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					Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :      page 1



                         Overview of data access &                       There is considerable quantitative government
Template                 environment in Yemen →                          data available, primarily through the 2004
                                                                         census and the 2005/6 household budget
                                                                         survey. However, the apparent unavailability of
                                                                         many departmental websites online (see below)
                                                                         means that some important data may only be
                                                                         accessible on request or possibly in Arabic.
                                                                         Some international organisations, such as the
                                                                         World Bank and GIZ, are also active in the
                                                                         country. Domestic and international NGOs also
                                                                         operate in a range of rights issues.
                         National indicators                             Summary themes: analysis with
Issues                                                                   statistical notes & additional sources
1. Population &
Urbanization
Demographic &            Population                                      The Central Statistical Organisation is Yemen’s
urban statistics:        24.2559 million (12.2618 million male,          national data portal. It contains data on
1980-2010 & 2010-        11.9941 million female) (2010) (UN              population, housing, household size, household
                                     1
2030 forecasts.          DESA, 2010)                                     expenditure, employment, poverty, the
                                                           2
                         23.580 million (World Bank, 2009 )              economy, and other issues. These are primarily
National totals          19.685 million (10.037 million male,            sourced through the 2004 census and the
(urban & rural)          9.648 million female) (2004, national           2005/6 Household Budget Survey. There are
                                 3
                         census)                                         more recent government figures, some in this
Urban growth rates       Population growth (2010-2015):                  document, but these are generally estimates
                                       4
                         Overall: 2.7%                                   and projections extrapolated from the results of
City sizes &             Urban: 4.59%                                    these previous surveys. Another household
                                      5                                                                          14
population               Rural: 1.81%                                    budget survey will be running in 2011 .
distribution by          Urban population:
country.                 1.386 million (1980)                            One important point is the distinction between
                          7.714 million (2010)                          Sana’a governorate and Sana’a City: the latter
                                                 6
                          17.844 million (2030) (UN DESA).              being the main point of focus in terms of
                                              7
                         7.362 million (2009)                            urbanisation, and a independent municipality
                                                                         with governorate status. However, even in




1
  UN DESA. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/population.htm
2
  World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL
3
  2006 census. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/vitstats/serATab2.pdf
4
  UN DESA. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/population.htm
5
  UN DESA. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
6
  United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision.
Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
7
  World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL
14
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK=73230&theSitePK=310165&menuPK=310196&Proj
ectid=P119963
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 2



                         % of the total population resident in           Sana’a City there is are some households
                         urban areas:                                    classified in the 2005/6HBS as ‘rural’ - though
                         16.5% (1980)                                    only a small minority. Some data, labelled
                          31.8% (2010)                                  Sana’a City (urban)’ represents where this
                                          8
                          45.3% (2030) .                                distinction has been made. It may be
                                     9
                         29% (2009)                                      acceptable, given the small number of ‘rural’
                         However, the World Bank World                   households in Sana’a City overall, to treat
                         Development Report 2009 puts the 2005           ‘Sana’a City’ data as meaningfully urban: this
                         urbanisation levels at 27.3% of the total       can be decided through consensus.
                         population and projects that by 2015 it
                                       10
                         will be 31.9% .                                 One surprising issue was the difficulty in
                         Population of Sanaa:                            locating/accessing relevant government
                         0. 238 million (1980)                           ministry website for information. The former
                         2.342 million (2010)                            leader in urban planning, the Ministry of Public
                                              11
                         4.296 million (2025)                            Works and Urban Development, was listed as
                         Population of Sanaa City:                       ‘under construction’ at the time of writing
                         1.775 million (0.977 million male, 0.798        (January 2011). The General Authority for Land,
                         million female) (2005) 2,023 million           Survey and Urban Planning, now the main
                         (1.118 million males, 0.904 million             overseeing central organ on urban issues, could
                                                    12
                         females) (2009, nat. est.)                      not be located (at least in English). The Sana’a
                         Population of Aden: 0.599 million (0.318        City government website was obsolete and the
                         million male, 0.280 million females)            Aden governorate website was also under
                         (2005, national census)  0.684 million         construction at the time of writing. There may




8
  United Nations, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision.
Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html
9
  World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?order=wbapi_data_value_2009+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value-
last&sort=desc
10
   World Bank (2008), World Development Report 2009, p.335. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2009/Resources/4231006-1225840759068/WDR09_22_SWDIweb.pdf
11
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html.
12
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :         page 3



                         (0.365 million male, 0.320 million              therefore be important additional information
                                                    13
                         females) (2009, nat. est.)                      available on request from these bodies that is
                                                                         not included in this document.
Country                  Annual growth in urban areas:                   Rapid population growth over the last four
urbanization trends.      5.49% (1975-80)                                decades and the lack of rural development has
                          4.75% (2005-10)                               helped drive rising levels of rural-urban
Drivers of                4.59% (2010-15)                               migration, particularly to the larger cities. This
                                            15
urbanization              3.74% (2025-30) .                             has accelerated the growth of unplanned urban
                         Annual growth in Sanaa:                         growth and put increasing pressure on basic
                                                                                                       19
Where is the future      10.51% (1975-80)                                service access and provision . This growth has
heading?                  5.26% (2005-10)                               been particularly marked in Sana’a: the
                          4.51%(2010-15)                                municipality population increased more than
                                             16
                           3.62% (2020-25) .                            tenfold in less than three decades, from
                         Percentage of total population residing         162,000 in 1977 to 1.7 million inhabitants in
                         in Sanaa:                                       2004. Much of this growth has been
                         2.8% (1980)                                     accommodated in informal or peripheral
                                                                                      20
                          9.7% (2010)                                   settlements .
                                         17
                           12.1% (2025) .
                         Percentage of urban population residing         Urbanisation has been accelerated by internal
                         in Sanaa:                                       migration from rural areas or smaller cities. A




13
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
15
  United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel3.html.
16
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
17
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
19
   UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, p.45. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
20
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.12-13. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.            Yemen :     page 4



                         17.2% (1980)                                    2009 report by the Middle East Youth Initiative
                          30.4% (2010)                                  produces an uncited figure: that 35% of urban
                                          18
                          29.0% (2020-25) .                             males and 60% of males in Sana’a City are
                                                                                                                    21
                                                                         migrants from rural areas or smaller cities . In
                                                                         urban areas, the share of migrants among youth
                                                                         is over 35% for both men and women, while In
                                                                                                                        22
                                                                         Sana’a City almost 60% of youth are migrants .

                                                                         In this sense, the extreme deprivation of the
                                                                         rural areas of the country is very relevant to
                                                                         Yemen’s urban future. A 2010 report by the
                                                                         Institute of Food Research found that 37.3% of
                                                                         the rural population (compared to 17.7% in
                                                                                                           23
                                                                         urban areas) were food insecure .

                                                                         Analysis of satellite data found that Sana’a city’s
                                                                         built-up area increased by 87% between 1989
                                                                         and 2007, particularly in the northern and
                                                                                             24
                                                                         southern suburbs . Another 2008 study
                                                                         discussed what it saw as the emergence of
                                                                         secondary urban centres in the suburbs and
                                                                                            25
                                                                         fringes of the city .
Existing & desirable     The 2010 millennium development                 The World Bank is currently supporting a
urbanization             report for Yemen identified “deficient          Second Port Cities Development Project to
policies.                urban planning systems” as one of the           extend and refine access to select public
                         main challenges to environmental                infrastructure in the port cities of Aden,
                                                                                                 34
National urban           sustainability. One of its policy               Hodeida and Mukallah . Beginning in Aden, the




18
   United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanisation Prospects: the 2009 revision. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/unup/index_panel2.html
21
   Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, p. 7. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
22
   Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, p. 30. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
23
   International Food Policy Research Institute (2010), Assessing Food Security in Yemen: An Innovative Integrated, Cross-Sector,
and Multilevel Approach. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp00982.pdf
24
   Zeug, G. & Eckert, S. (2010), ‘Population Growth and Its Expression in Spatial Built-up Patterns: The Sana’a, Yemen Case Study’.
Remote Sens. 2010, 2(4), 1014-1034. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/2/4/1014/
25
   Stadniki, R. & Touber, J. (2008), ‘Le grand Sanaa : multipolarité et nouvelles formes d'urbanité dans la capitale du Yémen’.
Annales de Geographie 659: 32-53. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00282428/
34
   World Bank, Second Port Cities Development Project. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64312881&piPK=64302848&theSitePK=40941&Projectid=P088435
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :         page 5



policy development.      recommendation was to plan new urban            project initially focussed on small-scale
                         and semi-urban zones to promote                 infrastructure improvements to raise small
                         investment, create income and                   business activity and develop links with Aden’s
                                                                                                 35
                         accommodate the growing population,             transport connections .
                         as well as reduce the migratory
                         momentum towards the country’s cities           It is also developing an Integrated Urban
                         by creating employment opportunities            Development Project in the city of Taiz, where
                         and developmental growth in rural               the proportion of informal settlements is
                               26
                         areas . The government’s Socio-                 particularly high, to deliver services and
                                                                                                                    36
                         Economic Development Plan for Poverty           upgrading to informal settlements there . It is
                         Reduction (2006-2010) stated that               hoped the project will provide a pilot for similar
                                                                                                                       37
                         though urban planning had improved in           interventions in other major Yemeni cities .
                         recent years, with an increasing focus on
                         issues such as sanitation, health and
                         waste management in Sana’a and
                         general infrastructural and aesthetic
                         developpment in Yemen’s urban areas,
                         rapid population growth, overcrowding,
                         poor planning and uncontrolled
                         peripheral growth were ongoing
                         challenges. It had the stated aim of
                         undertaking a range of programs,
                         supported by information gathering
                         through GIOS and planning processes, to
                         provide the necessary space for
                         commercial development and tourism,
                         and also ensure adequate supplies of
                         affordable housing, sufficient green
                         space and more effective waste
                                       27
                         management .

                         This shortfall is evident in Sana’a, where      One 2007 PHD thesis study compared Sana’a
                         there is no comprehensive official              spatial growth with its master plans and
                         planning document outlining its spatial         concluded that “ about 40% of the growth
                         development. The 1978 master plan was           occurred in unplanned areas, green areas and
                         long outgrown and the 1998 master plan          reserved land without suitable protection and
                                                                                     38
                         exercise was incomplete and never fully         regulations” .
                         approved. Nor is there substantive

26
   UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, pp.45-47. Retrieved January 31,
2011 at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
27
   Government of Yemen, Socio-Economic Development Plan for Poverty Reduction (2006-2010), pp.74-75. Retrieved January 31,
2011 at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/DPPR.pdf
35
   World Bank, ‘Sector brief: Urban development in MENA’. September 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTMNAREGTOPURBDEV/Resources/URBAN-ENG2008AM.pdf
36
   World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 14.5 Million (US$22 Equivalent) to the
Republic of Yemen for an Integrated Urban Development Project. April 22, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/05/06/000333037_20100506010500/Rendered/PDF/5
38100PAD0Box31ly10IDA1R20101012011.pdf
37
   World Bank, ‘Yemen: Local Communities Show Commitment For Upgrading of Informal Settlements’. May 25, 2010. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at:
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:22592164~menuPK:34463~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~th
eSitePK:4607,00.html
38
   Al-Shalabi, M., ‘Prediction And Simulation Of Spatial Pattern For Urban Growth And Change In Land Use In Sana’a City,
Yemen’. PHD Thesis, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://psasir.upm.edu.my/5312/1/FK_2007_77.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.   Yemen :     page 6



                         expert engagement with the city’s
                         connections to its broader regional and
                         sub-regional context. The physical result
                         of this planning vacuum is frequently
                         scattered and inefficient spatial
                         development, low density and often in
                         areas with no services or infrastructure.
                         Oversight responsibilities for urban
                         planning are not clearly defined, with
                         different roles and mandates dispersed
                         around multiple bodies: the most active
                         actor in the planning process, the Sana’a
                         branch of General Authority for Land,
                         Survey and Urban Planning, mainly
                         engage in drawing up neighbourhood
                         plan, often reactively in response to
                         landowner actions to prevent landowner
                         pressure and informal development.
                         However, these local land plans are
                         generally prepared without reference to
                         established land codes and lack
                         supportive monitoring to ensure their
                         effective implementation. Furthermore,
                         there is no restriction to changing land
                         sues, so the city suffers from multiple
                         land sues in the same neighbourhood. It
                         also lacks sufficient designated land and
                                                                 28
                         infrastructure for industrial activities .

                         In February 2007, a City Development
                         Strategy conference was held with a
                         number of governmental and NGO
                         stakeholders, who agreed on a number
                         of principles, including a participatory
                         approach, comprehensive data collection
                         to guide policy, a sustainable revenue
                         base and effective implementation and
                                       29
                         coordination .

                         The CDS document identified a number
                         of planning challenges in Sana’a City.
                         These included the low density sprawl
                         within the inhabited part of the
                         municipality, averaging 130 persons per
                         hectare, an inefficient use of land. Much
                         of the prime land for potential
                         investment projects is already covered
                         by this low density development or taken
                         by the government or military, often for


28
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.20. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
29
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.21. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.   Yemen :    page 7



                         ‘economically improper’ activities such
                         as storage and administration.
                         Furthermore, the full heritage value of
                         the old city and its economic
                         revitalisation opportunities to the city as
                         a whole remain underexploited. Sana’a
                         also lacks sufficient green and public
                         spaces. Furthermore, the city’s old
                         master plans are unrealsied and obsolete
                         (see above), so there is no overarching
                         planning strategy at work in the city.
                         Instead, neighbourhood plans are the
                         main planning tool, focussed on units of
                         45-60 hectares with populations of
                         7,000-12,000 persons. These often
                         reproduce ‘cookie cutter’ traditional
                         plans with little knowledge of the specific
                         context, a problem arising in part from
                         the very limited mapping resources. As
                         land ownership is usually not known or
                         registered until these plans are
                         undertaken, they often are initiated
                         under pressure from landlords, who are
                         positioned to gain from the process:
                         according to some estimates by officials,
                         land values may appreciate by as much
                         as ten times following after the
                                                                30
                         preparation of a neighbourhood plan .

