and federal agencies in times of crisis or disaster. The
       departments have written mutual aid agreements between departments and with departments in surrounding counties. This assist in ensuring that
       positive working relationships and fire safety goals could be better coordinated.

       Members of the following departments represent the County Fire Service:

               1. City of Logansport Fire Department – Career Services
               2. Clinton Twp. Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               3. Galveston Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               4. Georgetown Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               5. Harrison Twp. Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               6. Miami Twp. Fire Department – Volunteer Services
              7. Onward Fire Department - Volunteer Services
               8. Royal Center Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               9. Twelve Mile Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               10. Walton Fire Department – Volunteer Services
               11. Young America Fire Department – Volunteer Services

       The Association meets to discuss relevant issues regarding public safety and fire prevention within the County and with Cass County EMS,
       Emergency Management, E-911 and county officials.

D. Analysis and Impact

       The Cass County Fire Association, with support from other Federal and state Organizations are all trying to reduce the number, scope, and
       magnitude of structural fires. State and Local efforts concentrate on training, public education, incidents tracking, construction plan review, site
       inspection and fire analysis. All of these areas contribute directly to the mitigation and prevention efforts that are being established, but like most
       initiatives, the amount of funding is critical in sponsoring viable programs.

       One of the primary challenges facing much of the state of Indiana and Cass County is that the majority of the fire service personnel are composed
       of either volunteer or part-time individuals. This makes sustaining fire code enforcement or various fire inspection programs extremely difficult.
       Additionally, because of the significant rate or turnover from this group, it places a high demand on state and local training resources.

       Another challenge facing fire service in Cass County is that a state-mandated fire safety code and code enforcements program does not exist. The
       State of Indiana has established amendments to the National Fire Code, distinguishing requirements and information that is relevant to Indiana
       communities. Many jurisdictions within the State do not follow these guidelines or do not use the National Fire Reporting System. Cass County,
       however, joins many other counties in improving fire safety by ensuring that building and fire safety requirements as well as reporting deadlines
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       are met. Schools, health care facilities, and businesses are all inspected and the state Fire Marshal Office receives this information on a regular
       basis.

VII. Wildfires

       A. Definition: An uncontrolled fire in grasslands, brushlands, or forested areas

       B. Hazard Description

          Cass County does not have large heavy wooded or forested areas throughout the county. There are numerous, sparse areas that are wooded.
          Most ground is used for crop production.

          In Cass County, the nature and scope of the wildfire hazard has changed somewhat due to the increase in the development of homes and
          businesses around the areas of the county. What were formally unpopulated rural areas now are neighbor hoods that are at greater risk of being
          exposed to damaging fires.

          It is also important to note that lightning strikes, long time thought to cause many wildfires, are not to blame. Almost all of the fires of these
          types are caused by the careless or unintentional activates of humans. Most of these fires start, quite noticeably, in or near where people live or
          where people choose to do recreational activities, bringing with it, one of the greatest possibilities of loss of life and significant property
          damage.



       C. Significant Events

          Cass County has not experienced major wildfires, but has experienced small fires that if had not been properly handled could have been
          devastating to the community. Coordinated resources of local departments were enough to avoid any structural damages.

       D. Programs and Initiatives

                                               Indiana Department of Natural Resources – Division of Forestry

          The Division of Forestry for the Indiana Department of Natural Resources assists local jurisdictions in the direction and coordination of
          wildfire prevention programs within the State. It is also the primary agency responsible for fire suppression activates on all non-federal lands in
          the state. The division places significant emphasis on public education to aid in mitigating this hazard before it threatens homes, property, and
          resources within Cass County and the rest of the State. When conditions of extreme fire exists, the Division of Forestry, working closely with
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          the State Fire Marshals Office and Cass County Fire Chiefs, may ask the Governor to take precautionary measures around rural, forested areas
          by requesting a formal, outdoor open burning ban in all or portions of the state. Such a ban restricts smoking, fireworks, and outdoor burning
          activities in approved locations only.

                                                                 Indiana State Fire Marshals Office

          Like the Division of Forestry, the State Fire Marshals Office also promotes fire prevention and suppression programs for no only fire service
          personnel around the state, but it also works with the general public through educational outreach programs on fire safety.



                                                                    Cass County Fire Association

          The Cass County Fire Association act as the main resource for fire prevention and suppression of wildfires within the county. In most instances
          of field or woodland fires, mutual aid resources from several of the departments are required to handle the suppression.

       E. Analysis and Impact

          In times of decreased rainfall, severe drought, or the spring and summer months in general, areas of recreational activities may become
          increasingly vulnerable due to the many different visitors from many different walks of life to the recreational areas of the county.

          An important fact to address, as well is that wildfires in Cass County are not just restricted to one particular area. I fact conditions are right,
          wildfires may occur in any wooded area or nay open, grassy areas.

          The Cass County Fire Association support homeowners by supporting the installation of and testing smoke detectors, as well as, home builders
          in requiring the installation of smoke detectors in several area of new construction.

          Like most of the hazards that Cass County faces, wildfires cannot be totally prevented. However, with improved and continuous fire
          prevention and suppression programs, the danger to homes, businesses and lives will be greatly reduced.


VI. Hazard Material Incidents – Fixed Sites and Transport Concerns

   A. Definition: An uncontrolled release of hazardous materials either from a fixed site or in transport that may have the potential to pose a
      risk to life, health, safety, property and the environment.


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   B. Hazard Description

      Over the past few decades, technologies have developed at a stunning pace. As a direct result, hazardous materials have become increasingly more
      prevalent and in larger quantities in businesses and industry, agricultural operations, universities, hospitals, utilities and in other physical locations
      throughout the state and in Cass County. Additionally, this extensive use of chemicals poses a direct to all modes of transportation within our
      communities affecting highway, rail, air and pipeline transportation systems.

      Hazardous materials are highly regulated by federal and state agencies to reduce the risk of release in areas exposed to the general public and the
      environment during their manufacture, transport, storage, usage and disposal. Even with tight controls and precautions, however, accidental
      releases may occur. Often these releases can cause serious harm to Cass County and its residents if proper and immediate actions are not taken.
      Most releases are the result of human error, but sometimes corrective actions and attempts to stabilize these incidents may not be entirely feasible
      or practical.

   C. Significant Events

      Fortunately, Cass County has not experienced significantly large-scale hazard materials incidents at fixed sites or during transport that have
      resulted in multiple deaths or serious injuries. Also, minor releases that put local firefighters, hazardous material responders, emergency
      management and local law enforcement into action to try to stabilize these incidents to prevent or lessen harm to Cass County resident has not
      occurred. Below is a description of the most significant incidents that affected the residents of Cass County.

      2003– A spillage in Southern Cass County of liquid manure into creek created a major fish kill that
             required assistance from agencies in both Cass and Carroll Counties.

      2002 – Several highway transportation accidents resulted in responses from hazardous materials
             response teams.


      2000 – Norfolk Southern railroad train derailment in New Waverly, which required a response, that lasted seven days. We also had an accident at
      a gasoline storage facility in which 900 gallons of fuel was spilled.

      1998 – ESSROC explosion.

   D. Programs and Initiatives

                                         Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III


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            On October 17, 1986, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) was signed into law. A major provision of this act
            was Title III (the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, also known as SARA Title III), which establishes hazardous
            material emergency planning, reporting and training requirements for federal state and local governments and private industry. In Indiana,
            the SARA Title III program is administered and implemented by the Indiana State Emergency Management Agency.

            The emergency Planning provisions of SARA Title III requires each state to establish a state agency response commission, emergency
            planning districts and local emergency planning committees for each district. The state commission and the local committees are
            responsible for preparing and implementing emergency plans, as well as receiving and disseminating copies of material safety data sheets,
            chemical inventories and other reports and forms necessary for compliance under the Act. The community Right-To-Know provisions of
            SARA Title III allow the public access to information on the hazardous materials stored in their community, as well as quantities of toxic
            materials released into the environment.

                                                             State Emergency Response Commission

            The Indiana State Emergency Response Commission was established in 1989 and restructured in 1992. It consists of 13 members
            appointed by the Governor and is chaired by the Executive Director of the State Emergency Management Agency. The membership
            includes several state agencies, the general public, as well as a variety of other groups and professional disciplines (including agriculture,
            industry, labor, education, local government and environmental protection and stewardship). This state commission monitors SARA Title
            III activities in the state and develops policy and overall direction for program administration. It also provides professional staff members
            to assist the various agencies in carrying out Title III planning, training and exercise activities.

                                                       Cass County Local Emergency Planning Committee

            One of the major provisions of SARA Title III is the establishment of local emergency planning committees for each county in the State of
            Indiana. These committees are responsible for developing emergency response plans for those facilities in their jurisdictions, which are
            subject to SARA to Title III Emergency Planning Requirements. The Cass County Local Emergency Planning committee is the primary
            mechanism through which local SARA title III planning, training and exercise activities are implemented. Cass County has approximately
            47 facilities that have been identified as subject to Title III emergency provisions. A facility is considered for these provisions if extremely
            hazardous substances are present at that location in quantities at or above the minimum threshold established in section 302 of the Act.

                                                    Federal Hazardous Material Transportation Regulations

            The transportation, manufacturing, storage and disposal process for hazard materials, as stated previously, are highly regulated by federal
            and state agencies. At the federal level, the United State Department of Transportation, Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, is the


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            regulating agency for all modes of transportation. In addition to enforcing federal hazardous material transportations, this federal agency is
            also involved in other areas aimed at improving the safety of hazardous material shipping and they include:

                    1. Research and development of improved containment/packing.

                    2. Setting standards and fostering interagency coordination efforts in hazardous material transportation planning.

                    3. Managing data and developing training specific to transportation incidents.



            The regulations developed by the U.S. department of Transportation specify the type and size of the containers that can be utilized for
            shipping hazardous materials. They further state that labels must be on those containers and placards must be shown on the carrying
            vehicles on how much of the material can be shipped in that vehicle, and in some cases, how the contents should be organized, loaded and
            the tracked from one location to another.

                                                              National Transportation Safety Board

            The National Transportation safety Board investigates all significant transportation accidents that occur in this country and issues safety
            recommendations to the transporter and government regulations aimed at preventing future accidents. This agency also publishes a list of
            the “most wanted” safety improvements for all modes of transportation for nationwide implementation by appropriate entities. Although
            these safety recommendations are not mandatory and the fact that the National Transportation Safety Board has no regulatory power, it
            nonetheless has been successful in getting a majority of these improvements adopted throughout the country. This agency also has a very
            close and productive working relationship with U.S. department of Transportation.

                                                           Hazardous Material Planning and Training

            Each site that has been identified as being required to report under SARA title III, must be covered by a response plan that address the
            following critical areas:

            1. A Hazard Identification (to include chemical inventories, locations, release detection and Chemical specific response information).

            2. A Vulnerability Analysis and map (to include a vulnerability zone, special populations effected and other facilities and area that may
               contribute to risk).

            3. Population protective actions (to include warning, access control, evacuation and in place
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                   sheltering).

              4. Response Procedures ( to include both on-site and transportation releases).

              5. A training and exercise program that will validate the plans and procedures that have been
                 developed by addressing:

                       a.   Computer-based Management Programs
                       b.   Clean up procedures at fixed sites or during transport
                       c.   Basic chemistry of agents that are present
                       d.   Response Procedures
                       e.   Facility employee requirements for compliance
                       f.   Incident Command Training
                       g.   Hazard Materials monitoring and sampling

      E. Analysis and Impact

              In looking at the major transportation routes and the industry and businesses that are located in Cass County, the reality of being exposed
              to the threat of hundreds of different dangerous chemicals and hazardous materials is increasingly at the forefront in much of the planning
              and risk management efforts that are being developed. Through diligent training and strict compliance with state and federal agencies,
              Cass County will continue to provide a comprehensive means to mitigate against, prepare for, respond to and recover from the hazards
              generated by hazardous material releases.

VII. Earthquakes

    A. Definition: A shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface caused by the lifting, shifting, or
       breaking of the fault lines beneath the ground.

    B. Hazard Description

      Earthquakes range in intensity from slight tremors to significant ground movement with extensive damage. They may last from a few seconds to
      several minutes to several minutes or come as a series of tremors over a period of several days. The energy of an earthquake is released in seismic
      waves and usually occurs without warning. At present, scientists do not have an effective means to accurately predict when or where an
      earthquake will occur. A good indicator for predicting earthquakes, however, is understanding fault lines and mapping their location. A fault line is
      generally where most earthquakes will occur and is the place where large plates of the earths crust located below the surface push and move
      against each other which at times, cause violent shocks above the ground. The United States Geological Survey, Indiana Geological Survey,
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      Indiana University, St. Louis University, University of Kentucky and the Center for Earthquake Research and Information are all active in
      conducting earthquake monitoring and research in the Central United States.

      The actual movement of the ground in an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of injury or death. Most casualties result directly from falling
      objects and debris. Disruptions of communication systems, electrical power lines and gas and water can also be expected. Because of this, water
      supplies can become contaminated by seepage around water mains. Damage to roadways and other transportation systems may create food and
      other resource shortages if vehicle movement is stopped. In addition, earthquakes may trigger other emergency situations such as fires and hazards
      material spills.

      Geologic conditions in Indiana as well as the Central United States permits further transmission of the earthquake energy and a higher probability
      of soil liquefaction. Liquefaction is where unconsolidated soils will liquefy during an earthquake, making the ground unstable and unable to
      support any structures. Liquefaction sites have been located along the Wabash and White R

      Indiana as well as Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky lies in the most seismically active region East of the Rocky
      Mountains. This region is made up of two main areas, which are the New Madrid seismic zone and the Wabash Valley seismic zone. These zones
      are not made up of one fault line, but many geologic faults that are capable of producing earthquakes. Cass County is not expected to be directly
      effected by these potentially unstable faults.


    C. Significant Events

          The most significant earthquakes affecting the State of Indiana and Cass County were from the Great New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-1812.
          These were a series of large earthquakes, the three largest of which were believed to be magnitude (m=) 8.0 or larger with hundreds of after
          shocks in various magnitude ranges.

          The area that took the brunt of the damages and shock has now been designated as the New Madrid Seismic Zone. It starts in Northeastern
          Arkansas and runs through Western Tennessee and Kentucky, Southeastern Missouri to Southern Illinois and far Southwestern Indiana.

          Cass County has felt faint effects of periodic earthquakes that have occurred around the state. These are so minor they are rarely felt.



      D. Programs and Initiatives

          The federal government has several programs and initiatives in place to help reduce the affects of earthquakes. The main initiative that would
          be used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the State of Indiana is the Federal Response Plan. The provisions within the plan
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          outline the duties and responsibilities of 27 federal agencies with roles in disaster response an recovery efforts, such as in the occurrence of
          earthquakes.

          In addition to the Federal Response Plan, both the State of Indiana and Cass County have developed Comprehensive Emergency Management
          Plans that mirror what was established at the federal level, but take a more proactive stance to emergencies and disasters by using the Four
          Phases of Emergency Management (which are Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery) and identify specific tasks and in some
          instances resources to be used in each of those phases. Additional, the state and the county plans are based on the emergency support function
          structure and utilize a checklist style format.

      E. Analysis and Impact

          Even though there have not been earthquakes of the magnitude seen in other portions of the United States in Cass County in recent years, the
          possibility of a significant event occurring cannot be ruled out. However, with proper training, public education programs and leaders who are
          proactive in mapping and understanding the risk of earthquakes in Cass County, the threat will also county will also be lessened.

IX. Severe Spring and Summer Weather

    A. Definition: Significant weather events (outside that of flooding) that includes straight line
       winds, hailstorms, lightning and tornadoes which cause extensive damage and disruption to communities and threaten the lives of
       residents and animals.

   B. Hazard Description


      Although many significant hazards face the State of Indiana and Cass County, none have more notoriety and bring more fear to people than those
      weather events predominantly seen and felt during the spring and summer months. These hazards are significant in that every area within the state
      have experienced them and will continue to do so. They are the product of severe thunderstorms and can be relatively isolated events, or can be
      spread across hundreds of miles in one weather event. The hazards most commonly seen are as follows:

      1. Straight line winds – According to the National Weather Service, winds 58 miles per hour or
         greater are classified as a windstorm. Windstorms are a fairly common occurrence in many area in Indiana. Severe windstorms or straight-line
         winds can cause damage to homes and businesses, power lines, tress and agricultural area, and may require temporary sheltering in individuals
         without power for extended periods of time. Wee over 90 % of the damaging winds associated with severe thunderstorm do no come from
         tornadoes. They are a direct result of straight-line winds.



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      2. Hail – Hail is a product of the string thunderstorms that frequently move across the state. As one of these thunderstorms passes over, hail
         usually falls near the center of the storm, along with the heaviest rain. Sometimes, however, strong winds occurring at high altitudes in the
         thunderstorm can blow the hailstones away from the storm center, causing an unexpected hazard at places that otherwise might mot appear
         threatened. Hailstones range in size from a pea to a baseball, but hailstones larger than softballs have occurred in the most severe
         thunderstorms. Hail is formed when strong updrafts within the storm carry eater droplets above the freezing level, where they remain
         suspended and continue to grow large, until their weight can no longer be supported by the winds. They finally fall to the ground, battering
         crops, denting vehicles and injuring wildlife and people.

      3. Lightning – Lightning is a discharge or electricity from within a thunderstorm. This phenomena if
         often perceived as a minor hazard, but in reality it damages many structures and kills or severely injures numerous people in the United States
         each year. Many lightning deaths and injuries could be avoided if people would have more respect for the threat, which lightning presents.

      3. Tornadoes – A tornado is a violently whirling column of air extending downward to the ground
         from a cumulonimbus cloud. The funnel cloud associated with a tornado may have winds over 300 miles per hour and an interior air pressure
         that is 10-20 percent below that of the surrounding atmosphere. The typical length of a tornado path is approximately 16 miles, but tracks
         much longer than that – some even up to 200 miles – have been reported. Tornado path widths are generally less than one-quarter mile wide.
         Historically, tornadoes have resulted in some of the greatest losses of life of any natural hazard, with the mean national death toll being
         between 80 to 100 persons every year. Additionally, Indiana has averaged 25 tornadoes per year.



      C. Significant Events

         1. Straight Lines Winds – Over the last 20 years, there have been numerous occurrences of
            straight-line wind within Cass County, many of which have caused significant damage to both residential and commercial properties. In
             2000, straight line winds caused almost $500,000.00 worth of damage. In each of the past 2 years, there have been increasing amounts of
             damage reported due to straight line winds.

         2. Hail - No significant event have been recorded in which hail occurred in Cass County.
            In the events where we have received hail, none caused injury, death or property damage.

         3. Lightning – This is a common occurrence during most thunderstorms, but as stated earlier, most people fail to realize the danger that is
            associated with lightning during severe weather. Cass County has had multiple lightning strikes, some of which have caused fires.




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         4. Tornadoes- There have been occurrences of tornadoes within Cass County and the State over the last few decades, but the most violent
            happened in 1965, called the Palm Sunday Super Tornado Outbreak, and in 1974, another super outbreak. It affected numerous counties in
            the state, and in the nation. Extreme damage and fatalities were recorded due to these tornadoes.

              In the last fifty years, only a few tornadoes were reported in Cass County. While we escaped the worst of the tornadoes, they have affected
              us nonetheless. In 1974, the northwest part of the county was in the path of tornado that struck both Monticello and Rochester. In 1993, the
              city of Logansport was struck by what is being called a microburst by the National Weather Service, but there were numerous sightings of
              a tornado. The summer of 2003, we had 2 F-0 tornadoes, which caused only property damage.

       D. Programs and Initiatives

          As stated previously in the narrative for Flooding Hazards, the National Weather service offices provide warnings prior to most severe weather
          extremes, to include severe thunderstorms that could potentially produce the weather events listed above. It is up to various public service
          agencies such the Cass County Emergency Management, jurisdictional law enforcement agencies and fire services to ensure that the public is
          educated on what to do and what not to do should these events threaten their communities. An annual Severe Storm Awareness Month begins
          each March to reinforce the overall concept of storm dangers and gives vital information on storm-proofing homes, what warning to listen for,
          emergency supplies, sheltering in place and various other important facts related to surviving severe spring and summer weather.

       E. Analysis and Impact

          The sheer force and magnitude from severe thunderstorms cannot be fully appreciated until the devastation and damage is witnessed first-
          hand. It strikes with little or no warning and is not selective in the areas they strike or on the homes or businesses they destroy. Preparing for
          severe storms means ensuring hat elected and appointed officials sponsor a wide range of programs and initiatives that will address the overall
          safety of the residents of Cass County. It also means stronger homes need to be built and those structures already in place need to be hardened
          to lessen the impact that severe weather may pose. Having the community warning sirens to broadcast the alert that storms are approaching is
          also a vital key in preventing the loss of property and securing the lives of Cass County residents.


X. Transportation Accidents

          A. Definition: An incident involving any means of transport, whether automobile, aircraft and rail in which damage, personal injury
             or death may have occurred or has the potential to occur on either a small or significantly larger scale.

          B. Hazard Description



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      Within the last 30-40 years, the American transportation system has become one of the world’s leaders in moving people and goods around the
      country and to places around the globe. In doing so, roadways, rail lines and air service routes have been established to accommodate the growing
      transportation demands. What once took our ancestors months to accomplish, can now only take a matter of hours. With these advancements,
      however, the unfortunate possibility of accidents involving the movement of people and cargo has also increased. Throughout Cass County,
      numerous roadways exist, to include state roads 16, 17, 18, 25, 29, 218 and US Highways 24 and 35. Air routes also cross over and connect Cass
      County to locations throughout the country.

      These modes of transportation have the potential to cause severe back-ups and failures in vital services coming into and going out of Cass County.
      They also have the potential to cause a significant number of injuries and a significant number of fatalities. In addition, the devastating effects that
      can come from transportation accidents can and may impact various types of property, but also have devastating effects on the environment.

  C. Significant Events

      Cass County has not experience a great number of transportation incidents in the past several years. The most significant were accidents involving
      semis and cars that were not carrying any contents to be detrimental to Cass County or that caused a great deal of impact to the community. Listed
      below are the most significant events that caused the coordination of several resources.

      1997- a fertilizer truck was involved in a accident on US 24 west of Logansport, in which the truck spilled most of its contents, resulting in a large
      clean-up effort

      2000- an accident between a semi and a large grain truck resulted in the spillage of over 5000 gallons of fertilizer, again necessitating a large
      clean-up effort.

      1996 thru 2003- we have had numerous accidents which involved smaller scale responses.

  D. Programs and Initiatives

                                                      United State Department of Transportation

      The U.S. Department of Transportation is the main organization responsible for regulating all modes of transportation and setting all policies on
      safety and safety standards within the country. Four main subdivisions of the organization that have significant roles in Cass County are:

      Federal Highway Administration – This organization is directly responsible for establishing guidelines on highway constructions, setting speed
      limits and traffic control measures and obtaining critical data on accidents occurring in the United States. With the data, the administration can also
      address public education and safety programs aimed at drivers across the country, paying special attention to substance and alcohol abusers and
      teen drivers, to hopefully curb the accidents occurring on the nations roadways.
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      Federal Motor Carrier Administration – This organization was created to lessen or prevent the total number of motor vehicle accidents involving
      large commercial transport vehicles on American roadways. It does this through establishing policies and standards on commercial carrier
      licensing, by providing funding to state and local governments in the form of grants to establish safety inspection and education programs and by
      investigating new technologies and systems that continue to promote safe driving conditions for the commercial and public users of the nations
      highways.

      Federal Railroad Administration – This agency ensures that the following are completed:

              1. Track inspections and maintenance programs are current and ongoing.

              2. Nationwide signal and train control systems are in working order and meet federal
                 guidelines.

              3. Motive power and train equipment is not in poor condition and can provide the services
                 required.

              4. All operators of trains and track systems are educated and provided with ongoing safety
                 and professional programs to limit the danger of rail travel.

      Federal Aviation Administration – This administration focuses on the safe and effective transport of people and materials using all types of civil
      aircraft within the country. If doe this through the following means:

              1. Regulates the manufacture operation, certification and maintenance of all aircraft.

              2. Operates and controls a network of airport towers, air traffic control centers and flight service stations.

              3. Develops air traffic rules and standards.

              4. Allocates the use of airspace.

              5. Provides for the security and control or air traffic to meet the national defense requirements.

                                                                Indiana Department of Transportation

      This state agency works hand in hand with its federal counterpart to effectively regulate and control the threat of air and land bases accidents
      within the State of Indiana. It enforces federal regulations and Indiana Code on all major roadways, airports and airfields and rail lines. It also
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      provides critical materials, technical support and other personnel resources during disaster situations such as in the event of flooding, severe storms
      and extreme winter weather conditions.

                                                                        Indiana State Police
      The Indiana State Police has district offices or ports strategically located throughout the state to monitor traffic conditions, to provide a means for
      accident reporting, to enforce both federal and state drug and alcohol laws for those drivers who may be impaired and to provide information on
      the condition and status of road year round.




