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  Appendix A   Resources for climate change planners

  Appendix B   Adaptation activities underway in communities across Canada

  Appendix C   The Kyoto Protocol and COP-15 backgrounder

  Appendix D   NRCan/CIP projects and intiatives on climate change

Resources for climate change planners
Sources of scientific data
   1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

A body of the United Nations, the IPCC provides decision-makers with an objective source of
the latest scientific, technical and socio-economic information about climate change, and is
generally considered the authority on the subject. The IPCC does not do research of its own, but
bases its reports on the peer-reviewed work of hundreds of climate scientists around the world.

The IPCC and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr. were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in December
2007. Several scientists from Canadian universities and government departments contributed
to the IPCC’s award-winning work.

The IPCC has recently completed its Fourth Assessment Report entitled “Climate Change 2007”,
commonly referred to as AR4. The report, including a Summary for Policy Makers, is available at Some of the key findings include:

Given current mitigation policies and sustainable development practices, GHG (green house
gas) emissions are expected to continue to grow over the next few decades;
Continued GHG emissions, at current rates or higher, would induce changes during the 21st
century that are very likely to be larger than those experienced during the 20th century;
Global warming and sea level rise are projected to increase, even if GHG emissions were to
be stabilized;
Global average temperature is projected to rise anywhere from 1.1 to 6.4 degrees Celcius
over the next century; and
Sea level is projected to rise from 0.18 metres to 0.59 metres over the next century.

   2. NRCAN Change Impacts and Adaptation Directorate

NRCan coordinated a nation-wide scientific assessment of climate change impacts and
adaptation. This report, entitled “From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing
Climate 2007”, is complementary to the IPCC’s AR4 Report, and discusses current and
future risks, and opportunities that climate change presents to Canada. The report’s
national co-ordinator emphasized three important points:
       Warming of the climate is unequivocal;
       Adaptation is necessary, not an option; and
       Even those regions characterized by high incomes will be impacted.

The report highlights key issues facing each region of the country, and is intended to inform
adaptation decision-making and policy development. It also provides examples of recent
and ongoing adaptation initiatives. It can be found at:

   3. Health Canada

Health Canada will soon be releasing a health vulnerability assessment, a parallel study to
NRCan’s national climate change assessment.

   4. Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change

Sir Nicholas Stern wrote “The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change for the British
Prime Minister and Chancellor” in 2006. The report assesses the impacts and risks arising from
uncontrolled climate change, and the costs and opportunities associated with tackling it.
Indicating that there is still time to avoid the worst impacts of climate change if we take strong
action now, Stern estimates the costs of stabilizing the climate as roughly equal to 1% of world
GDP, but warns that if we do not act now, climate change will cost the world the equivalent of
5%-20% of GDP every year, in perpetuity. The report can be found at:

   5. UK Climate Impacts Programme

UK Climate Impacts Programme, commonly known as UKCIP, is a valuable and current source of
information about climate projections and impacts, and strategies for local governments to
respond to them. UKCIP is funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
(Defra) and is based at the University of Oxford. A rich array of information and resources are
available at, including:

An “Adaptation Wizard” that guides users through the process from simple understanding of
climate change to integration of climate change into decision-making; maps showing projected
climate changes in the UK; and a database of adaptation case studies, and presentations made
by local governments, at a January 2008 workshop on local climate impacts, profiles and
adaptation strategies.

   6. ICLEI (International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives) – Local Governments for

ICLEI is an international organization of more than 470 member cities, towns, and countries
that have made a commitment to sustainable development. ICLEI – Canada has partnered with
NRCan to pilot test an adaptation planning guide, entitled "Preparing for Climate Change: A
Guidebook for Local, Regional and State Governments" that was produced in conjunction with
University of Washington and King County, Washington. They will be working with Canadian
municipalities to develop a supplement to the guide that addresses Canadian-specific issues.
For                   more                 information                 go                 to[backPid]=7286&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=2415