Governance               This is weakened by institutional
adaptations for          confusion and contradiction at a
urban & regional         governance level. Until 2006, urban
spatial planning for     planning was conducted centrally by the
the future.              Ministry of Public Works and Roads with
                         little local engagement or consideration.
                         Despite the Local Authorities Law,
                         planning remained a primarily
                         centralised operation with the creation
                         of the General Authority for Lands and
                         Urban Planning (GALSUP). The municipal
                         urban planning office, now under the
                         aegis of GALSUP, remains largely
                         confined to its previous role of
                         neighbourhood planning. Though its
                         mandate also extends to monitoring the
                         implementation of the master and
                         subdivision plans, their role in reality is
                         limited by the fact that inspection and
                         permit issuing remains under the aegis




30
  Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.34. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 8



                         of the Ministry of Public Works
                                       31
                         and Highways .

                         Other issues, relating in part to the
                         above issues, include the lack of building
                         regulations. This is due in part to
                         GALSUP, as it has not put into effect the
                         required bylaw to allow the municipality
                         to enforce the 2002 building code.
                         Another issue is the lack of an effective
                         land registry, with no official land maps
                         or enforced system of registration. State
                         land are also poorly managed, with much
                         public land encroached on by squatters
                                               32
                         and land speculators .

                         The CDS made a range of
                         recommendations to raise the city’s
                         economic development, enhance its
                         financial management system and
                         facilitate improved urban planning and
                                     33
                         upgrading .
Details of & impact      No. of international migrants:                  Refugees
of migrants,             517,926 (319,717 male, 198,209                  Yemen is located on an established migration
                                           39
refugees & IDPs on       female)(2010)                                   route between the horn of Africa and the
urbanization.            No. of refugees:                                affluent rich countries of the Gulf. Every year,
                                            40
                         106,579 (2010)                                  driven by poverty and conflict, transported by
                                            41
Policy implications.     170,854 (2010)                                  trafficking networks, thousands migrate
(For Magreb,             International migrants as % of                  through the Gulf Of Aden. Around 170,000
Mashreq & LDCs           population:                                     Somalis have been registered as refugees in the
                                        42
only)                    2.1 % (2010) .                                  last two decades, while Ethiopians now
                         Refugees as a percentage of                     comprise around two-thirds of arriving
                                                              43
                         international migrants (2010): 20.6%            migrants. In addition, around 8,000 refugees




31
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.34. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
32
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.34-36. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
33
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.42-47. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
39
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://esa.un.org/migration
40
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://esa.un.org/migration/
41
   UNHCR. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486ba6
42
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://esa.un.org/migration/
43
   UN DESA, Trends in international migrant stock: the 2008 revision. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://esa.un.org/migration/
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.            Yemen :         page 9



                         Total number of refugees (January,              from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, the occupied
                         2011):                                          Palestinian territories and Sudan have been
                                                                         recognised. Over 80% of them reside in urban
                                                                              49
                                                                         areas .

                                                                         Yemen is the only Gulf country that is a
                                                                         signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and
                                                                         offers Somalis a prima facie recognition of
                                                                         refugee status, though other nationalities must
                                                                         prove their status on an individual basis.
                                                                         Despite the country’s high poverty rates, the
                                                                         government encourages refugees to live outside
                                                                         the camps. The majority of refugees choose to
                                                                         live in cites rather than in Kharaz, the country’s
                                                                                              50
                                                                         only refugee camp . However, a 2010 profile in
                                                                         Forced Migration Review highlighted the
                                                                         difficulties urban Somali refugees faced ain
                                                                         accessing employment opportunities, food,
                                                                         health care and education, with around a
                                                                         quarter only of Somali children in Sana’a
                                                                         enrolled in school due to the prohibitive costs of
                                                                                                       51
                                                                         uniform, books and clothes .

                                                                         Domestic migration
                                                                         Internal migration, from rural areas or smaller
                                                                         urban centres, is also an important driver of
                                                                         urbanisation (see above).

                                                                         The Middle East Youth Initiative report has data
                                                                         on the proportion of rural/urban migrants and
                                                                         their migration patterns (within the region, to
                                                                         another region, to Sana’a City), as well as the
                                                                         proportion of households receiving remittances.
                                                                         This data is sourced from the 2005/6 household
                                                                         budget survey and unfortunately is in graph
                                                                         form, so the exact figures cannot be
                                                                                      52
                                                                         ascertained . These figures did not appear to
                                                                         be in the main data files downloaded from the
                                                                         CSO, suggesting that the 2005/6 HBS has
                                                                         additional data that could be relevant.
                                                             44
                         Number of IDPs (2010): 250,000                  Internal conflict is also a major driver of internal
                                                                         displacement. In the north, the Al-Houthi




44
   UNHCR. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486ba6
49
   UNHCR. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486ba6
50
   Refugees International (2010), Somali Refugees: Protecting their Rights in Cities. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.refintl.org/sites/default/files/061510%20somali%20refugees.pdf
51
   Morris, T. (2010), ‘Urban Somali refugees in Yemen’. Forced Migration Review, 34: 36-38. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.fmreview.org/urban-displacement/FMR34/36-38.pdf
52
   Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, pp. 31-34. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :      page 10



                                                                         movement has been in conflict with the
                                                                         government since 2004. As of July 2010,
                                                                         342,000 IDPs were registered with UNHCR. Only
                                                                         around 15% were in formal camps or recognised
                                                                         informal settlements: the rest were squatting in
                                                                         mosques, open public spaces, urban and rural
                                                                         areas, mosques and makeshift shelters. The
                                                                         conflict has principally affected rural areas, but
                                                                         it has also affected civilians from some urban
                                                                                                      53
                                                                         areas in Amran and Saa’da . UNHCR reported
                                                                         that, 6 months after the February 2010
                                                                         ceasefire with the Al Houthi movement, only
                                                                         around 20,000 IDPs have returned to the
                                                                         northern Sa’ada governorate, deterred by
                                                                         ongoing threats to security and the lack of basic
                                                                                                54
                                                                         services in the region .

                                                                         Unresolved tensions persist in the south, based
                                                                         on the past history of conflict and feelings of
                                                                         ongoing exclusion, with sporadic clashes
                                                                         between the government and militant
                                                                         separatists (see below).

                                                                         The government’s conflict with Al Qaeda also
                                                                         resulted in considerable displacement when
                                                                         security forces bombed the town of Lawdar in
                                                                         Abyan in2010, displacing tens of thousands of
                                                                                 55
                                                                         citizens .

                         Remittance inflows (2007):                      International migration
                                         45
                         $1,283 million                                  According to the 2004 census, approximately
                         Remittance outflows (2007):                     1.7 million Yemenis live abroad – 800,000 in
                                      46                                              56
                         $120 million                                    Saudi Arabia .
                         In 2007, remittances amounted to 6.7%
                         of GDP, making Yemen the fifth largest          One of the contributing factors to the country’s
                         recipient of remittances relative to GDP        current high levels of poverty and instability was
                         in the Middle east and North Africa             the expulsion, following the First Gulf War, of
                                47
                         region .                                        around a million Yemeni workers and the
                                                                                                             57
                                                                         severing of much international aid .


45
   UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
46
   UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
47
   Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, p. 32. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
53
   Internal Displacement Monitoring Center, ‘Yemen: IDPs facing international neglect’. August 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.internal-
displacement.org/8025708F004BE3B1/(httpInfoFiles)/DDFB4E8C8E9D4E7CC125777400349447/$file/Yemen_Overview_Aug10.p
df
54
   UNHCR. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/page?page=49e486ba6
55
   Human Rights Watch (2011), World Report 2011: Yemen. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.hrw.org/en/world-
report-2011/yemen
56
   IOM. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/pid/428
57
   Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, p. 6. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Yemen :      page 11



                         There is detailed data on domestic and
                         foreign remittances from analysis of the
                         2005/6 household budget survey. For
                         instance, domestic remittances
                         amounted to an average of 2% of
                         household expenditure in urban areas
                         (though this proportion varied from 1-
                         4%, depending on the income decile)
                         while foreign remittances amounted to
                         4% on average of urban household
                         expenditure (though this varied from 2-
                         5%, depending on the income decile)
                         (2005/6). Over 22% of the urban poor
                         have access to remittances from outside
                         Yemen (this last figure is not explicitly
                         dated, but it is presumable from the
                         context that it refers to 2005/6). The
                         impact of foreign remittances on poverty
                         reduction is relatively slight compared to
                         some other countries, however, as a
                         larger than average proportion is
                                                                   48
                         channelled towards richer households .
2. The Growing
Economic Role
of Cities
The economic role        GDP (current US$):                              Against a backdrop of poverty and
of urban networks &      16.737 million(2005)  26.365 million           unemployment, Yemen’s cities in general lack




48
  World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, pp.75-76. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.            Yemen :      page 12


                                              58
systems of cities.       (2009) World Bank)                              an adequate economic base, with much of it
                                                  59
                         31.07 billion (2008, UN)                        confined to small and medium enterprises.
Country’s cities’ role   GDP per capita (current US$):                   Despite some progress, 21% of urban
                                                     60                                                                68
in global markets,       $796 (2005)  1,118 (2009)                      households still fall below the poverty line.
                                        61
the rise of global &     $1356 (2008)
regional cities.         Foreign Direct Investment (annual flow):        Yemen’s economy remains highly dependent on
                         $0.006 billion (2000)  $1.555 billion          oil revenue, amounting to 27% of GDP and 90%
                                                        62
Changing role of         (2008)  $0.129 billion (2009)                  of exports. Its revenue is therefore tied to oil
countries cities                                                         prices and the decline in oil prices after the
under economic           There is prices index data for a range of       2008 peak, worsened by the general trend of
globalization.           different goods and services for 2009,          reducing reserves in the country, helped
                                                         63
                         tied to 2005 prices, if required .              contribute to its budgetary complications, with
City marketing,                                                          a deficit equivalent to 10% of its GDP in 2009.
related fiscal policy,   Compilation of GDP (2009):                      Economic diversification is therefore essential
export-oriented          Agriculture, forestry and fishing – 12.86%      for the country’s future development. As part of
industrial cities.       Mining and quarrying – 13.07%                   its poverty reduction strategy, as well as
                         Manufacturing – 4.77%                           forestry and fisheries, the government is




58
   World Bank. Retrieved October 30, 2010 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD/countries
59
   United Nations. Retrieved October 30, 2010 at: http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Yemen
60
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD/countries
61
   United Nations. Retrieved October 30, 2010 at: http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=Tunisia
62
   UNCTAD. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://unctadstat.unctad.org/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx
63
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009, pp.44-45. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
68
   World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 14.5 Million (US$22 Equivalent) to the
Republic of Yemen for an Integrated Urban Development Project. April 22, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/05/06/000333037_20100506010500/Rendered/PDF/5
38100PAD0Box31ly10IDA1R20101012011.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Yemen :     page 13



What are the most        Construction and building – 5.73%               promoting urban manufacturing, services and
                                                       64                         69
dynamic urban            Electricity and water – 0.74%                   finance . While oil-driven growth is a major
sectors?                 There is also more detailed national            factor in the poverty reduction observed in
                         economic data available on occupational         World bank analysis between 1998 and 2005,
                                                              65
                         contributions to GDP and expenditure .          the oil sector employs few Yemenis and even
                                                                                                  70
                                                                         less from among its poor .
                         The average size of establishments in
                         Yemen is small (3.88 employees) but             Furthermore, the city has developed from
                         higher than the national average (2.87          investment from oil revenue and the growth of
                         employees). Of all the major cities, only       its economy, as well as a real estate boom
                         Aden (6.44 employees) has a higher              generated in part by international
                                 66                                                  71
                         average .                                       remittances . While it comprised around 9% of
                                                                         Yemen’s population in 2004, the city has 15.9%
                         There is also detailed 2004 census data         of the country’s establishment, compared to
                         breakdowns available (see footnote) on          11.1% in Taiz, 9.6% in Ibb, 9.1% in Hodeidah and
                         the distribution of establishments and          4.1% in Aden (2004 census data). It also
                         employment in Sana’a and also urban             accounted for 21.6% of its employment in




64
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
65
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009, pp.69-72. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
66
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.13. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
69
   World Bank, country brief. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/MENAEXT/YEMENEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20196054~pagePK:141137~
piPK:141127~theSitePK:310165,00.html
70
   World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.48. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
71
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.8. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 14



                         Yemen in general. Some of the largest           establishments, compared to 11.8% in Taiz,
                         categories were:                                6.9% in Ibb, 9.5% in Hodeidah and 9.1% in Aden
                                                                                             72
                         Sana’a                                          (2004 census data) . Around 30% of the
                         Commerce and Small Services - 58.9% of          country’s industrial establishments are based in
                                                                                73
                         establishments, 31.3% of employment             Sana’a . Importantly, the capital is also the
                         Manufacturing - 12.1% of                        country’s hub for formal employment
                         establishments, 12.5% of employment             generation, with 39% of all new formal jobs
                         Hotels and Restaurants - 7.1% of                between 1992 and 2006 and 33% of new formal
                         establishments, 7.4% of employment              establishments created in Sana’a. Sana’a
                         Transportation - 4.8% of establishments,        therefore comprises a critical role in the
                                                                                                            74
                         4.0% of employment                              country’s investment and growth . Sana’a also
                         Other activities - 11.2% of                     hosts a large informal sector, estimated in 2002
                                                                                                              75
                         establishments, 10.8% of employment             at 32% of non-government growth .
                         (2004 census data)
                         Urban Yemen                                     However, the Sana’a City Development Strategy
                         Commerce and Small Services - 50.6% of          also acknowledges the current barriers and
                         establishments, 28.4% of employment             constraints in the city. These include
                         Manufacturing - 10.2% of                        cumbersome administrative processes, an
                         establishments, 11.4% of employment             unfair and uncompetitive business
                         Hotels and Restaurants - 4.7% of                environment, a lack of transparency, corruption,
                         establishments, 5.5%                            the high cost of credit and the difficulty in
                         of employment                                   acquiring securely titled, serviced land for




72
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.13-14. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
73
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.6. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
74
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.15. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
75
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.17. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :        page 15



                         Transportation - 2.3% of establishments,        development and investment, as well as
                         2.7%                                            degraded infrastructure and uncertain
                         of employment                                   electricity and water supplies. Amnog the
                         Other activities - 22.9% of                     possible growth areas identified by the strategy
                         establishments, 12.5% of employment             for Sana’a were tourism, handicrafts, private
                                             67                                                                        76
                         (2004 census data)                              health care, private education and real estate .
                         There is also data for other marginal
                         activity areas such as agriculture and          In Sana’a, as with much of Yemen, commerce
                         fishing. The comparative capacity of the        and small services dominate, though this trend
                         data is possibly undermined by the larger       is particularly strong in the capital. The public
                         share of ‘other activities’ for urban           sector, as in other parts of Yemen, accounts for
                         Yemen.                                          a large share of non-agricultural employment –
                                                                         over 30% of non-agricultural employment in
                                                                                 77
                                                                         Sana’a .