                                                           Cass County Law Enforcement Agencies

      Working in conjunction with the above agencies, Cass County has five jurisdictional law enforcement agencies which include the Cass County
      Sheriff’s Department, the Police Department of Logansport, the Town Marshals of Royal Center, Walton and Galveston. These organizations
      enforce their individual communities ordinances, but with regard to transportation incidents, also concentrate their efforts on dangerous or
      hazardous drivers, impaired and intoxicated drivers and unsafe road conditions related to weather or accidents. They also provide support and
      resources to both state and federal agencies during times of emergency or disaster or during transportation investigations.

                                                              Cass County Highway Department

      The Cass County Highway Department is the main organization that monitors, maintains and supports the ongoing operation of roadways within
      the county. It ensures that construction projects and current trends in traffic are understood and are given the proper coordination It also ensures
      that the appropriate resources are available for use during an event and that equipment and additional personnel are staged or standing by to be
      activated, if required. This practice has enabled Cass County to effectively meet the responsibilities of numerous snow emergencies and winter
      storms that have affected the jurisdiction. Allowing for the right resources to meet the right activities.

 F. Analysis and Impact

      Cass County as well as the rest of the nation is no longer closed off or isolated from the rest of the world due to the significant means and modes
      of travel available to both private citizens and business and industry. Each year the number of drivers on highways increases and with that increase
      so do the number of injuries and deaths. In addition, both rail and air transport accidents continue to remain a significant threat die to their
      devastating physical and psychological effects and their potential to injure or kill large number of victims on a single event.

      With a careful and careful and productive approach to maintaining the modes of travel present within Cass County and a safer transportation
      system in the State.
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XI. Civil Disturbances

    A. Definition: A public demonstration, gathering or prison uprising that results in a disruption of essential functions, rioting, looting arson
       or some other unlawful behavior.

    B. Hazard Description

       A large-scale civil disturbances rarely occur, but when they do, they are usually an off shoot or result of one o more of the following events:

       1. Labor disputes where there is a high degree of animosity between the participating parties.

       2. High profile or controversial judicial proceedings.

       3. The implementation of controversial laws or other governmental actions.

       4. Resource outages caused by a catastrophic event.

       5. Disagreements between special interest groups over a particular issue or cause.

       6. A perceived unjust death or injury to person held in high esteem of regard by a particular segment of society.

  C. Significant Events

       Fortunately Cass County has not experienced any large civil disturbances in its history. Perhaps having primarily an agricultural base, widespread
       rural settings and minimal cultural diversity, has contributed to the lack of such incidents. Nonetheless, it is important that Cass County plan that
       such event could occur.

   D. Program and Initiatives

       Civil disturbances are often difficult for local communities to handle. There is a fine line that must be walked in considering the Constitutional
       rights of individuals and groups to assemble and air grievances. The overall needs of the community must be maintained. These needs focus
       primarily on providing and securing the personal safety of the residents of the particular area or jurisdiction where an event may occur and
       attempting to prevent private and commercial property damage. However, in the most extreme circumstances, all that can be hoped for is to lessen
       property damage as much as possible. Fortunately, most demonstrations and large gatherings are held in a peaceful, responsible manner. However
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       there never seems to be a shortage of groups whose primary objective is to disrupt normal activities and perhaps even cause injury and significant
       damages.

       Handling events that could result in civil disruption is a difficult operation, at best. Normally, law enforcement personnel are outnumbered several
       times over and they are often ill-equipped and under-trained to handle a large, unruly crowd.

       Another important piece of information to consider is that in years past, there was never any conclusive or adequate visual documentation of the
       occurrence from start to finish.

       There are no prisons located in Cass County, but we have (2) two juvenile facilities located in Logansport, and the capacity of the county jail
       contributes to the possible, yet unlikely instance of occurrences within the inmate population.




   E. Analysis and Impact

       Although destructive civil disturbances are rare in the State of Indiana, and in Cass County, the potential is always there for an incident to occur.
       This is even more true today with television, radio and the Internet providing the ability to broadcast information (factual or not), in real time, to
       millions of people around the country. That coverage oftentimes helps to “spear” the incident to other, uninvolved or unaffected area, complicating
       an already difficult situation. In fact, media coverage of unfolding events outside prison walls has, in the past, spurred uprisings inside prisons As a
       result, law enforcement officials must be skilled in monitoring all forms of media coverage to anticipate public and perpetrator actions to prevent
       such events from occurring

       Unfortunately, civil disturbances are actually “lose-lose” for all the parties concerned. Those who instigate the disturbance rarely receive the things
       that they were attempting to get, local communities suffer the loss of business, there may be extensive damage to homes and facilities, and the
       negative stigma that follows long after the event has occurred. In addition, local leaders are faced with the daunting task of cleaning up and
       restoring the level of confidence to the citizens and businesses who may want to leave. Leaders may also be faced with the very real possibility
       that there may be little or no assistance from either the state or federal government for recovery efforts.

XII. Infrastructure Failures

    A. Definition: the failure or critical or private utility infrastructure resulting in a temporary loss of essential functions and services.

    B. Hazard Description


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       Cass County residents are dependent on the public and private utility infrastructure to provide essential life supporting services such as electric
       power, heating and air conditions, water, sewage disposal and treatment, storm drainage, communication and transportation. When one or more
       of these independent, yet interrelated, systems fail due to disaster or some other cause – even for a short period of time- it can have devastating
       consequences. For example, when power is lost during periods or extreme heat or cold, people can literally die in their homes if immediate
       action is not taken. When the water or waster water treatment systems in a community are not operable, serious public health problems arise that
       must be addressed to prevent outbreaks of disease. When storm drainage systems fail due to damage or an overload of capacity, serious flooding
       can occur, as was explained in the narrative on Flooding Hazards.

   C. Significant Events

                                                     Water and Sewer Infrastructure Failures

        Several minor power outages have occurred in Cass County over the past years, but none were cause for concern. The outages were at times
        which could be expected such as severe weather winter and spring storms incidents. The outages were normally one hour or less and only on a
        couple occasions has the power been off for approximately four hours.

         C. Programs and Initiatives

                                          Water distribution and Wastewater Collection / Treatment Systems

        Indiana’s public water supplies and wastewater treatment systems are regulated by both the Federal Safe Drinking Water act and the Federal
        Clean Water act. The Indiana department of Environmental Management, Office of Water Quality, provides for the supervision and control of
        clean water supplies and wastewater collection systems by doing the following basic functions:

             1. Establishing state policy for local jurisdictions to follow on what actions to take and what
                restrictions to observe to be compliant.

             2. Issues and regulated the permits for public water and sewage construction projects within
                local jurisdictions.

             3. Reviews and makes recommendations for upgrades and improvements on the capacity of
                various Indiana communities to hold, distribute and utilize public water and sewage systems.


             4. Conducts periodic field inspections with qualified staff to ensure that the proper measures
                and programs are in place and are working to meet the communities needs.
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            5. Conducts inspections and controls policies and programs on Indiana ground water, which
               is where a majority of water used for drinking comes from.

                                                                    Surface Drainage Systems

            Indiana Surface Drainage Systems are not controlled by one agency. Policy are set and implemented by the Indiana Department of
            Environmental Management, but shared with other such agencies as the Indiana Commission of Agriculture, the Department of Natural
            Resources, Water division as well as with local officials in Cass County.

            These organizations are charged with locating, mapping maintaining and keeping current the hundreds of miles of drainage channels
            located within Cass County as well a servicing other critical systems such as flood pumps, erosion control structures, storage basins and
            wastewater treatment structures.

            The degree of difficulty in maintaining these systems is that the size and configuration of the systems varies widely from mere ditches to
            open concrete channels or from mere ditches to open concrete channels or from drainpipes from 12 inches in diameter to over 16 feet.

            As Cass County continues to grow, the drains once used to primary service agricultural needs have now been tasked to carry storm water
            from urban area, as well as serve as outlets for sanitary treatment plants. Increasing demands on the drainage systems in many area of the
            State require that continuous improvements be made to enhance drain capacity and flow characteristics, reduce sedimentation and improve
            structural integrity.


                                                                    Electrical Systems

            Disaster-related damage to electric power facilities and systems is a concern that is being actively addressed by utility companies across
            the state. Logansport Municipal Utilities and the Rural Electrical Membership Cooperatives all have active and ongoing programs to
            improve system reliability and protect facilities from damage by wind, snow, ice and other hazards. Typically, these programs focus on
            trimming tress to prevent encroachment of overhead lines, strengthening vulnerable system components, protecting equipment from
            lightning strikes and placing new distribution systems underground.

                                                                  Telecommunications Systems

            Like electrical utility companies, companies working in telecommunications are concerned with the issue of protecting facilities and
            systems from disaster-related damage. Much of the emergency response capabilities through dispatching storm warning and tracking,
            criminal reporting and investigations, as well as other related area are all dependent on systems that can be maintained and kept
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              functioning during the worst of any disaster. Much like the electrical services, most telecommunications companies have used many of the
              same techniques to protect their facilities and systems from the hazards commonly seen in Cass County.

    B. Analysis and Impact

              Although the state of Indiana and Cass County have codes, policies, restrictions and standards in place that govern the design, construction
              and operation of public and private infrastructure, disasters and emergencies will always occur that have the potential to affect many
              different critical systems.

              Designing and operating “disaster proof” facilities is not a logical goal for Indiana communities. In many cases, jurisdictions would
              bankrupt themselves even attempting such projects. It makes much more sense to assess the current system in place, study how it has
              worked in recent events and determine the appropriate upgrades and replacement that may be require. As stated earlier, much of the state’s
              public and private utility infrastructure is decades old and as it continues to age, it will mean that disasters involving these systems will be
              more common in the future. Through wise community system design and development practices, as well as through comprehensive
              emergency planning, the issues and needs that are specific to infrastructure failures can be addressed and rectified. This in turn will greatly
              reduce or lessen the impact these incidents have on the environment and in communities not only in Cass County, but also in other parts of
              the State.


XIII. Petroleum and Natural Pipeline Accidents

       A. Definition: An uncontrolled release of petroleum or natural gas, or the poisonous
          by-product hydrogen sulfide from a pipeline.

       B. Hazard Description

              Though often overlooked, petroleum and natural gas pipelines pose a real threat in many Indiana communities, to include Cass County.
              These pipelines can leak or erupt and cause significant property damage, environmental contamination, injuries and even loss of life. The
              vast majority of these accidents are caused by third party damage to the pipeline often due to construction or some other activity that
              involves trenching or digging operations.

              Indiana is both a consumer and a provider of natural gas and petroleum products. Indiana’s gas and petroleum networks are well
              developed and highly extensive, encompassing wells and production facilities, cross country transmission pipelines that bring the product
              to market, storage facilities and local distribution systems. Cass County has several pipelines and compressor systems within the
              jurisdiction.


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             While it is true that the petroleum and natural gas industries have historically had a fine safety record and that pipelines are by far the
             safest from or transportation for these products, the threat of fires, explosions spills and ruptures still exist. In addition to these hazards,
             there is the danger of hydrogen sulfide release. This danger is usually found around oil and gas wells, pipeline terminals and storage and
             transportation facilities where the gas or oil has a high sulfur content. Hydrogen sulfide is not only an extremely poisonous gas, but is also
             explosive when mixed with air temperatures exceeding 500 degrees Fahrenheit.

      C. Significant Events

             Cass County has had no significant petroleum and natural gas pipeline accidents. Although this is the case, Cass County officials
             understand the important for planning for such incidents.

      D. Programs and Initiatives

             Pipeline jurisdiction and oversight in Indiana is complex, determined primarily by the type and function of a pipeline and its location.
             However, there are numerous agencies that have significant roles in this area and they are:




                           FEDERAL AGENCIES                               STATE AGENCIES                              LOCAL AGENCIES
                     United States Department of Energy           Indiana Department of Commerce,                  Private of National Well of Pipeline
                                                                              Energy Policy Division                             Owners
                     United State Department of Transportation,       Indiana Department of Environmental        Cass County Local Emergency Planning
                     Office of Pipeline Safety                                    Management                                   Committee
                         National Transportation safety Board       Indiana Department of Natural Resources,     Cass County Law Enforcement Agencies
                                                                             Land and Water Division
                      Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission         Indiana state Fire Marshal Office           Cass County Fire Service Agencies
                             United States Geological Survey                Indiana Geological Survey          Cass County Emergency Management Agency


             All of these agencies, through their own individual programs and initiatives, support the federal guidelines and standards on gas and oil
             pipeline construction, maintenance and safety. They do this by ensuring that owners of gas and oil complete the following functions to
             continue operating their system:

             1. Standard Operating Procedures must be written to minimize the hazards associated with pipelines emergencies.

             2. Assist with the identification and classification of signification of significant events.
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              3. Ensuring that a communications system is in place by the companies and owners of the pipelines with the local response agencies and
                 public health officials.

              4. A timely and proper response to all types of gas or oil emergencies is exercised, to include emergency shutdown and pressure
                 reduction

              5. Coordination of response actions with local jurisdictions and a working knowledge of incident command.

              6. Proper training on all procedures, equipment and safety guidelines for all employees is completed and continually given.

              7. Restoration of pipeline services once a situation or event has ceased.

              If the oil companies are not in compliance or do not function within the guidelines listed in these or other governmental programs, they
              may be prosecuted, incurring severe fines and penalties.

       E. Analysis and Impact

              A large number of pipelines are located within Cass County and throughout the State of
              Indiana and because petroleum and natural gas pipeline incident are an inevitable occurrence, jurisdiction in this area must be prepared to
              respond to these kinds of accidents. They must also takes the required protective actions for residents and the environment and coordinate
              information and resources with Federal and State officials, as well as company management crews to effectively control and recover from
              the hazard. This can only be done through comprehensive planning, in depth training programs and realistic exercises to test and validate
              those plans and procedures as well as determine how well response personnel can function in real-world emergency situations.

XII. Public Health Emergencies

     A. Definition: A widespread and / or severe epidemic, incident of contamination or other
        situations that presents a danger to or otherwise negatively impacts the general health and
        well being of the public.

     B. Hazard description

       Public Health Emergencies can take many forms – disease epidemics. Lager-scale food or water
       contamination, extended periods without adequate water and sewer services, harmful exposure to
       chemicals, radiological or geological agent and large-scale infestations of disease-carrying insects or
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      rodents- to name just a few. These events can be primary occurrences, by themselves or they may be
      secondary events to another disaster or emergency such as a flood, tornado or hazardous material
      incidents. The common characteristic of most public health emergencies is that they have the
      potential to adversely impact a large number of people. Emergencies such as these may not just be
      limited to one jurisdiction or city, but may be spread to other counties, statewide or regionally.

      Perhaps, one of the greatest emerging public health hazards to date, would be the intentional release
      of a radiological, chemical or biological agent into a highly populated area. This has already
      occurred in the last few years with the release of Anthrax on the eastern United States./ In
      addition, this county has made many enemies during many of the major conflicts in the last few
      decades. The threat of an attack on this country using small pox has community leaders nationwide
      wondering what protective actions to take to lessen the effects of such an attack. (More on this
      subject will be presented in the Terrorism Hazard section located in the last Hazard Narrative of this
      guide.

    C. Significant Events

                                                              Communicable Disease Outbreak

       Communicable diseases have been part of human societies since before recorded history and
       continues to affect every country around the world. A large-scale outbreak (or epidemic) in this country could rapidly overwhelm the health care
       system of Cass County of in major situations, the entire State of Indiana, depending upon the agent.

       No major public health situations have occurred in Cass County according to records within the local public health agency.

    D. Programs and Initiatives

       The Cass County Health Department in partnership with the Indiana State Department of Health have a number of programs and initiatives in
       place to protect the health, safety and well being of Cass County residents. These programs have been successful in preventing and limiting the
       scope of the types of public health emergencies described above.

       The State department of Health and the Cass County Health Department both have the authority to take these steps determined necessary to
       prevent epidemics and the spread of hazardous communicable diseases. These agencies also have the capability to establish programs to
       effectively mitigate other conditions or practices that constitute a threat to public health. State and local health officials can issue written orders
       to address and enforce these issues, backing those policies with civil and criminal penalties for failure to comply.


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        At the national level, the U.S. Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention (a branch of the department of Health and Human Services)
        located on Atlanta, Georgia, has the responsibility and authority to investigate public health emergencies to determine their cause, probable
        extent of impact, and appropriate mitigative measures. This organization can also assist state and local public health officials in establishing
        health surveillance and monitoring systems and programs, and in disseminating information on prevention and treatment to the general public.

     E. Analysis and Impact

        Cass County has not had large-scale public health emergencies within the last 30 years, but it is known that if a public health emergency should
        occur the capabilities and limitations of the health systems and community leaders to effectively meet the immediate and critical needs of Cass
        County will be tested.

        Although Cass County or any other jurisdiction within the state is not immune to the threat of public health emergencies, areas which have a
        high population concentration, historically, will always be more vulnerable to such incidents. In addition, special needs populations are more
        likely to succumb to the devastating effects of these events, further complicating the preparedness and response phases in managing these
        hazards.

XV. Animal Health Emergencies

     A. Definition: Situation or events which directly impact the overall safety, health and care
        animals within a jurisdiction to include livestock, pets and wildlife.

     B. Hazard Description

        Like public health emergencies, Animal Health Emergencies can be associated with such hazards as disease, food contamination, exposure to
        harmful substances or the lack of basic needs like food and water and basic care. Unlike humans, however, animals cannot plan for or defend
        themselves against these types of hazards. It is important to understand and realize the stressful and devastating effects that emergencies and
        disasters can have not only on our pets, but the livestock that makes up our predominantly agricultural state. Without these animals, many
        families and businesses would lose their livelihoods, potentially adding further complications to situations that may cross local jurisdictional
        boundaries and even state lines.
        Both public health emergencies and animal health emergencies can occur as primary events by themselves or may be secondary events
        occurring as a result of another disaster of emergency, such as from floods, tornadoes or hazardous material incidents.

        In addition, many governmental agencies have directed their attention to preventing the spread of animal-borne diseases. The threat comes in the
        form of many different pathogens, come communicable to humans, others strictly transferable from one animal to another. Some of the diseases
        that many animal health officials are looking at are Mad Cow disease, West Nile virus, Foot and Mouth disease, Rabies and Pseudo-rabies to
        name a few.
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    C. Significant Events

       Fortunately for Cass County, there have not been any significant events that have has an extreme impact on the animal population within the
       jurisdiction.

    D. Programs and Initiatives

       As stated earlier in this section, many governmental agencies have stepped up to try to lessen or prevent the threat of disease and the impact of
       natural and manmade events on the animal population within the State of Indiana and within Cass County. The main agencies with roles in
       animal health emergencies are listed below.

                                                          United States Department of Agriculture

       The U.S. Department of Agriculture is the primary federal agency that establishes and promotes regulation, standards and programs that directly
       affect the health and safety of livestock and animals produced for agriculture purposes. This agency does this by the following methods:

             1. Monitoring animals around the country through an extensive surveillance system.

             2. Establishing regional offices within the United States and close working relationships with both state and local animal care specialists
                and animal producers.

             3. Providing guidance, technical assistance and funding on topics and issues surrounding the areas of safety, care, sanitation and
                production of animals to lessen or prevent the threat of widespread disease of the problems associated with other types of emergencies
                or disasters.



                                                              Indiana Board of Animal Health

       The Board of Animal Health is an organization that has been very proactive in its approach to the impact that emergencies and disasters have on
       animals. Working closely with the Indiana state Emergency Management agency, the Board of Animal Health has established plans and
       standards on preparing communities to respond to the threat of domestics and foreign diseases that may affect various animal populations. It also
       continues statewide monitoring on all that may aspects of animal health, care and production on farms and animal facilities. Additionally, they
       have been a driving force in ensuring that the public has an understanding of the treats that the state may face through developing training
       programs and publishing online listings of the types of diseases that may be seen here in Indiana.
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                                                     Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service

       The Purdue extension service is a statewide initiative that links experts in the animal and agricultural services to local communities and animal
       producers. All 92 counties in Indiana have extension offices. These jurisdictions, in turn, have access to information and resources to assist in the
       development of standards and policies to protect both livestock and wildlife. Through research, information gathering and the training that they
       provide, the extension service has become a much-needed partner in managing animal health-related emergencies within the state and within
       Cass County.


                                                    Indiana Office of the Commissioner of Agriculture

       This organization sets guidelines and standards on the overall production and quality of the animals and livestock for the entire state. The
       commission is responsible for collecting data on crop growth, livestock trends and significant changes in agricultural production. It also works
       closely with farming cooperatives, agricultural businesses and other animal-based industries. Further working relationships with the Purdue
       Extension Service, the Indiana Board of animal Health, the U.S. Department of Agriculture keep this organization focused on providing safe
       food products free from disease as well as providing a means to prepare and respond to emergencies and disasters that may directly impact
       animals.

                                                         Indiana Department of Natural Resources

       The Department of Natural Resources is one of the main agencies at the state level that has extensive programs to monitor and survey the overall
       health and status on animals in the world. This agency looks at all species within the State of Indiana, keeping extensive records on how they are
       interact with each other, the impact that humans have on them, and the introduction of foreign species or disease into their ecosystems. There are
       regional offices of state department of Natural Resources all over the state. Through these offices, they operate state parks and recreational areas,
       keeping the general public aware of the abundant, yet fragile wildlife present within the state. They also use the entrance fees, donations and
       revenues from hunting and fishing licensing to sponsor public awareness programs and training, as well conduct animal surveys and maintain
       the Indiana state parks.



                                                                Cass County Extension Office

       The Cass County Extension office in conjunction with the Cass County Emergency Management Agency has become a driving force in
       planning and preparing for emergencies or disasters that could impact animals within the county. They have established the Animal Health
       Emergency Support Function within the Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan, and have also become involved in all
       Emergency Management activities. With this partnership, both the Emergency Management Agency and the Extension Office have promoted
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        classes and educational programs for both the responders and the public on the types of threats that may be seen in Cass County and what steps,
        as a community, can be taken to prevent these incidents from happening. The Extension Office also acts as a link between farmers and animal
        producers within the county and with state and federal resources to assist in maintaining a safe and productive animal population.


      E. Analysis and Impact

        The reality that disease and severe conditions within the county could bring about devastating consequences to the animal populations within the
        state and within other jurisdictions is very difficult to comprehend. But when we look at other countries that have battled such diseases as mad
        cow or foot and mouth disease, the effects on both animals and humans becomes very apparent. Even more commonplace for Indiana, would be
        the effects of natural disasters or manmade events.

        These situations bring about specific problems such as sheltering, feeding and basic care that may not be on the list of highest priority during an
        emergency or disaster, since we commonly take care of people first. With the programs and initiatives listed below, however, we can better
        understand now to more effectively care for our animals and in turn, our environment. We can also take the necessary precautions such as
        vaccinating pets and livestock, maintaining sanitary conditions in animal living areas and giving our animal populations a closer look in times of
        emergency or disaster.

XVI. Terrorism Incident

      A. Definition: An intentional, unlawful use of force, violence or subversion against
         persons property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population or any
         segments thereof, in the furtherance of political or social or religions objectives.

      B. Hazard Description

          In today’s world, terrorism can take on many forms, although civilian bombings assassinations and extortion are probably the methods with
          which we are most familiar. Internationally, such acts have, unfortunately, become quite commonplace, a various religious, ethnic and
          nationalistic groups have attempted to alter and dictate political and social and economic infrastructure of individual business, units of
          government or nations. None of the attacks to date, however, have been more etched in the minds of American citizens than the September
          11th attacks in 2001 in which highjackers flew planes into the World Trade Center towers in New York City and into the Pentagon on
          Arlington, Virginia, killing themselves and nearly 3,000 innocent men, women and children. The event marked a turning point in how this
          country and the rest of the world now view terrorism and the groups that would use these methods of achieving their goals based on
          cowardice, deceit and misguided anger.

          The Federal Bureau of Investigation recognizes six general types of terrorist groups and characterized their activity levels as follows:
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             1. International terrorists: Foreign terrorist such as the al-Qaeda network believed responsible for the September 2001 attacks on the
                United states, who view the United states as a potential target and are often unrestricted in their travel throughout the nation.
             2. Left-Wing terrorists: While the demise of the Soviet Union has eroded the activity of leftist and socialist-oriented European terrorism
                groups, Latin Americas-based groups remain active.
             3. Right-Wing terrorists: Right-wing groups appear to be increasing in number and membership as advocates of anti-government or
                racist ideologies. Current activities involve paramilitary training and stockpiling of weaponry.
             4. Special interest extremists: special interest extremists and predominately violent anti-abortion groups continue to be active. This group
                would include extremists intending to use terrorism to promote or seek retribution for other special interests such as animal rights,
                environmental issues or corporate power.
             5. State sponsors of terrorism: Recognized State sponsors of international terrorism-Iran, Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Libya, Cuba and North
                Korea- continue to maintain diplomatic establishments in the Unites States and there have been allegations that diplomats from some
                of these countries are involved in terrorist-related activities.
             6. Loosely affiliated extremists: Extremists with do direct affiliation or sponsorship are know to continue to view the Unites States as a
                target for terrorism activity, they have a demonstrated ability to use advanced technology in the United States and represent the most
                difficult international terrorist challenge to law enforcement and intelligence communities.