   7. The Partners for Climate Protection (PCP) Program.

The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) has partnered with ICLEI to develop “The
Partners for Climate Protection” (PCP) program. The program is a network of 155 Canadian
municipal governments that have committed to reducing greenhouse gases and acting on
climate change, with an emphasis on mitigation responses that reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. PCP is the Canadian component of ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection (CCP)
network, comprising more then 800 communities world-wide. For more information go to

Organizations supporting local governments
   1. FCM’s Partners for Climate Protection Program at
   2. This US Mayors’ climate change site provides a comprehensive understanding of what levers
      communities they have at their disposal to achieve the commitments associated with the US
      Mayors’ Climate Protection Agreement. View this tool at
   3. C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (associated with the Clinton Climate Initiative),
   4. In Europe, the Climate Alliance,, is a network of local
      authorities active since 1990 with more than 1,500 members. Further, some large cities have
      developed their own approaches.

Climate Information & Climate Change Scenarios
                  The Canadian Climate Change Scenarios Network (CCCSN) is a good starting point for climate data
                   and climate change scenario information. It has links to historical climate data from Environment
                   Canada. It provides background information on climate scenarios and their construction including a
                   page for those just starting out (see the bottom of the main page). Under contacts you will find names,
                   phone numbers and emails for contacts across the country who can help answer your questions. The
                   network also provides training from time to time.

         The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC), located in Victoria BC, provides climate information
          and climate change scenarios. The site contains a regional analysis tool that helps users develop
          climate scenarios for BC.
         Ouranos is a consortium located in Quebec whose mission is to acquire and develop knowledge on
          climate change, its impact and related socioeconomic and environmental vulnerabilities, in order to
          inform decision makers about probable climate trends and advise them on identifying, assessing,
          promoting and implementing local and regional adaptation strategies. It’s Climate Sciences
          program provides information and scientific support required for impact and adaptation projects.

I.    Addressing Misleading Arguments about Climate Change

      Ten Popular Myths perpetuated in Canada about the science of Global Climate Change

      The Royal Society – A Guide to Facts and Fictions about Climate Change. Examines twelve misleading
      arguments put forward by the opponents of urgent action on climate change

      DeSmogBlog – Clearing the PR Pollution that Clouds Climate Science
      A Canadian source for accurate, fact-based information regarding Global Warming misinformation

II.   Municipal Resources for Adapting to Climate Change

               1.        ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability

      An international organization of over 470 member cities, towns and counties, that have made a commitment
      to sustainable development. ICLEI-Canada partnered with NRCan to pilot test one of the first adaptation
      planning guides entitled Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional and State
      Governments that was produced in conjunction with the University of Washington and King County,
      Washington. They are working with Canadian municipalities to develop a supplement to the guide that
      addresses Canadian-specific issues. For more information, go to:

               2.        The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM)

      FCM has partnered with ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability to develop The Partners for Climate
      Protection (PCP) program. The PCP is a network of over 150 Canadian municipal governments that have
      committed to reducing greenhouse gases and acting on climate change with an emphasis on mitigation
      responses to climate change that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. PCP is the Canadian component of
      ICLEI‘s Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) network comprising more then 800 communities worldwide. For
      more information, go to:

      Note: Much of the following was adapted from the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. 2009. Municipal
      Resources for Adapting to Climate Change. (available at
      _PCP/PCP_Resources/Mun-Re-_Adapting-Climate-Change-e.pdf). This is an excellent resource developed
      to provide information to Partners for Climate Protection (PCP) members and other municipal officials about
      municipal adaptation initiatives and to provide resources for municipal officials who wish to undertake
      adaptation planning.

B.     Organizations Working With Canadian Communities On Adaptation

Listed in the table below are a number of organizations that have strong links to municipalities, are looking to
serve municipalities or are working on climate change risk assessment or adaptation planning.