Services &               Mobile cellular subscription/100 people:
                                                 78
infrastructure           11 (2005) 16 (2008)
(supporting global       Total mobile phone users:
                                                       79
or international         8.313 million users (2009)
functions.)              Internet users, number per 100
Policy implications.     population:
                                                    80
                         1.0 (2005) 1.6 (2008)
Cities, mobility &       Total internet subscribers:
                                              81
transportation           0.452 million (2009)
infrastructures          Teledensity (telephones/100 persons):
                                     82
(facts & trends).        4.43 (2009)

Urban productivity       Labour participation rate, total (% of           A Middle East Youth Initiative paper highlighted




67
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.15. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
67
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2
76
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.22-24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
77
   Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.13-14. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
78
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2
79
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
80
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.P2
81
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
82
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Yemen :        page 16



& employment -           total population ages 15+):                     the gulf between the country’s educational
                                    83
facts & trends.          47% (2008)                                      system, tailored to produce the training
                         Labor participation rate, male (15+):           necessary for bureaucratic employees, and the
                                    84
                         73% (2008)                                      emerging needs of the labour market; the
                         Labor participation, female (15+):              education system is not providing Yemeni youth
                                    85
                         20% (2008)                                      with the skills necessary to drive a dynamic
                                                                                        98
                         Employment-to-population ratio (2008):          private sector .
                         39.0% - M/F
                         57.5%– male
                                       86
                         20.4%- female

                         No. of employed:
                         3.555 million (3.244 million male, 0.311
                         million female) (2004, national census)
                          4.640 million (4.263 million male,
                         0.377 million female) (2009, nat. est.)
                         No. of unemployed:
                         0.689 million (0.485 million male, 0.204
                         million female) (2004, national census)
                          0.795 million (0.541 million male,
                         0.253 million female) (2009, nat. est.)
                         Unemployment ratio:
                         16.2% (13.0% male, 39.6% female) (2004,
                         national census)  14.6% (11.3% male,
                                                         87
                         40.2% female) (2009, nat. est.)
                         Total work force:
                         4.244 million (3.729 million male, 0.515
                         million female) (2004, national census)
                          5.434 million (4.804 million male,
                                                                 88
                         0.630 million female) (2009, nat. est.)

                         Government estimates for 2009
                         categorised 85.4% (88.7% male, 59.8%
                         female) of the workforce as employed
                         and 14.6% (11.3% male, 40.2% female)
                                        89
                         as unemployed . The economic activity
                         rate for 2009 was 42.2% (73.7% male,
                         9.9% female). The real ratio of economic
                         dependency was 385% and the total




83
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.ZS
84
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.MA.ZS
85
   World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.CACT.FE.ZS
86
   UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
87
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
88
   Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
89
   Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Labour
Force, table 2)
98
   Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, p. 10. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.   Yemen :    page 17



                         ratio of economic dependency was
                               90
                         485% .

                         Results from the 15+ population sample
                         (982,316 persons) in the 2004 census,
                         urban:
                         Employed: 36.9%
                         Unemployed: 8.57%
                         Economically inactive: 52.21%
                                                         91
                         Unspecified work status: 2.32%
                         Note that these figures include the
                         economically inactive and so therefore
                         appear to represent the entire 15+
                         population, not the workforce: the urban
                         unemployment rate would therefore
                         need to be scaled accordingly.

                         Additional materials
                         There is 2004 census data outlining the
                         occupational breakdown of Sana’a City’s
                                                  92
                         private sector work force and also
                         occupational breakdowns for 1999, 2004
                                      93
                         and 2005/6 . The census tables are also
                         listed in the annex:
                         http://cso-
                         yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=
                         322 (part two)

                         The 2005/6 household budget survey
                         provides detailed breakdowns of income
                         and revenue sources for individuals,
                         households and regions in different areas
                         and also tied to other factors, such as
                                                             94
                         occupation and educational status .

                         It also has data on the varying proportion
                         of 15+ employment representation in
                         different parts of the country, including
                         Sana’a City. For instance, in Sana’a City,
                         some of the largest contributors to
                         employment include: 26% of 15+
                         employees in public administration,
                         defence and social insurance; 18% in




90
   Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Labour
Force, table 1)
91
   Central Statistical Office, 2004 census, p. 171. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=322 (part two)
92
   Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Labour
Force, table 8)
93
   Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Labour
Force, tables 5-7)
94
   Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.          Yemen :   page 18



                         wholesale, retail and vehicle
                         maintenance; 8% were in education; 8%
                         in manufacturing; 8% in transport,
                         storage and communications; 7% in
                         building and construction; and 5%
                         agriculture, hunting and forestry
                                  95
                         (2005/6) . For urban areas in general,
                         the main contributors to the 15+
                         employed are: 18% of 15+ employees in
                         public administration, defence and social
                         insurance; 22.8% in wholesale, retail and
                         vehicle maintenance; 8.8% were in
                         education; 8.5% in manufacturing; 8.6%
                         in transport, storage and
                         communications; 7.8% in building and
                         construction; and 5.3% agriculture,
                                                       96
                         hunting and forestry (2005/6)

                         The HBS also has detailed data on the
                         relative length of tenure of different
                         positions, the number of working
                         hours/week, wages, 6-14 year old
                         employment and other aspects of the
                                                  97
                         employment experience .




95
   Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 5 - 3)
96
   Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 5 - 11)
97
   Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 5)
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :    page 19


                                                   99
Urban & national         HDI Rank (2007): 140th
                                                  100
education & health       HDI value (2007): 0.575
details & trends.        Life expectancy at birth, years:
                                          101
                         62.5years (2007)
                         Life expectancy, years (2007 data):
                                                     102
                         60.9 (male), 64.1 (female)
                         Under-5 mortality rate:
                                                  103
                         127 (1990)  69 (2008)
                         Infant mortality rate (<1):
                                                104
                         90 (1990)  53 (2008)
                         Prevalence of severe stunting (2-5
                         years): 27.5% total, 23.5% urban
                                  105
                         (2005/6)                                        Health care in the country is currently regarded
                         Prevalence of severe wasting (2-5               poorly, with many Yemenis travelling to
                         years): 10.2% total, 10.0% urban                neighbouring countries such as Egypt and
                                  106
                         (2005/6)                                        Jordan for treatment: an estimated $200 million




99
   2007 figure, from UNDP (2009), Human Development Report 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
100
    UNDP, Human Development Report 2009, p.172. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
101
    UNDP, Human Development Report 2009, p.172. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
102
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report, p.182. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
103
    UNICEF. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/yemen_statistics.html
104
    UNICEF. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/yemen_statistics.html
105
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.10. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
106
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.10. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :     page 20



                         Prevalence of severely underweight (<5          is spent by Yemenis on health care abroad
                                                                                  132
                         years): 11.6% total, 10.2% urban                annually .
                                   107
                         (2005/6)
                         There is also World Bank analysis data on       According to the National Health Accounts
                         access to health care facilities in urban       Study, government expenditure on health care
                         areas, depending on poverty levels (the         was 1.8% of GDP in 2003 and amounted to only
                         table is not dated, though from the             32% of total health expenditure across the
                         general context is is probable it is drawn      country. Analysis suggested that members of
                         from 2005/6 data, but this should               the poorest households did not necessarily
                                                              108                                                 133
                         perhaps be confirmed before use) .              receive their care from a public facility .

                         The 2005/6 household budget survey has          2005/6 household survey data shows that the
                         data on the distribution of chronic             percentage of persons surveyed who were ill in
                         diseases (such as heart disease,                the previous month who sought medical
                         hypertension, etc.) in urban areas,             treatment ranged from 56.6% in the poorest
                                               109
                         including Sana’a City . It also includes        quintile to 79.7% in the highest quintile.
                         data on the health patterns (such as qatt       Households in the poorest quintile spend
                         use) and health treatment distribution.         around half that of the richest quintile on health
                                                                             134
                                                                         care .

                         Combined gross enrolment ratio in               According to a 2007 World Bank poverty
                                                    110
                         education (2007): 54.4%                         assessment, drawing on comparative analysis of
                         School life expectancy, years:                  1998 and 2005/6 household budget data, while
                         9 (overall), 11 (male), 7 (female) (2005,       enrolment rates generally increased during the
                                   111
                         UIS est.)                                       period, enrolment rates among the poorest
                         Adult (15+) literacy (2008, UIS est.):          decile declined by 5% in both urban and rural
                                                                               135
                         60.9% (M/F)                                     areas . In 2005, the enrolment rates among
                         78.9% (male)                                    the poorest decile was 64% for boys and 37%




107
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.10. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
108
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.30. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
109
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 4 - 8)
110
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report, p.171. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
111
    UN DESA. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/education.htm
132
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.22. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
133
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.14. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
134
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, pp.10-11. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
135
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.9. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :       page 21



                         42.8% (female)                                  for girls, a reduction of 6% and 4% respectively
                                                                                      136
                         Youth (15-24) literacy (2008, UIS est.):        from 1998 .
                         82.9% (M/F)
                         95.1% (male)
                                          112
                         70.0% (female)
                         According to figures produced in the
                         2010 Millennium Development Goals
                         report, illiteracy rates are 47.2%: 25.7%
                         in urban and 54% in rural areas (date not
                         explicitly mentioned, but it probably
                                          113
                         refers to 2008) . This is higher than the
                         figures above (it may involve a different
                         age range) and also higher than the
                         2005/6 HBS figures that put 10+ illiteracy
                         rates at 40.7% nationally( 21.3% male,
                         60.0% female) and 23.5% in urban areas
                                                                 114
                         (11.6% male, 35.4% female) (2005/6)
                         Education - Primary enrolment, gross
                         enrolment rate:
                         85% (2008) (M/F)
                         94% (2008) (male)
                         76% (2008) (female)
                         Education - Primary enrolment, net
                         enrolment rate:
                         73% (2008) (M/F)
                         79% (2008) (male)
                         66% (2008) (female)




112
    UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=7880&BR_Regi
on=40525
113
    UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, p.xi. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
114
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 3 - 1)
136
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, pp.33. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.   Yemen :   page 22



                         Education – Secondary enrolment, gross
                         enrolment rate:
                         41% (1999) (M/F)
                         58% (1999) (male)
                                                 115
                         22% (1999) (female)
                         Education – Secondary enrolment, net
                         enrolment rate (nat. est.:
                         32% (1999) (M/F
                         44% (1999) (male)
                                                 116
                         18% (1999) (female)
                         Tertiary enrolment – gross enrolment
                         rate (nat. est.):
                         10% (1999) (M/F)
                         16% (1999) (male)
                                               117
                         4% (1999) (female)
                         Percentage of females to total students
                                           118
                         (2008/9): 35.6%
                         Percentage of females to total students,
                         basic schools, public: 42.5%
                                      119
                         (2008/2009)
                         Percentage of females to total students,
                         secondary schools, public: 35.7%
                                      120
                         (2008/2009)
                         Average number of students per
                         classroom, basic schools, public: 32.4
                                      121
                         (2008/2009)
                         Average number of students per
                         classroom, secondary schools, public:
                                            122
                         38.3 (2008/2009)
                         Average number of students per




115
    UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=7880&BR_Regi
on=40525
116
    UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=7880&BR_Regi
on=40525
117
    UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=7880&BR_Regi
on=40525
118
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
119
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
120
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
121
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
122
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.    Yemen :     page 23



                         classroom, secondary schools, private:
                                           123
                         18.9 (2008/2009)
                         There is also government data for
                                                      124
                         enrolment rates by year group .

                         The enrolment rates (6-14 years old) for
                         Sana’a City according to the 2005/6
                         household budget survey was 84.9%:
                         86.2% for males, 83.3% for females. For
                         Yemen as a whole, the rate was 65.7%:
                         75.1% for males and 55.5% for
                                 125
                         females .

                         Educational attainment of individuals
                         10+ Years by Area and by Poverty
                         Status, Urban (2005):
                         Illiterate: 23.8% (29.8% poor, 22.2% non-
                         poor)
                         Read and Write: 36.0% (43.2% poor,
                         34.1% non-poor)
                         Basic Education: 11.8% (9.8% poor,
                         12.3% non-poor)
                         Diploma Before Secondary: 7.5% (6.1%
                         poor, 7.9% non-poor)
                         Secondary: 13.3% (8.8% poor, 14.5%
                         non-poor)
                         Intermediate: 1.8% (0.8% poor, 2.1%
                         non-poor)
                         University and More: 5.7% (1.4% poor,
                                          126
                         6.8% non-poor) .

                         There is also similar data on the
                         educational attainment levels of the 15+
                         population, as well as more detailed data
                         on the poverty levels of specific sectoral
                         workers, the unemployed/employed and
                         comparative detail on the average
                         working hours/household size for
                                                     127
                         poor/non-poor households .