         Any number of these groups, coupled with many of the hazards identified in this document such as hazardous materials, nuclear incidents and
         infrastructure failures, for example, could bring a local community to a virtual standstill. In addition, Government buildings, public service
         agency facilities, schools, hospitals, bridges and roads are all potential targets, as well as airports, train stations, communications facilities and
         other visible areas or structures within large or small communities.

      C. Significant Events

         Fortunately for the resident of Cass County, there have never been any widespread or large-scale terrorism attacks or incidents within this
         jurisdiction.

      D. Programs and Initiatives

         Since the September 11th attacks, the federal government under the direction of the President has taken bold steps in attempting to keep the
         nation secure and from reliving the horrible events that happened on that day. The President has authorized the allocation of additional funding
         to states and local communities reaching into the hundreds of millions of dollars. Another Cabinet level position was also created know as the
         Office of Homeland Defense, which will be the main agency at the federal level to oversee the programs and initiatives to track, secure and
         promote resources and personnel in defending the country against foreign and domestic terrorism. Many agencies and departments already in
         place will be working with or within the jurisdiction of the Office of Homeland Security to include the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and


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          Firearms, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Federal Marshals, the Department of Justice and the Federal Emergency Management
          Agency, to name just a few.

          In Cass County, the Emergency Management agency through the State of Indiana Terrorism Consequence Management Program has added a
          Terrorism Planning Element to the County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan that will enable Cass County to better mitigate
          against, prepare for, respond to and recover from the consequences of terrorism and terrorism-related incidents. This planning element covers
          all of the aspects listed above and directly likes out local resources with those of both the state and federal government, should such
          coordination be needed. At the state level, Cass County has taken a partnership with the State Emergency Management Agency’s
          Preparedness Division as well as the Indiana Counter-Terrorism and Security Council to augment the positive steps already being taken by
          community leader and first responder within the county.

      E. Analysis and Impact

          The nature and the tools of terrorism have changed in the last few years, from mere bombs to jumbo jet liners filled with our own people. The
          United States was so used to seeing events such as these happening somewhere else, but the truth was a harsh and bitter pill to swallow.
          Terrorism is now a significant domestic problem. From the Oklahoma City Bombing to the World Trade Center Attacks, our focus is here at
          home. In addition, other emerging threats such as nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction make the nation much more
          understanding of the mitigative and response strategies that are being developed to counteract these hazards. The combined efforts of all levels
          of government and a more aware United States has known many incidents of violence and devastation, but terrorism has changed the view of
          ourselves and of our world, forever.

XVII. School and Workplace Violence

      A. Definition: Potentially life-threatening situations in which a classmate, co-worker or other individuals may try to inflict harm or
         injury to personnel within schools or businesses.

          Most people generally feel sage and reasonably at ease a school and to their places of work. However, in recent years, much of that ease and
          sense of security has been damaged due to the highly publicized incidents and acts of violence at numerous schools and businesses around the
          country.

          1. School Violence

              Our children live in a world that is becoming more complex and increasingly stressful. High demands from their peers, families and the
              schools they attend have caused many students to lash out and commit violent and sometimes deadly acts. Although no one situation is
              entirely like another, many similarities are present in most incidents. Some of these main stressors for children are:


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            a.   Rejection from peers/family member
            b.   Bouts of significant depression
            c.   Diagnosed or undiagnosed mental illness
            d.   Current or previous mental, physical or sexual abuse
            e.   Changes in policies by school administration regarding punishment and disciplinary actions.


            Additionally, statistics have shown the exposure to violent video games and violence in television and movies have also been a
            contributing factor to children committing violent acts.


            2. Work Place Violence

                 Our children are not alone in the world when it comes to violence and unsafe conditions. Many of the same contributing factors such
                 as stressful demands made by co-workers and family members also forces people into harmful or malicious acts. Other factors further
                 complicating these situations are:

                 a. Prolonged work hours or occupations with a high risk of injury

                 b. Little or nor recognition of job performance by employer

                 c. Bouts of significant depression

                 d. Diagnosed or undiagnosed mental illness

                 e. Previous history of physical and psychological abuse

                 f. Drug or alcohol abuse

                 g. Poor social, interpersonal or communications skills

         C. Significant Events

            1. School Violence – Cass County as well s the rest of the nation has witnessed the
                tragic events that have unfolded at numerous schools around the country. Gunshots and mass panic are horrible lessons for not only
                our children to learn, but for parents and teachers everywhere.
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               Although Cass County and the communities within our jurisdiction have not experienced the magnitude of these events first-hand, the
               violence has come extremely close, to our neighbors in Michigan and to the south in Kentucky. The following map depicts the most
               recent events in the United States with incidents of school violence (As of 5-15-2001).

            2. Workplace Violence – Fortunately Cass County has not experienced any major workplace violence situations.

               Additionally, the Federal Bureau of Investigation relays that workplace violence encompasses such crimes as property crimes,
               harassment, threats and intimidation, physical assaults, sexual assaults, stalking and homicides. Four general types of offenders
               commit violence in the workplace:

                       Type I. This offender has no legitimate relationship to the workplace or the victim and usually enters the workplace to commit
                        a criminal action such as a robbery or theft. Common victims of Type I offender are small late-night retail establishments
                        including convenience stores, restaurants and taxi drivers. This Type of workplace violence also included terrorist and hate
                        crimes such as the World Trade Center and the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building bombings as well as abortion clinic attacks.

                       Type II. This offender is the recipient of some service provided by the victim or workplace and may be either a current or
                        former client, patient or customer.

                       Type III. This offender has an employment-related involvement with the workplace. The act of violence is usually committed
                        by a current or former employee, supervisor or manage who has a dispute with another employee of the workplace. This type
                        of workplace violence is usually referred to as the “disgruntled employee”.

                       Type IV. This offender has an indirect employment involvement with the workplace because of a relationship with an
                        employee and may be a current or former spouse or partner, someone who as in a dating relationship with the employee, or a
                        relative or friend. This type of violence follows the employee into the workplace from the outside.

            D. Programs and Initiatives

                   1.     School Violence- The rash of violent acts occurring in our nation’s schools has forced al levels of government to take a
                          ling, hard look at what makes a child commit murder and how it can be prevented. The following shows some of the many
                          agencies and their programs that have been implemented to combat the issue of school violence.

                                                                     U.S. Department of Education


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                  Safe schools Initiative – This program incorporates the investigative powers and expertise of the U.S. secret service, various law
                  enforcement agencies and education officials around the country in an attempt to understand the minds of individuals who would
                  commit violent acts upon others in a school setting. This is accomplished by developing threat assessments and policies and
                  procedures aimed at curbing criminal or violent behavior. This initiative has also created the Office of Safe and Drug- Free
                  Schools by the Department of Education to oversee State and Federal drug and student violence programs.

                  Report on the Study of School Violence and Prevention- This report was prepared by the department of Education’s Planning
                  and Evaluation Service and highlights statistics and finding from educators and law enforcement agencies in an attempt to
                  determine patterns in violence among high school aged children.

                  Additionally, other studies and grant programs to collect information on the violence in American schools have been established.

                                                                      U.S. Department of Justice

                  The Department of Justice is the agency with the primary role of determining the legal issues surrounding violent crimes
                  committed by juveniles in the Unites States. This agency has established the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
                  Prevention, which sponsor programs to assist educators, prosecutors and law enforcement officials in properly managing the
                  arrest, conviction and treatment of the perpetrators of these types of crimes.

                                                          Indiana Department for Disease and Prevention

                  The State Department of Education has taken the guidance from the federal government and has produced a series of programs
                  and reference materials geared at preparing and responding to acts of aggression or violence in Hoosier Schools. Some of these
                  programs and materials include:

                  a. The Checklist for Safe and Secure School Environment – A series of checklists, sample plans and administrative information
                  geared at promoting safe and responsible educators and students.

                  b. Indiana Code 5-2-10-.1 – the State law which created the Indiana Safe schools Fund. The main purpose for the law is to provide
                  monies for local school corporations to purchase equipment and to train school administrators and teachers and promote the
                  development of school safety plans. This law also directs each local jurisdiction to create a school safety specialist for each school
                  corporation who will coordinate the development of those safety plans. Additionally, there are also provisions in the law to have
                  local jurisdictions create a County School Safety commission which will be responsible for tacking and evaluating the safety
                  needs of the schools, assessing the risks of children to violence, improving communications with children and to further
                  coordinate the construction of policies, plans and procedures to improve overall school safety.


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                  c. The Indiana School Safety Academy- A program established to effectively train and deliver critical information to the various
                  jurisdictional School safety Specialists in the state. This academy is divided into a basic and an Advanced Training Level, both of
                  which promote facts on current safety trends, safety procedures and planning concepts.


                                                                  Indiana Criminal Justice Institute

                  This organization serves as the state’s panning agency for criminal and juvenile justice and victim services. The institute develops
                  long-range strategies for the effective administration of Indiana’s criminal and juvenile justice systems and administers federal and
                  state funds to carry out these strategies, One such funding program is the Safe Haven Education Program, which outlines the
                  following:

                  a. A school Safety Plan, implemented by a school corporation or countywide, which includes provision for zero tolerance of
                  alcohol. Tobacco, drugs and weapons on school property. These plans must involve all schools within the corporation. Purchases
                  of equipment to enhance the physical safety of schools within the corporation, as outlined in the school Safety Plan, may also be
                  included.

                  b. Safe Haven programs that keep the school open for all students before and after normal operating hours preferably from 7 A.M.
                  to 9 P.M. on days determined by the school corporation the program(s) must operate according to a plan to contribute to the
                  following:

                      1. Reduced alcohol, tobacco, and drug use

                      2. Reduced violent behavior

                      3. Promoting educational progress

                      4. The purchase of equipment or materials or training to enhance the physical safety of schools.


                                                              Cass County School Safety Commission

                  The Commission was established with the guild lines set forth by the Indiana School Safety Specialist Academy and the Indiana
                  department of Education. It provides school corporations in Cass County with the means to effectively manage and evaluate the
                  needs of the schools and their students in the area of school safety and violence prevention.


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                  2.    Work Place Violence – As stated earlier, many f the same criminal, physical and psychological aspects of work place
                        violence and that of school violence are fundamentally the same. Violence in the work place, however, occurs much more
                        frequently that violence in schools. Listed below are some of the main agencies and programs that have the primary roles of
                        lessening or eliminating work place violence:




                                                                     U. S. Department of Labor

                  The Department of Labor is the central agency responsible for providing guidance to employers around the country on how to
                  promote safe and effective working environments that will lessen the threat of violent acts in all workforce areas to include big
                  and small businesses, hospitality and retail, financial and manufacturing, as well as private business and government operations.
                  The department of Labor does this through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which detail the specific
                  programs, funding and resources available to individual states and local governments that will assist in developing the means to
                  combat violence. This administration looks as specific aspects in developing and administering these programs such as:

                   a. Recognition and Control – Extensive study and examination in the trends of the workplace and the violence found there,
                  concentrating on the main causes leading to violent acts and the means to eliminate or lessen those causes.

                   b. Training – Providing effective instruction and training to the nation’s employers and their employees on information gathered.
                  Training encompasses full participation from the highest levels of a company or business to those in entry-level position and is
                  ongoing throughout the employee’s occupational career.

                                                               U.S. Office of Personnel Management

                  The Office of Personnel Management is the main federal agency responsible for managing the workforce and personnel at the
                  federal level for all government agencies. It is, in effect, the Human Resources Department of our nation. Although, not taking a
                  direct role in state or local government, many policies, procedures and internal programs related directly to workplace violence
                  can be adapted or modified to meet the needs of various groups or businesses around the country.

                                                                     U.S. Department of Justice

                  The Department of Justice has a direct role in determining the legal issues surrounding violent crimes committed in workplace
                  environments. This agency has established numerous programs and funding sources for state and local prosecutors and law
                  enforcement officials to properly investigate these crimes and effectively manage the arrest, conviction and treatment of the
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                  perpetrators of these acts. Additionally, the Department of Justice has established the Office for Victims of Crime which studies
                  and determines the best courses of action for health care professionals and other policy makers to take that will allow victims of
                  violent crimes to better cope with the events that they have been exposed to. The Office for Victims of Crime has in turn created
                  the National Victims Assistance Academy, which sponsor a weeklong course that is provided to victim advocates and care
                  providers and focuses on many aspects of violent crime, to include workplace violence. The course of offered to all states and
                  local jurisdictions.



                                                                    Federal Bureau of Investigation

                  This agency serves as one of the primary organizations that will support or take a direct role in investigating acts of violence such
                  as homicide, hostage taking or acts of terrorism (which, according to some Bureau sources, is one in the same with workplace
                  violence simply because of the nature of the crime parallels that of most terrorism-related crimes). Within this agency, the
                  following has been created:


                  a. The Critical Incident Response Group – The Critical Incident response Group was designed to provide rapid assistance to
                  incidents of a crisis nature. It furnishes emergency response to terrorist activities, hostage situations, barricaded subjects, and other
                  critical incidents and is composed of diverse units that provide operational support and training and conduct research in related
                  areas. Expertise is furnished in cases involving abduction or mysterious disappearance of children; crime scene analysis; profiling;
                  crisis management; hostage negotiations; and special weapons and tactics.

                  b. That National Center For the Analysis of Violent Crime – This group is comprised of FBI Special Agents and processional
                  support staff who provide advice and support in the general area of crimes against children; crimes against adults; and threat
                  assessment, corruption and property crimes. Typical cases received for services include: child abductions or mysterious
                  disappearance of children; serial murder; single homicides; serial rapes; threats and assessment of dangerousness in workplace
                  violence; school violence; domestic violence; and stalking. Other matters that this group responds to include; extortion;
                  kidnapping; product tampering; arson and bombings; weapons of mass destruction; public corruption; and domestic and
                  international terrorism.

                  The National Center For the Analysis of Violent Crime reviews crimes from both a behavioral and investigative perspective. This
                  criminal investigative analysis process serves as a tool for client law enforcement agencies by providing them with an analysis of
                  the crime, as well as, an understanding of criminal motivation ad behavioral descriptions of the likely offender. Also he NCAVC
                  conducts research into violent crime from a law enforcement perspective in an effort to gain insight into criminal thought process,
                  motivations, and behavior. Results of the research are shared with the law enforcement and academic world through publications,
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                     presentations and training, as well as, through application of knowledge to the investigative and operational functions of the
                     center.

                                                                 Bureau of Alcohol, tobacco and Firearms

                     Approximately 6 out of every 10 murders is committed by a handgun, according to statistics compiled by the Bureau of Alcohol,
                     Tobacco, and Firearms. A significant number of violent acts, to include gun homicide and gun injuries, also involve firearms that
                     were illegally obtained by the perpetrators of the crimes. This Agency has been working closely with local and state law
                     enforcement agencies, community leaders, and other federal groups to try to effectively manage and control the accessibility of
                     weapons, both legal and illegal. Much has been done in a way of creating funding and sponsoring programs for communities
                     around the country that are aimed at creating gun related violence in our schools, communities and places of work, but there is still
                     much more to be done.

                                                             U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

                     The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention has established the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Much of
                     what this agency does is geared toward the prevention and control of diseases and injuries associated with occupations in the
                     United States, such as cancer, asbestos poisoning or chemical burns. However, die to the large number of violent acts committed
                     across the country at places of work and their damaging psychological effects, many initiatives such as funding and outreach
                     programs have been established to provide aid to communities and businesses who request it. This agency also sponsors the
                     development of work safety plans or facility safety plans to stop weapons of violent acts from coming into the work environment.

                                                                       Indiana Department of Labor

                     The State Department of Labor is the main agency in Indiana that is responsible for ensuring that policies and procedures are in
                     place for businesses and employers to adequately maintain safe and healthy working environments. Many of the programs and
                     grants sponsored in this state are directly linked to those of the U.S. Department of Labor to promote consistency and compliance
                     with federal labor law. The State Health Division, which ensures both the federal guidelines and Indiana Code regarding safety in
                     the workplace are followed. More over, this division provides intensive and extensive educational program. Seminars and
                     workshops to businesses and employees around the state to ensure that individuals are aware of the things they would consider
                     dangerous at their places of work and the things that would not normally consider, like gun-related violence.

      E. Analysis and Impact

         School and workplace violence, in essence, has changed the way we learn, work and live. Within the last decade, there have been nearly
         twenty incidents at American schools involving mass shootings and in the nation’s workplaces; nearly 7,000 people have lost their lives to
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         work-related violence (Figures come from Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Workplace Violence Research Institute). The highly publicized
         incidents that we see on television are only a small fraction of the number of incidents that are truly present. Threats, bullying, rape and other
         physical violence are also crimes to be considered, but are often overlooked by the general public, the media and our policy makers.

         To truly stop the violence and reclaim a sense of security in our schools and our workplaces, local state, and federal agencies must work
         together to form lasting bonds that will promote the following:




         a. Creating a Safe and Responsive School and Working Climate

             This starts by showing students, educators, employers and employees the Basic Problem Solving Process and the fundamentals of Conflict
             Resolution. In essence, individual are shown how to cope with internal and external pressures as an alternative to causing physical
             violence.

         b. Early Identification and Intervention

             The tragic incidents associated with violence in our schools and our places of work have made it increasingly apparent that early warning
             signs have to be identified. Changes in a person’s personality, job performance or lack of interest in school activities are only some of the
             items that should give pause to the idea that something may be going on with a fellow student or co-worker. However, identifying warning
             signs should not be used to profile individuals for potential criminal activities, but merely as a tool to understand what to look for to
             determine what kinds on intervention, if required, will be given.

         c. Effective Response and critical Incident Stress Management

             School and workplace violence prevention demands that as communities, we are all prepared for the eventuality of violence. Schools and
             business that are safe and responsive have plans and procedures in place to deal with violence and potentially disruptive behavior that may
             occur. Over-reliance on suspension, expulsion and termination should be replaced with an extensive array of potions such as counseling,
             interactive peer groups and sessions with trained mental health professionals. In the event of a violent act, however, critical incident stress
             management techniques should be administered to those who witness the acts and to the survivors, to ensure that an appropriate channel of
             communication is established, and in turn, further damage is prevented.



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                 COMPREHENSIVE EMERGENCY
                    MANAGEMENT PLAN


                                                         FOR

                             CASS COUNTY INDIANA


                                   PREPARED BY:
                    CASS COUNTY EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY
                                  JANUARY 1 2004
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ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION
Promulgation Statement                                          i
Foreword                                                        ii
Instructions for Plan Use                                       iii
Plan Development and Maintenance                                iv
Letter of Agreement                                             v
Plan Distribution                                               vi
Primary Coordinating Agency Matrix                              viii
Terms and Definitions                                           xv
Acronyms/Abbreviations                                          xvi

SECTION 1


BASIC PLAN
Introduction                                                    1-1
Policies                                                        1-4
Situation and Assumption                                        1-12
Continuity of Government                                        1-15
Administration                                                  1-16
Operations                                                      1-17
Figure1 – Cass County Emergency Organizations                   1-19
Figure 2 – Elements and Supporting CEMP


SECTION 2


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                                                                2-1
Introduction
Responsibilities                                                2-1
Emergency Activation                                            2-2
Financial Records and Supporting Document                       2-3

SECTION 3




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                                                                       PROMULGATION STATEMENT

Preparedness to cope with the effects of a disaster includes many diverse by many interrelated elements, which must be woven into an integrated
emergency management system involving all departments of local government and private support agencies, plus the individual citizen, regardless of age,
race color religion, sex or nation origin.

Disasters necessitate a sudden escalation in the material needs of the community and a reorganization of resources and personnel in order to address
emergency response. Many lives can be lost in the confusion and disorganization that accompanies the lack of a full planning effort. Therefore, failure to
develop an integrated disaster preparedness plan encourages salvage type activities instead of an effective, coordinated operation.

Planning for population protection must be a cooperative effort to avert or minimize the effects of natural, technological, civil, and/or attack related
disasters; protect lives and property and restore the stricken area to it’s pre-disaster status with minimum social and economic disruption

This plan is a statement of policy regarding emergency management and assigns tasks and responsibilities to county officials and department heads,
specifying their roles during an emergency of disaster situation. It is developed pursuant to Indiana Cole Title 10, Article 4, Chapter 1, Civil Defense and
Disaster Law of 1975, as amended and the Emergency Management Ordinance adopted by Cass County Commissioners dated _________________
assigning responsibilities.




_______________________________________                                  _____________
President of Cass County Commissioners                                   Date




_______________________________________                                  _____________
County Commissioner                                                      Date




_______________________________________                                  _____________
County Commissioner                                                      Date
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                                                                      FOREWORD


This plan provides Cass County, Indiana and its political subdivision the basis for a systematic approach to the solution of problems created by the threat
or the occurrence of disaster. It identifies the responsibilities, function, tasks and working relationship between and within the governmental entities and
their various departments, private support groups and individuals citizens.

The Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan was jointly developed by the Cass County Emergency Management Coordinator, in
cooperation with representatives from departments and jurisdictions that have been tasked with emergency responsibilities. The first step in the planning
process identifies each hazard that is a possible threat to the county and its support functions. The second step assessed the resources of each governmental
entity and the third step was to develop response procedures based solely on the resources.

The goals to be achieved are to save lives and protect property by developing programs and emergency operational capabilities that address mitigation,
preparedness, response and recovery for natural technological, civil or attack-related emergencies.

Regular review of the Comprehensive Plan as well as emergency tests, exercises and actual emergency occurrences will serve to refine and clarify
emergency responsibilities and contribute to the ongoing planning initiated by the responsible organizations which developed this document.

We would like to express appreciation to these individuals and organizations. Their input was instrumental in creating a Comprehensive Plan for the
protection of the citizens and property of Cass County.




________________________________________                                         ______________________
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      Cass County EMA Director                                  Date




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                                                           INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLAN USE

It is intended that this plan, when implemented, be used by Cass County emergency response and support organizations to obtain maximum use of exiting
resources, organizations and systems in their response to emergencies and disasters that could and/or occur in the county. The format utilized is:

BASIC PLAN              Developed by the Emergency Management Agency, the Basic Plan details the policies, organizations and concept of operations
                        and assignment of responsibilities necessary for Cass County response and recovery operations. The Basic Plan includes
                        attachments as necessary.

ESFs                    Each Emergency Support Function (ESF) maintains a section to the Basic Plan
                        detailing the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery tasks associated with that particular function. A standard format is
                        used for each ESF in order to ensure continuity in the CEMP and allow for easy reference.

SOPs                    Standard Operating Procedures are not contained in this plan, but must be developed
                        by each ESF and/or agency, and are essential to the implementation of this document.


CHECKLISTS              Checklists are not contained in this plan, but must be developed by each ESF and/or
                        agency, and are essential to the implementation of this document.


All individuals with assigned responsibilities should be familiar with the entire plan. However, added emphasis must be given to those sections for which
they are responsible. While all circumstances cannot be addressed, the content of this plan should be used as a guide for those events that do occur but are
not specifically addressed herein.




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                                                   PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE


The County Executive mandates the development and annual review of this plan by all officials and agencies involved and will coordinate necessary
revision efforts through the Office of Emergency Management. The Cass County Emergency Management Agency Director has established the Cass
County Emergency Preparedness Committee to assist in the development of the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan. This committee will meet
on a quarterly basis to review and make revisions as necessary following exercising, training and/or actual events. This shall include a critique of the
actions taken in support of the plan following any event necessitating implementation of the plan.

The Director of Emergency Management will forward revisions of the CEMP to all affected/responsible organizations.

Each primary agency is responsible for coordinating with support agencies and updating its function based on deficiencies identified by emergencies,
drills, exercises and changes in government structure and emergency organization. Cass County Emergency Management will initiate an annual review of
the basic Plan and functions with the appropriate organizations.

This plan shall be considered a “living document” and with each use, either by exercise or incident, the plan shall be reviewed by all ESFs, agencies public
officials with the intent of improving it.

This plan shall be exercised annually in lieu of an actual response to a real emergency event.

                           Orientation seminars will be held on an ass needed basis for training or individuals who have responsibilities within the plan.

                           Tabletop and/or Functional exercises will be held annually.

                           A full-scale exercise involving all emergency support functions will be held a minimum of once every four years.




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                                                                       LETTER OF AGREEMENT


      The Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Plan, hereafter referred to as the Plan, established a basis for a coordinated response of Cass County
      agencies and organizations when impacted by a disaster of emergency.