   Alliance for Resilient Cities                           Canadian Institute of Planners                   

   Clean Air Partnership                                   Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation
                                                                Division, Natural Resources Canada                        

   Columbia Basin Trust (B.C.)                             Ecology North                                   

   EarthCare Sudbury                                       Environment Canada

   Grand River Conservation Authority                      Health Canada

   Indian and Northern Affairs Canada                      ICLEI Canada                           

   Northern Climate Exchange                               Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction

   Ouranos (Québec)                                        Ontario Centre for Climate Impacts and
                                                                 Adaptation Resources                                      

   PEI Coastal Impact Group                                Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium

   Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative               Pembina Institute


   Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability         Toronto and Region Conservation Authority
         Committee (Engineers Canada)                 

     Walpole Island First Nation

C.         Communities undertaking adaptation activities

Municipal government adaptation strategies are at an early stage. More and more municipalities are
recognizing the importance of addressing climate change impacts and adaptation, but to date there is no
consistent approach, nor are there extensive resources and tools to help municipalities assess their
vulnerabilities to climate change. London (U.K.) and Halifax have published detailed investigations into the
range of risks that climate change poses for their communities.

Halifax is well along in planning for adaptation, having completed a climate change risk management
strategy, Climate SMART, which includes adaptation planning ( The city
has launched guides and voluntary programs aspart of implementing its adaptation plan.

The City of Toronto is one of the first Canadian cities to establish a citywide process to respond to its
vulnerability to climate change. In 2008, Toronto developed Ahead of the Storm, a climate change adaptation
strategy ( See for a case study describing past, current and potential future
impacts of climate change on Toronto, along with the steps taken to develop the adaptation strategy.

Kimberley & Elkford, British Columbia (Columbia Basin Trust pilots)
The Communities Adapting to Climate Change initiative supports communities of the Canadian Columbia
Basin to increase their adaptive capacity and resiliency to climate change impacts at a community level.
Phase 1 (2008-2009) included two pilot communities, Kimberley and the District of Elkford, a learning
network and an advisory committee. All of the tools and resources they used to develop their plans have
been put together as a resource kit at . They have
also produced a useful video:

     Communities Adapting to Climate Change: A Tale of Two Communities - City of Kimberley and District
      of Elkford share their experience in participating in CBT's Communities Adapting to Climate Initiative in
      this 10-minute video.

London (U.K.) started adaptation planning earlier than any
of the other municipalities, and has gone the furthest with its planning to date. London has initiated a
community resilience effort, conducted a community resilience or vulnerability study and developed goals
and a preparedness (or adaptation) plan. London has also formally incorporated climate change impacts and
adaptation into its official plan, and has embarked on a number of pilot projects to test specific adaptation

The UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) helps organizations to adapt to climate change. The UKCIP
website ( is an excellent source for resources on climate projections, impacts and
adaptation actions including:
     The Adaptation Wizard that guides users move through a 5-step process to assess vulnerability to
      current climate and future climate change, identify options to address key climate risks, and help to
      develop a climate change adaptation strategy.
     The Base for Research, Adaptation, Impacts and News, referred to as the BRAIN, an extensive
      collection of research activities, adaptation actions, impacts of climate/weather and news of general
      climate change activities.
     Adaptation actions can be searched in an independent database by region (in UK), by sector or by type
      of adaptation action at:

D.        NRCan and CIP’s Municipal Case Studies

A joint study examined the planning process and climate change in five municipalities across the country.
The case studies address a sample of the major climate change impacts facing Canadian communities.
These include water resource depletion, coastal erosion due to higher sea levels, and permafrost melting.
The plain language summaries are available on CIP‘s website at: http://www.cip-

The case studies include:
    City of Calgary Municipal Water Supply
    Corporation of Delta Case Study: Sensitivity of the Roberts Bank Tidal Flats to Accelerated Sea Level
     Rise and Intensified Storminess
    Graham Island Case Study: Impacts of Sea Level Rise
    Southeastern New Brunswick Coastal Communities Case Study: Impacts of Sea Level Rise
    Salluit Case Study: Impacts of Degrading Permafrost

