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					RU Rehab Lab


  Bill Craelius
Principal Investigator
                                                                             KIM Optional Presentation Title
                                              Nuria


Gait analysis,                                                                            Robotics,
prosthetic control,                                                             Bioinstrumentation,
motor control                                                                  Human Motor Control

Cycling (Mountain and                                                      Kayaking, Rock Climbing,
road), Triathlons,                                                                           Tennis
Guitar (Acoustic)                                                          TIFFANY
    DON                                       Spinal Cord Injury Repair,
                                              Biopolymers, Neuroscience
                                                                                                       MIKE
                                              Literature, Dancing,                                   Movement
                                              Music, Fine Dining                                 analysis, Math
                                                                                                     Modelling,
                                                                                                    Spinal cord
                                                                                                   injury repair

                                                                                                        Running
                             BILL                                                                (Marathon and
                                                       TIFFANY                                  Trail), Reading,
                        Research: Principle                                                               Guitar
                                                     Research: Rehab
                        Investigator                 ilitative Devices
                                                     in Cerebral Palsy
                        Passions: Hiking, Skiing,
                        Gardening,                   Theater, Movies, Travel


    Unit Name
                                                   Optional Presentation Title

Rehabilitation models
              OT                          PT                   RE




                                        Specific
     Tasks                                              Apply new
                                        muscles
     Compensation                                       technology and
     Assistive Devices                                  protocols



            ADL                    Function             Quantitative
         Productivity              Well-being           Metrics of
                                                        Improvement
                         Better
                     Outcomes?
                   Useful to OTs and
                         PTs ?
  Unit Name
                                                  Optional Presentation Title

Exploiting residual function
                     Person with Residual
                     Sensorimotor function

                                               Improved User
                                                  Interface



                                          Assistive
              Visualization
                                         Technology



                   Functional Rehabilitation
                          Program



                         Exercise and
                           Activity


     Repetitions
  Unit Name
                                   Optional Presentation Title



Main Hypothesis
 • The brain can reorganize by:
     – Intense frequent exercise
     – Repetitive movement

     – “Use it or lose it”
     – “Use it and regain it”




 Unit Name
                                Optional Presentation Title



Sensorimotor Tools for Rehabilitation
 • Hand Grip Control
 •

 • Elbow Control: Smoothness,
   ROM.




 • Ankle Learning:
   Flex/Extend & Invert/Evert




 Unit Name
                                           "Cost" Minimization          Optional Presentation Title
Motor Command
                      Pulses
                                                    Jerk
                                                                                   How does the
                                                                                   Neuromotor
                                    d/dt (Torque)          <Endpoint>
                                                                                   System work?
                                                Energy




                                                                         Muscles
                                                                           &
                                                                         Joints
      Optimal Feedback Control

            Equilibrium Point




                                    FInal Velocity & Acceleration;
                                              Trajectory,
                      Constraints
                                           Movement time,
                                              End Point
Unit Name
            Optional Presentation Title




Unit Name
                                        Optional Presentation Title


Underlying Premise


 • The brain cares only about the end, not the means to
   reach the target.
 • Corollary 1: The near infinite variability of means plays a
   big role in our adaptability.
 • Corollary 2: Variability can be exploited for restoring
   motor control.




 Unit Name
                                            Optional Presentation Title

Exhibit #1:   Motor equivalence of writing with different means




                                                        Original size
                                                        arm writing



                                                           Hand

                                                       Arm (scaled)

 Unit Name
                                 Optional Presentation Title

Writing equivalence does not depend on visual
feedback *




 Unit Name
                                                Lashley, 1942
                                       Optional Presentation Title


Lessons from handwriting equivalence

 • Writing with different muscles & joints, different speeds,
   & in absence of visual feedback remains characteristic of
   writer.
 • Hence: action is planned and executed in terms of the
   goal, not of specific muscle contractions.
 • Thus a similar endpoint happens with completely
   different means.