      The plan covers all four phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

      The plan is consistent with the State Emergency Management and the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Emergency Support Function
      concept. The Emergency Support Functions group like-type into the same group. Each jurisdictional agency is grouped into one or more
      emergency support functions. In addition, each Emergency Support Function has an agency designated as the primary coordinating agency with
      other agencies as support coordinating agencies.

      Each agency also agrees to implement planning efforts and agrees to participate in countywide exercise activities to maintain the overall response
      capability.




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                                                              PLAN DISTRIBUTION


      I understand that I am receiving a copy of this plan because of my responsibilities to the comprehensive Emergency Management program for
      Cass County. And, I agree to cooperate with all agencies in carrying out my duties through the four phases of emergency management as a
      primary or support agency as defined. (See Primary and Support agency Matrix pg vii and ix)

      Cass County Commissioners                           ______________________________________

      Cass County Council                                 ______________________________________

      Cass County Sheriff                                 ______________________________________

      Indiana State Police                                ______________________________________

      Cass County Emergency Management                    ______________________________________

      Logansport Memorial Hospital                        ______________________________________

      Cass County Health Department                       ______________________________________

      Cass County Extension Office                        ______________________________________

      Cass County Coroner                                 ______________________________________

      Cass County Highway Department                      ______________________________________

      Cass County Auditors Office                         ______________________________________

      Logansport/Cass County Planning Comm.               ______________________________________

      Logansport Mayor                                    ______________________________________

      Logansport City Council                             ______________________________________

      Logansport Clerk/Treasurer                          ______________________________________
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      Logansport Fire Department                 ______________________________________

      Logansport Police Department               ______________________________________

      Logansport Municipal Utilities             ______________________________________

      Logansport Street Department               ______________________________________

      Galveston Town Board                       ______________________________________

      Royal Center Town Board                    ______________________________________

      Walton Town Board                          ______________________________________

      Galveston Police Department                ______________________________________

      Royal Center Police Department             ______________________________________

      Walton Police Department                   ______________________________________

      Clinton Twp. Fire Department               ______________________________________

      Galveston Fire Department                  ______________________________________

      Georgetown Fire Department                 ______________________________________

      Harrison Twp. Fire Department              ______________________________________

      Miami Twp Fire Department                  ______________________________________

      Onward Fire Department                     ______________________________________

      Royal Center Fire Department               ______________________________________

      Twelve Mile Fire Department                ______________________________________
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      Walton Fire Department                     ______________________________________

      Young America Fire Department              ______________________________________

      Galveston Utilities                        ______________________________________

      Royal Center Utilities                     ______________________________________

      Walton Utilities                           ______________________________________

      Cinergy/PSI                                ______________________________________

      Carroll County REMC                        ______________________________________

      Fulton County REMC                         ______________________________________

      Miami- Cass REMC                           ______________________________________

      Pulaski-White REMC                         ______________________________________

      NIPSCO                                     ______________________________________

      Grissom ARB                                ______________________________________

      Indiana National Guard-Logansport Unit     ______________________________________

      American Red Cross                         ______________________________________

      The Salvation Army                         ______________________________________

      Cass County Mental Health                  ______________________________________

      Four County Counseling Center              ______________________________________

      Cass Area Transit                          ______________________________________
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      Cass County E-911                          ______________________________________




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                           Cass County Primary and Support Coordinating Agency Matrix


                     EMERGENCY SUPPORT FUNCTIONS (ESFS) AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT
        ESF       FUNCTION NAME        COUNTY      SUPPORTAGENCIES              STATE                         FEDERAL
                                       AGENCY
         1          Transportation    Highway Dept   School Corp/ EMA/Cass Area INDOT                          USDOT
                                                                 Transit
         2         Communications  911             EMA/ Sheriff’s Dept/LPD       SEMA                          National
                                   Communications                                                           Communications
                                                                                                               System
         3           Public Works         Highway Dept      LMU and Town                         DOA            DoD
                                                            Utilities/Engineer/Building
                                                            Commissioner
         4            Firefighting       Logansport Fire           Jurisdictional Fire Depts     SEMA           USDA
                                             Dept
         5          Info & Planning          EMA            Planning Commission/All              SEMA           FEMA
                                                            ESFs/Commissioners
         6            Mass Care              EMA            Salvation Army/Red Cross/School      SEMA         Red Cross
                                                            Corps
         7            Resource Support       EMA            Logansport Clerk-Treasurer/
                                                            Township Trustees/Auditor
                      Health & Medical     Health Dept      Memorial Hospital/EMS/ Mental        EMS             HHS
                                                            Health/Coroner                     Commission
         8
         9          Search & Rescue           LFD           Jurisdictional Fire & Law            SEMA           FEMA
                                                            Dept/EMA
        10            Hazardous              EMA            Jurisdictional Fire Dept/LEPC        SEMA            EPA
                      Materials
         11           Food & Water           EMA            Salvation Army/Red Cross            Reserved         USDA
        12            Energy                  LMU           Local REMC’s/ Cingery/PSI             IURC           DOE
        13            Evacuation         Sheriff’s Dept     School Corp/Red Cross/Salvation     Reserved
                                                            Army/Logansport PD/Cass Area
                                                            Transit
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         14           Donation &             EMA          JurisdictionalDept/PoliceDepts/Red      Reserved
                      Volunteers                          Cross/Salvation Army
              15      `Law Enforcement       Sheriff’s    Jurisdictional Police Depts
                                             Dept
              16      Animal Health          Extension    Local Veterinarians/EMA/                   SEMA
                      Emergency              Office       Farmers/County Animal Warden
              17      Public Information     EMA          Sheriff’s Dept/Commissioners/Red           SEMA
                                                          Cross
              18   Damage Assessment         EMA          Red Cross/Building                   Mitigation &
                                                          Inspector/Local Police Dept          Recovery Dept




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Terms and Definitions
      Air Burst – The explosion of a nuclear weapon at such a height that the expanding fireball does not touch
      the earth’s surface resulting in little or no fallout.

       Allocation (General) – (Community Shelter Planning) The process of allocating of population to areas of
       shelter concentration.

       Allocation (Specific) – (Community Shelter Planning) The process of allocating geographically defined
       areas of population to a specific shelter facility or a group of shelter facilities.

       American Red Cross (ARC) – A quasi-governmental agency largely for relief of suffering and for
       supplemental welfare activities during war and disaster. The ARC operates under a congressional charter
       and is supported by the people. Internationally, it operates in accordance with the Treaty of Geneva.

       Code of Federal Regulations – CFR 44 refers to Emergency Management and assistance.

       Code of State Regulations – Indiana Code Title 10 and 36 refers to Emergency Management and
       Assistance.

       Comprehensive Emergency Management – An all inclusive approach in combining the four phases of
       emergency management, which are (1) Mitigation: those activities which eliminate or reduce the
       probability of a disaster (2) Preparedness: those activities which governments, organizations and
       individuals develop to save lives and property and provide emergency assistance and (4) Recovery: short
       and long-term activities which return all systems to normal or improved standards.

       Damage Assessment – The appraisal, determination and reporting of the extent of loss resulting from an
       emergency or disaster.

       Disaster/Emergency – An event that causes or threatens to cause loss of life, human suffering, property
       and economic and social disruption.

       Disaster assistance Center (DAC) – A local center established following a major disaster, staffed by
       various state and federal agencies to provide assistance to individuals.

       Disaster Intelligence – the gathering, processing analysis and dissemination of information from the field
       and from other functions and reliable sources. Part of the Information and Planning functions.

       Disaster Field Office (DFO) – The office established in or near the designated area to support Federal
       and State response and recover operations. The DFO houses the FCO and the ERT and where possible the
       SCO and Support Staff.

       Emergency Alert System (EAS) – consists of broadcast stations and interconnecting facilities which
       have been authorized by the Federal Communications Commission to operate in controlled manner during
       war, state of public peril or disaster or other national emergency as provided by the Emergency Broadcast
       System. Plan.

     Emergency Management Assistance (Formerly P&G) – Federal matching funds to state and local
     agencies for personnel and administrative expense.
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      Emergency Management Director – The individual who is directly responsible on a day-to-day basis for
      the jurisdiction’s effort to develop a capability for coordinated mitigation, preparedness, response and
      recovery efforts regarding disaster and other emergencies.

      Emergency Operating Center (EOC) – The site from which government officials exercise direction and
      control during emergencies.

      Emergency Operations Plan (EOP) – A document that identifies the available personnel, equipment,
      facilities, supplies and other resources in the jurisdiction and state the method or scheme for coordinated
      actions to be taken by the individuals and government services in the event of natural and technological
      disasters and emergencies. It describes a jurisdiction’s emergency organization and it’s means of
      coordination with other jurisdictions. It assigns functional responsibilities to the elements of the
      emergency organization, and it details tasks to be carried out at times and places projected as accurately as
      permitted by the nature of each situation addressed.

      Emergency Response Team (ERT) – An interagency team consisting of the lead representatives from
      each department or agency assigned primary responsibility for an ESA and key members of the SCO staff,
      formed to assist the SCO in carrying out their responsibilities.

      Emergency Support Function (ESF) – A functional area of response activity established to facilitate the
      delivery of assistance required during all phases of Emergency Management to save lives, protect property
      and public health, and to maintain public safety. ESFs represent those types of assistance, which the
      jurisdiction will most likely need because of the overwhelming impact of a catastrophic or significant
      disaster on its own resources and response capabilities, or because of the specialized or unique nature of
      the assistance require. Emergency Support Actions must include a needs assessment, task assignment and
      resource allocation.

      Evacuee – The individual who is moved to a less hazardous area. Also may be referred to as a relocatee.

      Event – An incident that affects the population within your jurisdiction.

      Executive Order – A rule or order having the force of law issued by an executive authority of a
      government.

      Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO)- Senior official appointed in accordance with the provisions of
      P.L. 93-288, as amended, to coordinate the overall response and recovery activities.

      Functional Coordinator – Person with overall responsibility for coordinating actions within a particular
      ESF/functional area.

      Functions of Emergency Management – Transportation, Communication/Warning, Public
      Works/Engineering, Firefighting, Information and Planning, Shelter/Mass Care, Resource Management,
      Health & Medical, Search and Rescue, Hazards Specific, Evacuation, Energy, Radiological Protection,
      Military, Law Enforcement, Coordination & Control, Public Information, Damage Assessment.

      Greenwich Mean Time – (GMT) or (Z)- The standard reference time used throughout the world based
      on the time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. Using the 24-hour system to convert
      Greenwich time:

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      Add 5 hours to Eastern Standard Time (EST)
      Add 6 hours to Central Standard Time (CST)
      Add 7 hours to Mountain Time (MST)
      Add 8 hours to Pacific Standard Time (PST)
      Also called “ZULU” Time for Zero Meridian

      Hazard – A potential event or situation that presents a threat to life and property.

      Hazardous Material – Any substance of material in a quantity or form which may be harmful or
      injurious to humans, domestic animals, wildlife, economic crops or property when released into the
      environment. Hazardous materials are classified in this plan as chemical, radiological or explosive.

              Chemical- Toxic, Corrosive or injurious substances because of inherent chemical properties and
              included, but is not limited to such items as petroleum products, paints, plastics, acids, caustics,
              industrial chemicals, poisons, drugs, mineral fibers (asbestos).

              Biological – Microorganisms or associated products which may cause disease in humans, animals
              or economic cops and includes pathogenic wastes from medical institutions, slaughterhouses,
              poultry processing plants and the like.

              Explosive – Material capable of releasing energy with blast effect in a split second upon
              activation; the released energy usually damages or destroys objects in close proximity to the blast.

      Incident – An event or occurrence with potential threat to the health and safety of residents in the vicinity;
      may also result in physical damage to properties and facilities.

      Incident Command System- A documented system that has been successfully used in managing
      resources at emergency operations. ICS can be utilized for any type or size of emergency, ranging from a
      minor incident involving a single unit, to a major emergency involving several agencies.

      Incident Management System – A unified management system that applies common business practices
      to the incident response. The system consists of procedures for controlling personnel, facilities, equipment
      and communications. The IMS is designed to begin developing from the time an incident occurs until the
      requirement for management and operations no longer exists.

      Joint Information center (JIC)- The primary field location for the coordination of Federal and State
      media relations located in or near the Disaster Field Office.

      Local Warning Point – A facility in a city, town or community, which receives warnings and activates
      the public warning system in its area of responsibility.

      Major Disaster – Public Law 93-288, as amended, provides that any flood, drought, hurricane,
      earthquake, storm or other catastrophe in any part of the United states which, in the determination of the
      President, is or threatens to be of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant disaster assistance by the
      Federal Government to supplement the efforts and available resources of state and local governments in
      alleviating the damage, hardships or suffering caused thereby.

      Mitigation – Steps to be taken to prevent or lessen the effect of an incident.

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      National Plan – Short title for the National Plan for Emergency Preparedness which sets forth the basic
      principals, policies, responsibilities, preparations and response of civil government to meet any kind of
      national defense emergency.

      National Warning Center – The facility staffed by Attack Warning Officers situated within the combat
      operations center at NORAD Headquarters. Controls NAWAS when the Regional Warning Circuits are
      tied together.

      Operations Planning – The process for determining the need for application of resources and the
      methods of obtaining and committing these resources to the operations plan.

      Political Subdivisions - Local governments, including but not limited to, cities, towns, incorporated
      communities, parishes and townships.

      Preparedness – Being prepared for all hazards.

      Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Services (RACES) – An emergency service designated to make
      efficient use of the vast reservoir of skilled radio amateurs throughout the Nation in accordance with
      approved civil defense communications plans. Many of the states and local governments have federally
      approved RACES communications plans whereby radio amateurs participating in these plans are
      permitted to operate during an emergency or emergency conditions.

      Recovery – What actions to be taken to recover from an emergency.

      Regional Operations Center (ROC) – The temporary operations facility for the coordination of federal
      response and recovery activities. Located at the FEMA Regional Office and led by the Director or Deputy
      director until the Disaster Field Office becomes operational.

      Response – Includes on-site operations to provide emergency assistance.

      Secondary Effects – Emergencies that may develop as a reaction to an initiating emergency. For
      example, a dam may break as the result of an earthquake.

      Staging Area – A location where equipment/personnel are maintained on a temporary basis for
      emergency response.

      Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) – Checklists or guidance developed by each specific responding
      organization that detail responsible individuals by name, phone number and delineated in detail specific
      organizational emergency activities.

      State Coordinating Officer – Director of the Indiana State Emergency Management Agency. Appointed
      pursuant to I.C. 10-8-2-2 and under Executive Order 97-19. The Director for the State Emergency
      Management Agency is designated to act as the State Coordinating Officer (SCO) for all matters relating
      to emergency/disaster Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery,

      Traffic Control Points – Places along evacuation routes that are manned by law enforcement personnel
      to direct and control movement to and from the area being evacuated.


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      Warning Point – A facility that receives warning and other emergency information over NAWAS and
      relays this information in accordance with state and local emergency management plans.




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       Acronyms/Abbreviations


     AADPA – Assistant Associate Director for Public and Intergovernmental Affairs.
     ADC- Aid to Dependent Children
     AEOC – Alternate EOC
     AM - Amplitude Modulation
     ARC – American Red Cross
     ARES – Amateur Radio Emergency Service
     ASCS – Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (USDA)
     CAP – Civil Air Patrol
     CB – Citizens Band Radio
     CBR – Chemical, Biological and Radiological
     CDC – Center for Disease Control
     CEB – County Emergency Board
     CEO – Chief Elected Officer
     CFR – Code of Federal Regulations
     CHEMTREC – Chemical Transportation Emergency Center
     CI– Curie
     CONUS – Continental United States
     CPG – Civil Preparedness Guide
     CRP – Crisis Relocation Plan
     CSEPP – Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program
     CSP – Community Shelter Plan
     DA – Damage Assessment
     DAC- Disaster Application Center
     DAP – Disaster Assistance Program
     DAS- Disaster Analysis Section
     D&C – Direction and Control
     DEM- Department of Environmental Management
     DFBS- Department of Fire and Building Services
     DFO- Disaster Field Office
     DHEW – Department of Health, Education and Welfare
     DMAT – Disaster Medical Assistance Team
     DNR- Department of Natural Resources
     DOD – Department of Defense
     DOE – Department of Energy
     DOI- Depart of Interior
     DOT- Department of Transportation
     DWI- Disaster Welfare Inquiry
     EAS – Emergency Alerting System
     ECC – Emergency Communication Center
     EMA –Emergency Management Agency
     EMC- Emergency Management Coordinator
     EMI- Emergency Management Institute
     EMS – Emergency Medical Services
     EMT – Emergency Medical Technician
     EMPG- Emergency Management Performance Grant
     EO – Executive Order
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     EOC- Emergency Operating Center
     EOP – Emergency Operations Plan
     EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
     EPI – Emergency Public Information/Instructions
     ERT – Emergency Response Team
     ERT-A- Advanced Element of the Emergency Response Team
     ESA- Emergency Support Action
     ESF – Emergency Support Function
     EST – Emergency Support Team
     FAA – Federal Aviation Administration
     FCC – Federal Communication Commission
     FEMA – Federal Emergency Management Agency
     FM – Frequency Modulation
     FOB – Forward Operations Base
     FRT – Forward Response Team
     GSA – General Services Administration
     HAM RADIO – Amateur Radio
     HAZMAT –Hazardous Material
     HF- High Frequency
     I.C.- Indiana Code
     ICC – Interstate Commerce Commission
     ICS - Incident Command System
     IEMS – Integrated Emergency Management System
     ISDH – Indiana State Department of Health
     IFGP – Individual and Family grant Program
     ILEEN – Indiana Law Enforcement Emergency Network
     IMA – Individual Mobilization Augmentee
     ISP – Indiana State Police
     IURC – Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission
     JIC – Joint Information Center
     JPIC – Joint Public Information Center
     JIS – Joint Information System
     LZ – Landing Zone
     MOA – Memorandum of Agreement
     MCP – Mobile Command Post
     MSA – Multi-Purpose Staging Area
     NAWAS – National Warning System
     NFA – National Fire Academy
     NOAA – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
     NRC – Nuclear Regulatory Commission
     NRT – National Response Team
     NVOAD – National Voluntary Organizations in Disaster
     NWC – National Weather Center
     NWS – National Weather Service
     NWSFO – National Weather Service Forecast Office
     OSC – On-Scene Coordinator
     OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration
     PAO – Pubic Assistance Center
     PDA – Preliminary Damage Assessment
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      PPP – Population Protection Planning
      PIO – Public Information Officer
      PSTI – Public Safety Training Institute
      RACES – Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service
      RO – Radiological Officer
      ROC – Regional Operations Center
      ROST – Regional Operations Support Team
      RPP – Radiological Protection Program
      RRT - Regional Response Team
      SAR – Search and Rescue
      SARA – Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
      SBA – Small Business Administration
      SCM – Survival Crisis Management
      SCO – State Coordinating Officer
      SEMA – State Emergency Management Agency
      SERC – State Emergency Response Commission
      SOP – standard Operating Procedure
      USDA – United States Department of Agriculture
      UHF – Ultrahigh Frequency
      USGS – United States Geological Survey
      VFH – Very High Frequency
      VLF – Very Low Frequency
      ZULU TIME – Mean solar time at the zero meridian of Greenwich, England




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      I.    INTRODUCTION

            A. Mission

            The mission of Emergency Management is to save lives and protect property while minimizing
            the impact of catastrophic events on Cass County citizens. To be accomplished through
            comprehensive planning, mitigation activities, training and education, and coordination of
            response to and recovery from any and all emergences or disaster resulting from natural,
            technological or man-made events.

            Emergency actions of public safety, public health and public works agencies are directed to such
            protection. These agencies handle the majority of emergencies that occur in the county under
            standard day-to-day procedures that need no special attention under this plan. However, these
            agencies are not funded or staffed at levels required for any one agency to affectively handle the
            most extreme life and property threatening emergencies and disasters that might occur.

            B. Purpose

            The purpose of this plan is to establish functions and responsibilities of Cass County agencies.
            This comprehensive emergency management plan is designed and intended to provide, to the
            extent possible, the general, predetermined actions and information necessary for Cass County
            and cooperating organizations to deal effectively with the mitigation preparedness, response and
            recovery elements of emergencies.

            A smooth transition to a system for major emergency or disaster management is required.
            Valuable time, critical to the preservation of life and property is lost if advanced preparations for
            such a system are not made. This plan outlines such a system. This plan is the emergency
            operations plan that is mandated by Indiana Code 10-4-1-5.

            This plan replaces the Cass County Emergency Operations Plan, dated ______________with
            updates.




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             C.      Scope

             This plan considers the emergencies and disasters that may occur in Cass County as described in
             the County Hazards and Vulnerability Analysis, which is a separate document, located in the
             Emergency Management Agency Office.

             This plan represents a multi-incident, multi-functional approach to managing the response to and
             recovery from emergencies and disasters that may affect Cass County. The plan is based on the
             premise that one management structure can be used for all types of emergences.

             This plan is applicable to Cass County Government and volunteer organizations of Cass County
             and the city of Logansport, and the towns of Walton, Clymers, New Waverly, Galveston, Twelve
             Mile, Royal Center, Young America, Lucerne, Georgetown, Onward. And the other
             unincorporated communities of the county

             When disaster and emergencies occur, the county must pool its resources and coordinate its efforts
             to protect the community. The self-help and mutual support potential in the community must also
             be tapped and coordinated. Coordination and effective response will not happen unless advanced
             preparations have been made and organized framework of county and local organizations has
             been established.

             Cass County uses the Incident Management System (IMS) for the management of emergency
             operations. The system is characterized by its ability to be established and expanded to meet the
             changing conditions of an incident. The Incident Management System can be used for any type or
             size of emergency.

      D. Organization

      Emergency Management Organization
      Figure 1 – Shows the organizational structure of emergency management in Cass County.


             1. All agencies
             The organizational structure of normal day-to-day emergency response and major emergency
             response under this plan is generally the same. The County will operate under the incident
             management system, which can be expanded as necessary to meet the changing conditions of the
             emergency. An additional level of managerial and policy support is available for multiple
             incidents and situations that exceed the resources of the responding agencies.

             The major responsibilities of the individual response agencies, their standard operating procedures
             and the incident command system will not be altered under this plan. Some added responsibilities
             may be assigned or procedures modified, depending on the specific circumstances of the
             emergency.

             2. Countywide Agreement
             The board of County Commissioners and the Chief Executives of all political subdivisions within
             the county has entered a written agreement establishing a countywide emergency management
             agency.

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             3. Advisory Council
             The Emergency Management Advisory Council is responsible for selecting an emergency
             management director, with the approval of the county executive.


             4. Emergency Management Director
             a. Cass County Emergency Management Director in coordination with the Advisory Council has
                 established a program for emergency management in Cass County in accordance with IC 10-
                 4-1 and regulations developed under it.
             b. The Cass County Emergency Management Director in coordination with the executives in
                 affected jurisdictions is responsible for implementing this emergency plan.
             c. The Cass County Emergency Management Director in coordination with the Cass County
                 Commissioners, coordinate emergency response form the emergency operations center and
                 supports field response authorities and support agencies directing the emergency response at
                 the scene.

      Comprehensive Emergency Plan Organization
      Figure 2 – Shows the organizational structure of the Cass County Comprehensive Emergency
      Management Plan

             1. Basic Plan
             The Basic Plan provides a framework for Cass County mitigation, preparedness, response and
             recovery activities; identifies emergencies and disaster likely to occur; and provides a blueprint of
             Cass County’s response organization and assigns responsibilities.

             The Basic Plan also details the implementation and execution of the plan and provides for
             continuity of government

             Financial Management – contains information on emergency financial operations.

             Terms/Definitions/Acronyms

             2. Emergency Support Functions
             Details the tasks associated with each facet of emergency response. The functions are in a
             checklist format to allow for easy reference.

             Operations Section – Includes Communications and Warning, Resource Support, Information and
             Planning, Public Information.

             Emergency Services Section – Includes Health and Medical, Law Enforcement, Firefighting,
             Search and Rescue, Hazardous Materials

             Human Services Section – Includes Food and Water, Shelter and Mass Care, Animal Health,
             Evacuation, Donations and Volunteers


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             Infrastructure Support Section – Includes Transportation, Damage Assessment, Energy Public
             Works and Engineering




             3. Hazard Specific
             Includes special hazard planning considerations not found in the emergency support functions
             elements.