E.        Resources for impact assessment and adaptation planning

Although resources and tools are still underdeveloped, a few useful resources are available for planners and
municipalities. The following resources can help to better understand the major climate changes that are
beginning to occur and some of the expected impacts:
    Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, April 2007)
    From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 (Natural Resources Canada, 2007)
A number of guides have been produced in recent years to help local governments assess climate change
vulnerabilities and risks, and plan and implement adaptation strategies:
    Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments (King County,
     Climate Impacts Group and ICLEI USA, 2007). Four communities — Delta, St. John‘s, Sudbury and
     Keene, New Hampshire — served as pilot communities where some of the tools in this guide were
     tested ( ).
    Climate Change Information for Effective Adaptation: A Practitioner‗s Manual. (2009) Kropp, J., and
     Scholze, M., prepared for Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany.
    Climate adaptation: Risk, uncertainty and decision-making (U.K. Climate ImpactsProgramme (UKCIP,
     2003) (
    Preparing for climate change: A guide for local government in New Zealand (New Zealand Climate
     Change Office, 2004) (
    Climate Change Impacts & Risk Management: A Guide for Business and Government (Australian
     Government, 2006) (
    Canadian communities‘ guidebook for adaptation to climate change. Including an approach to generate
     mitigation co-benefits in the context of sustainable development. By Bizikova L., T. Neale and I. Burton,
     2008. Environment Canada and University of British Columbia.

    Chicago Climate Change Action Plan — Adaptation Strategy. (2008) City of Chicago.
     ( ) Adaptation tactics were prioritized
     according to: 1) their collateral mitigation benefits; 2) their costs; and 3) their catalytic potential. Five
     multi-departmental adaptation working groups were formed to develop adaptation actions plans:
     extreme heat; extreme precipitation events; building, equipment and infrastructure vulnerabilities;
     ecosystem degradation; and leadership, planning and communication. Over 200 adaptation initiatives
     are planned and underway across 15 City departments and agencies.
    Climate Change Planning Tools for First Nations Guidebooks. 2006. (
     and-resources/publications-and-products.aspx?id=412 ) These six Guidebooks ‗walk and talk‘ a First
     Nation through the planning process. Each develops an important part of the planning process and is a
     precursor to the next guidebook. They contain: suggestions of how a First Nation might plan for climate
     change, how to involve the community, and activities that a First Nation can use to involve members of
     the community to set priorities and achieve them.
    weADAPT ( ) has been collaborating with to explore ways of
     improving access to information on climate adaptation using Google Earth. Based on input from users
     we have created a quick and easy way to find out who is working on what and where. This also allows
     you to share the work you are doing with a wide audience and raise awareness on important issues.
Municipalities using the King County/ICLEI USA guidebook and the UKCIP guide listed above have
described them as useful but lengthy and targeted to larger municipalities. Resources tailored to smaller
municipalities still need to be developed.

In addition to these guides, several other resources have been useful to municipalities undertaking climate
change vulnerability or risk assessments and adaptation planning:
    Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Canadian Perspective (Natural Resources Canada, 2004)
     suggests a ―vulnerability approach‖ for assessing climate risks and provides suggested adaptation
     responses for a number of sectors (
    Adapting to Climate Change: A Risk-based Guide for Ontario Municipalities (Bruce, Egener and Noble,
     2006) provides a detailed methodology for assessing the risks of climate change and undertaking
     climate change adaptation planning for municipalities
    Cities Preparing for Climate Change: A Study of Six Urban Regions (Clean Air Partnership, 2007)
     proposes a framework for urban adaptation processes, based on a review of leading cities and urban
     regions (
    Planning Response to Climate Change: Advice on Better Practice (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister,
     London, 2004) focuses on incorporating climate concerns and adaptation into local government
     planning (
    Adapting to Climate Change: An Introduction for Canadian Municipalities (Climate Change Impacts and
     Adaptation Research Network, 2006) provides an introduction to climate impacts, including case studies
     ( This resource is targeted to elected officials.
    The City of Toronto‘s Climate Change Adaptation Reference Collection, developed with the help of the
     Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, may be useful to other communities
    A Guide for Incorporating Adaptation to Climate Change into Land-Use Planning. CEF Consultants Ltd
     and CBCL Limited. (Collins, Smith, and Allen, 2005). A guide aimed at land use planners, engineers,
     administrators within municipal governments, and planning advisory committees that discusses
     mitigation and adaptation strategies, climate change impacts and plans, and land use planning.