                         There is also 2005/6 data for the general




123
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
124
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009, pp.52-54. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
125
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Education, table 3)
126
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.1. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
127
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :     page 24



                         urban 10+ population, presented in a
                                                  128
                         slightly different format . There is also
                         2005/6 HBS data on the enrolment
                         status of the 5+ population: in urban
                         Sana’a City, of the 5+ population, 38.8%
                         were currently enrolled, 35.9% were
                         previously enrolled, 24.1% were never
                         enrolled and 1.3% had an unspecified
                                                      129
                         enrolment status (2005/6) . There is
                         also more detailed statistical analysis of
                         the educational backgrounds of different
                         sectors of the urban population.

                         Distribution of population by education
                         level (2004 census):
                         Sana’a                                          2004 census data shows that the population of
                         Illiterate - 21.9%                              Sana’a is better educated than the rest of the
                         Read and Write - 32.0%                          country: for instance, illiteracy rates were 21.9%
                         Primary - 6.0%                                  in Sana’a municipality, compared to 25.7% in
                         Vocational, Basic - 14.2%                       urban Yemen and 45.3% in the country as a
                         Diploma before Secondary - 0.3%                 whole. Higher education levels in Sana’a were
                         Secondary and Equivalent - 15.8%                7.4%, compared to 5.3% in urban Yemen and
                                                                                                                  137
                         Diploma after Secondary - 1.5%                  2.3% in the country as a whole (2004) .
                         Higher Education - 7.4%
                         Nondeclared - 0.9%
                         Urban Yemen
                         Illiterate - 25.7%
                         Read and Write - 34.4%
                         Primary - 4.9%
                         Vocational, Basic - 12.9%
                         Diploma before Secondary - 0.7%
                         Secondary and Equivalent - 13.8%
                         Diploma after Secondary - 1.7%
                         Higher Education - 5.3%
                         Nondeclared - 0.6%
                         All Yemen
                         Illiterate - 45.3%




128
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 3 - 1)
129
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 3 – 2a)
137
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.16. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :        page 25



                         Read and Write - 31.5%
                         Primary - 3.1%
                         Vocational, Basic - 8.5%
                         Diploma before Secondary - 0.4%
                         Secondary and Equivalent - 7.2%
                         Diploma after Secondary - 1.0%
                         Higher Education - 2.3%
                                              130
                         Nondeclared - 0.7%

                         The 2005/6 HBS also has more detailed
                         data on education, for example touching
                                           131
                         on drop out rates .
Tourism- details &       Total returns on tourism (2009): $903           Sana’a was declared a UNESCO World Heritage
                                 138
trends.                  million                                         Site in 1984 and a 2001-2004 conservation
                                                                         strategy was also created to enhance the
                                                                                                              139
                                                                         character of the city’s historic core . There are
                                                                         also a number of other Yemeni cities with
                                                                         substantial historic heritage and touristic
                                                                         potential, such as Zabid and Shibam – both of
                                                                                                                   140
                                                                         them also UNESCO World Heritage Sites .

                                                                         However, despite its substantial assets as a
                                                                         tourist destination, Yemen’s tourist industry is
                                                                         weakened by underdeveloped infrastructure
                                                                                                       141
                                                                         and ongoing security threats . A number of
                                                                         terror attacks have been targeted specifically at
                                                                         tourists and foreigners, with fatal results,
                                                                         including the kidnap and execution of 9
                                                                                            142
                                                                         foreigners in 2009 , the death of 4 tourists in a




130
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.16. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
131
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 3)
138
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
139
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.9. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
140
    UNESCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://whc.unesco.org/en/254
141
    Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, ‘Country profile: Yemen’. August 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Yemen.pdf
142
    MSNBC, ‘9 foreigners reportedly killed in Yemen’. June 15, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31350967/ns/world_news-mideast/n_africa/
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.               Yemen :     page 26


                                                                                                            143
                                                                         bomb blast earlier the same year and the
                                                                                                      144
                                                                         killing of 2 tourists in 2008 . At the time of
                                                                         writing, the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth
                                                                         Office advised against all but essential travel to
                                                                                       145
                                                                         the country .
3. Urban
development &
Housing
Conditions
How do cities of this
country relate to the
region? (either
Mashreq, Margeb, LDC
or Gulf)
Urban poverty,           Human Poverty Index:                            A 2007 World Bank poverty assessment found,
inequality &             35.7 (2009, HDR)                                using comparative analysis of 1998 and 2005/6
vulnerable groups        Rank: 111
                                   146
                                                                         household budget survey data, that the urban
(youth, gender,
                         Population living below $1 (PPP) a day          poverty rate had fallen from 32.3% (the
migrants, refugees,                    147
                         (2005): 17.5%                                   document produces the figures both of 32.2 and
IDPs).
                         Population below national poverty line          32.3, but the actual figure is 32.29) to 20.7%,
                         (1998): 41.8% (30.8% urban, 45.0%               driven by rapid oil-led growth. In rural areas,
                               148
                         rural)                                          though there had also been a decline, using
                         Poorest quintile share in national              standard measures, this was not robust: a
                                                              149
                         income or consumption (2005): 7.2%              slightly higher poverty level measurement




143
    Al Jazeera, ‘Tourists killed in Yemeni blast’. March 16, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/03/2009315235211534410.html
144
    Worth, R., ‘Killing of 2 Belgian tourists in Yemeni ambush’. New York Times, January 19, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/19/world/middleeast/19sana.html?_r=1
145
    FCO. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/middle-
east-north-africa/yemen
146
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
147
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
148
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
149
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.         Yemen :     page 27



                         Inequality is sharper in urban areas: the       would have suggested a net increase in the rural
                         bottom income quintile receive only             poverty rate. Poverty rates also varied
                         6.1% of total spending compared to              considerably between governorates: using
                                                                                                         165
                         46.6% for the highest quintile,                 2005/6 data, from 5.4% to 71% . However,
                         amounting to a ratio of 8:1 between the         public and private transfer have played a
                                                         150                                                        166
                         richest and the poorest groups .                significant role in reducing poverty levels .
                                                                         While urban areas accounted for 27% of the
                         2005/6 household budget survey data             country’s population, they represented only
                                                                                          167
                         Poverty                                         16% of its poor .
                         2005/6 HBS data puts poverty in urban
                         Sana’a City at 14.98%, with a poverty gap       However, inequality in rural areas remained
                         (P1) value of 3.39 and a poverty severity       constant or slightly improved, in urban areas
                                           151
                         (P2) value of 1.09 .                            (despite poverty reductions) it actually
                                                                         worsened between 1998 and 2005/6. The
                         Income                                          figures are presented in the document as
                         According to the 2005/6 household               changes in the GINI coefficient:
                         budget survey, the average household            Inequality change (1998  2005/6) GINI
                         income in Sana’a City (urban) was YR            coefficient:
                         1,516,457, compared to YR 1,214,845 in          Sana’a City (total/urban): 36.75 (1998)  44.56
                         urban Yemen in general and YR 884,183           (2005/6)
                         in the country as a whole. Per individual,      Aden (urban): 31.64 (1998)  35.94 (2005/6)
                         annual income amounted to YR 215,557,           Yemen, urban: 35.71 (1998)  41.08
                                                                                  168
                         compared to YR 169,949 in urban Yemen           (2005/6)
                         and YR 117,747 in the country as a              The GINI increase in Sana’a between 1998 and
                                152
                         whole .                                         2005 amounted to 215, the sharpest increase of
                                                                                                   169
                         (However, this data needs to be clarified       any region in the country




150
    UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, p.5. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
151
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Indicators of poverty line)
152
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 7 - 2)
165
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, pp.7-8. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
166
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.15. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
167
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.25. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
168
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment, p.50. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_I_Main_Report.pdf
169
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.17. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :        page 28



                         as there is another table in the results (7-    However, poverty rates since the official
                            153
                         3) that shows different figures for the         assessment of the 2005/6 HBS have risen
                         average household and individual                substantially as a result of the food, fuel and
                         income: it is possible these are the            financial crises: from 35% in 2006 to 43%
                                                                               170
                         results from the previous household             today . While poverty may be concentrated
                         budget survey, but it is not specified so       primarily in rural area, it is important to
                         this needs to be clarified before               consider the impact this has on accelerating
                         inclusion: there is Arabic text with the        rural-urban migration (see above).
                         tables that may explain).
                         There is also 2005/6 household budget           According to the Sana’a City Development
                         survey data on the different income             Strategy, with the exception of recently created
                         quintiles. For instance, in Sana’a City         high class residential neighbourhoods, Sana’a
                         (urban), the average monthly household          urban poor are located in all parts of the city:
                         income was 126,371, with the poorest            “Poor families live in older dilapidated
                         quintile averaging YR 18,027 while the          structures in central neighborhoods, small
                         richest quintile averaged YR 435,027. In        single-storey structures in the middle of typical
                         urban Yemen, the average monthly                multi-storey buildings of middle class
                         household income was 101,237, with the          neighborhoods or in small rented flats
                         poorest quintile averaging YR 9,283 while       throughout the city and also in fringe informal
                                                                                                      171
                         the richest quintile averaged YR 349,695.       and squatter settlements.”
                         In Yemen as a whole, the average
                         monthly household income was 73,682,
                         with the poorest quintile averaging YR
                         5,874 while the richest quintile averaged
                                      154
                         YR 246,708 . There is similar data for
                         average individual consumption by
                                  155
                         quintile , as well as other expenditure
                         data breakdowns tied to specific
                                                        156
                         variables, such as occupation .




153
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 7 – 2a)
154
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 7 - 3)
155
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 6 - 9)
156
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 6)
170
    Cited by the World Food Program. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.wfp.org/countries/Yemen/Overview
171
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.17. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :        page 29



Percentage of slum &
informal settlements     Slum to urban population:                       Many informal settlements in Sana’a are
dwellers.                67.2% (2005)
                                      157
                                                                         located in public land or in flood paths, with no
                         Slum population in urban areas:                 secure land tenure or basic services. Sana’a
                         1,787,400 (1990)  4,102,018                    municipality has undertaken some upgrading
                               158
                         (2005)                                          projects in informal settlements and some
                         Proportion of urban population with             resettlement programs in flood-prone areas.
                         access to durable housing (1991):               This ongoing work is a stated priority of the
                                 159                                                      172
                         76.30%                                          local authorities .
                         Proportion of urban population with
                                                                 160
                         sufficient living area (1991): 52.80%           A 2008 article by Robert Worth highlighted the
                         More than 8% of the population (it is not       plight of the ‘Akhdam’ (meaning ‘servants’), a
                         entirely clear if this refers to the urban      social group in Yemen with more African
                         population specifically or the population       features that face substantial societal
                         as a whole) in 2005 were not able to            discrimination. There are more than a million of
                                                 161
                         access safe housing.                            them, many concentrated in urban slums,
                         Additional material                             marginalised from employment opportunities
                                                                                                  173
                         There is government projected data (up          and with insecure tenure . An Oxfam
                         to 2009) on housing types in Sana’a City        representative n the country has called for the
                         and the country, as well as service access      Akhdam to be granted the land rights that
                         and usage patterns in water, sanitation         under the law they are entitled to over their
                         and electricity (see below, section 4).         settled land to strengthen their protection from
                                                                                              174
                                                                         human rights abuses .
                         The 2005/6 household budget survey
                         produces data on household facilities
                         and service access (from water,
                         sanitation, etc. to kitchen, bathroom,
                         legal tenure, etc.) in urban areas,
                         correlated against other variables such as
                                                 162
                         poor/non-poor status . Some of this
                         data has been integrated into the
                         relevant sections of this document.

                         The HBS also has data on the percentage
                         of urban households exposed to a whole
                         range of environmental issues, from poor




157
    UN Statistics Division. Retrieved December 2, 2010 at: http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?q=slum&d=MDG&f=seriesRowID:710
158
    United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved November 17, 2010 at:
http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=MDG&f=seriesRowID:711
159
    United Nations. Retrieved November 8, 2010 at: http://www.devinfo.info/urbaninfo/
160
    United Nations. Retrieved November 8, 2010 at: http://www.devinfo.info/urbaninfo/
161
   UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, p.45. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
162
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.30. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
172
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.19. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
173
    Worth, R., ‘Languishing at the bottom of Yemen’s ladder’. New York Times, February 27, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/27/world/middleeast/27yemen.html?pagewanted=all
174
    Murdock, H., ‘Ancient class system haunts Yemeni shantytowns’. Yemen Times, August 24, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.yementimes.com/defaultdet.aspx?SUB_ID=237
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.           Yemen :      page 30



                         ventilation, smells and noise to stagnant
                         water, humidity and exhaust pollution.
                         For instance, 12.3% of urban households
                         are exposed to sewage smells and 7.7%
                         to smells from garbage. Only 28.7% of
                         urban households are not exposed to
                         any of the survey’s listed ‘health effects’
                                  163
                         (2005/6) .

                         There is also HBS data on the availability
                         in urban households of a very wide range
                         of durable goods, such as hair dryers and
                                 164
                         camera .
Informal urbanization:   According to rough estimates developed          Informal settlements have grown rapidly over
The role/impacts of      as part of Sana’a City Development              the past twenty years, particularly at Sana’a,
lacking or restrictive   Strategy, using GIS mapping, between            Aden, Taiz and Hodeidah. Informal urban areas
legislation.
                         313,000 and 390,000 inhabitants of              in Yemen are characterised by limited economic
                         Sana’a, amounting to 16.5%-20.5% of its         opportunities, environmental degradation and
                         population, reside in informal housing.         little if any access to essential basic service such
                         Of the 744,207 additional inhabitants in        as water and sanitation. A 2010 project
                         the city between the 1994 and 2004              appraisal in Taiz by the World Bank argued that
                         censuses, estimates suggest that around         given the higher costs of resettlement, costing
                         a third of these found housing in one of        on average $13,000 per household compared to
                         the 35 informal areas identified in the         $1,000 per household for upgrading in situ (in
                             175
                         CDS .                                           Taiz specifically), on site upgrading (limited to
                                                                         basic service delivery, rather than the provision
                                                                         of decent shelter or new housing) was the only
                                                                         economically viable solution for Yemen to
                                                                         pursue. However, it did add that the lack of
                                                                         formal tenure and land ownership in informal
                                                                         settlements posed risks of future disputes in the
                                                                                                       176
                                                                         context of urban upgrading .