             Terrorism – Currently under development

             4. Recovery
             Addresses community short and long-range recovery issues.

      II.    POLICIES
             a. Authorities
             Federal
             Civil Defense act of 1950 (PL81-920)- as amended
             1997 Defense Authorization act (PL94-361)
             The Disaster Relief Act if 1974 (PL-288)
             Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 (SARA Title III)
             Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Amendments of 1988 (PL93-288 as
             amended by PL100-707)

           State
           Indiana code 10-4-1
           Indiana Code (1988 Ed)
           Application                                                                      Section
           * Powers and Duties of County                                                    36-2-2
             Commissioners                                                                  36-2-17-7
           * Powers and Duties of County                                                    36-2-13
              Sheriff
           * Powers and Duties of County                                                    36-3-14
             Coroner
           * Powers and Duties of Mayors                                                    35-4-1
              of Cities
           * Powers and Duties of Mayors                                                    36-5-1
              of Towns
           * Powers and Duties of Police                                                    36-8-3-6
              and Fire Departments                                                          36-8-3-10
           * Powers and Duties of State                                                     16-1-3-1
             Health Department
           * Powers and Duties of County                                                    16-1-7-16
             and City Health Department
           * Environmental Management                                                       13-7-1
           * Powers and Department of                                                       13-7-2-11
             Environmental Management                                                       13-7-5-2
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            * Pre-Notification for Hazardous                                                PL99-499
              Materials
            * Emergency Management Agency                                                   10-4-1
            * General Powers Concerning                                                     36-9-2
              Transportation and Public Works
            * Preservation of Records/Copies                                                36-2-17-5




            County
            County Emergency Management Ordinance

            A listing of written agreements with voluntary organizations, mutual aid agreements between
            responding organizations and other local, state, federal and private organizations are referenced
            and/or located in the Emergency Operations Center.

            B. Responsibilities

                   1. This plan presents the functional responsibilities accepted by designated agencies and
                      other organizations. Emergency Support Functions are established to designate
                      mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery activities for specific emergency
                      functions. There is one agency with primary responsibilities for coordinating each
                      emergency support function while other agencies are tasked with support roles.
                   2. Each agency involved in emergency response is responsible for developing standard
                      operating procedures, guides and plans to support this plan. Each agency must
                      participate in training, exercises and evaluation of their standard operating procedures,
                      guides and plans.
                   3. The following organizations are tasked with primary and support emergency
                      assignments. A specific counting of assignments is found in each emergency support
                      function section of this plan and in the standard operating procedures (SOPs)
                      developed by each organization with emergency response and support
                      responsibilities. The SOPs provide a detailed delineation of how assigned
                      responsibilities are performed to support plan implementation.

                   Cass County Emergency Management Agency

                   Primary: ESF #5 (Information and Planning), ESF #7 (Resource Support), ESF #17
                   (Public Information), ESF #18 (Damage Assessment)
                    Policy decisions for integrated Emergency Management
                    Plans for comprehensive Emergency Management
                    Coordination for all phases of integrated Emergency Management
                    Coordination and Control at the Emergency Operating Center
                    Planning Updates
                    Resource Management
                    Augmentation Personnel
                    Coordination with Officials in affected Jurisdictions


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                  Support
                   Warning
                   Communications
                   Public Information and Education
                   Exercises

                  Law Enforcement (Jurisdictional Law Enforcement Agencies)

                  Primary: ESF #2 (Communications and Warning), ESF #13 (Evacuation), ESF #15 (Law
                  Enforcement)
                   Warning
                   Communications
                   Maintain Law and Order
                   Traffic Control
                   Area Control
                   Protection of Vital Facilities
                   Coordination and Control at the Scene

                  Support
                   Evacuation
                   Search and Rescue
                   Radiological Protection
                   Hazardous Material Response

                  Fire Service (Municipal Fire Department)

                  Primary: ESF #4 (Firefighting), ESF #9 (Search and Rescue), ESF #10 (Hazardous
                  Materials), ESF #13 (Radiological Protection)
                   Fire Response




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            C. Emergency Support Function Primary Coordinating agency

            1. Each emergency support function has an agency designated as the primary coordinating
               agency. The primary agency designation is based on its authority, resources and capabilities in
               the particular functional area. Other agencies have been designated as support agencies for
               one or more emergency support functions based on their resources and capabilities to support
               the functional area(s).
            2. It is the responsibility of this agency to coordinate the support activities of the entire group
               during an emergency or disaster. This does not mean that the Primary Coordinating agency is
               in charge of other agencies or departments, it is only a coordination point for the group.
            3. The Primary Coordinating Agency has the responsibility to develop lists for all the resources
               their emergency support function can provide and to develop standard operating procedures
               outlining where those resources are located and how they can be activated.

            D. Emergency Support Function Support Agency

            1. A support agency designation is based on an agency’s ability to support the primary agency
               with its resources and capabilities.
            2. It is the responsibility of the support agencies to provide resources and support to the disaster
               management efforts through the primary coordinating agency.
            3. Each support agency should also have pre-designated agency coordinators, which would
               report to the emergency operations center upon request, to provide coordination assistance and
               advice as subject matter experts in the respective areas.

            E. Agency Coordinators

            Each participating agency will appoint an agency coordinator and at least two back-ups. The
            coordinator’s responsibilities will be to coordinate the activities of their particular function as
            addressed in Section C above.

            F. Volunteer and Private Organizations

            A number of volunteer and private organizations will take an active part in all phases of
            Emergency Management. Among those organizations are the American Red Cross and the
            Salvation Army. The majority of responsibility tasked to these organizations will be sheltering
            and feeding, donations coordination and other human support services. Through the functional
            planning concept these agencies and organizations have and will coordinate on an on-going basis
            sharing information, resources and ideas.

            G. Limitations

            Cass County and jurisdictional agencies will endeavor to make every reasonable effort to respond
            as outlined in this Plan, in the event of a disaster emergency. However, there is no guarantee
            expressed or implied by this plan that a perfect response to disaster emergency incidents will be
            practical or possible.




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      III SITUATION AND ASSUMPTION

      A. Situation

             1. Cass County encompasses 413 square miles and is located in north central Indiana, bounded
                on the north by Fulton and Pulaski counties, on the west by White and Carroll counties, on the
                south by Carroll and Howard counties and on the east by Miami county.
             2. According to the latest census figures, the population of Cass County is 40,930. The
                populations of the larger communities in the county are as follows: Logansport 19,466;
                Galveston 1497; Walton 1053; Royal Center 827; Twelve Mile 225; New Waverly 150;
                Lucerne 130; Clymers 120; Lake Cicott 100 and Onward 84. Other communities in the county
                have a low population base.
             3. Cass County is primarily an agricultural county with a small manufacturing base mainly in the
                city of Logansport. Approximately 80 % of the county is used for agricultural purposes.
                Statewide, Cass County ranks 35th in total population.
             4. US 24 runs east/west through Lake Cicott and bypasses around Logansport and New
                Waverly. US 35 runs north/south through Royal Center, Logansport, Walton and Galveston.
                SR 25 runs north/south through Metea, Logansport and Clymers. SR 16 runs east/west
                through Royal Center, Lucerne, Metea and Twelve Mile. SR 17 begins in Logansport on 3rd
                street and runs directly north. SR 29 begins in Logansport on 3rd street and runs directly south.
                SR 218 runs east/west through Walton. SR 18 runs east/west through Young America and
                Galveston. The only airport is approximately 3 miles south of Logansport. The Norfolk
                Southern railroad line runs east/west through Clymers, Logansport and New Waverly. Rail
                America operates lines that run through smaller communities in the county. We have several
                natural gas, petroleum and ammonia pipelines that run throughout the county.
             5. High risk hazards that most likely would affect the residents of Cass County, as identified by
                the Hazard and Vulnerability Analysis, are the following: floods, winter storms, tornadoes and
                hazardous material releases on highways and fixed site facilities.

      B. Assumptions

             1.      The county and its political subdivisions have capabilities including manpower, equipment,
                     supplies and skills of public and private agencies and groups that will maximize preservation
                     of lives and property in the event of an emergency.
             2.      Emergencies may require coordination and cooperation among diverse governmental and
                     private organizations in order to protect the lives and property of Cass County residents.
             3.      The location and extent of some emergencies can be predetermined; other emergencies may
                     occur with little or no warning.
             4.      Organizations tasked in this document are aware of their emergency responsibilities and will
                     fulfill these requirements in an emergency.
             5.      The basis for delegation for emergency authority to ensure that emergency-related legal
                     authority can be exercised is legally designated in IC 10-4-1 Civil Defense and Disaster Law
                     of 1975 as amended.
             6.      The Cass County Board of County Commissioners has the overall responsibility for the
                     welfare and safety of people and property within Cass County.

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             7.     The plan has been developed for Cass County as it exists today and is developing today. The
                    plan will have to be revised periodically to keep pact with the growth of the area.
             8.     Substantial revisions or manor policy changes to the Plan and its sections will become
                    effective upon approval by the Cass County Board of Commissioners. Routine changes,
                    correction, and updates will not require commission approval.
             9.     The Plan is based on the hazards and emergencies that are most likely to happed in Cass
                    County and which are likely to require a large, coordinated response and recovery effort.
             10.    All phases of emergency management will be implemented under the basic concept that all
                    available resources will be fully utilized prior to seeking outside assistance. Emergency
                    preparedness and response operations will be initiated at the lowest jurisdictional level
                    capable of resolving the situation effectively.
             11.    Under this plan, response to emergencies will expand to meet the changing conditions and
                    requirements of the emergency. The general duties, responsibilities and organizational
                    structure for normal day-to-day response to situations will generally be maintained within the
                    management structure specified in this plan.
             12.    The county has the capabilities and resources, which if used effectively, in an emergency
                    will maximize the preservation of life and property. State, Federal, mutual aid and private
                    assistance may be available when the County’s resources are fully committed and effective
                    response in beyond the capability of the county.
             13.    While it is probable that outside assistance would be available in most major disaster
                    situations and this plan has been developed to facilitate coordination for the assistance, it is
                    necessary for Cass County to plan, prepare and be capable of providing disaster response and
                    short-term recovery operation on an independent basis. The county or portions thereof, may
                    be isolated from outside assistance for days necessitating control of existing resources to
                    provide for the needs of the population.

             C. Execution and Implementation

             1. Upon the declaration of a State of Emergency as described in the Cass County Emergency
                Management Ordinance, the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan will be
                implemented by the Cass County Emergency Management Director. According to Indiana
                Code Title 10, once a local disaster has been declared this Comprehensive Emergency
                Management Plan becomes law for Cass County mandating compliance to it.

                   If no emergency is imminent, but conditions suggest an increased probability of an
                   emergency, the Board of County Commissioners through the Emergency Management
                   Director will notify all county and private agencies with emergency responsibilities that there
                   is a need for a heightened state of readiness. The Board of County Commissioners through the
                   Emergency Management Director may initiate public warnings. During periods of heightened
                   readiness each agency will notify personnel.

             2. As a general rule, there are three basic levels of response with general notifications. The are:
                Level I – Normal condition
                Normal, day-to-day notifications and response procedures (except for hazardous materials
                incidents); when an incident be controlled by the first response agencies, does not require
                evacuation (or only minor evacuation is required), the incident is confined to a small area, and
                it does not pose an immediate threat to life and/or property.

              Level II – Limited Emergency Conditions
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               When an emergency situation poses a potential hazard to life and/or property and may require
               limited evacuation or resources beyond the normal capability of the responding agencies, the
               Emergency Operations Director will be notified.


               Level III – Full Emergency Condition
               When an incident involves a severe hazard or a large area, which poses an extreme threat to
               life and/or property and will probably require large-scale evacuation or extraordinary
               resources and measures. In this event the Emergency Management Director will be notified,
               who will in turn notify the County Executive.

            3. The State of Indiana has six levels of response depending on the severity/complexity of the
               disaster emergency. The levels are:
                   a. LEVEL I – Local level – no mutual aid or state assistance requested
                   b. LEVEL II – Local level - mutual aid requested, no state assistance requested
                   c. LEVEL III – State assistance requested – State Emergency Operations Center not
                        activated
                   d. LEVEL IV – State Assistance requested – State Emergency Operations Center
                        activated
                   e. LEVEL V – Governor’s Declaration of Disaster – no federal assistance requested
                   f. LEVEL VI – Federal assistance requested

                   In some emergencies, notification to state of federal agencies if required by law no matter
                   what the level of response.

      IV.   CONTINUITY OF GOVERNMENT

                   A. For any organized response to be effective, the people to whom responsibilities have
                      been assigned must know their assignments and must be available to carry them out.
                      Emergency may happen when some critical personnel are absent form the County, or
                      the emergency may isolate, incapacitate or otherwise eliminate some of these people.
                      To prepare for this occurrence, each primary position has a pre-determined sequence
                      of succession. Each person listed in the line of succession should be aware and
                      familiar with his or her potential responsibilities.

                   B. Each department, agency and organization of the county, cities, towns and townships
                      are responsible to have a continuity plan as designated in Indian Code Title 36:
                    Designating lines of succession and delegating authority for the successors:
                    Establishing provisions for the preservation of records;
                    Developing procedures for the relocation of essential department;
                    Developing procedures to deploy essential personnel, equipment and supplies

                   C. Each department, agency and organization of the county, cities, town and townships
                      will develop standard operating procedures, guides or plans that detail the above
                      information.

                       It shall be included in standard operating procedure that the Indiana State
                       Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan requires each agency or department

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                           involved in responding to an emergency or disaster under a declared disaster to
                           submit a daily situation report regarding their agency’s activities to the Emergency
                           Operations center. Additionally, every agency involved in response must also submit
                           an after-action report on behalf of their agency upon conclusion of the disaster
                           declaration.

       V.      ADMINISTRATION

               Emergency Management Organization
               Administration of emergency management activities in Cass County is conducted on a daily basis
               (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases) by the Cass County Emergency
               Management Director.

               During the emergency response and recovery phases, the emergency program is coordinated by
               the Cass County Emergency Management Director with responders and CEO’s at the scene and in
               the activated EOC in accordance with the written procedures set forth in this plan and in
               organizational SOP’s.

               The response and recovery activates will expand as needed to meet the requirements of the
               emergency in accordance with the Incident Command System and management strategies.

               Comprehensive Emergency Plan
               Cass County Emergency Management Agency, in coordination with other agencies, will review
               this plan annually and revise/update it as needed. Changes will be distributed to each holder of the
               plan.

               Administration of state and federal disaster will be in accordance with the Incident Command
               System management and strategies.

       VI.     OPERATIONS

           1. The Cass County Board of County Commissioners has the overall responsibility for direction
              and control in emergency disaster situations. This responsibility will generally be exercised
              through the Incident Commander or Emergency Management Director, depending in the
              severity of the situation. The commissioners are empowered to delegate authority as
              necessary.
           2. The Cass County Commissioners, in coordination with personnel in the activated EOC and
              CEO’s in the affected jurisdictions of the county will assume direction and control on
              emergency activities from the primary EOC located at the Cass County Emergency
              Management agency. The alternated EOC, should the primary EOC be unusable, will be
              the__________________________.
           3. Activities at the scene of an emergency, public information releases, requests for emergency
              support and local emergency declarations will be coordinated with the Commissioners,
              Director of Emergency Management and personnel in the activated EOC.
           4. The Cass County Emergency Operations Center Standard Operating Guide addressed EOC
              facilities, staffing patterns, procedures and support requirements necessary to carry out this
              function. The guide is located in the EOC.
           5. The Chief Elected Officers of each jurisdiction within Cass County are ultimately responsible
              for protecting lives and property in an emergency or a disaster situation within their
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                  jurisdictions should there be an occurrence that effects only one jurisdiction within the county,
                  emergency operations will take place under agencies supporting the operations through
                  augmentation of manpower, equipment and materials.
            6.    Should there be an occurrence that effects two or more jurisdictions within the county,
                  emergency operations will take place under each jurisdictions direction and control with the
                  county-side agency coordinating the operation and managing resources for the affected areas.
            7.     Should there be an occurrence outside the municipalities, the county-side agency will assume
                  direction and control, supporting the operations through augmentation of manpower,
                  equipment and materials.
            8.    The Chief Executive Officers of affected county jurisdictions (cities and county) may exercise
                  all necessary local emergency authority for response by issuing an Emergency Proclamation.
            9.    If all available local resources are committed, including mutual aid and assistance is still
                  require, state assistance may be obtained by following the Procedures for Requesting state
                  Disaster Assistance form provided by SEMA.
            10.   Requests for Federal assistance are made by local government by coordinated requests
                  through the State Emergency Management agency (800) 669-7362 and appropriate state
                  agencies.


            Place organizational chart here.




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      I.      INTRODUCTION

      During and after emergency/disaster events, normal fiscal and administrative functions and regulations
      may need to be temporarily modified or suspended in order to support emergency operations in a timely
      manner. In addition, proper documentation of emergency costs is imperative to attain certain
      reimbursements from state and federal sources should they become available.

              A. Purpose

      The purpose or financial management is to provide fiscal and administrative support to all levels of
      government during disaster events. Its intent is to ensure that funds are provided expeditiously and
      financial operations are conducted in accordance with established laws, policies, regulations and
      standards.

              B. Scope

      The type of emergency or disaster will dictate the procedures and amount of funds necessary to be
      expended.

      Requests for material support will be coordinated with the Chief Executive Officer of the affected
      jurisdiction and presented to the Cass County Emergency Management Director. The Cass County EMA
      Director will present the request to the executive Committee and the Executive Committee will approve or
      deny the expenditure. If the expenditure is denied, it will be up the legislative authorities in the effected
      jurisdiction to approve or deny the expenditure.


      During declared emergencies, all agencies involved will be provided with documentation of current
      regulations, applications, forms and program guidance concerning response and recovery reimbursement
      programs.

      II.     RESPONSIBILITIES

      Timely financial support of response activities will be critical to successful emergency response.
      Innovative and expeditious means may be used to achieve financial objectives.

              A. Mitigation

              Each agency is expected to use funds from their budget in ways to mitigate potential emergency
              situation that affect their agency.

              B. Preparedness

              Each agency should prepare for future emergency budgets by studying past emergency responses
              and identifying needs not met by their current budget.

              C. Response

           When an emergency or disaster occurs, agencies may be required to spend more than their
           allocated budget to effectively respond to the emergency.
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      After agencies begin their initial response operations, it may be necessary to prepare and submit a report
      on the estimated funding needs for the duration of the emergency response. The purpose of the estimates
      is to help establish the need for additional allocation from the Emergency Contingency Fund established
      under the emergency management office. This fund is maintained with minimal funds, however provides
      for streamlined appropriation of additional funds in an emergency.

              D. Recovery

              In the event of a major disaster declaration funds may become available on the form of public
              assistance reimbursement. This will be handled as addressed in the Recovery section of the plan.

      III.    EMERGENCY ACTIVATION

      The County Auditor, Treasure, Recorder, Assessor and /City and Town Clerk Treasures will have an
      active part in the financial management of disasters and emergencies management issues in the EOC.

      In the event that a Financial Management Unit is comprised to accommodate a larger response/recovery
      event to track incident costs and evaluate finances the section would have the following general
      responsibilities:

                         Manage all financial aspects of an incident.
                         Provide financial and cost analysis.
                         Gather pertinent information
                         Develop a financial operating plan.
                         Determine need to set up and operate an incident commissary
                         Meet with assisting and cooperating agency representatives.
                         Maintain daily contact with agency(s) administrative headquarters on financial and
                          administration matters.
                         Provide financial input to demobilization planning.
                         Ensure that all personnel time records are accurately completed and transmitted to
                          home agencies, according to policy.
                         Ensure that all obligation documents initiated at the incident are properly prepared.
                         Brief agency administrative personnel on all incident related financial issues.

      Units of Financial Management

              Time                            -       Personnel timekeeping
              Procurement                     -       Goods/Services expenditures
              Compensation/Claims             -       Personnel injuries
              Cost                            -       Tracking and analyzing costs

      Time - Responsible for ensuring the accurate recording of daily personnel time, compliance with specific
      agency(s) time recording policies and managing commissary operations if established.

      Procurement – Responsible for all financial matters pertaining to vendor contracts, leases an fiscal
      agreements. Also, responsible for maintaining equipment time records.

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      Compensation/Claims – Responsible for investigating all claims involving personal injury and property
      associated with or involved in the incident.

      Cost/Cost Recovery – Provides all incident analysis and ensures the proper identification of all
      equipment and personnel requiring payment. Also, responsible for documentation and recovering all
      eligible costs that are associated with the incident.

      III.    FINANCIAL RECORDS AND SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION

      All agencies must maintain records, receipts and documents to support claims, purchases, reimbursements
      and disbursements. Reimbursement requests will be documented with specific details on personnel
      services, travel and other expenses.

      Agencies requesting reimbursement will maintain all financial records, supporting documents, statistical
      records and other records pertinent to the provision of services or use of resources by that agency. These
      materials must be accessible to authorized representatives for the purpose of making audits, excerpts and
      transcripts.




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                                                OPERATIONS



      The Operations Section consists of the following Emergency Support Functions:

                        Communications and Warning
                        Information and Planning
                        Resource Support
                        Public Information

      These Emergency Support Functions directly coordinate the Emergency Operations center and support
      requests from other Emergency Support Functions.




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                                    COMMUNICATIONS AND WARNING
                                              ESF #S

      Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Communication Department (911 Dispatch)



      Support Agencies:

                         Cass County Emergency Management
                         Cass County Sheriff’s Dept
                         Logansport Police Dept

      The purpose for this function is to outline communications procedures and capabilities to be employed in
      the event of a large scale emergency in the county and to provide the necessary communications links
      with response entities, while a the same time coordinating all communications efforts to support the
      Emergency Operations Center, neighboring, jurisdictions and the State Emergency Operations Center.
      Also, describe the process for the dissemination of warning information to the public.

      The assets available to ESF2 will be used to support county emergency operations agencies and other
      ESFs with their emergency efforts as necessary. Local print and broadcast media will be relied upon to
      assist in the dissemination of warning to the general public and operational telephone and radio
      communications will be utilized to notify public officials, EOC staff and emergency personnel.




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      MITIGATION



      Communications and Warning Mitigation Tasks

      □ Establish a 24-hour warning point
      □ Identify standard operating procedures, guides and plans
      □ Identify areas where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with
        support agencies, ancillary and contract support services and resource providers
      □ Identify Training needs
      □ Evaluate potential sources of incidents and assure incorporation into plans
      □ Establish multiple methods for county warning points and EOCs to receive NWS warnings.
      □ Further development of an adequate communications system:
              □Procurement of additional equipment
              □Systems integration
              □Communications operating training
      □ Formulation of plans for additional improvement to the communications systems
      □ Coordination of communications capabilities with surrounding counties and the State EOC
      □ Identify public services agencies that can augment the county’s warning capabilities
      □ Analyze siren location to potential hazards
      □ Coordinate warning capabilities with neighboring counties
      □ Identify sources or resources, primary and back-up communications equipment
      □ Identify areas where public education programs are needed for identifying hazards and recognizing
        warnings of potential or actual hazards or incidents
      □ Investigate new technology and procedures for communications between and among field and
        emergency operations center personnel




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      PREPAREDNESS


      Communications and Warning Preparedness Tasks

      □ Develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures
        necessary primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
      □ Establish a policy for notification of emergency operations center representatives
      □ Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
      □ Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personnel
      □ Develop training programs for communications and warning agencies on communication
      □ Meet with representatives of all emergency support functions to determine the best methods of
       assigning communication resources
      □ Determine capabilities of current communications systems
      □ Test an maintain communications equipment on a regularly scheduled basis
      □ Identify potential sources of additional equipment and supplies
      □ Test, maintain and repair warning equipment
      □ Develop plans to warn areas not covered by existing warning systems
      □ Develop listing o warning equipment and locations
      □ Determine process required for local state and federal agencies communications equipment to
        interface with each other in the field
      □ Determine types of communications that are available throughout the county
      □ Establish alternate communications systems and establish a testing procedure to ensure the systems
        are reliable
      □ Determine methods available to integrate various forms of communication in the emergency
        communications centers
      □ Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to and from the emergency
        operations center during an incident
      □ Obtain detailed maps of all Cass County jurisdictions
      □ Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident command System
      □ Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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      RESPONSE



      Communication and Warning Response Tasks

      □ Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining
      □ Implement emergency communications procedures
      □ Activate emergency operations center communications systems and equipment
      □ Activate communications and earning personnel, based on incident assessment
      □ Make notifications as required by standard operating procedures, using call down lists
      □ Ensure communications equipment is available for all field personnel
      □ Notify RACES personnel
      □ Collect information concerning Communications and Warning Function field activities
      □ Assist in the development of the incident action plan
      □ Activate 24hr communications capability for the duration of the emergency period
      □ Activate warning systems
      □ Implement warning procedures
      □ Work with Public Information Function to distribute necessary information to the media and public
      □ Activate outside warning siren system
      □ Provide technical communications assistance as requested
      □ Provide situation reports of activities to EOC supervisor
      □ Attend meetings for periodic updates
      □ Document incoming and outgoing notifications
      □ Maintain records of actions taken
      □ Establish and maintain communications like between field operations centers and the emergency
        operations center
      □ Request state and federal assistance as needed through the EOC
      □ Support other emergency support functions as needed.