 Unit Name
                                        Optional Presentation Title



Exhibit 2: Ambulation our most constant set of motions.
        Ambulation:

    • Variation of stride or step
      lengths during stable
      walking & running is
      typically < 3% , at many
      different speeds     (Danion et
       al., Gait & Posture, 2003).                         Kirtley
    • Other parameters, such as
      joint angles and heel-to-
      toe timing are similarly
      invariant.




  Unit Name
                                       Optional Presentation Title


Comparing mechanical output to neuromotor input

•    FMG Sleeve array worn with
     EMG.
•    Treadmill walking @ 1, 3, 6mph.



• To correlate mechanical with
  electrical activity, FMG sleeves
  and EMG electrodes were
  placed on the same leg of an
  ambulating subject, for
  simultaneous measurements.




    Unit Name
                                           Optional Presentation Title


Comparing mechanical output to neuromotor input


                                               MKI

                               VR = 0.028


  MKI: mechanical

                                             EMG
                               VR = 0.89
                       Quads


                                               EMG: electrical
 Unit Name
             Overlays of signals from 8 gait cycles
                                   Optional Presentation Title




• How are motor goals achieved reliably?
• Sherrington dillemma: how does a movement overcome
  the reflex tendency to keep limb in stable position?
• Main theories: Equilibrium Point




Unit Name
                                                                                                                        Optional Presentation Title


Imagined Movement

                                  Left Arm Imagined Movement: Beta 1                                                    Right Arm Imagined Movement: Beta 1
                 11                                                                                   11

                 10                                                                         10                                                                              1.4
                                                                                         0.3
                 9                                                                           9
                                                                                                                                                                            1.2
                 8                                                                       0.2 8

                                                                                                                                                                            1
                                                                                                      7




                                                                                     (Back - Front)
                 7
(Back - Front)




                                                                                         0.1
                 6                                                                                    6                                                                     0.8
                                                                                         0
                 5                                                                                    5
                                                                                                                                                                            0.6
                 4                                                                       -0.1 4
                                                                                                                                                                            0.4
                 3                                                                                    3
                                                                                         -0.2
                 2                                                                                    2                                                                     0.2

                 1                                                                                    1
                      1   2   3      4      5          6       7   8   9   10   11                         1   2    3       4     5          6       7   8    9   10   11
                                                (Left - Right)                                                                        (Left - Right)


                      “Good” arm                                                                                   “Bad” arm
                  Unit Name
                                                                                                                     Optional Presentation Title


Injured Brain Trying to Adapt

                                 Left Arm
                                     Left Arm Real Movement: Beta 1
                                                                                                                     Right Arm
                    11
                                                                                                                             Right Arm Real Movement: Beta 2
                                                                                     0.4                    11
                    10
                                                                                                            10                                                                4.5
                                                                                     0.35
                    9
                                                                                                            9                                                                 4
                                                                                     0.3
                    8
                                                                                                            8
                                                                                     0.25                                                                                     3.5
                    7
   (Back - Front)




                                                                                           (Back - Front)
                                                                                                            7
                                                                                     0.2                                                                                      3
                    6                                                                                       6
                                                                                     0.15                                                                                     2.5
                    5                                                                                       5
                                                                                     0.1
                                                                                                                                                                              2
                    4                                                                                       4
                                                                                     0.05
                                                                                                            3                                                                 1.5
                    3
                                                                                     0
                                                                                                            2                                                                 1
                    2                                                                -0.05
                                                                                                            1
                    1                                                                                            1   2   3     4     5          6       7   8   9   10   11
                         1   2   3    4     5          6       7   8   9   10   11                                                       (Left - Right)
                                                (Left - Right)




             Left (unaffected) arm moving                                                Right (affected) arm moving
 Unit Name
Putting a number to it.


      Mike Wininger
       RU Rehab Lab
      Graduate Student
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title


 Mission: Rigorous Rehab Tools  Improve Outcomes


                                        How can I describe human
                                        motion (and motor deficit)?




 Talk to the clinicians.                                                            Talk to the engineers.