                                                                         In Sana’a, the majority of urban development in
                                                                         the last decade has been unplanned and
                                                                         without licensed permits, occurring without
                                                                         coherent urban planning or basic infrastructures
                                                                         and service provision. Some neighbourhood
                                                                         plans are drawn up after the settlements
                                                                         appear, but these are generally aligned to
                                                                         typical traditional neighbourhood patterns with




163
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 17)
164
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 18)
175
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.39. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
176
    World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 14.5 Million (US$22 Equivalent) to the
Republic of Yemen for an Integrated Urban Development Project. April 22, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/05/06/000333037_20100506010500/Rendered/PDF/5
38100PAD0Box31ly10IDA1R20101012011.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 31



                                                                         little knowledge or understanding of the
                                                                         underlying land ownership patterns, due to the
                                                                         lack of a effective land registration system.
                                                                         Furthermore, these official development plans
                                                                         are generally not implemented as landowners
                                                                         are resistant to trade their land for service
                                                                                   177
                                                                         provision .

                                                                         The Sana’a City Development Strategy
                                                                         document has highlighted the absence of a
                                                                         considered planning approach to informal
                                                                         settlements. The response has generally been
                                                                         the mechanism of the neighbourhood plan, but
                                                                         these have generally made little theoretical or
                                                                         actual difference to the settlements, as they
                                                                         remain largely unenforceable. Securing public
                                                                         land for infrastructure remains a challenge, as
                                                                         well as adequately responding to the
                                                                         environmental, health, overcrowding, and land
                                                                         conflict challenges affecting these areas. The
                                                                         CDS makes a range of recommendations to deal
                                                                         with this, including participatory consultation,
                                                                         holistic planning drawing on social and
                                                                         economic developmental concerns, and
                                                                                                178
                                                                         adequate monitoring .
Housing supply,          No. of households (2009):                       In Yemen, there is an estimated need of 80,000
housing finance,                                                                                  192
                         Sana’a City: 294,971                            housing units annually . In a short report in
mortgage markets &       Aden:105,265
                                        179
                                                                         2008, the Yemen Times identified the critical
affordability.
                         No. of dwellings (2009):                        role of declining agriculture in rural areas and
                         Sana’a City:289,800                             urban migration, particularly among the youth.
Rental housing:                         180
policies & restrictive   Aden: 105,796                                   This pressure on housing in turn has led to
legislation.                                                             volatile rental prices and rapidly increasing
                                                                                                              193
                         Government projections                          construction and real estate prices .
                         In 2009, there were 196,675 construction
                         units in Sana’a City in 2009: 64,587 were
                         ‘buildings’, 79,873 were ‘houses’, 25,904




177
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.19. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
178
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.38-41. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
179
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
180
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
192
    World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 14.5 Million (US$22 Equivalent) to the
Republic of Yemen for an Integrated Urban Development Project. April 22, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/05/06/000333037_20100506010500/Rendered/PDF/5
38100PAD0Box31ly10IDA1R20101012011.pdf
193
    Yemen Times, ‘Rural-urban explosion and Yemen’s housing crisis’. March 27, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.yementimes.com/DefaultDET.aspx?i=1141&p=business&a=1
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.   Yemen :   page 32



                         were ‘separate houses’, 6,004 were
                         ‘villas’, 1,202 were ‘other housing
                         places’, 7,945 were ‘housing under
                         construction’ and 11,159 were
                                           181
                         ‘establishments’ .

                         In 2009, of the 309,159 dwellings in
                         Sana’a City in 2009, 174,560 were
                         ‘separate houses’, 108,679 were
                         ‘apartments’, 19,409 were ‘inhabited
                         establishments’, 2,464 were ‘collective
                         dwellings’, 670 were ‘collective dwelling
                         establishments’, 436 were ‘huts’ and
                         2,941 were ‘other’ (a category that
                         includes tin shacks, tent and improvised
                                  182
                         shelters) .

                         In 2009, of the 309,159 dwellings in
                         Sana’a City, 147,170 (47.6%) were
                         owned, 150,936 (48.8%) were rented,
                         2,367 were endowments and 8,686 were
                                              183
                         other arrangements .

                         Note that these government figures are
                         based on estimates and projections.

                         According to 2005/2006 household
                         budget survey data:
                         Availability of bathroom, urban, by
                         household (2005): 90.4% (82.9% poor,
                                           184
                         92.4% non-poor)
                         Availability of kitchen, urban, by
                         household (2005): 97.1% (96.5% poor,
                                           185
                         97.2% non-poor)

                         There is also 2005/6 household budget
                         survey data on the housing type and
                         materials in urban Yemen:
                         Housing type, urban:
                         Villa: 1.5% (0.2% poor, 1.9%non-poor)
                         Apartment: 23.2% (11.8% poor, 26.2%




181
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Construction & Building & Housing, table 5-1)
182
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Construction & Building & Housing, table 5-2)
183
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Construction & Building & Housing, table 5-3)
184
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
185
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.   Yemen :   page 33



                         non-poor)
                         Family house: 71.5% (81.8% poor, 68.8%
                         non-poor)
                         Others: 3.7% (6.1% poor, 3.1% non-
                               186
                         poor)
                         Housing material, urban:
                         Cement: 43.2% (54.1% poor, 40.4% non-
                         poor)
                         Tiles: 39.7% (20.6% poor, 44.7% non-
                         poor)
                         Natural soil: 12.6% (22.9% poor, 9.9%
                         non-poor)
                         Others: 4.5% (2.5% poor, 5.0% non-
                               187
                         poor)

                         Housing type, Sana’a City (urban) (%
                         housing) (2005/6):
                         Separate house: 53.3%
                         Apartment: 43.8%
                         Villa: 1.7%
                         Inhabited establishment: 0.2%
                         Metal cottage: 0.1%
                         Hut: 0%
                         Tent: 0%
                         Other: 0.9%
                         Housing type, Sana’a City (urban) (%
                         individuals) (2005/6):
                         Separate house: 58.8%
                         Apartment: 38.4%
                         Villa: 2.1%
                         Inhabited establishment: 0.1%
                         Metal cottage: 0.1%
                         Hut: 0%
                         Tent: 0%
                                      188
                         Other: 0.5%
                         This data does not appear to give a clear
                         picture of the extent of informal
                         construction, however.

                         There is also HBS data on the type of
                         main material used in external walls
                         urban Yemen (2005/6):
                         Cut stone: 14.5%
                         Regular stone: 23.6%
                         Cement block: 47.3%




186
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
187
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
188
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 1)
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.       Yemen :   page 34



                         Sun dried brick: 2.5%
                         Cooked bured: 0.6%
                         Mud: 7.4%
                         Hay/canes: 0.9%
                         Fabric/wool: 0.04%
                                      189
                         Other: 3.3%
                         There is also data for the individual
                         governorates and for the ceiling and
                                                         190
                         floor material of the buildings .

                         Additional material
                         There is 2005/household budget survey
                         data on the distribution of household
                         size(from 1-10+) in different areas of the
                         country, including Sana’a City: for
                         instance, out of 240,406 households,
                         48,327 (20.1%) had 10 or more
                                    191
                         members . (This figure is for all of
                         Sana’a City, including a small number of
                         technically ‘rural’ households: there is
                         also another table following if that is
                         listed as rural households, but must
                         actually be urban, as the majority of
                         Sana’a City households are included in
                         it). The HBS also contains detailed data
                         on the age distribution, marital status
                         and other issues surrounding household
                         composition.

                         The Central Statistical Organisation has
                         data on the number and nature of
                         construction permits issued in 2003 and
                         2004, if required (tables 5-9).
                         http://www.cso-
                         yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=
                         153

                         There is also the Building and
                         Construction Survey Final Report 2004
                         (listed but not actually available on the
                         website) and also the 2003 version of the
                         survey, though its focus is on the
                         construction market and is likely to be of
                         very limited use:
                         http://www.cso-
                         yemen.org/books/construction_book_20
                         03.pdf

                         It is possible the raw data could be useful


189
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 3)
190
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2)
191
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 1 - 2)
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :     page 35



                         if processed into a comparative figures
                         with the estimated number of expanded
                         urban housing units to illustrate how the
                         majority of construction has occurred
                         outside the regulatory system. Some
                         similar analysis has in fact been done
                         and some figures are produced in this
                         document.
Impacts of the youth     % of population aged (0-14):                    With a fertility rate of 5.2 births/woman (2008),
bulge, household                    194
                         44% (2009)                                      Yemen has the second highest rate of the 22
formation rates,         42.8% (2009, government data from
                                                                                                                 200
                                                                         Arab states under focus, after Somalia . The
gender issues.                                             195
                         2005-25 population projections)                 same is also true of the proportion of its
                         % population, 0-24 (2010): 64.7%                population under 14, with only Somalia having a
                                                                                                                      201
                         % population, 0-15 (2010): 43.4%                higher concentration of the 22 Arab states .
                         % population, 15-24 (2010): 21.3%               The Middle East Youth Initiative paper cites
                         % population, 0-24 (2025): 55.2%                2003 Arab Family Health Survey data showing
                         % population, 0-24 (2025): 33.7%                fertility rates between 1998-2003 were 6.2
                                                              196
                         % population, 15-24 (2025):21.5%                births/woman in the country as a whole, 4.5
                                                                         births per women in urban areas and almost 8
                         Youth unemployment (15-24) (1994):              births/women in urban Sana’a City – despite
                         17.9% (20.2% for males, 9.8% for                having the highest contraceptive use rates in
                                  197
                         females)                                        the country. Fertility rates in Aden were much
                                                                                202
                         Ratio of youth unemployment rate to             lower . Its fertility rate only began to reduce in
                         adult unemployment rate (1999): 3.4             the 1990s, much later than most Middle Eastern
                                               198
                         (3.3male, 7.5 female)                           countries, and its population is forecast to
                         Share of youth unemployed to total              continue growing at a high rate for many
                         unemployed (1999):                              decades – against a backdrop of declining
                                                                                                            203
                         48.4% (46.9% for males, 55.8% for               resources, such as oil and water .
                                  199
                         females)
                                                                         Yemen’s future social, political and economic
                                                                         security will be challenges by two central issues:
                                                                         unemployment, and the country’s emerging
                                                                         ‘youth bulge’. Unemployment is high across the
                                                                         country, but is concentrated with particular




194
    World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS
195
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Labour
Force, table 3)
196
    US Census Bureau, International Data Base. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/groups.php
197
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
198
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
199
    UN MDG indicators. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
200
    World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN?order=wbapi_data_value_2008+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value-
last&sort=desc
201
    World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.0014.TO.ZS?order=wbapi_data_value_2009+wbapi_data_value+wbapi_data_value
-last&sort=desc
202
    Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, pp. 13-15. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
203
    Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, p. 6. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.            Yemen :     page 36



                                                                         severity among the young. However, this is
                                                                         likely to be exacerbated by the fact that, like
                                                                         many developing countries, Yemen has
                                                                         accumulated a substantial youth bulge as
                                                                         mortality rates have declined, while fertility
                                                                         rates have remained high. This, combined with
                                                                         unemployment, represents a major structural
                                                                         contributor to the country’s underlying
                                                                                     204
                                                                         insecurity . A 2006 UN assessment predicted
                                                                         that, if left unchecked, it could exceed 40%
                                                                                           205
                                                                         within a decade .

                                                                         A 2009 report by the Middle East Youth
                                                                         Initiative ( a joint program of the Wolfensohn
                                                                         Center for Development and the Dubai School
                                                                         of Government) identified the important
                                                                         influence of Yemen’s limited educational
                                                                         opportunities, and the poor alignment of the
                                                                         educational system with the country’s labour
                                                                         market, in exacerbating the youth bulge.
                                                                         Livelihood issues and family formation trends
                                                                         are also of relevance: limited economic
                                                                         opportunities are obliging many young men to
                                                                         put off marriage, while the tendency for women
                                                                         to marry and have children at an early age
                                                                         effectively excludes them from pursuing
                                                                                                       206
                                                                         employment opportunities .
Urban tenure,             Home ownership, urban (individuals)            Yemen has no system for official land
property rights &         (2005/6):                                      registration or authentication, and as a result
titling.                  Owned - 67.7% (72.3% poor, 66.5% non-          conflicts over land are common. However, both
                                207
                          poor)                                          rural and urban residents have a reasonable
Urban land markets,
                          Rented - 24.5% (22.1% poor, 25.1% non-         measure of tenure security through civil,
tenure, property rights
& titling.                poor)                                          customary or Islamic law. However, land is
                          Free - 1.0% (1.1% poor, 1.0% non-poor)         increasingly monopolised by a few affluent
                          Other - 6.8% (4.6% poor, 7.4% non-             families, resulting in limited land access for both
                                208                                                                  211
                          poor)                                          urban and rural residents .