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      RECOVERY




      Communications and Warning Recovery Tasks


      □ Coordinated with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
      □ Contact all ESFs for an recovery communications requirements
      □ Prepare scheduling and staff for support of facilities still operational
      □ Assess damage to public and private communications infrastructure
      □ Determine actions for each: reconstruction of towers and repeaters, restoration of public
       telecommunications services, etc.
      □ Prepare appropriate after action reports
      □ Provide maintenance of emergency communications equipment throughout the recovery process
      □ Return communications equipment to ready status to allow for activation when needed
      □ Continue the dissemination of emergency information through the Public Information Function as
       necessary
      □ Revise, update, change of create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
      □ Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
      □ Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
      □ Compile record of events




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                                          INFORMATION/PLANNING
                                                 ESF#5


      Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County EMA


      Support Agencies:

                         Cass County Planning Commission
                         All County Emergency Support Functions
                         Cass County Area Plan Department
                         Local Emergency Planning Committee
                         Cass County Commissioners


      The purpose of this function is to collect, process and disseminate information regarding potential or
      actual incidents. Information and Planning serves to facilitate overall activities of all responding and
      support agencies in providing assistance to an affected area.

      Once information is achieved, an effective change of key information between agencies and on-scene
      locations will take place on a timely and periodic basis.

      Information and Planning activities are grouped among the following functions:


                         Information processing – collects and processed essential elements of information
                          from the ESFs, disseminates it for use by response agencies and provides it as input
                          for reports, briefings, displays and plans
                         Reports – consolidates key information into reports and other materials, descries and
                          documents overall response activities and keeps appropriate authorities informed of
                          the status of the overall response operations
                         Displays – displays key information and facilitates briefing using maps, charts and
                          status boards in the EOC and through other means, such as computer bulleting boards
                         Planning Support – consolidates key information to support the action planning
                          process initiate by the Executive Policy Group




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      MITIGATION



      Information and Planning Mitigation Tasks

      □ Develop a method to conduct a hazard analysis
      □ Establish a method by which mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are
       reviewed, updated and made available for reference by representatives of the EOC
      □ Identify standard operating procedures, polices, guides and plans used by your agency during an
       activation of the EOC
      □ Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training
       requirements
      □ Determine the method your jurisdiction will use to collect, process, record and disseminated threat
       assessment data to other functions
      □ Investigate new technology and procedures for use in completing Information and Planning
      □ Function goals and objectives




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      PREPAREDNESS




      Information and Planning Preparedness Tasks


      □ Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures
         necessary primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
      □ Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
      □ Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personnel
      □ Ensure that copies of all necessary emergency support function – specific emergency manuals,
        plans, procedures and other reference materials are located in the Cass County EOC
      □ Develop and maintain standardized format for information gathering as well as reporting
         documents and systems
      □ Determine methods that will be used to provide for retrieval of pertinent information during an
        emergency or disaster
      □ Determine methods or provisions to provide information access to others
      □ Determine methods for storage of pertinent information during an emergency of disaster
      □ Determine availability for geographic information system mapping for use in the EOC
      □ Develop training and exercise program for emergency operations center procedures
      □ Obtain detailed maps of all Cass County jurisdictions
      □ Ensure communications networks for personnel
      □ Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
      □ Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan.




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      RESPONSE




      Information and Planning Response Tasks



      □ Establish initial contact with jurisdictions
      □ Determine the extent and location of damage to both persons and property
      □ Activate other ESFs as needed
      □ Coordinate with key personnel in the field
      □ Coordinate with EOC Supervisor regarding duration of activation of the EOC
      □ Manage message flow in the EOC
      □ Collect and disseminate incident related information to the appropriate functions
      □ Develop incident action plan base on the situation report received extent and location of damage
         and other incident related information available
      □ Provide tracking of incident
      □ Establish a reliable method or recording response activities taken
      □ Record actions and strategies used during the incident
      □ Verify information received to ensure its accuracy prior to acting on the information or including it
       in the incident action plan
      □ Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining
      □ Support other emergency support functions as needed
      □ Coordinate message flow within the EOC
      □ Integrate findings into short and ling term plans for consideration by the Policy Group
      □ Provide hourly situation report to EOC
      □ Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
      □ Document incoming and outgoing notifications
      □ Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC




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      RECOVERY




      Information and Planning Recovery Tasks


      □ Collect and process information concerning recovery actives while the response phase of the
         incident is still going on
      □ Develop a plan for the return of evacuees and to assist in their return
      □ Anticipate types of recovery information the ESFs will require
      □ Establish contact with State and Federal Coordinating Officers
      □ Prepare appropriate after action reports
      □ Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
      □ Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
      □ Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
      □ Compile record of events




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                                              RESOURCE SUPPORT
                                                    ESF#7


      Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Emergency Management



      Support Agencies:


                         Cass County Auditor
                         Logansport Clerk-Treasurer
                         Township Trustees
                         American Red Cross
                         Salvation Army


      The purpose of this function is to assist in providing prompt and effective acquisition, distribution and use
      of resources: supplies, equipment, space, fuel, contracting services, personnel, heavy equipment and other
      equipment as necessary. And to provide personnel and supplies required for support of the EOC.
      Inclusively: emergency supply, fiscal, clerical and transportation support for on-scene as required.




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      MITIGATION




      Resource Support Mitigation Tasks

      □ Identify requirements for standard operating procedures or other plans and procedures that are
        required for lead and support agencies
      □ Identify new technology and procedures for utilizations by resource management function
      □ Identify areas where mutual aid agreements and memorandum of understanding are needed
      □ Provide assistance to support agencies in developing their plans and procedures
      □ Identify requirements for emergency support function specific standard operating procedures, plans
        and checklists for lead and support agencies
      □ Identify potential resource staging areas
      □ Identify procedures to ensure security for supplies as they are transported into affected areas
      □ Conduct a needs assessment of the resources that may be required to respond to and emergency
      □ Understand existing regulations and laws
      □ Develop written agreements
      □ Identify the Resource Management Team
      □ Develop and update the directory of personnel, skills equipment and facility resources
      □ Identify essential facilities
      □ Develop and maintain up-to-date directory of key personnel
      □ Provide for preservation of records
      □ Develop procedures for a rationing system
      □ Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training
        requirements




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      PREPAREDNESS




      Resource Support Preparedness Tasks

      □ Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures
        necessary primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
      □ Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
      □ Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personnel
      □ Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary
        or contract support services and resources
      □ Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to ensure development of procedures
        and checklists
      □ Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
      □ Establish a reliable method for organizing, assigning and utilizing resources and volunteers who
        become available during the course of and after an incident
      □ Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to and from EOC
      □ Identify private contactors in your jurisdiction who can provide additional resources or supplement
        currently available resources
      □ Develop emergency purchasing procedures
      □ Develop procedures for utilization of staging areas
      □ Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function to develop procedures for security of supplies as they
        are transported
      □ Ensure communications networks for personnel
      □Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
      □ Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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      RESPONSE




      Resource Support Response Tasks

      □ Activate and operate the appropriate facilities to ensure an effective distribution network is
        functioning
      □ Establish a reliable method of recording response activities taken
      □ Notify suppliers as soon as it is determined that resource support will be needed to allow for
        preparation time
      □ Identify excess resources at the incident site and release
      □ Adjust resource allocations of mismatch of resources occur or shortages occur
      □ Mobilize available resources
      □ Activate staging area as required
      □ Coordinated with Law Enforcement Function for delivery of supplies to needed areas
      □ Coordinate with Law Enforcement on security of resources transported to locations
      □ Identify and coordinated additional resources, as needed in support of local field operations
      □ Provide a coordinator to the EOC
      □ Assist in the development of the incident action plan
      □ Support other emergency support functions as needed
      □ Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
      □ Make notifications required by standard operating procedures
      □ Provide guidance on resource acquisition rules and regulations
      □ Provide hourly situation report to EOC
      □ Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
      □ Document incoming and outgoing notifications
      □ Acquire resources when requested by agency and approved by appropriate authority
      □ Solicit for donations if high priority resource needs cannot be met quickly
      □ Verify and prioritize resource requests
      □ Implement emergency Purchasing procedures
      □ Request state an federal resources as needed through EOC




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      RECOVERY




      Resource Support Recovery Tasks

      □ Execute procedures for recall of resources and equipment
      □ Provide resource status and accountability updates as required
      □ Compile accurate accounting for all resources acquired
      □ Prepare appropriate after action reports
      □ Sustain population in hazard areas by continuing delivery of essential services, equipment and
        supplies
      □ Ensure borrowed equipment is returned
      □ Coordinate with Donation and Volunteer function to forward excess donated items to other
        volunteer organizations for distribution to other persons in need
      □ Settle accounts with private contractor – provide reimbursement of compensation as appropriate to
       owners of private property
      □ Submit al necessary financial documentation for appropriate relief funds
      □ Deactivate facilities and personnel as they are no longer needed
      □ Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
      □ Establish county recovery center to serve as a reception center for resources and to properly
        disburse foods and materials to the affected areas
      □ Prepare appropriate after action reports
      □ Revise, update change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
      □ Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
      □ Conduct exercised to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
      □ Compile record of events




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                                            PUBLIC INFORMATION
                                                   ESF #17

      Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Emergency Management


      Support Agencies:

                         Cass County Commissioners PIO
                         Cass County Sheriff’s PIO
                         Logansport Mayor
                         Logansport Police Department
                         Local Fire Department PIOs
                         Cass County Memorial Hospital
                         American Red Cross
                         Salvation Army


      The purpose of this function is to provide for a structured method for the development and distribution of
      coordinated public information to the public and media through official representatives on order to protect
      the citizens of White County from hazards that may affect the community. It also relieves primary
      emergency responders from the obligation of dealing directly with media and this facilitates a more
      effective response to hazards.

      The Public Information Function provides for all agencies, organizations, and/or department involved in
      emergency response and recovery, including government and private sectors and having requirements to
      release information to the public and media to cooperate with Joint Public Information center procedures.
      The Joint Public Information Center provides for an organized arrangement of public information
      activities that include emergency personnel, facilities, equipment and procedures involved in providing
      accurate, coordinated, and timely instructions and information to the public and media. These agencies,
      organizations and department will support emergency operations by making information available to this
      Public Information System.




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      MITIGATION



      Public Information Mitigation Tasks

      □ Identify requirements for standard operating procedures or other plans and procedures that are
       required for lead and support agencies
      □ Identify new technology and procedures for utilization by public information function
      □ Determine the best method of providing the public with an accurate perception of the risks
       associated with a disaster and the areas affected
      □ Develop methods to ensure consistent messages are provided to the media and public by all
       emergency support functions
      □ Establish a 24hr warning point
      □ Review the current level of training or personnel and identify additional or refresher training
        requirements
      □ Identify special needs populations and determine the resources required to have prepared materials
        available to provide these populations with pertinent information
      □ Identify area here mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed
      □ Identify areas where public education programs are needed
      □ Identify requirements for emergency support function specific standing operating procedures, plans
        and checklists for lead and support agencies
      □ Identify locations for media briefing
      □ Identify spokespersons from each county agency to interface with the media
      □ Identify requirements for scripted news releases, public notices and awareness bulletins
      □ Identify requirement for rumor control inquires
      □ Develop/update agreements with local media for the dissemination of emergency public
        information
      □ Review current level of training or personnel and identify additional or refresher training
        requirements




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      PREPAREDNESS



      Public Information Preparedness Tasks

      □ Develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures
        necessary primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
      □ Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
      □ Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personnel
      □ Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
      □ Reach agreements with local media as to the manner and place information will be provided during
        an emergency
      □ Determine who will announce messages o the public and under what authority the announcements
         will be made
      □ Establish a reliable method of coordinating releases of public information with other functional
        areas
      □ Coordinate with other emergency support functions to develop public education programs
      □ Develop pubic information function staffing procedures for the EOC
      □ Develop equipment lists as required
      □ Obtain locations for media briefings
      □ Confirm availability for Joint Information center sites
      □ Develop and maintain an accurate media contact list
      □ Develop procedures for rumor control inquires
      □ Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation report to and from EOC
      □ Ensure communications networks for personnel
      □ Determine methods to be used to release information regarding an emergency to the general public
      □ Establish a method for the identification of local media personnel during an emergency
      □ Appoint an individual to be the primary contact for public information and designate alternates
        should be unavailable
      □ Develop procedures to control, restrict and secure sensitive information
      □ Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
      □ Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan
      □ Provide presentation to resident on protective actions to take during emergencies




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RESPONSE



Public Information Response Tasks


□ Assess scope, magnitude extent and potential duration of incident
□ Activate Public Information primary coordinator and support agencies, bases on incident assessment
□ Collect information concerning Public Information field operations and activities
□ Activate the media room
□ Provide Public Information support to other emergency support functions as needed
□ Assist in the development of the incident action plan
□ Support other emergency support functions as needed
□ Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
□ Make notification require by standard operating procedures
□ Provide guidance on resource acquisition rules and regulation
□ Provide hourly situation briefing informing the responding units, media and public of the situation of the
  emergency or disaster
□ Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
□ Document incoming and outgoing notifications
□ Maintain record of actions taken
□ Conduct media briefings on a regularly scheduled basis
□ Interface with State/Federal personnel to coordinated Public Information Function information and
  planning functions/activities as needed
□ Provide the media and public accurate and reliable information regarding areas which have been activated
  and the destination of the evacuees.
□ Provide accurate and reliable information regarding deaths, injuries, illness and missing relatives to the
  public to the public in a timely manner
□ Provide the address, telephone number and location of emergency shelters to the public
□ Prepare and disseminated news releases to the media
□ Notify the public that an emergency or disaster has occurred and inform them of danger that might occur to
  them
□ Provide information to the responding units, media and the public regarding routes of ingress and egress to
  incident sites
□ Provide information to the responders, media and the public regarding the procedures to control the spread
  of rumors during an incident.




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RECOVERY




Public Information Recovery Tasks


□ Inform citizens of availability of disaster assistance and how it can be accessed
□ Provide for the establishment and staffing of a Disaster Field Office should this be required
□ Provide county PIO representation at the Disaster Assistance Center
□ Prepare appropriate agencies to deactivated the Joint Information Center
□ Deactivate facilities and personnel, as they are no longer needed
□ Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
□ Prepare appropriate after action reports
□ Revise update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
□ Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
□ Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
□ Compile record of events




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                                       EMERGENCY SERVICES




      The Emergency Services Section consists of the following Emergency Support Functions:


                        Fire Fighting
                        Health and Medical
                        Search and Rescue
                        Hazardous Materials
                        Law Enforcement

      These Emergency Support Functions directly support the first responders and coordinate their needs with
      other Emergency Support Functions.




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                                                  FIRE FIGHTING
                                                      ESF #4


      Primary Coordinating Agency: Logansport Fire Department


      Support Agencies:

                         Walton Fire Department
                         Clymers Fire Department
                         New Waverly Fire Department
                         Galveston Fire Department
                         Twelve Mile Fire Department
                         Royal Center Fire Department
                         Young America Fire Department
                         Lucerne Fire Department
                         Onward Fire Department
                         Georgetown Fire Department


      The purpose of this function is to protect life and property by minimizing the number of deaths, injuries
      and the amount of property loss involving fire. Provide resources for the detection and suppression of fires
      resulting from or occurring coincidentally with a significant disaster condition. The fire fighting function
      involves mobilizing, providing, managing and coordinating personnel, equipment and supplies in the
      detection and suppression of fires.

      Management of fire fighting operations can become very complex, very quickly; they often may involve
      resource from many different agencies and different jurisdiction. A fire, resulting from, or independent to,
      but occurring at the same time as a major disaster or declared emergency may place extraordinary demand
      on available resources and support systems.




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      MITIGATION



      Fire Fighting Mitigation Tasks

      □ Assess current fire protection codes and determine if they are adequate and properly enforced
      □ Assess and determine if fire protection methods and procedures are adequate and unilaterally
       understood
      □ Assess for safety programs in your jurisdiction and assure their adequacy for business, industry and
       local schools
      □ Identify standard operating procedures, polices, guides and plans used by your agency during an
       activation of the EOC
      □ Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training
       requirements
      □ Determine of mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are adequate and
       unilaterally understood
      □ Present community fire safety programs
      □ Ensure community fire safety programs
      □ Ensure that all new construction conforms to fire codes
      □ Assess the communications capabilities and determine if additional communications and assets are
       needed




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PREPAREDNESS




Fire Fighting Preparedness Tasks


□ Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
 primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
□ Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
□ Develop and maintain equipment lists
□ Maintain and update personnel and equipment certifications
□ Obtain detailed maps of county jurisdictions
□ Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or
 contract support services and resources
□ Provide guidance on state and federal regulations regarding fire issues
□ Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and
 checklists
□ Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
□ Ensure communications networks for personnel and to communicate with the EOC in an emergency or
 disaster
□ Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
□ Participate in periodic exercises on the comprehensive emergency management plan
□ Establish a consistent method or receiving and sending situation reports to the EOC during an incident
□ Meet with representatives from each emergency support function to establish reliable method for obtaining
 an emergency first response to any incident
□ Discuss among all primary and support agencies how fire resources will be allocated in an emergency




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RESPONSE




Fire Fighting Response Tasks

□ Provide for an emergency first response to incidents that threaten lives or property
□ Deploy equipment and personnel to sites in greatest need during an emergency
□ Provide for protection in public shelters
□ Establish on-going communications between EOC and site of emergency
□ Assist in dissemination of warning to the public
□ Provide fire suppression services
□ Conduct fire investigation to determine cause/origin
□ Assess scope, magnitude, extent and potential duration of incident
□ Provide appropriate representation to the EOC
□ Coordinate with Communications Function to provide emergency communications as needed
□ Record response activities taken noting improvements or corrective actions required
□ Make notification required by standard operating procedures
□ Collect information concerning fire service field activities
□ Provide technical assistance as required
□ Provide hourly situation reports to EOC
□ Attend meetings for periodic situation updates
□ Document incoming and outgoing notifications
□ Coordinate with Law Enforcement and Evacuation Functions to provide assistance in evacuations
□ Identifying all personnel and resource requirement to perform assigned mission, which are in excess of the
  support agencies’ capabilities
□ Maintain communications with support agencies to ensure resource procurement
□ Continually reassess and address the most critical fire service needs and the development of strategies to meet
them
□ Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC




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RECOVERY




Fire Fighting Recovery Tasks


□ Assist other functions with clearing debris to open streets with major thoroughfares
□ Proceed for the emotional needs of emergency responders, and their families by establishing critical
 incident stress debriefings
□ Collect and inventory all equipment used during incidents
□ Provide guidance on local State and Federal fire code regulations
□ Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
□ Prepare appropriate after action reports
□ Revise, update change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
□ Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
□ Support cleanup and recovery operations
□ Identify and contain potential fire hazards, such as damage gas lines and downed power lines
□ Repair/Replace damaged and expended equipment
□ Compile record of events
□ Monitor demolition operations




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                                          HEALTH AND MEDICAL
                                                 ESF#8


Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Health Department



Support Agencies:

                           Cass County Memorial Hospital
                           Local Emergency Medical Services
                           Cass County Coroner’s Office
                           Four County Counseling Center
                           Cass County Mental Health Association



The purpose of this function is to aid in the coordination and mobilization of health, medical and mortuary
services during emergencies. It includes provision for accomplishing those necessary actions related to life saving,
treatment on the injured, disposition of the dead and crisis mental health services during response operations, as a
result of an emergency or disaster.

This is a comprehensive function, on that covers all aspects of health care management, including emergency
medical services, long-term health care control, food and water inspections, waste disposal and establishment of
morgues with subsequent car for the deceases. For many single site emergency situations, these functions will be
an extension of normal duties. However, during widespread, multiple site disaster, emergency medical personnel,
resources and facilities may be in short supply. Further, certain major health problems may emergency such as
diseases, sanitation problems and contamination of food and water and community health problems.




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MITIGATION



Health and Medical Mitigation Tasks


□ Identify standard operating procedures, policies, guides and plans by your agency during an activation of
 the EOC
□ Conduct an assessment of the Health and Medical providers available, determine their requirements during
 an emergency and identify the resources available to address those requirements
□ Determine the methods that will be utilized to identify the resources available to address those
  requirements
□ Determine the methods that will be utilized to identify information about Public Health concerns in areas
  affected by the incident
□ Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
□ Determine of mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are adequate and unilaterally
  understood
□ Establish a program to provide instructional information to the public on the proper actions to take in a
 public health emergency
□ Assess communications capabilities and determine of additional communications and assets are needed
□ Identify personal protective equipment needs and potential vendor sources
□ Identify procedures for the transport of large numbers of deceases victims
□ Identify security procedures that will used in an emergency or disaster
□ Conduct a community assessment if hazard vulnerability and develop disaster scenarios
□ Identify specialized training needed for hospital, EMS, Coroner and Public Health Officials




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PREPAREDNESS




Health and Medical Preparedness Tasks


□ Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
  primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
□ Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
□ Develop and maintain equipment lists
□ Maintain and update personnel and equipment certifications
□ Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies. Ancillary or
  contract support services and resources
□ Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and
  checklists
□ Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel and the public
□ Provide First Aid and CPR training for the public
□ Ensure communications networks for personnel and to communicate with the EOC in an emergency or
 disaster
□ Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
□ Participate in periodic exercises of the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan
□ Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to the EOC during an incident
□ Storage of medical equipment and supplies
□ Maintenance of medications and other supplies
□ Provide continuous health inspections
□ Immunize, inoculate resident against disease
□ Research and address the prevention and detection of communicable diseases
□ Develop procedures for supplemental water supplies, back-up sanitation measures, water and food quality
  testing and garbage disposal and sewage treatment
□ Outline plans to provide medical support for responders injured during an incident
□ Outline plan to provide for vector control during an emergency or declared disaster to prevent the
  transmission and spread of disease causing organisms
□ Establish an accurate and reliable method of providing for victim/patient tracking and identification during
  an incident
□ Establish plans and procedures to address credential verification and emergency medical volunteer
□ Provide guidance on state and federal health and medical regulations
□ Develop and maintain specialized trams for response to specific hazards
□ Develop and maintain lists of reportable diseases for people and animals
□ Develop and maintain emergency animal procedures
□ Establish and maintain database of all medical personnel within the county who are willing to accept
 emergency assignments as needed
□ Execute countywide mutual aid agreements with all licensed health care faculties and providers, such as
  home health, etc
□ Coordinate with law enforcement function for the provision of security at hospitals and other medical
  facilities
□ Develop a Cass Prophylaxis Plan that address medication dissemination, injury and illness triage and
  treatments and patient tracing for a large number of victims
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Health and Medical Preparedness Tasks – Con’t



□ Develop a Mass fatality Plan that addresses removal storage, transport, tracking, possession cataloguing
 and final disposition of deceased remains
□ Develop procedures for transport of samples to laboratories for analysis




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RESPONSE



Health and Medical Response Tasks

Primary and Support Agencies

Assess scope, magnitude, extent and potential duration of incident
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Alert personnel needed to carry out mission
Ensure necessary resources are available
Coordinate back up communications
Provide for an emergency first response to incidents that threaten lives or property
Deploy equipment and personnel to sites in greatest need during an emergency
Provide appropriate representation to the EOC
Coordinate with Communications function to provide emergency communications as needed
Record response activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Collect information concerning field activities
Provide technical assistance as required
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications

PUBLIC HEALTH AGENCY

Maintain communications with support agencies to ensure resource procurement
Continually reassess and address the most critical rescue needs and the development of strategies to meet them
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC
Coordinate requests for assistance with laboratory analysis
Assist impacted jurisdictions or pertinent agencies as needed
Coordinate with county Extension Agent on feeding and sheltering logistics for animals
Coordinate with County Extension Agency on triage and treatment of animals
Coordinate with information and planning function for tracking victims locations and recovery status
Serve as primary source of information regarding medical and public health issues during an emergency
Coordinate with support agencies in directing and prioritizing health and medical activities
Provide leadership in directing, coordinating, and integrating the overall efforts to provide medical and public
health assistance
Coordinate with Resource Support and volunteers and Donation Functions for supply information pertaining to
potential volunteer groups, contract vendors and other entities that may be able to supplement local resources
Identify secure medical supply staging and storage areas
Coordinate with law enforcement and transportation functions to identify transport routes for supplies coming into
affected areas
Identify diseases and prophylaxis
Implement public information programs for release of citizen protective actions information
Establish staging areas for receipt o additional supplies
Distribute antidotes, drugs and vaccines to shelters
Initiate disease control operations
Request mutual aid through EOC
Maintain sanitation activities
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                                                       Page 131
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Coordinate environmental health activities regarding waste and refuse disposal, food and water quality and vector
control
Evaluate the potential health risks associated with the hazard and recommend appropriate correctional measures
Inspect for purity and usability, and quality control of vital foodstuffs, water, drugs and other consumable
Provide epidemiological surveillance, case investigation and follow-up
Monitor food handling, mass feeding and sanitation services in emergency facilities, including increased attention
to sanitation in commercial feeding facilities
Ensure adequate sanitary facilities are provided in emergency shelters
Implement actions to prevent and control vectors and work with veterinarians to prevent the spread of disease
through animals
Coordinate with neighboring areas and state Health department on matters requiring assistance from other
jurisdictions
Coordinate health related activities among local public health and private response agencies and groups
Coordinate operations for general or mass emergency immunizations or quarantine procedures
Provide staff at the EOC on a 24-hr basis during activation involving Health and Medical Functions


