Social Psychology Emotion by samc

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									Emotion

Aspects of Emotion
Subjective  Social  Physiological  Behavioral
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Manipulating and Measuring Emotion

 Real

life manipulations  Directed facial action  Relived emotions  At least 2 dimensions: intensity (arousal) and valence (pleasantness)

Mood vs. Emotion

 Intensity
 Length

to identify trigger  Figure-ground

 Ability

Emotion and the Brain
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Amygdala is involved in the processes of fight or flight behavior, feeding behavior, and sexual behavior Epileptic aura Kluver-Bucy syndrome (damage to the medial temporal lobe)

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Lesions to right hemisphere impair emotion recognition

Categorizing Emotions
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Semantic analysis: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust (Johnson-Laird & Oatley, 1989; Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1990). 2. Self-sorting: happiness/joy, love, surprise, sadness, fear, and anger (Shaver et al., 1987). 3. Facial expression: happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust (Ekman).

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Facial Feedback Hypothesis
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80 muscles in the face, 3 dozen are influential in facial expression (Reeve, 1997). If there is no distinctive facial expression, then there is no emotion (Ekman). Facial feedback is interpreted by the brain as being a certain emotion. Once an emotion is activated, the whole body becomes aroused.• Arousal and external stimuli maintain the emotion after facial feedback initiates it.

Evidence for Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Evidence for Facial Feedback Hypothesis
 Strack
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and colleagues (1988)

Participants hold pen in mouths in one of two ways while rating cartoons for humor content
• Between their teeth (contracts muscles associated with smiling) • Between their lips (prevents contraction of smiling muscles) • Control (hold pen in non-dominant hand)

James-Lange Theory
 An

emotion-provoking stimulus directly produces physiological changes and behavior, and then these events produce the feeling of an emotion.

Criticisms of James-Lange Theory (Cannon)
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Bodily changes could be eliminated without disturbing emotions Feedback from physiological changes are similar for different emotions – thus could not determine emotional state Viscera (feedback to brain for emotional experience) are not very sensitive Changes to viscera too slow to provide experience of emotion Artificially inducing arousal did not lead to ―emotion‖

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Schachter and Singer Theory (Two Factor Theory)
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We have the feeling of an emotion when two factors are present: we are physiologically aroused, and we interpret that arousal in terms of a specific emotion based on the situation we are in.

Schachter and Singer (1962) (Two Factor Theory)
Arousal and Emotional Explanation for the Arousal were the two key variables manipulated:
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Participants injected with ―suproxin‖
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Placebo or Epinephrine Participants either informed or misinformed about the effects of the drug

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Confederate acted angry or euphoric

 Prediction:
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Schachter and Singer Cognitive/Appraisal Theory (Two Factor Theory)

Epinephrine uninformed more angry/happy than informed—Why? Because they attributed their arousal (which was drug induced) to the situation.
Emotions are somewhat arbitrary, depending on what the most plausible explanation for the arousal happens to be.

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Implication:
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Cognitive/Appraisal Theory Applied in Another Context
Dutton & Aron (1974) – Misattribution of Arousal and Attraction

Cognitive/Appraisal Theory Applied in Another Context
Dutton & Aron (1974) findings: •Men on suspension bridge wrote stories that had more sexual imagery. •Men on suspension bridge 4 times more likely to call research assistant. •These effects only occurred if men wrote stories as they crossed the bridge. •If the research assistant was male, forget it. No arousal effect.

Is Experiencing Actual Arousal Needed?
 Valins
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(1966)

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Argued that actual arousal may not be needed Led male participants to believe their heart rate increased in response to pictures of women

Expressions of Emotion
 When

alone vs. around others. monkey studies versus Men

 Miller’s

 Women

Emotion Recognition and Childhood Abuse
 By

7 months of age, we are able to discriminate emotional expressions, even dynamic ones infants we are more sensitive to facial expressions made by our primary care giver

 As

Emotion Recognition and Childhood Abuse
 By

7 months of age, we are able to discriminate emotional expressions, even dynamic ones infants we are more sensitive to facial expressions made by our primary care giver

 As

Emotion Recognition and Childhood Abuse
 Pollak
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et al (2000, 2002)

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Compared nonabused, physically abused and neglected 3-5 year olds on emotion discrimination task Neglected children less able to differentiate negative emotions Abused children over-identified anger (nonabused tended to under-identified anger)

Emotion Recognition and Aggression
 Walz
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and Benson (1996)

Those high in aggression more likely to view ambiguous expressions in a negative light than those who were low in aggression

 Larkin
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et al. (2002)

Clinically hostile more likely to mislabel emotions to a negative degree than those not so diagnosed

―Your face is going to get stuck like that!‖
 Malatesta
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et al. 1987

Administered personality inventory and obtained face photograph in neutral expression Another group of participants judged the emotional expression of the faces

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