204
   IRIN, ‘Yemen's "youth bulge" and unemployment - an explosive mix’. September 26, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=90572
205
    UNDP/Government of Yemen (2006), Country Programme Action Plan (CPAP): 2007-2011, p.6. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/347637a397c3e7CPAP_%202007-2011.pdf
206
    Middle East Initiative (2009), Youth Exclusion in Yemen: Tackling the Twin Deficits of Human Development and Natural
Resources, pp. 6-8. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.shababinclusion.org/content/document/detail/1510/
207
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
208
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
211
    USAID, USAID COUNTRY PROFILE: Property Rights and Resource Governance, Yemen. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://usaidlandtenure.net/usaidltprproducts/country-profiles/yemen
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.            Yemen :         page 37



                         By house, in urban areas 61% are owned,
                         29% rented, 2% occupied free and 8%             Sana’a’s distorted land market has been
                         ‘other’. This compares to 80% of houses         identified as one of the city’s main challenges.
                         owned, 10% rented, 2% occupied free             In the 2002 Investment Climate Survey, 37% of
                         and 8% ‘other’ in the country as a whole        respondent firms rated “access to land” as a
                         (2005/6). In rural areas, 88% of houses         major/severe obstacle to doing business,
                         are owned, 2% rented, 2% occupied free          compared to 30% in Yemen as a whole. Access
                                         209
                         and 8% ‘other’ .                                to land is also a pressing issue for local
                                                                         authorities in providing services such as health
                         There is also HBS data on the proportion        centres and schools: as the majority of land in
                         of households with 1-10+ rooms in urban         Sana’a is privately owned, the local authorities
                              210
                         areas .                                         are obliged to purchase land at very high prices,
                                                                         a reflection of Sana’a inflated real estate prices.
                                                                         Land disputes are also dominate an estimated
                                                                         30-50% of all cases heard in the primary courts.
                                                                         Land registration is also very limited: it is
                                                                         thought that the land registry does not cover
                                                                         more than 20% of the city’s annual land and
                                                                                                 212
                                                                         property transactions .

Urban land & fiscal                                                      According to a recent report by the SIRIM
policy (relating to
                                                                         Berhad Malaysian Company, only 4% of
property speculation,
                                                                         Yemenis have bank accounts, with a credit
property tax etc).
                                                                         percentage of around 30%. This was due to the
                                                                         weakness of the finance system and meant that
                                                                         the private sector was unable to secure the
                                                                                            213
                                                                         credit it required . Relating to this, there is
                                                                         2005/6 household budget survey data that may
                                                                         reinforce this point well: the net value of loans
                                                                         to households from varying sources, including
                                                                         banks, traders, relative, friends and other
                                                                         groups. For urban households in Yemen, for
                                                                         instance, YR 4,670,689,645 in loans were issued
                                                                         by banks but YR 80,248,293,552 by
                                                                         friends/neighbours and YR 37,958,327,018 by
                                                                                  214
                                                                         traders . Since the time frame of this data may
                                                                         be difficult to ascertain (it does not specify if
                                                                         this is per annum) these figures could be cross-




209
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 7)
210
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 8)
212
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.19. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
213
    Saeed, A., ‘Only four per cent of Yemeni have bank accounts’. Yemen Times, January 24, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://yementimes.com/defaultdet.aspx?SUB_ID=35463
214
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 7 - 8)
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 38



                                                                         scaled into comparative figures.
Land issues in conflict
& occupied area                                                          Land disputes in Yemen are relatively common,
(where relevant).
                                                                         due to the absence of a national cadastre or
                                                                                                   215
                                                                         land registry (see above) . Regular violent
                                                                         outbreaks occur across the country over
                                                                         contested land, including in Sana’a and around
                                                                         other cities such as Aden: “Violent
                                                                         land disputes are a frequent occurrence
                                                                         in areas such as the newer parts of
                                                                         Sana’a city where new construction is
                                                                         widespread and land values are rising
                                                                                   216
                                                                         rapidly.” Even state-owned properties are
                                                                         poorly documented and subject to competing
                                                                         claims: investors who have bought state lands in
                                                                         and around cities such as Sana’a, Aden and Taiz
                                                                         often are obliged to pay again to settle with
                                                                                                    217
                                                                         tribal or private claimants .
Conflict and                                                             In 2008, police clashed with residents of a
urbanisation                                                             Sana’a slum who had moved into the area,
                                                                         claiming to be unable to pay the coast of rent.
                                                                         In an attempt to evict them forcibly, a number
                                                                                                          218
                                                                         of shacks were bulldozed down . An IRIN
                                                                         report of the same year detailed how, in a slum
                                                                         district called Mahwa Aser , 17,000 resdients
                                                                         were concentrated into around 1500 poorly
                                                                         constructed stone shacks and tin huts, with
                                                                                                         219
                                                                         virtually no water or sanitation .

                                                                         Civil conflict have terrorism in Yemen have both
                                                                         become dimensions in the coutnry’s urban life.
                                                                         In July 2010, two protesters were shot dead in
                                                                         Aden by Yemeni police in violent
                                                                                          220
                                                                         confrontations . In January 2011, gun battles




215
    USAID, USAID COUNTRY PROFILE: Property Rights and Resource Governance, Yemen. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://usaidlandtenure.net/usaidltprproducts/country-profiles/yemen
216
   Yemen Armed Violence Assessment (2010), ‘Under pressure: Social violence over land and water in Yemen’, p.4. Issue Brief
No. 2, prepared by Gavin Hales.
217
    Yemen Armed Violence Assessment (2010), ‘Under pressure: Social violence over land and water in Yemen’, p.3. Issue Brief
No. 2, prepared by Gavin Hales.
218
    IRIN, ‘YEMEN: Police clash with slum-dwellers in Sanaa’. July 21, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=79353
219
    IRIN, ‘YEMEN: Residents of Sanaa slum battle disease, lack of water’. January 3, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=76075
220
    Ghobari, M., ‘Two Yemen protesters shot dead in Aden "Day of Rage"’. Reuters, July 7, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/07/07/us-yemen-idUSTRE66659020100707
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 39



                                                                         broke out between soldiers and pro-secessionist
                                                                         demonstrators, with a number of people on
                                                                                            221
                                                                         both sides wounded .

                                                                         Al Qaeda-linked militants are also active in
                                                                         Yemen and have been blamed for a number of
                                                                         fatal attacks on tourists, such as the bombing
                                                                                                                       222
                                                                         that killed four South Korean tourists in 2009 .
                                                                         It was also suspected by many to be behind the
                                                                                                                  223
                                                                         bombings in October 2010 in Aden city . Al
                                                                         Qaeda launched several attacks in Sana’a during
                                                                         2010 against British embassy staff and Yemeni
                                                                         security forces in Sana’a. In turn, the
                                                                         government’s strike against militants in Lawdar
                                                                         town in Abyan province resulted in the
                                                                         displacement of tens of thousands of
                                                                                  224
                                                                         civilians .

                                                                         Tribalism also contributes to conflict in the
                                                                         country. An IRIN report in November 2010
                                                                         described how thousands of children in the
                                                                         governorates of Al-Jawf, Marib, and Shabwa,
                                                                         running north to south through the centre of
                                                                         the country, were too scared to attend school in
                                                                         case of revenge attacks related to tribal
                                                                                  225
                                                                         rivalries . (Not sure of this is particularly
                                                                         relevant to urban areas though).

                                                                         Amnesty International has argued that the
                                                                         popular movements in the north and south are
                                                                         distinct from Al Qaeda, and has also highlighted
                                                                         how in the name of security Yemen is




221
    AFP, ‘Troops, protesters clash in south Yemen: witnesses’. January 20, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jd89OIbmRpGSjLQk3VMquYG0BnPg?docId=CNG.757ca5373403062be
79e5ac797aa04fd.51
222
    Reuters, ‘Qaeda bomber behind Yemen attack trained in Somalia’. March 17, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/03/17/idUSLH935160
223
    BBC, ‘Two Yemen bombings strike Aden’. October 12, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11521093
224
    Human Rights Watch (2011), World Report 2011: Yemen. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.hrw.org/en/world-
report-2011/yemen
225
    IRIN, ‘Revenge killings keep children out of schools’. November 8, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=91020
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :       page 40


                                                                                                                   226
                                                                         disregarding its human rights obligations .
4. Urban
Environmental
Challenges
Urban water security     % of population using improved                  Yemen’s limited water supplies are further
(facts & trends).        drinking water source:                          strained by poor management and the high
                         62% (total)                                     water demands of its agricultural sector,
Impacts of water
                         72% (urban)                                     particularly the cultivation of qat: agriculture
scarcity on urban                           227
                         57% (rural) (2008)                              accounts for over 90% of the country’s water
form, growth & health
issues.                  For some reason the 2010 millennium             use, 37% of which is channelled to irrigate qat
                                                                               243
                         development report for Yemen produces           crops . The tendency to treat groundwater
Addressing systemic      divergent figures: that 52% (43% in             and surface water reserves as communal
water losses             urban areas, 53% in rural areas) were not       resources has not promoted best use of these
                                                                                          244
(facts & trends).        able to access safe drinking water in           limited supplies .




226
    Amnesty International (2010), Yemen: Cracking Down Under Pressure. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE31/010/2010/en/da8bd0cc-37ab-4472-80b3-
bcf8a48fc827/mde310102010en.pdf
227
    UN MDGS. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
243
    OCHA, Policy Studies and Development Branch (2010), Water Scarcity and Humanitarian Action: Key Emerging Trends and
Challenges, p.7. OCHA Occasional Policy Briefing Series – No. 4. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-8BQMMP/$file/OCHA_OPB_Water_Sep2010.pdf?openelement
244
    USAID, USAID COUNTRY PROFILE: Property Rights and Resource Governance, Yemen. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://usaidlandtenure.net/usaidltprproducts/country-profiles/yemen
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :     page 41


                               228
                         2008 .
                         Renewable internal freshwater                   Sana’a’s water supply is critically at risk due to
                         resources per capita (cubic metres):            the fact that more than 80% is sourced from
                                  229
                         92 (2008) – seventh lowest in the               reserves in the Sana’a basin to the northwest of
                         world                                           the city: its aquifer levels drop 6-8 metres
                                                                         annually and it is predicted to run dry within 10-
                         In 2009, of the 309,159 dwellings in            15 years, due to population growth and also ac
                         Sana’a City, 183,676 (59.4%) were               hoc use of existing supplies for agriculture and
                         connected to the public network, 13,994         domestic consumption. Despite the urgency of
                         (4.5%) to the private network, 2,766            the situation, there is still no substantive
                         (0.9%) to a cooperative network, 99,464         management strategy in place to address
                                                                             245
                         (32.2%) buying from a water tanker,             this . Water scarcity has been linked with the
                         5,004 (1.6%) collecting from containers         country’s insecurity: a report by researchers at
                         from a source and 4,256 (1.4%) in other         Sana’a University suggested that 70-80% of
                         arrangements. Nationally, of the                conflicts in rural areas were focussed on




228
    UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, p.44. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
229
    World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.H2O.INTR.PC
245
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.17-18. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.         Yemen :     page 42


                                                                                246
                         3,239,402 dwellings, 874,690 (27.0%)            water .
                                                  230
                         used the public network . Note that
                         these government figures are based on           Access to the public water network is estimated
                         estimates and projections.                      at 55% of households in Sana’a. This situation is
                         No. of subscribers to water services:           made worse by water leakages from degraded
                                              231
                         0.587 million (2009)                            infrastructure, amounting to as much as 40% of
                         No. of beneficiaries to water services:         supply. Consequently water supply in Sana’a is
                                              232
                         4.168 million (2009)                            rationed, with a particular neighbourhood
                         .                                               receiving water perhaps 1 in 15 days, with
                                                                                                               247
                         According to 2005/2006 household                private water tankers filling the gap . (Another
                                                                                                                    248
                         budget survey data:                             estimate puts access at 1 in every 9 days) . For
                         Availability of water network, urban, by        the 45% of households in Sana’a with no access
                         household (2005): 77.0% (69.8% poor,            to the network, this expensive form of provision
                                          233
                         78.9% non-poor)                                 is their only option. Water consumption per
                         There is also HBS data for the water            capita is estimated at only 30-50 litres per day,
                         sources for urban households without            far below the average for urban MENA areas.




230
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Construction & Building & Housing, table 5-5)
231
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
232
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
233
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
246
    Kasinof, L., ‘At heart of Yemen's conflicts: water crisis’. Christian Science Monitor, November 5, 2009. Retrieved January 31,
2011 at: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2009/1105/p06s13-wome.html
247
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.18. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
248
    OCHA, Policy Studies and Development Branch (2010), Water Scarcity and Humanitarian Action: Key Emerging Trends and
Challenges, p.7. OCHA Occasional Policy Briefing Series – No. 4. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-8BQMMP/$file/OCHA_OPB_Water_Sep2010.pdf?openelement
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :        page 43



                         access to the public network: 80% of            This scarcity will impact not only on residential
                         non-connected urban households use              settlements but industrial and commercial
                         artesian wells and 11% ordinary wells,          activities, and will be a strong determinant in
                                       234
                         for example . There is also more                the city’s future demographic growth and
                                                                                                249
                         detailed data on how they access the            spatial development . Ano
                         water using, for instance, cars, animals
                         or going by foot, the time it takes and         According to a 2010 New Statesman newspaper
                         the processing method used once it is           article, the UN believes that Yemen will be the
                                           235
                         collected, if any .                             first country to run out of water, possibly as
                                                                                        250
                                                                         soon as 2015 . A 2009 Carnegie Endowment
                         According to 1998 household survey              report suggested that Sana’a could be the first
                                                                                                                      251
                         data (% of population):                         capital city in the world to run out of water .
                         Public network – 27.12% total, 79.99%           Similar expert predictions forecast that
                         urban                                           economically viable water supplies may have
                                                                                                       252
                         Cooperative network – 11.71% total,             run out for the city by 2017 . A recent
                         4.19% urban                                     McKinsey and Co report, commissioned by the
                         Private network – 6.57% total, 2.87%            government, predicted that Sana’a would run
                         urban                                           out of water by 2025. It also predicted that
                         Well – 35.42% total, 11.47% urban               water shortages could cost the country 750,000
                         Stream/spring – 13.19% total, 0.53%             jobs as agriculture contracts and incomes could
                                                                                                             253
                         urban                                           drop by a quarter within a decade .
                         Covered pool – 3.48% total, 0.66% urban
                         Uncovered pool – 1.94% total, 0.01%             The 2005 UN Common Country Assessment
                         urban                                           identified inequitable and unsustainable water
                         Weir – 0.44% total, 0.01% urban                 use as one of the four main challenges the




234
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 9)
235
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 – 11,12,13)
249
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.18. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
250
    Bell, A., ‘World at war over water’. The New Statesman, March 28, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.newstatesman.com/environment/2010/03/water-cyprus-pakistan-yemen
251
    Boucek, C. (2009), Yemen: Avoiding a Downward Spiral. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/yemen_downward_spiral.pdf
252
   IRIN, ‘Capital city faces 2017 water crunch’. March 23, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=88522
253
   Naje, O., ‘Yemen’s capital “will run out of water by 2025”’. Science Development Network, October 22, 2010. Retrieved
January 31, 2011 at: ,http://www.scidev.net/en/news/yemen-s-capital-will-run-out-of-water-by-2025-.html
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :     page 44


                                                                 236
                         Unstated – 0.13% total, 0.27% urban             country faced, along with a lack of transparency
                                                                         and participation, the marginalisation of women
                                                                         and children, and jobless growth in the context
                                                                                                       254
                                                                         of rapid demographic growth . Water scarcity
                                                                         has been identified as a key factor in the
                                                                         conflicts in the south and the north. In Saa’da
                                                                         governorate, water scarcity has been
                                                                         aggravated by energy insecurity, with
                                                                         insufficient fuel to power the urban water
                                                                         network. As a result, the ICRC has agreed to
                                                                                                                       255
                                                                         provide the fuel necessary to keep it running .