HOSPITAL

Implement hospital disaster plan
Assist with efforts to determine treatment capabilities and bed space availability of hospitals as needed
Coordinate transportation of causalities and medical resources to the hospital and other area as required
Maintain liaison with the coordination of other emergency services
Provide medical guidance to EMS units and field triage teams concerning the treatment and handling of injured
Make available, upon request, qualified medical personnel, supplies and equipment
Maintain communications with the health care coordinator in the EOC and provide updated information as
possible
Support county coroner at temporary morgue(s)
Coordinate with Indiana Hospital Association of special equipment is needed
Coordinate with Resource Support Function in obtaining additional supplies for the hospitals and care facilities
Activate Mass Casualty procedure if required
Work in cooperation with temporary emergency treatment stations near disaster site, if needed
Coordinate with local nursing homes on space available for temporary hospital/medical treatment facilities

EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES

Provide reliable emergency first response services to any incident
Initiate triage, treatment and transportation
Work in cooperation with temporary emergency treatment stations near disaster site, if needed
Support county coroner at temporary morgue
Provide first aid/medical supplies for disaster use
Establish and maintain field communications and coordination with other emergency services
Provide emergency medical care for essential workers
Assess Capabilities and needs of local emergency medical services resources
Coordinate with Resource Support function on obtaining additional supplies for EMS services
Coordinate with hospital to determine beds availability and treatment capabilities
Coordinate with Transportation in the evacuation of special needs population
Provide medical direction and control for all EMS activities in the County

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CORONER

Process and prioritize requests for additional resources regarding disposition of remains
Request the activation of the Indiana funeral directors and Coroners Disaster Team through the EOC, as needed
Implement county Mass Fatality Plan
Provide coordination between morgue and funeral directors t assist in the timely processing of remains
Determine the location of the temporary morgue and activate
Coordinate information regarding fatalities with the Red Cross through the EOC
Coordinate with search and rescue teams
Determine causes of death
Identify mass burial sites
Protect the property and personal effects of the deceased
Provide emergency information through the PIO to the news media on the number of deaths, morgue operations,
etc as appropriate
Coordinate services of funeral directors, ambulances, EMS and other pathologists; the Red Cross for location and
notification of relatives; dentist and X-ray technicians for purpose of identification; and law enforcement for
security, property collections and evidence collection

MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES

Provide mental health services/support for emergency operations center staff during activation
Provide for emotional needs of emergency responders by establishing critical incident stress management
resources during the response stage of the incident
Insure that mental health services are available to residents during an emergency or disaster
Work in cooperation with temporary emergency treatment stations near the disaster site
Provide blood and blood substitutes and/or implement reciprocal agreements for replacement of blood items
Provide assistance in the location and notification of the next of kin
Provide assistance for the special needs of the handicapped, elderly and those children separated from their parents




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RECOVERY




Health and Medical Recovery Tasks

Support cleanup and recovery operations
Release any auxiliary forces and volunteers
Assist in the return of evacuees to home
Provide for the emotional needs of emergency responders by establishing mandatory critical incident stress
Debriefing during the recovery stage of an incident
Continue mental health and crisis counseling for victims and families involved in emergency
Inspect deactivated shelters for sanitation and vermin control
Continuation of response activities as needed
Collect and inventory all equipment used during incident
Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operation procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Repair/Replace damaged and expended equipment
Compile record of events




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                                                Page 134
Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                           SEARCH AND RESCUE
                                                 ESF #9


Primary Coordinating Agency: Logansport Fire Department


Support Agencies:

Jurisdictional Fire Departments
Cass County Sheriff Department
Logansport Police Department
Indiana State Police

The purpose of this function is to provide for search and rescue activities in response to an actual or potential
disaster. To support the needs of local governments, voluntary organizations and other emergency support
functions requiring search and rescue capacity to perform their emergency response, recovery and assistance
missions.

Search and rescue will involve locating, rescuing, extricating and treating victims who may be trapped or injured
as a result of a disaster condition; coordinating, allocating and prioritizing additional public and private rescue
resources to include personnel, equipment, materials and services within the impact area; and performing
necessary actions to assist with rapid impact assessment during recovery operations.




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MITIGATION



Search and Rescue Mitigation Tasks


Identify standard operating procedures, polices, guides and plans used by your agency during an activation of the
EOC
Review current level of training or personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
Determine if mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are adequate and unilaterally understood
Establish a program to provide instructional information to the public on the proper actions to take
Establish a program to ensure that emergency responders with specialized rescue training are available within
each agency or department
Assess the communications capabilities and determine if additional communications assets are needed
Identify personal protective equipment needs and sources
Identify facilities with potential rescue hazards




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RESPONSE



Search and Rescue Response Tasks

Initial On-set Phase
Assess scope, magnitude, extent and potential duration of incident
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Alert personnel needed to carry out mission
Brief personnel on their responsibilities
Ensure necessary resources are available
Designate a staffing area for incoming SAR resources
Coordinate back up communications

Emergency Operations Period
Provide for an emergency first response to incidents that threaten lives or property
Deploy equipment and personnel to sites in greatest need during an emergency
Establish on-going radio communications between EOC and site of emergency
Provide appropriate representation to the EOC
Coordinate with Communications function to provide emergency communications as needed
Record response activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Make notification required by standard operating procedures
Collect information concerning field activities
Provide technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation report to EOC
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Identifying all personnel and resource requirements to perform assigned missions, which are in excess of the
support agencies’ capabilities
Maintain communications with support agencies to ensure resource procurement
Continually reassess and address the most critical rescue needs and the development of strategies to meet them
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC
Notify local veterinarians service when search and rescue animals are being used to provide veterinary support in
the event of injuries, contamination or other medical needs
Provide coordinated victim rescue/recovery operations with Health and Medical Function personnel




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RECOVERY



Search and Rescue Recovery Tasks

Provide for the emotional needs of emergency responders and their families by establishing critical incident stress
debriefings
Ensure that physical examinations are provided to both SAR responders
Ensure that a search and rescue presence is maintained throughout the recovery process to provide immediate
response to additional incidents that occur involving recovery personnel and undiscovered victims
Collect and inventory all equipment used during incident
Coordinate with resource Support Function on resource accountability
Prepare appropriate after action resorts
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guide as necessary
Conduct training on mew or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercised to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Repair/Replace damaged and expended equipment
Compile record of events




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                                                    Page 138
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PREPAREDNESS




Search and Rescue Preparedness Tasks


Develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Develop and maintain equipment lists
Maintain and update personnel and equipment certifications
Obtain detailed maps of county jurisdiction
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and checklists
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Ensure communications networks for personnel and to communicate with the EOC in an emergency or disaster
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercised of the comprehensive emergency management plan
Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to the EOC during an incident
Develop and coordinate standards for search and rescue personnel and resources
Train searchers/animals based on established standards
Review the hazard/vulnerability analysis; analyze potential SAR requirements
Update and implement plans to recruit and train auxiliaries to assist during crisis




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                         HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
                                               ESF #10

Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Emergency Management Agency


Support Agencies:

Cass County LEPC
Jurisdictional Fire Departments



The purpose of this function is to provide response to and mitigation of actual or potential discharge or release o
hazardous materials resulting from natural, manmade or technological disaster.

In response to minor, major, catastrophic emergency for which coordinated emergency operations or resources are
required to supplement the response efforts of local jurisdictions.

The Cass County Local Emergency Planning Committee has developed an extensive hazardous materials
emergency response plan that outlines and dictates the actions to be taken in response to each given
incident and has established a program for the mitigation and preparedness for such events. Therefore, it is
not necessary for separate Emergency Support Function Checklists to be developed in this portion of the
comprehensive plan. The primary and support agencies noted above are the same for the LEPC Response
Plan.




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                          LAW ENFORCEMENT
                                               ESF#15



Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Sheriff’s Department



Support Agencies:

       Logansport Police Department
       Royal Center Town Marshal
       Galveston Town Marshal
       Walton Town Marshal
       Indiana State Police


The purpose of this function is to effectively coordinate and support law enforcement operations within Cass
County during time of emergency or disaster. In addition to maintaining law and order, law enforcement’s
response to a major emergency may include a variety of tasks, using many of the resources available from the law
enforcement agencies.

Law enforcement activities are a major part of response to an emergency or declared disaster. A law enforcement
presence is essential to ensure a minimum of confusion and turmoil. Law Enforcement Officials will be
responsible for enforcement of laws, traffic control, investigation of crimes and other public safety concerns
parallel to their responsibilities in a day to day basis.




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MITIGATION




Law Enforcement Mitigation Tasks



Identify standard operating procedures, polices, guides and plans used by your agency during an activation of the
EOC
Enforce current laws and ordinances prior to a disaster or emergency incident to prevent or lessen the effects of
such situation
Review current level of training or personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
Determine of mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are adequate and unilaterally
understood
Establish a program to provide instructional information to the public on the proper actions to take
Assess communications capabilities and determine of additional communications and assets are needed.




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PREPAREDNESS




Law Enforcement Preparedness Tasks

Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Develop and maintain equipment lists
Maintain and update personnel and equipment certifications
Obtain detailed maps of count jurisdictions
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to unsure development of procedures and checklists
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Ensure communications networks for personnel and to communicate with the EOC win an emergency or disaster
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercised of the comprehensive emergency management plan
Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to the EOC during an incident
Plan and conduct training of law enforcement personnel in what to look for during natural disaster, in storm
spotter techniques and on the comprehensive emergency plan
Prepare plans for traffic control
Coordinate with agencies involved in evacuation function
Determine probable traffic points




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RESPONSE




Law Enforcement Response Tasks


Asses scope, magnitude, extent and potential duration of incident
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Alert personnel needed to carry out mission
Ensure necessary resources are available
Coordinate back up communications
Provide for an emergency first response to incidents that threaten lives or property
Deploy equipment and personnel to sites in greatest need during an emergency
Establish on-going radio communications between EOC and site of emergency
Provide appropriate representation to the EOC
Coordinate with communications function to provide emergency communications as needed
Record response activities taken, noting improvement or corrective actions required
Collect information concerning fiddle activities
Provide technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation report to EOC
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Maintain communications with support agencies to ensure resource procurement
Continually reassess and address the most critical rescue needs and the development of strategies to meet them
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC
Control access to restricted areas
Assist in warning to the public
Control access to restricted areas
Assist in warning to the public
If necessary prisoners will be transported and housed in surrounding jails as per SOPs or the Sheriff will initiate
protective actions to insulate them from the effects of a hazard
Secure the disaster area and limit access
Patrol the effected area to protect against looting
Provide security for damage assessment personnel working in and around disaster site.




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RECOVERY




Law Enforcement Recovery Tasks


Support cleanup and recovery operations
Release any auxiliary forces and volunteers
Assist in the return of evacuees to home
Ensure that all staff is properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings if appropriate
Provide crowd and traffic control operations and maintain an orderly atmosphere on re-entry routes to evacuation
areas
Collect and inventory all equipment used during incident
Coordinate with resource Support Function on resource accountability
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercise to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Repair/Replace damaged and expended equipment
Compile record of events




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                          HUMAN SUPPORT

The Human Support Section consists of the following Emergency Support Functions:


Shelter and Mass care
Food and Water
Evacuation
Donations and volunteers
Animal health


These Emergency Support Functions directly support those agencies giving aid to victims of disaster and
emergencies.




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                                        SHELTER AND MASS CARE
                                                ESF#6

Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Emergency Management


Support Agencies:


Salvation Army
Local churches
American Red Cross
Local School Corporations


The purpose of this function if to provide for the protection of the population from the effects of hazards through
identification of shelter and minimal guidance for the upgrading an stocking of such shelters and assure essential
relief needs of the public are met during emergencies and disasters. These needs may include: shelter, clothing,
counseling services, services to special needs individuals, and other such service activities for persons and
animals.




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MITIGATION




Shelter and Mass Care Mitigation Tasks


Identify areas where aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support agencies and
ancillary or contract support services
Identify standard operating procedure, polices, guides, and plans used by your agency during an activation of the
EOC
Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
Identify area where public education programs detailing shelter and mass care are needed
Identify staffing procedures for EOC
Identify additional resource for staffing shelter (home health nurses, aides, etc)
Identify back-up communication needs
Prepare and execute agreements with building owners to guarantee access to facilities during emergencies




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

PREPAREDNESS


Shelter and Mass Care Preparedness Tasks


Develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary for
primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and checklists
Develop and maintain resource list annually
Develop and maintain a checklist for shelter responsibilities
Maintain emergency response vehicles to be used in case of emergency
Coordinate with Public Information Function for the releases of all information relating to public shelters and
mass care facilities
Develop and maintain procedure for providing crisis counseling to victims, emergency workers and family
members
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Establish a consistent method of receiving ad sending situation reports to and from the EOC during an incident
Ensure communications networks for personnel
Obtain detailed maps of jurisdictions
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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RESPONSE



Shelter and Mass Care Response Tasks


Assess Scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining
Activate personnel based on incident assessment
Select shelters based on hazard vulnerability considerations, locations in relation to evacuation routes, services
available in the facilities
Staff shelters
Collect information regarding field activities
Provide a coordinator to the EOC
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Support other emergency support functions as needed
Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective action required
Make notification required by standard operating procedures
Provide technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation report to EOC
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notification
Maintain record of actions taken
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC
Provide disaster welfare inquires as requested
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function regarding security at shelters
Provide patient tracking assistance in hospitals, as needed
Distribution of shelter kits and supplies as necessary
Display shelter identification signs at shelter locations
Maintain records of financial expenditure and shelter supply use
If necessary, coordinate with EOC for radiological support in shelters
Assist Health and Medical function in establishing alternative health care facilities staffed by health care
professionals as needed
Provide public service messages regarding the sue if disaster welfare inquires service and other methods of
making contact with missing friends/family
Coordinate with Public Information Function to disseminate public information release to relate necessary
information on shelters and mass care facilities to the public
Coordinate with Public Information Function in operating a public information help line
Provide crisis counseling services, as needed.




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RESPONSE



Shelter and Mass Care Response Tasks

Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining
Activate personnel based on incident assessment
Select shelters base on hazard vulnerability considerations, locations in relation to evacuation routes, services
available in the facilities
Staff Shelters
Collect information regarding field activities
Provide a coordinator to the EOC
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Support other emergency support functions as needed
Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Make notification required by standard operating procedures
Provide technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation report to EOC
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Maintain record of actions taken
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC
Provide disaster welfare inquires as requested
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function regarding security at shelters
Provide patient tracking assistance in hospital, as needed
Distribution of shelter kits and supplies as necessary
Display shelter identification signs at shelter locations
Maintain records of financial expenditures and shelter supply use
If necessary, coordinate with EOC for radiological support in shelters
Assist Health and Medical Function in establishing alternative health care facilities staffed by health care
processionals as needed.
Provide public service messages regarding the use of disaster welfare inquires service and other methods of
making contact with missing friends/family
Coordinate with Public Information Function to disseminate public information releases to relate necessary
information on shelters and mass care facilities to the public
Coordinate with Public Information Function in operating a public information helpline
Provide crisis counseling services, as needed.
Coordinate with Transportation Function to implement procedures for receiving arriving victims and supplies to
shelters and mass care facilities
Develop a policy concerning pet care at shelter facilities
Arrange with local health, mental health and social service agencies to provide support personnel
Coordinate with the Department of Human Services on administering the food stamp program for qualified
applicants, Aid for Dependent Children program for qualified applicants and the Medicaid program for qualified
applicants.




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RECOVERY




Shelter and Mass Care Recovery Tasks


Collect all equipment used during the incident
Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
Assist with short-term temporary housing and relocation
Provide crisis counseling as needed
Ensure that all staff is properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings, if appropriate
Provide for ling term shelter and care of persons permanently displaced due to an emergency or declared disaster
Assist displaced persons with referrals for financial assistance, located separated family members and referrals for
donated good and services
Provide mental health and crisis counseling for victims and families involved in an emergency or disaster
Arrange for the return of evacuees to home
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Deactivates shelter operations and return sites to normal use
Define the need for more shelters and supplies
Replace exhausted supplies
Coordinate with Resource Support Function of resource accountability
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Compile record of events




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                                              FOOD AND WATER
                                                  ESF#11



Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Emergency Management



Support Agencies:

Salvation Army
American Red Cross




The purpose of this function is to identify food, water and ice needs in the aftermath of a disaster or emergency,
obtain these needs and coordinate the transportation of such needs of the disaster work area, shelter, the general
public, etc.

The primary mission of this function is to obtain needed food supplies (food, water and ice) to provide for the
congregate feeding of disaster worker, victims and/or distribution to disaster victims for home consumption.




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MITIGATION



Food and Water Mitigation Tasks


Identify private sector organizations that could provide resources, supplies, and/or manpower in the event of an
emergency of disaster
Identify areas where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support
agencies and ancillary or contract support services and resource providers
Identify facilities that can provide for food/water/ice storage, staging or/or distribution
Identify individual volunteers and volunteer groups/organizations that can support food and water function
activities
Identify staging procedures for food and water function representatives for the EOC and field activities
Identify plans and procedures necessary for assuring the safety of foodstuffs and drinking water
Identify facilities that could be used for cooking and serving hot meals to emergency workers and others
Identify the need for “special diets” and assess the capability to provide these if necessary
Identify requirements for specific standard operating procedures, plans and checklists for lead and support
agencies
Identify specific procedures that will be necessary to properly document cists incurred due to food and water
function activities
Coordinate with Transportation Function and other support agencies/organizations regarding the identification and
location of vehicles that may be necessary for the transport of food/water/ice
Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements




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PREPAREDNESS



Food and Water Preparedness Tasks


Develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
primary and support agencies o operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personnel
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and checklists
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs involving food and water issues
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function to develop procedure to address security issues during transport and
storage of food/water/ice and other supplies Develop and maintain a list of staffing procedures and personnel for
the EOC and field activities
Coordinate with Resource Support Function to develop and maintain resource lists
Develop a number of “special diets” that will be available to provide if necessary
Execute agreement where necessary to procure the use of facilities that can provide for food/water/ice storage,
staging and /or distribution
Develop relationships with cooperative extension to provide additional resources where necessary
Develop and maintain a checklist of responsibilities for feeding victims and emergency workers
Coordinate with Public Information Function to develop press releases containing information relating to feeding
and distribution facilities
Execute agreements with facilities, where necessary that could be used for cooking and serving hot meals to
emergency workers and others
Train personnel/volunteers in specific procedures that will be needed to properly document costs incurred dir to
activities
Participate in periodic exercise of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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RESPONSE




Food and Water Response Tasks

Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining
Activate personnel/volunteers, based on incident assessment
Provide a coordinator to the EOC
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Inventory food and water supplies
Exercise agreements to procure the use of facilities that con provide for food/water/ice storage, staging and/or
distribution
Exercise agreements and activate facilities that will be used for cooking and serving hot meals to emergency
workers and others
Identify the number of people in shelter and others in need of food and water
Develop a plan of operations that will ensure timely distribution of food supplies to mass care locations
Monitor power outage for estimated ice needs and quantities
Monitor water contamination in disaster affected areas and estimate needs and quantities
Identify the locations of all mass feeding and distribution sites
Identity menus for meals to be used for calculating food supply needs
Assess warehouse space and needs for staging areas
Assess special food concerns of the impacted areas
Prepare “special diets” where necessary
Exercise agreements with private sector organizations, where necessary, that could provide resources, supplies
and/or manpower
Coordinate food donations and incorporate into food supply
Monitor and coordinate the flow of food supplies into the affected disaster area
Provide hourly situation report to EOC supervisor
Attend meetings for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notification
Provide daily information to Public Information Function on the amount of food used and types of food needed
Maintain records of the cost of supplies, resources, man-hours needed to respond to the disaster event
Maintain record of actions taken
Make emergency food supplies available to households for take home consumption or bulk distribution
Determine the availability of USDA food for consumption in the affected areas
Coordinate with local officials to determine food, water and ice needs of the population in the affected areas
Provide appropriate information to Information and Planning Function on a regular basis
Continue to monitor food and water needs
Monitor nutritional concerns
Establish logistical links with the local organizations in involved in long term congregate feeding
Support other emergency support functions as needed
Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Make notification required by standard operating procedures
Provide technical assistance as require
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function on providing security for feeding locations, warehouse and
distribution sites

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Food and Water Response Tasks – con’t




Coordinate with Public Information Function in operating a public information hotline/helpline
Request state/federal assistance as needed through EOC
Coordinate with transportation Function to implement procedures for the transportation of food/water/ice and
other supplies to shelters and feeding sites/facilities
Coordinate with local officials to determine food, water and ice needs of the population in the affected areas
Provide appropriated information to Information and Planning Function on a regular basis
Continue to monitor food and water needs
Monitor nutritional concerns
Establish logistical links with the local organizations in involved in long term congregate feeding
Support other emergency support function as needed
Record activates taken, noting improvement or corrective actions required
Make notification required y standard operating procedures
Provide technical assistance as required
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function on providing security for feeding locations, warehouse and
distribution locations
Provide public service messages regarding the locations of public feeding and water/ice distribution sites
Coordinate with Public Information Function in operating a public information hotline/helpline
Request state/federal assistance as needed through EOC
Coordinate with transportation Function to implement procedures for the transportation of food/water/ice and
other supplies to shelters and feeding sites/facilities




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RECOVERY




Food and Water Recovery Tasks

Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability and document cost incurred
Collect all equipment used during incident
Provide documentation of all transactions with private sector organizations that proceeded resources, supplies
and/or manpower for the event
Provide documentation of any costs incurred due to the use of facilities that provided from food/water/ice storage,
staging and/or distribution
Provide crisis counseling as needed
Ensure that all staff is properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings if appropriate
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised polices and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedure
Compile record of events




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RECOVERY




Food and Water Recovery Tasks


Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability and document costs incurred
Collect all equipment used during incident
Provide documentation of all transactions with private sector organizations that provided resources, supplies
and/or manpower for the event
Provide documentation of any costs incurred due to the use of facilities that provide from food/water/ice storage
tagging and/or distribution
Provide documentation of all activities and costs associated with facility that were used for cooking and serving
hot meals to emergency workers and others
Proved crisis counseling as needed
Ensure that all staff is properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings if appropriate
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Compile record of events




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                                                EVACUATION
                                                  ESF #13




Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Sheriff’s Department


Support Agencies:

Logansport Police Department
Cass County Emergency Management Agency
Local School Corporations
American Red Cross
Cass Area Transit




The purpose of this function is to provide for the coordinated evacuation of the population of Cass County in the
event of emergency or disaster.

This function establishes clear detailed procedures to carry out complete or partial evacuation and focuses on the
movement from evacuation areas. It addresses controlling the flow of traffic and special considerations for schools
and other special facilities in an evacuation area.

It will be necessary for this function to coordinate closely with Transportation, Shelter/Mass Care and Resource
Support Functions, as well as many other functions as evacuation encompasses a variety of factors.