    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title


 Methods




                                                     Protocol
                                                     Healthy subjects
                                                     Mechanical Arm Support & Tracker (MAST)
                                                     Repetitive elbow articulations
                                                     Analysis
                                                     Match trajectories to variety of curve types
                                                     Assess for model for singular vs. plural fits

    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title



 Persistent Random Walk



            Substractive Noise=Smoothness




  Persistent path=Principal Trajectory




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title




                                                              Regional comparison to a
                                                                straight-line secant




                                                                                             Normalized
                                                                                             RMS errors




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title




            i=1                           i=2                           i=3                          i=4




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                    Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                        Optional Presentation Title




    i=1             i=2           i=3         i=4            i=5        i=6         i=7                 i=30

                                                                                              …




                                                                                              …




                                                                                              …




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                         Optional Presentation
                                                                                         Title




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                         Optional Presentation
                                                                                         Title




                                                                          Spatial depiction
                                                i=1∙∙∙ N/2                    of error
           i=1∙∙∙ 30                                                                                    0º




                                                                                90º




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                         Optional Presentation
                                                                                         Title




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                         Optional Presentation
                                                                                         Title




                                        86º   89º

                                  78º




                            32º



                          13º

                     1º
               -4º




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                           Optional Presentation
                                                                                           Title




                                                                                                           86º


                                        86º   89º
                                                                                                              89º
                                                                    -4º
                                  78º



                                                                                                        78º
                                                                      1º

                                                                           13º      32º
                            32º



                          13º

                     1º
               -4º




    Unit Name                                                                                Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview      Piecewise                    Scalars
                                                                                              Results
                                                                         Optional Presentation
                                                                                         Title




                                                             …Are curvatures penalized??




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                         Optional Presentation
                                                                                         Title

                                   mx        0  t  0.6T
                             
                        y1     t  0.6T 
                                  2 0.4T  0.6T  t  T
                              sin         
                                          
                             




    Unit Name                                                                             Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.   Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                           Results
                                                                           Optional Presentation
                                                                                           Title

                                   mx        0  t  0.6T
                             
                        y1     t  0.6T 
                                  2 0.4T  0.6T  t  T
                              sin         
                                          
                             



                                       
                         y2  mx  1  2 Ae          k ( x )2
                                                                    Ae  k ( x  ) 2
                                                                                         




    Unit Name                                                                                  Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.     Overview      Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                                Results
                                                                           Optional Presentation
                                                                                           Title

                                   mx        0  t  0.6T
                             
                        y1     t  0.6T 
                                  2 0.4T  0.6T  t  T
                              sin         
                                          
                             



                                       
                         y2  mx  1  2 Ae          k ( x )2
                                                                    Ae  k ( x  ) 2
                                                                                         

                         y3  3 y1  y2



    Unit Name                                                                                  Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.     Overview      Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                                Results
                                                                          Optional Presentation
                                                                                          Title




                                                          x
                                  y1  sin(                   )
                                                   2       T




                                                          x           k ( x  )2
                                  y2  sin(                   )  Ae
                                                   2       T



    Unit Name                                                                              Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.    Overview   Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                            Results
                                                                             Optional Presentation
                                                                                             Title


 Need to derive scalars                                      Area under the curve.

                                                             I   E ( )d
                                                                      

                                                             Number of peaks.
                                                                   d   d           
                                                             P     sgn   E ( )    0
                                                                    d   d
                                                                    
                                                                                       
                                                                                      

                                                             Average peak height.
                                                                   1              d          
                                                            P
                                                                   P
                                                                      E ( )  sgn
                                                                                  d
                                                                                       E ( )   0
                                                                                               

                                                             Persistence length.
                                                                                                    t  
                                                             x 2        nS 2 P t   P1  exp   
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                    P  



    Unit Name                                                                                    Preliminary
Quantifying proficiency: Motion smoothness across the workspace.      Overview       Piecewise                 Scalars
                                                                                                  Results
            Optional Presentation
                            Title




Unit Name
            Optional Presentation
                            Title




Unit Name

				
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posted:8/30/2011
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