                                                                         Sana’a City Development Strategy
                                                                         recommended that, in response to this
                                                                         emerging crisis, water-consuming industries and
                                                                         qatt production be restricted around Sana’a,
                                                                         and alternative water sources (such as new
                                                                                                                    256
                                                                         water fields or desalination) be developed .
                                                                         Yemen is the only Gulf country dependent on
                                                                         rainwater and partially groundwater for its
                                                                                        257
                                                                         water supplies .

                                                                         The World Bank is currently supporting an
                                                                         initiative to extend water network access to
                                                                         poor households in peri-urban areas of the




236
    Central Statistical Organisation, 1998 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=153 (table 1)
254
    UNDP, United Nations Common Country Assessment: Yemen 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24700f48fb3fb4Yemen%20CCA%20English2.pdf
255
    OCHA, Policy Studies and Development Branch (2010), Water Scarcity and Humanitarian Action: Key Emerging Trends and
Challenges, p.7. OCHA Occasional Policy Briefing Series – No. 4. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/lib.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-8BQMMP/$file/OCHA_OPB_Water_Sep2010.pdf?openelement
256
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.38. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
257
    Arab Forum for Environment and Development (2009), Arab Environment Climate Change: Impact of Climate Change on Arab
Countries, p.78. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.afedonline.org/afedreport09/Full%20English%20Report.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :         page 45


                                                                                                                  258
                                                                         country, including Al Qabel in Sana’a City . It
                                                                         also argued, in the project document for a
                                                                         planned Integrated urban Development
                                                                         program in the city of Taiz, that extended public
                                                                         water network access would greatly benefit the
                                                                         poor: a recent feasibility study in Taiz had
                                                                         estimated that the average 6.5 person
                                                                         household consumption of 1430 litres a month
                                                                         would cost YR 3,575 from a private vendor but
                                                                                                           259
                                                                         YR 439 from the public network .

                          % of population using improved                 GTZ has been supporting the government for
Urban sanitation &
                          sanitation facilities:                         some years in decentralising water and
waste management.
                          52% (total)                                    sanitation governance. It credits the process for
Policy for recycling if   94% (urban)                                    some of the sectoral successes: water supply
                                              237
any, & actual practice.   33% (rural) (2008)                             coverage increasing in urban areas from 47%
                          For some reason the 2010 millennium            (2002) to 56% (2007) and in sanitation, 25% to
                                                                                                 260
                          development report for Yemen produces          31% in the same period .
                          divergent figures: there is a typo in the
                          report, but it seems to suggest that           Less than 40% of Sana’a city is served by the
                          improved sanitation coverage was 32% in        sanitation network. The remainder rely on
                          urban areas and 22% in rural areas in          individual solutions, woth the potential to
                               238
                          2008 .                                         contaminate underground water sources. These
                                                                         include the Sana’a Basin, the city’s primary
                          In 2009, of the 309,159 dwellings in           water source, threatened by informal
                                                                                                                261
                          Sana’a City, 175,519 (56.8%) used the          development and industrial activities .
                          public network for their sewage facility,
                          118,430 (38.3%) a closed pit, 4,498
                          (1.5%) an open pit and 10,711(3.5%) had
                               239
                          none . Note that these government
                          figures are based on estimates and




237
    UN MDGS. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
238
    UNDP/Government of Yemen (2010), Millennium Development Goals 2010: Yemen Report, p.44. Retrieved January 31, 2011
at: http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/24d06139cb9b57MDG%20Yemen%20English.pdf
239
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Construction & Building & Housing, table 5-6)
258
    World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/03/15/000262044_20100315113749/Rendered/PDF/I
ntegrated0Saf1et010Appraisal0Stage.pdf
259
    World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of SDR 14.5 Million (US$22 Equivalent) to the
Republic of Yemen for an Integrated Urban Development Project. April 22, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2010/05/06/000333037_20100506010500/Rendered/PDF/5
38100PAD0Box31ly10IDA1R20101012011.pdf
260
    Ministry of Water & Environment / Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) / German Technical
Cooperation (2009), Yemen Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/gtz2010-en-yemen-urban-water-supply.pdf
261
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.20. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.         Yemen :       page 46



                         projections.

                         According to 2005/2006 household
                         budget survey data:
                         Availability of sewage system, urban, by
                         household (2005): 92.4% (87.4% poor,
                                            240
                         93.7% non-poor)
                         According to 2005/6 data, 52%/53% of
                         urban individuals/households use the
                         public network for their sewage disposal,
                         41%/39% closed pits, 4%/4% open pits,
                                                            241
                         2%/35 nothing and 1%/1% ‘other ’.
                         Since this is correlated from the same
                         data as the previous figures, it seems
                         that open pits are not classified as
                         sanitation systems.

                         There is 2005/6 household budget survey
                         data on the waste collection methods in
                         urban areas:
                         Way of collecting garbage, urban
                         (2005/6):
                          Collected in allocated place - 66.3%
                         (51.8% poor, 70.1% non-poor)
                         Thrown out - 33.7% (48.2% poor, 29.9%
                                    242
                         non-poor)
Urban energy issues      Electric power consumption                      Around 85% of the urban population has access
(facts & trends).        (KWh/capita):                                   to electricity, compared to 20% of the rural
                                                   262                               281
                         176 (2005)  202 (2007)                         population .
                         Energy use (kg oil equivalent/capita):
                                                   263
                         313 (2005)  324 (2007)




240
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
241
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 14)
242
    World Bank/UNDP/Government of Yemen (2007), Poverty Assessment: Volume 4, p.24. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Resources/310077-1197206771664/Volume_IV_Poverty_Profile.pdf
262
    World Bank . Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC
263
    World Bank . Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.PCAP.KG.OE
281
    World Bank, ‘Project information document (PID) appraisal stage’. May 19, 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www-
wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2009/04/08/000104615_20090409115129/Rendered/PDF/P
roject0Inform1nt010Appraisal0Stage.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:   Chris Horwood.    Yemen :     page 47



                         An alternative figure puts 2007
                         consumption at 263 kg oil
                                            264
                         equivalent/capita .
                         Electricity generated (GWH):
                                       265
                         6,749 (2009)
                         Total electricity output (GWH): 6,283
                                266
                         (2009)
                         Quantity of sold electricity (GWH): 4,644
                                267
                         (2009)
                                                             268
                         Electricity loss (%): 26.09% (2009)
                         Average consumption per capita (KWH):
                                       269
                         2,952 (2009)
                         In 2009, of the 309,159 dwellings in
                         Sana’a City, 302,213 (97.8%) used the
                         public network as their main source of
                         lighting. Nationally, out of 3,239,402
                         dwellings, 1,399,535 (43.2%) relied on
                         the public network as their main source
                                     270
                         of lighting. Note that these
                         government figures are based on
                         estimates and projections.

                         According to 2005/6 household budget
                         survey data, in urban areas 91%/91% of
                         individuals/households use the public
                         network as their main source of lighting,
                         1%/1% cooperative networks, 3%/2%
                         private networks, 1%/1% house
                         generators, 4%/4% kerosene lamps and
                                                    271
                         1%/1% gas lamps (2005/6) .
                         Fossil fuel use (% of energy
                         consumption):
                                       272
                         98.9% (2007)
                         Combustible renewables and waste (as




264
    UN Statistical Division. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pocketbook/country_profiles.pdf
265
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
266
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
267
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
268
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
269
    Central Statistical Office (2010), Yemen in Figures 2009. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=english&id=561
270
    Central Statistical Office. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545
(Construction & Building & Housing, table 5-4)
271
    Central Statistical Office, 2005/6 Household Budget Survey. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://cso-
yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=363 (table 2 - 15)
272
    World Bank . Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.COMM.FO.ZS
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :        page 48



                         %) of energy use):
                                      273
                         1.1% (2007)
                         Co2 emissions ( metric tonnes per
                         capita):
                                    274
                         1.0 (2007)

Urban mobility &                                                         Yemen’s relative poverty compared to its
transport –              Total road network (2000-2005):                 neighbours is reflected in its weak
                                     275
congestion, pollution,   71,300km                                        infrastructure, with a limited network of poor
public transport.        Intercity Asphalt roads (km): 12,805.3          quality roads. Yemen has around 71,300 km of
                                                      276
                         (2007)  15,328.7 (2009) . Within               road: only 6,200 km of these are paved.
                         Sana’a/Sana’a City, there were 1,695km          However, a number of upgrade projects are
                                                  277
                         of asphalt road in 2009 . Note that             underway or being considered, such as a $1.6
                         both of these figures cover the length          billion highway linking Aden in the south with
                         between cities only, not the roads within       Amran in the north. Once built, this will halve
                         the cities.                                     the travel time between the southern coast and
                         There is also raw data on the number of         the northern border with Saudi Arabia. Yemen
                         private/public/taxi vehicles in the             has no rail network, though there are plans to
                         country and the number of road accident         develop a line linking to Muscat in neighbouring
                         each year. These show, for example, the         Oman, as part of the wider planned GCC rail
                         proportion of licenses issued to private        network. Yemen has several ports, the largest
                         vehicle, public transport vehicles and          based at Aden. It also has four international
                         taxis over 2007-2009 so could possibly be       airports, based At Sana’a, Aden, Taizz and
                                                                                    282
                         used as lateral indicators of travel modes      Hudaydah .
                                                          278
                         in Sana’a City and the country .
                         National data also shows that, within
                         Sana’a City, there were 4,287 injuries
                         (3,493 male, 794 female) and 330 deaths
                         (260 male, 70 female).Nationally, the
                         figure is 20,117 injuries (17,617 male,
                         2,500 female) and 3,063 deaths (2,689
                                             279
                         male, 374 female) . The proportion of
                         female deaths and injuries is markedly
                         higher than that in the country as a
                         whole: this may be suggestive of greater
                         gender mobility in Yemen’s urban centre.

                         International air passengers, departing
                         (2009): 727,000




273
    World Bank . Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.CRNW.ZS
274
    World Bank. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC
275
    United Nations. Retrieved November 8, 2010 at: http://www.devinfo.info/urbaninfo/
276
    Central Statistical Office. http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Transport & Travel, opening table)
277
    Central Statistical Office. http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Transport & Travel , table 2)
278
    Central Statistical Office. http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Transport & Travel , opening table,
tables 2-3)
279
    Central Statistical Office. http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Transport & Travel , table 6)
282
    Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, ‘Country profile: Yemen’. August 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Yemen.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.           Yemen :       page 49



                          International air passenger, arriving
                                          280
                          (2009): 709,000
Climate change,                                                          A Yemen Times article cites the IPCC as listing
droughts,                                                                Aden as the sixth most vulnerable out of 25
desertification & sea                                                    profiled coastal cities to climate change-induced
level rise                                                                               283
                                                                         sea level rises. . However, the original source
                                                                         could not be located so this may not be usable.
Information on local
level adaptation to
climate change if any.                                                   The same article also mentions an initiative by
Financial instruments                                                    the Agricultural College in Sana’a to encourage
for adaptation.                                                          the private sector to contribute to the creation
                                                                         of a green belt of trees around Sana’a city to
Eco migration (facts &                                                   alleviate the future effects of climate change,
trends).                                                                 but apparently the necessary funding was not
                                                                                         284
                                                                         made available .
Environmental
management & human
resources (facts,                                                        UNEP is also in the process of preparing a City
                                                                                                   285
policies & trends).                                                      Outlook report for Sana’a .