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MITIGATION



Evacuation Mitigation Tasks

Conduct an assessment of areas that may require evacuation during an emergency
Pre-plan evacuation routes for seasonal hazards such as flooding
Pre-plan assembly areas
Develop emergency public information messages for areas where the risk population and the evacuation routes
can be pre-determined
Identify area where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support agencies
and ancillary or contract support services
Identify standard operating procedures, policies, guides and plans used by your agency during an activation of the
EOC
Revise current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
Include procedures for evacuation assistance in mutual aid agreements
Determine critical industries/organization in Cass County and critical workers necessary to provide services
during an emergency
Prepare security passes for use of critical personnel to gain access to evacuated areas




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PREPAREDNESS



Evacuation Preparedness Tasks


Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary for
primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
In coordination with Transportation Function, develop listing and location of buses for evacuation
Identify special needs groups who may require special assistance during evacuation
Advise fire and rescue forces to maintain files of the special needs groups in their jurisdictions
Identify resources required to evacuate special needs populations and determine the resources available to address
those needs
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function in assuring the development of prisoner evacuation SOPs
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and checklists
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Coordinate with Animal Health Function to provide information to pet/livestock owner on the evacuation plans
for animals
Develop a list of items that evacuees should take with them when they are evacuated
Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation report to and form the EOC during an incident
Ensure communications networks for personnel
Obtain detailed maps of jurisdiction
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command system
Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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                                                    Page 162
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RESPONSE



Evacuation Response Tasks

Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining
Notify special needs facilities (hospitals nursing homes, schools and etc.) to activate emergency plans and assist
them as needed.
Identify the areas requiring evacuation and provide for the evacuation of personnel and animals from affected
areas
Evacuate high-risk area immediately
Designated clearly marked routes providing a way to leave high-risk area and provide for traffic control
Designate clearly marked routes for evacuees to utilize
Coordinate with transportation function to provide transportation of evacuees
Coordinate with engineering and public works to verify the structural safety of all selected evacuation routes prior
to authorizing their use
Systematically notify residents of affected area to assure notification (list address notified and mark homes to
prevent duplication of efforts)
Identify and coordinate additional resources, as needed, in support of local field operations
Provide a coordinator to the EOC
Coordinate with the Shelter/Mass Care Function on opening shelters out of the evacuated area
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function on security for the evacuated area
Designate and maintain staging areas outside the hazard area for continual resource and personnel support
Provide passes to critical workers with assignment within the evacuated area
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Support other emergency support functions as needed
Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Provide technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation reports to EOC
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Coordinate with law enforcement on the evacuation of prisoners
Establish communication lines between the EOC and all emergency staging area, volunteer agencies and donation
centers
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC




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RECOVERY



Evacuation Recovery Tasks

Determine when the environment is safe for return
Coordinate with Public Information Function to determine public information strategy for assuring public that
evacuated area are safe for return
Designate return and provide appropriate public information to evacuees
Coordinate the order to return with chief executive officers of the affected jurisdiction
Provide barrier to keep sightseers away from area
Coordinate with utility providers for resumption of services
Maintain listing of expended resources and man hours
Designate and mark routes that evacuees will utilize when returning to evacuated areas
Coordinate with Animal Health Function on the return of evacuated animals to their rightful owners
Designate assembly areas for returning evacuees lacking transportation to be picked up
Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
Establish county recovery center to serve as a reception center for resources and to properly disburse foods and
materials to the affected areas
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Compile record of events




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                      DONATIONS AND VOLUNTEERS
                                               ESF#14




Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County EMA



Support Agencies:

Jurisdictional Fire Departments
Cass County Sheriff Department
Logansport Police Department
American Red Cross
The Salvation Army


The purpose of this function is to expedite the delivery of volunteer goods and services to support relief efforts in
a disaster area.

The responsibilities are two-fold: First, to coordinate response and recovery efforts as related to volunteers (pre-
assigned and convergent); second, to assure the expeditious reception and dispersal of donated goods to needed
areas.

This function is composed of agencies with major roles in the coordination of volunteers and donated foods. In all
probability, the outpouring of goods and services will not parallel the needs of local governments and
municipalities. These goods and services must be coordinated in order to realistically match what is available with
what is needed.




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                                                     Page 165
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MITIGATION




Donations and Volunteers Mitigation Tasks

Identify potential funding sources that are available to mitigate emergencies that could affect Cass County
Identify areas where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support
agencies and ancillary or contract support services
Identify standard operating procedures, policies, guides and plans used by your agency during an activation of the
EOC
Review current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
Present community programs addressing volunteers and donations
Identify tracking procedures necessary for monetary contributions and donations of goods and services
Identify procedures needed for processing volunteers




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                                                    Page 166
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PREPAREDNESS




Donations and Volunteers Preparedness Tasks

Develop and maintain Standard Operating Procedure/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary and
support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personnel
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding to insure development of procedures and
checklists
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Ensure communications networks for personnel
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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                                                Page 167
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RESPONSE



Donations and Volunteers Response Tasks

Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Determine extent of hazard remaining.
Identity and coordinate additional resources ad needed in support of local field operations
Provide a coordinator to the EOC
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Support other emergency support functions as needed
Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Make notification required by standard operating procedures
Proved technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Establish a database to be used as tacking of all donated foods and services
Maintain a list of goods and services available from support agencies and a listing of prospective foods and
services needed
Coordinate a system for handling unusable or inappropriate donated foods
Identify staging areas for donated goods
Establish communication lines between the EOC and all emergency staging areas, volunteer agencies and
donation centers
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC




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                                                    Page 168
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RECOVERY



Donations and Volunteers Recovery Tasks


Coordinate with resource Support Function on resource accountability
Establish county recovery center to serve as a reception center for resources and to properly disburse foods and
materials to the affected areas
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and procedures
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercised to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Compile record of events
Follow up on the delivery of goods and services to the affected disaster areas and relay pertinent information to
the service or goods provider and relay pertinent information to the service or goods provider
Closing of accounts; thank yous audit/replenish resources
Voluntary organizations and other private sector groups continue to augment or extend the abilities of government
to assist disaster victims by providing donated goods and services:

       Identify the position of the individual or agency with lead responsibility for coordinating of volunteer
       agencies on unmet needs
       Identify an individual or agency who will support the coordination of unmet needs
       Describe roles and responsibilities of the individual or agency in the coordination if unmet needs
       Identity criteria for coordination with municipalities on unmet needs
       Identify groups that may be utilized to establish unmet needs committees
       Describe process for identifying unmet needs (post-event) and process utilized to meet these needs
       Describe training and/or seminars available to committee members in the areas of emergency home repair,
       debris removal, donations and warehouse management, processing centers, crisis counseling and outer
       needed assistance




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                                       ANIMAL HEALTH EMERGENCY
                                                ESF#16


      Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Extension Service



      Support Agency:

      Cass County Emergency Management
      Cass County Veterinarians
      Local farmers
      Cass County Animal Warden


      The purpose of this function is to provide guidelines for rapid response to disasters affecting the health,
      safety and welfare of animals. Veterinary medicine and animal care resources in emergency preparedness,
      response and recovery include, but are not limited to, small and large animal care, facility usage and
      displaced pet/livestock assistance.

      In the event an emergency incapacitates local veterinary activities, or if the magnitude of the emergency
      exceeds veterinary resources, assistance will be requested from the state annex for Veterinary
      Emergencies to support primary and support agencies in carrying out the Animal Health Emergency
      support Function Tasks.




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                                                  Page 170
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MITIGATION



Animal Health Emergency Mitigation Tasks

Identify areas where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support
agencies and ancillary or contract support services
Identify standard operating procedures, polices, guides and plans used by your agency during an activation of the
EOC
Identify current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training requirements
Coordinate with emergency management in providing information to local agriculture and companion animal
owners on reducing disaster impacts on animals
Create planning documentation
Identify training needed for the genial public on animal health emergencies




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PREPAREDNESS




Animal Health Preparedness Tasks

Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Develop and maintain a manpower list delineating specialized skills of personal
Maintain a resource list of persons able to transport rescued/captured animals to predetermined points
Maintain a list of facilities that could be used for sheltering and equipment companies to supply cages to
accommodate animals
Maintain a supple of medical equipment and medications available
Develop and maintain staffing for the EOC
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan




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                                                Page 172
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RESPONSE



Animal Health Response Tasks

In coordination with Information and Planning Function, collect, gather, verify, analyze and disseminate incident
information as needed
Assess scope, magnitude and extent of incident. Estimate amount of manpower requirements needed to fulfill
Animal Health Function role
Notify appropriate county agencies, keeping them up to date of the situation
Give status or situation reports as required
Identify and coordinate additional resources, as needed, in support of local field operations
Provide a coordinator to the EOC
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Coordinate with governmental authorities in establishment of emergency aid stations
Coordinate with evacuation Function on matters of evacuation
Coordinate with resource Support and Transportation Functions
Coordinate with mutual aid operatives
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function to maintain security of veterinary facilities and supplies
Coordinate with Public Information function to communicate alert status, volunteer mobilization and casualty
damage information
Temporarily arrange for, or provide food, water and shelter for small and large animals
Perform triage and treatment on all animals as they arrive at the predetermined point or at place of rescue if cannot
be transported
Observe all animals and identify by breed, color and markings, size and any man made identification
Determine ownership from registration associations or inquires from citizens
Recommend methods for proper disposal of dead animals I coordination with local and state health agencies
Recommend methods and supervise prevention and control of diseases
Support other emergency support function as needed
Record activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions required
Make notification required by standard operating procedures
Provide technical assistance as required
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC




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                                                     Page 173
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RECOVERY



Animal Health Recovery Tasks


Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guide as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures
Assist in the development and planning for long tern sheltering and maintenance of lost, sick, injured and
displaced animals
Compile record of events




JANUARY 1 2004
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                                                Page 174
Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                    INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORT


The Infrastructure Support Section consists of the following Emergency Support Functions:

                         Transportation
                         Public Works
                         Energy
                         Damage Assessment




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                                                 Page 175
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                                                         TRANSPORTATION
                                                              ESF#1



      Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Highway



      Support Agencies:

      Cass County Emergency Management
      Local School Corporations
      Cass Area Transit




      The purpose of this function is to identify procedures, systems and resources that will support and
      accommodate a variety of transportation operations. Also to provide for the coordination of transportation
      support to government entities, voluntary organizations and federal and state agencies requiring
      transportation capacity to perform disaster assistance missions following a catastrophic or significant
      natural disaster or other event

      This function will assist in the identification of essential needs of transporting people, equipment, supplies
      and materials to and from disaster sites. In addition, transportation personnel may need to provide services
      to evacuation and other sites during an emergency or disaster.




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                                                   Page 176
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MITIGATION



Transportation Mitigation Tasks


Assess the communications capabilities of the various transportation vehicles and determine if additional
communications and assets are needed
Identify current procedures for the activation of transportation assets to include alternate (contract) transportation
services and volunteer services
Review the current level of training of personnel and identify additional or refresher training required
Review and evaluate current Memorandums of Understanding to determine of revisions or additional
memorandums are required
Investigate new technology and procedures for use in completing ESF #1 goals and objectives
Identify sources of hazard specific needs, resources and equipment
Identify requirements for specific standard operating procedures, plans and checklists for lead and support
agencies
Identify specific training requirements
Identify roles and responsibilities of support agencies
Identify needed resources for transportation of persons with special needs




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PREPAREDNESS




Transportation Preparedness Tasks

Develop and maintain standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines and other plans and procedures necessary
primary and support agencies to operate efficiently
Develop and maintain notification lists that include emergency contact information
Develop and maintain equipment lists
Maintain and update personnel and equipment certifications
Obtain detailed maps of county jurisdictions
Obtain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding with support agencies, ancillary or contract
support services and resources
Provide guidance on state and federal regulations regarding transportation issues
Provide assistance among all primary and support agencies to insure development of procedures and checklists
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Ensure communications networks for personnel and to communicate with the EOC in an emergency or disaster
Develop and maintain list of all agencies and organizations involved with the Energy Emergency Function that
contain emergency notification information
Train with other emergency response agencies on the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan
Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to the EOC during an incident
Identify alternate transportation services or assets, which may be available during an emergency situation and
determine how those resources can be accessed




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RESPONSE



Transportation Response Tasks


Assess scope, magnitude, extent and potential duration of incident
Provide emergency response requests for transportation resources during an emergency situation or incident
Provide appropriate representation to the EOC
Implement emergency-related functions to include prioritization and allocation and/or taking of all public sector
transportation capacity
Coordinate with Communications function to provide emergency communications as needed
Record response activities taken, noting improvements or corrective actions require
Make notification required by standard operating procedures, using call down lists including all support agencies
Collect information concerning transportation field activities
Provide technical assistance as required
Provide hourly situation reports to EOC
Attend meeting for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Coordinate with Law Enforcement and evacuation functions to provide assistance in placing barricades,
controlling traffic and etc. as needed
Coordinate acquisition and allocation of helicopters to assist in searches, overhead incident site inspections and
etc.
Coordinate with local jurisdictions for the acquisition of transportation resources as needed
Coordinate with the Health and Medical Function to provide for the removal of deceased persons remains
Coordinate with local jurisdictions for the acquisition of transportation materials and supplies as needed
Request state and federal resources as needed through EOC
Maintain communication with forces operating in the field and keep supervision informed




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RECOVERY


Transportation Recovery Tasks

Collect and inventory all equipment used during incident
Provide guidance on state and federal transportation regulations
Coordinate with Resource Support Function on resource accountability
Ensure that all staffs are properly debriefed, including mental health debriefings if appropriate
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Identity those that provide critical services and the location of essential facilities and specialized equipment, which
can expedite recovery operations of the transportation infrastructure
Recover all equipment and fuel provided to critical facilities when no longer needed
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                    PUBLIC WORKS AND ENGINEERING
                                               ESF#3


Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County Highway Department



Support Agencies:

Logansport Municipal Utilities
Walton City Utilities
Galveston Utilities
Royal Center Utilities
Cass County Engineer
Logansport Building Inspector

The purpose of this function is to outline duties and responsibilities of engineering, utility and public work
segments of the county in the event of an emergency or disaster.

Public Works and Engineering provide technical advice and evaluation, engineering services, contracting for
construction management and inspection, contracting for the emergency repair of water and wastewater treatment
facilities, potable water and ice, emergency power and real estate support.

Public Works will perform tasks under their own authorities, as applicable in addition to missions received under
the Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan.




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MITIGATION



Public Works and Engineering Mitigation Tasks

Review current building codes, update/revise codes and ensure compliance with the code
Identify standard operating procedures (SOP) to be used by each agency or department during an activation of the
EOC
Identify training needs for personnel
Establish a program to test and maintain back-up power sources
Establish a program to store and mo9nitor a sufficient quantity of fuels for back-up and emergency power supplies
Identify areas where public education programs are needed
Identify area where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support agencies,
ancillary or contract support services and resource providers
Identify vulnerability in electric, gas, water maintenance and disposal systems and develop remedies
Develop maps of city streets, water and sewer lines and utility service areas
Maintain and update listing of local private contactors who can provide support during emergencies




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PREPAREDNESS


Public Works and Engineering Preparedness Tasks


Train personnel to perform emergency functions
Review and update all public works maps jurisdictions
Develop prioritization listing for restoration of utilities
Maintain notification and recall roster that include a communications system, to implement call down for
personnel assigned to response teams, dispatch point and etc.
Locate and identify resources available to provide backup electrical power
Train personnel in the Incident Command System
Establish alternative communications systems and test procedures to ensure they are reliable
Develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for use by agencies during an activation of the EOC
Participate in periodic emergency Management exercise
Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending situation reports to and form the EOC during an incident
Identify the methods available to provide potable water and obtain reliable water supply during an emergency or
disaster
Identify resource requirements that may be effectively addressed by private contractors
Establish an effective method for contracting and supervising contractors




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RESPONSE




Public Works and Engineering Response Tasks


Assess scope, magnitude, extent and potential duration of incident
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Provide traffic control resources to Law Enforcement Function has needed
Coordinate with Law Enforcement Function on the decision to close roads or establish detours
In the event of evacuation, coordinate with Transportation Function for preplanned or new routes
Provide technical assistance as requested
Provide for engineering expertise, equipment, contractors and contract equipment, traffic control and barricades as
needed
Assist in clearing roads and bridges where necessary
Secure dump trucks
Provide crews for debris removal
Provide situation updates to the EOC hourly
Provide assistance in the identification of alternate solid waste disposal sites throughout the county
Attend meetings for periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Maintain record of actions taken
Resource state/federal resources as needed through EOC
Interface with Information and Planning Function on planning functions and activities as needed
Provide coordinator to the EOC, who will advise decision-makers and coordinate response efforts among
departments and agencies
Maintain communications between EOC and ESF#3 personnel at the site
Coordinate with the Health and Medical Function for the provision of potable water
Coordinate with sewer and water department, the health department and the EPA to ensure the integrity of water
supplies and sewage systems from the effects of hazardous materials
Provide sanitation services throughout the emergency
Inspect emergency facilities and public shelters before they are used by the public after an emergency/disaster
Determine the safety of evacuation routes, airports, airstrips and bridges in an earthquake environment
Barricade damages areas




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RECOVERY



Public Works and Engineering Recovery Tasks


Remove debris from incident sites, staging areas and other areas affected during the emergency or disaster
Conduct restoration and/or maintenance operations to restore public access to streets, roads, and highways
Conduct restoration and/or maintenance operations to restore public access to public buildings
Conduct restoration and/or maintenance operations to restore public utility systems
Collect and inventory all equipment used during the incident
Ensure that all staff if properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings if needed
Prepare After Actions Reports
Develop a public information strategy with Public Information Function to reassure the pubic that the water
system and water is safe for consumption
Provide damage estimates as request by the Damage Assessment Function
Drain flooded area if appropriate




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                                                    Page 185
Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                                   ENERGY
                                                    ESF #12




Primary Coordinating Agency: Logansport Municipal Utilities



Support Agencies:



Northern Indiana Public Service Company
CINergy/PSI
Local REMC’S




The purpose of this function is to gather, assess and share information regarding energy system damage and
estimations on the impact of emergency system outages within affected areas. And to coordinate the restoration of
energy systems and the provision of emergency power as necessary and available. Within the emergency agencies
are a variety of assets and resources that may be used in response to any event involving emergency related
problems.




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

MITIGATION


Emergency Mitigation Tasks


Identify critical facilities (hospitals, nursing homes and etc.) and discuss the electrical service priorities that have
been established for your service area
Identify Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) for use by your agency or department during as activation of the
EOC
Review the current level of training of personnel and identity additional refresher training requirements
Provide public information on the proper storage and use of various fuels and the devices that use them
Identify areas where mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding are needed with support
agencies, ancillary and contract services and resource providers
Identify sources of hazard specific needs, resources and equipment
Identify sources of energy needs, resources and equipment




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                                                        Page 187
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PREPAREDNESS



Energy Preparedness Tasks


Develop and maintain SOPs necessary for Energy Emergency Function and its support agencies to operate
effectively
Develop and conduct awareness training and exercise programs for personnel
Develop and maintain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding for energy resources with
support agencies and ancillary of contract support services
Develop and maintain resource lists
Obtain detailed maps of jurisdiction
Provide guidance on state and federal energy regulations
Ensure communications networks for personnel and to communicate with the EOC in an emergency of disaster
Develop and maintain list of all agencies of organizations involved with the Energy Emergency Function that
contains emergency notification information
Establish and maintain a coordination link with non-regulated poser generators to ensure activities and operations
are coordinated in an emergency
Train with other emergency response agencies in the Incident Command System
Participate in periodic exercises of the comprehensive emergency management plan
Establish a consistent method or receiving and sending situation reports to the EOC during an incident
Obtain maps of the pipelines, electrical power girds, power sub-stations, pumping station and etc. in Cass County
Identify sources of technical expertise of the various utilities and energy supplies that can be used in an emergency
to provide, advise, and assist with Public Information. Answer questions, and provide with news media




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

RESPONSE




Energy Response Tasks


Assess scope, magnitude, extend and potential duration of incident
Assess energy system damage, energy supply, demand and requirements to restore such systems
Coordinate with local/state/federal agencies in providing energy emergency information and conservation
guidance to the public
Identify emergency system restoration priorities established pre-disaster to the best of the capabilities and
availability’s post disaster and coordinate through the EOC
Assist in the development of the incident action plan
Provide technical assistance as required
Attend meetings and periodic situation updates
Document incoming and outgoing notifications
Maintain record of actions taken
Coordinate through the EOC to request state/federal assistance or resources communications if required
Provide emergency power to critical facilities (Hospital, Nursing Homes and etc.)
Notify contiguous jurisdictions emergency management of the energy emergency in your jurisdiction through
EOC
Maintain communications with forces operating in the field and keep supervision informed
Coordinate the provision of materials, supplies and personnel support of emergency activities related to energy
being conducted by the EOC




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

RECOVERY




Energy Recovery Tasks



Coordinate information with local, state, federal officials and energy supplies about available energy supply
recovery assistance
Recover all equipment and fuel provided to critical facilities when no longer needed
Return equipment and fuels borrowed through mutual aid agreements
Collect an inventory all equipment used during incident
Provide guidance on state and federal energy regulations
Coordinate with ESF #7 (Resource Support) on resource accountability
Implement procedures of energy production and distribution capabilities in an affect area
Ensure all staff is properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings if appropriate
Prepare appropriate after action reports
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures




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Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

                                           DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
                                                ESF #18


Primary Coordinating Agency: Cass County EMA



Support Agencies:

American Red Cross
Logansport Building Inspector
Jurisdictional Fire Department
Jurisdictional Law Enforcement agencies


The purpose of this function is to describe those procedures to be followed in the assessment of damages resulting
from natural or man-made disasters, enemy attack or other major incidents. Damage assessment provides a basis
for determining the types of assistance needed and the assignment of priorities to those needs.

Most hazardous events, which may affect the county, have a potential of causing damage. A planned damage
assessment procedure is essential for effective response and recovery operations.

The prompt and accurate assessment of damage to public and private property following a disaster will be of vital
concern to local officials. A response will have a direct bearing on the manner in which recovery is affected in the
county.




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MITIGATION



Damage Assessment Mitigation Tasks


Establish a damage assessment program
Designate a damage assessment coordinator
Development of a damage assessment-training program
Investigate new technology and procedures for use in completing ESF #18 goals and objectives
Identify areas where mutual aid agreement s and memorandums of understanding are needed with support
agencies, ancillary or contract support services and resource providers
Develop and enforce adequate building codes
Develop and enforce adequate building codes
Develop and enforce adequate land-use regulations
Participate in hazard mitigation survey and identify potential hazard zones
Discourage development on hazard zones
Pre-Assess the value of prominent structures, public building/facilities and other areas easily assessed to provide a
more accurate and faster assessment of losses
Identify agencies, personnel and resources to assist in damage assessment activities
Identify damage assessment team staffing patterns and equipment need
Locate appropriate maps of areas
Develop a public information program to alert citizens to the need for flood insurance and outlining damage
assessment functions and describing State/Federal reimbursement procedures as needed




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PREPAREDNESS




Damage Assessment Preparedness Tasks



Select and train personnel in damage assessment techniques
Assemble tram equipment
Pre-designated geographical areas and re-assign team areas of responsibility
Train support personnel, including shelter managers and EOC damage assessment-section personnel
Maintain pre-disaster maps photos and other documents
Conduct damage assessment exercises (or incorporate damage assessment into other exercise)
List critical facilities requiring priority repairs if damaged
Revise procedures and forms for reporting damage to state/federal agencies
Establish a consistent method of receiving and sending Situation Report to and from the EOC
Identify the assets available in your jurisdiction that could provide assistance and determine types of available
assistance and procedures for obtaining them
Develop and maintain mutual aid agreements and memorandums of understanding wit support agencies and
ancillary or contract support services
Ensure that copies of all necessary damage assessment forms, manuals and etc. are located in the EOC
Entities will develop Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to ensure all vital damage assessment information is
relayed to the EOC




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RESPONSE



Damage Assessment Response Tasks


Assess scope, magnitude and potential duration of incident
Activate EOC
Implement Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan
Activate damage assessment staff in EOC/Teams
Deploy damage assessment teams to disaster location
Designate a local disaster recovery coordinator
Collect damage assessment information
Request Mutual Aid as appropriate
Maintain records of damage reports
Compile damage assessment reports
Conduct initial damage assessments and forward preliminary information to State Emergency Management
Agency
Assess the damages to agriculture, business, parks & recreation areas, public buildings, roads and bridges, utilities
water control facilities, residential property and forward compiled information to State Emergency Management
agency
Determine unsafe facilities
Keep public informed about hazardous buildings, roads, bridges, drinking water and etc
Document emergency work performed. Select individual to be assigned to a jurisdiction to act as liaison and assist
officials in compiling documentation
Request State/Federal assistance/resources as needed
Interface with State/Federal personnel to coordinate the damage assessment information and planning
functions/activities, as needed
Chief executive of an entity in which the disaster if confined to the boundaries of their jurisdiction will provide
damage assessment data pertaining to their jurisdiction (cities/town/townships, county)
Law Enforcement/EMS/Fire involved in response shall report number of fatalities/injured (by name or address to
avoid duplication), other pertinent information that may become available to them (evacuation, structural damage,
etc)




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                                                     Page 194
Cass County Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan

RECOVERY




Damage Assessment Recovery Tasks


Assess the number of deaths and identify the number and types of injured attributed to the incident or declared
disaster
Provide an estimate of the amount of losses that are covered by Insurance Coverage
Provide and estimate of losses of personal property sustained as a result of an emergency or declared disaster
Conduct a thorough inventory of equipment
Repair or replace damaged equipment as necessary
Identify additional equipment needs
Reissue/Assign equipment as necessary
Provide guidance on State and Federal damage assessment activities and associated forms
Coordinate with resource Support function on resource accountability
Coordinate with insurance companies of affected individuals, businesses, municipalities and etc
Advise individuals, businesses, and municipalities as to the repair and restorative efforts that are likely to be
necessary
Ensure that all staff is properly debriefed, to include mental health debriefings if appropriate
Compile an After Action Report based on the personnel debriefings and equipment inventory
Identify unsafe structures and prevent their use
Monitor restoration activity
Review building codes and land-use regulations for possible improvements
Revise, update, change or create policies and standard operating procedures or guides as necessary
Conduct training on new or revised policies and procedures
Conduct exercises to validate and familiarize team members with new procedures




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                                                     Page 195

								
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