5. Urban
Governance
Systems
Urban administrative      Worldwide governance indicators                Yemen has been a republic since unification in
structures / authority.   (World Bank):                                  1990. Though an electoral democracy, the
                          Voice and accountability (2009): 11.8          dominant General Conference Party has ruled
                          Voice and accountability (1998): 25.5          with a large majority since then and the power
                          Political stability (2009): 2.4                of the executive remains strong:
                          Political stability (1998): 8.7                2001consitutional amendments gave the
                          Government effectiveness (2009): 11.4          president the authority to dissolve parliament
                          Government effectiveness (1998): 26.2          without referendum and lengthened his tenure
                                                                                        287
                          Regulatory quality (2009): 29.5                to seven years . In January 2011, thousands of
                          Regulatory quality (1998): 27.3                demonstrators gathered in Sana’a calling for a
                                                                                                 288
                          Rule of law (2009): 13.2                       change of government .
                          Rule of law (1998): 11.4
                          Control of corruption (2009): 15.2             Both north and south Yemen have historically
                                                             286
                          Control of corruption (1998): 24.8             supported decentralised governance and this
Municipal                                                                was confirmed in the country’s 2000 Local
management &                                                             Authority Law. Under the terms of the law,
administration.                                                          planning, development and administration are
                                                                         concentrated at the municipal council. Prior to
Local government                                                         the Local Authority Law, fiscal revenue was
finance.                                                                 managed by the central government, with local


280
    Central Statistical Office. http://www.cso-yemen.org/content.php?lng=arabic&id=545 (Transport & Travel , table 19)
283
    Al-Tholaya, ‘Climate Change in Yemen: Drastic changes in the coming 50 years’. Yemen Times, May 3, 2010. Retrieved January
31, 2011 at: http://www.yementimes.com/defaultdet.aspx?SUB_ID=33989
284
    Al-Tholaya, ‘Climate Change in Yemen: Drastic changes in the coming 50 years’. Yemen Times, May 3, 2010. Retrieved January
31, 2011 at: http://www.yementimes.com/defaultdet.aspx?SUB_ID=33989
285
    UNEP. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/annual-report09/Topics.aspx?tid=cc
286
    World Bank, Worldwide Governance Indicators 1996-2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/sc_country.asp
287
    Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, ‘Country profile: Yemen’. August 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Yemen.pdf
288
    The Guardian, ‘Yemen protesters demand change of government’. January 27, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/27/yemen-protesters-demand-change-government
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.            Yemen :        page 50



                                                                         taxes transferred to the central government at
Decentralization &                                                       Sana’a and then local revenue reallocated by
local governance.                                                        central to local authorities. Under the law, local
                                                                         authorities are able to retain locally collected
Barriers to
                                                                         taxes and also receive a portion of funds from
decentralization?
                                                                         the central government, depending on the size
                                                                                                       289
                                                                         of the municipal population .

                                                                         The first local elections were held in 2001: in
                                                                         2008, the country held its first ever elections of
                                                                         its provincial governors, elected by local council
                                                                         members. The latter elections were boycotted
                                                                         by some opposition parties who saw the
                                                                         elections as counter-democratic as they
                                                                         resulted in further entrenchment of the ruling
                                                                         General Popular Conference party, who won the
                                                                                                 290
                                                                         majority of local seats : 17 of the 20 seats
                                                                         went to government candidates, with the
                                                                                                             291
                                                                         remainder going to independents . The
                                                                         extension of GPC dominance compromises that
                                                                         local autonomy and allows the central
                                                                         government to retain substantive executive
                                                                                                         292
                                                                         control over the governorates .

                                                                         Following the 2000 Authorities Law, the highly
                                                                         centralised system of governance was replaced
                                                                         with local administrative units. In almost all of
                                                                         Yemen, this consists of a simple two-tiered
                                                                         system of governorates and districts, with no
                                                                         separation of urban and rural areas. For
                                                                         example, the cities of both Taiz and Hodeidah
                                                                         extend across three districts, all of them
                                                                         indistinguishable from rural districts and under
                                                                         the aegis of the relevant governorates. The city
                                                                         of Sana’a, however, operates as a separate
                                                                         municipality with a total of 10 districts grouped
                                                                         within it. It is therefore both local authority,
                                                                         national capital and also a governorate, along
                                                                         with the 19 others in the country, including the
                                                                         surrounding Sana’a governorate. This can lead
                                                                         to institutional confusion between the
                                                                         municipality mandate and that of each of the
                                                                         ten districts, each of which operates its own
                                                                         service branches in areas such as education and
                                                                         health. To a large degree, this issue of confused
                                                                         decentralisation affects the whole country,




289
    UNDP-POGAR. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.pogar.org/countries/theme.aspx?t=6&cid=22
290
    UNDP-POGAR. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://www.pogar.org/countries/theme.aspx?t=6&cid=22
291
    Freedom House. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7950&year=2010
292
    Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, ‘Country profile: Yemen’. August 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Yemen.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.            Yemen :         page 51



                                                                         particularly the issue of having two elected
                                                                         councils operating in governance, the limited
                                                                         control over local finances and underdeveloped
                                                                         human resources to discharge their duties
                                                                                    293
                                                                         effectively .

                                                                         In summary, despite decentralisation measures,
                                                                         Sana’a’s municipal government remains
                                                                         burdened by confused and duplicated
                                                                         authoritative bodies, as well as the ambiguity of
                                                                         10 elected district councils in addition to its
                                                                         municipal council. Furthermore, it has a very
                                                                         weak local revenue base, with a very large share
                                                                         of its funds still originating form central
                                                                                                  294
                                                                         government subsidies .

                                                                         Since 2000, as part of its fiscal and
                                                                         administrative decentralisation, a number of
                                                                         City Development Strategies have been
                                                                         developed for Sana’a, Aden, Hodeida and
                                                                         Mukallah, involving a number of actors and with
                                                                         a focus on social, economic and environmental
                                                                         challenges and opportunities facing these
                                                                               295
                                                                         cities .

                                                                         Sana’a City Development Strategy outlines a
                                                                         number of measures to improve its institutional
                                                                         structures and financial management, including
                                                                         more effective and transparent revenue
                                                                         collection at a local level. It also highlighted the
                                                                         ongoing dependence of the municipality on
                                                                         central government subsidies: the central




293
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.25-26. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
294
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
p.19. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
295
    H.E. Mr. Abdel Kareem Al-Arhabi, Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs, Minister of Planning and International
Cooperation, ‘Foreword’. In Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a
City Development Strategy. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :     page 52



                                                                         recurrent and capital subsidy accounted for
                                                                         73.4 percent of Sana’a’s total revenue in
                                                                                    296
                                                                         2006/2007 .

                                                                         Corruption remains a major challenge in Yemen,
                                                                         with few mechanisms to protect against
                                                                                               297
                                                                         conflicts of interest . Yemen ranked joint
                                                                              th
                                                                         146 /180, with a number of other countries, in
                                                                         Transparency International’s 2010 Corruption
                                                                                             298
                                                                         Perceptions Index .
Roles of NGOs, CBOs &                                                    Yemenis have the right to form associations:
FBOs [Faith-based                                                        there are several thousand NGOs operating in
orgs]. Civil society                                                                   299
                                                                         the country . NGOs are generally able to
participation, merging
                                                                         operate without constraint and draw on
tradition & modernity.
                                                                         international funding. If the government refuses
                                                                         a license to a prospective NGO, it must be able
                                                                         to justify the decision – though some procedural
                                                                         abuses have occurred. However, NGOs must
                                                                         have at least 41 members and are prohibited
                                                                                                   300
                                                                         from political activities .
Women in politics &        Gender-related development index              Women continue to face social discrimination:
governance (facts &        (GDI):                                        for example, women require permission from
trends)                    0.538 (2007 data)/ 122 out of 182
                                                             301
                                                                         their male guardian to travel, may not pass
                           Seats held by women in parliament (%          citizenship to their spouses and may only pass it
Issues around
                           of total):                                    on to children under special circumstances. In
demographic shifts,                     302
political & social         0.3%% (2010)                                  2008, the government voted down legislation
fragmentation,                                                           that would have outlawed female genital
                                                                                     303
increasing political                                                     mutilation . According to a US AID study,
instability, problematic                                                 conducted in 1997, 23% of women were found
fiscal decentralization                                                  to have suffered FGM – with the figure as high
etc.                                                                     as 69% in the little populated coastal areas Red
                                                                         Sea and Aden coastal regions, compared to 15%
                                                                                                                  304
                                                                         in the highly populated highlands areas .

                                                                         The 2010 World Economic Forum again ranked




296
    Cities Alliance/World Bank/Government of Yemen/Secretariat Capital of Sana’a (2010), Sana’a: a City Development Strategy,
pp.19. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/Cities%20Alliance%20Sana'a%20pub%2010-5-09.pdf
297
    Freedom House. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7950&year=2010
298
    Transparency International. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/results
299
    Freedom House. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7950&year=2010
300
    Department of State, United States Government (2010), 2009 Human Rights Report: Yemen. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2009/nea/136083.htm
301
    UNDP, 2009 Human Development Report. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf
302
    UN MDGS. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at: http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Data.aspx
303
    Freedom House. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7950&year=2010
304
    United States Department of State, Yemen: Report on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or Female Genital Cutting (FGC), 1
June 2001. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:: www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/46d5787ec.html
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.          Yemen :     page 53



                                                                         Yemen as the worst of the 134 countries in its
                                                                                                       305
                                                                         listing for gender disparities .
6. Emerging
Urban Issues &
Innovation

EMRs (Extended
Metropolitan regions)
& regional cities.

Mega Urban Regions
(MURs) & urban
development
corridors.

Trans-national labour
migration or imported
labour etc.

Issues of
multiculturalism etc.

Safe & liveable cities
:issues & discussions .

Intra-regional
dynamics of
cooperation or
competition among
cities.




Potentially relevant contact list

Institution name          Institution type                        Comment                              Contact information

Central Statistical       http://www.cso-                         A division of the Ministry of        The CSO can be contacted
Organsiation              yemen.org/?lng=english&                 Planning and International           through the website:
                                                                  Cooperation.                         http://www.cso-
                                                                                                       yemen.org/feedback.php
Ministry of Planning      Government                                                                   Ministry of Planning &
and International         http://www.mpic-yemen.org                                                    International Cooperation
Cooperation                                                                                            Sana’a - Republic of Yemen
                                                                                                       P. O. Box 175
                                                                                                       Tel: +967 1 250118/250107
                                                                                                       Fax: +967 1 250665
                                                                                                       Email: mpd-minister@y.net.ye


The Survey                Government                              Responsible for mapping and          168, Al Jamiah al Arabyah street
Authority of Yemen        http://www.survey-                      land registration. They are          Al Hasabah - PO BOX 11137
                          authority.gov.ye/                       included as possible contacts        Sana'a - Republic of Yemen
                                                                  due to the apparent                  Tel: 967 1 252 586 (Inquiries)
                                                                  unavailability of contact detaisl    Tel: 967 1 252 590 (Chairman)

305
   World Economic Forum (2010), The Global Gender Gap Report 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011 at:
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2010.pdf
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:     Chris Horwood.           Yemen :     page 54



                                                                  for the government’s urban            Fax: 967 1 252 589
                                                                  planning arm and also because         email surveyinfo@survey-
                                                                  of the particular challenges          authority.gov.ye
                                                                  relating to land registration in
                                                                  Yemen.
The National              Government                              Government department that
Population Council        http://www.npc-ts.org/index.php         plays a prominent role in
                                                                  demographic studies, including
                                                                  population projections. Their
                                                                  website is in Arabic and so none
                                                                  of their possible material is here.
Sana’a City               Government                              Website not locatable
Municipality
Aden governorate          Government                              Website not locatable
Ministry of Public        Government                              Much of its functions were
Works and Urban           http://www.mpwud.gov.ye/                transferred to the General
Development                                                       Authority for Lands, Survey and
                                                                  Urban Planning a few years ago,
                                                                  but it apparently retains a few
                                                                  responsibilities. The website is
                                                                  under construction.
The Deutsche Gesell       Int. comm./Dev. org.                    Works in Yemen on a number of         Telephone +49 6196 79-0
schaft für                http://www.giz.de/en/home.htm           projects, including water             Telefax +49 6196 79-1115
Internationale            l                                       management and conservation,          Postal address
Zusammenarbeit                                                    the economic development of           Deutsche Gesellschaft für
(GIZ)                                                             the historic cities of Shibam and     Internationale Zusammenarbeit
                                                                  Zabid, private sector                 (GIZ) GmbH
                                                                  development and decentralised         Postfach 5180
                                                                  solid waste management. Their         65726 Eschborn
                                                                  joint document on the
                                                                  decentralisation process
                                                                  conducted with the government
                                                                  in WATSAN is available at the
                                                                  link below:
                                                                  http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumen
                                                                  te/gtz2010-en-yemen-urban-
                                                                  water-supply.pdf
Queen Arwa                Academic                                                                      General university contact
University                http://www.qau.edu.ye                                                         details:
Faculty of
Engineering and                                                                                         Tel : +967 - 1 - 445994 / 450121
Computer Sciences –                                                                                     / 449991 / 449909
Architecture –                                                                                           Fax: +967 - 1 – 445996 /
Urban Designing                                                                                         449995
                                                                                                         P.O.Box: Sana'a - Yemen -
                                                                                                        P,O,Box 11586
                                                                                                         Email
                                                                                                        arwa@arwauniversity.edu.ye

                                                                                                        In addition, the Yemeni Centre
                                                                                                        for Development and Social
                                                                                                        Studies undertakes social and
                                                                                                        economic research that may be
                                                                                                        of relevance.

                                                                                                        Some other universities, such as
Data support and urban analysis input for UN-HABITAT State of Arab Cities Report:    Chris Horwood.          Yemen :    page 55



                                                                                                      Ibb university, also have
                                                                                                      architectural departments, but
                                                                                                      have Arabic only language
                                                                                                      websites.
Sana’a University         Research                                The group is engaged in a water     Water & Environment Centre
Water and                 http://www.wec.edu.ye/research          management study of the Sana’a      (WEC)
Environment Centre        .htm                                    Basin, so might be useful for       P.O. Box 13886 Sana'a
                                                                  discussions of water shortages.     University
                                                                                                      Ma'een Office
                                                                                                      Sana'a Yemen

                                                                                                      Email: wec2@y.net.ye
                                                                                                      or wec@yemen.net.ye
                                                                                                      Tel/fax: 967-1-464360/6/7 or
                                                                                                      967-1-822112
Resource Centre on        Research                                Not a major actor, but Sana’a is    Can be contacted through the
Urban Agriculture         http://www.ruaf.org/node/2119           one of the partner cities in the    website:
and Food Security                                                 urban agriculture initiative.       http://www.ruaf.org/node/4
                                                                  Given the extent of hunger in       87
                                                                  Yemen in general, this may be a
                                                                  useful contact point for a case
                                                                  study on urban agriculture.

				
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