        The new climate change adaptation tools and resources developed by Engineers Canada
    Many of the above resources provide a detailed step-by-step approach to climate change impact assessment
    and adaptation planning. There is considerable overlap in their approaches.

    F.        Websites with extensive Adaptation Planning Resource Lists

    CIP is in the process of buildings its site into a significant resource.

    Clean Air Partnerships:
    Extensive list compiled for the Alliance on Resilient Cities.

    City of Toronto Climate Change Adaptation Reference Collection On this site, you'll find links to studies,
    reports and tools related to climate change adaptation. This material was compiled, in cooperation with the
    Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction (ICLR), in the course of the City‘s research on climate change

    G.        Videos

Global Warming 101
    101.html (3 minutes)
    Good basic overview. Can be used with accompanying on-line Global Warming Quiz

    Communities Adapting to Climate Change: A Tale of Two Communities (10 min)
    City of Kimberley and District of Elkford share their experience in participating in The Colombia Basin
    Council‘s Communities Adapting to Climate Initiative.

    Adapting to Climate Change in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia
    ( (12 min)
    As part of the Natural Resource Canada funded project on climate change adaptation in the Fraser Basin of
    British Columbia, EKOS produced this video designed to stimulate dialogue among local government
    representatives, scientists and engineers on how to adapt water related infrastructure. The video applies
    peer-to-peer learning by having mayors, councilors and senior policy advisers as the main delivers of the
    message, supported by clips from three highly respect climate research scientists from University of British
    Columbia (UBC).

    Climate Action in California with Arnold Schwartzenegger (7 minutes)
    Visualizing climate change risk and adaptation options in California (via a collaboration with Google Earth),
    this overview of California‘s extensive climate action uses impressive impact simulations.

    The Most Terrifying Video You'll Ever See - The Climate Change Debate (10 minutes)
    In 2007, high school science teacher Greg Craven posted this video predicting dire consequences without
    strong measures to stop global warming. That video attracted over five million viewers. He has since written
    a book entitled What's the Worst That Could Happen?: A Rational Response to the Climate Change Debate,
    where his focus is not "what" to think about global warming, but "how." Using clear language and charts,
    Craven sketches not just the cost/benefit analysis of over-reacting and failing to act, but the fundamentals of
    sound science. Training readers to evaluate competing arguments, he points to a number of expert sources

for reliable information, takes a measured look at the skeptics and finds that the risk of global climate
destabilization outweighs the supposedly prohibitive costs of implementing environmental protection
measures. [from]

BBC Hot Cities
A series of documentaries produced in partnership with Rockhopper TV. The world‘s biggest cities are
already victims of climate change. ―Hot Cities‖ travels the world from Lagos to Los Angeles, from Shanghai to
Surat, from Dhaka to Durban to see if our cites can adapt and survive.

H.        Risk assessment tools

Halifax has gone through a formal, comprehensive risk assessment process to evaluate climate change
risks. Halifax was motivated to begin developing an adaptation strategy following Hurricane Juan, which did
considerable damage to the city in 2003. With the help of ClimAdapt, (a consortium of eight Atlantic
Canadian private sector environmental firms and two nongovernmental organizations), Halifax was able to
secure funds from the federal government to support research and risk assessment related to climate
change impacts and strategy development. The city developed a climate change risk assessment tool,
drawing on a guide produced by the Canadian Standards Association entitled Risk Management: Guideline
for Decision Makers (CSA-Q850-97 (R2007))
( This risk assessment tool is
described in Halifax‘s Climate Change Risk Management Strategy (2007)

The Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee (PIEVC) Protocol produced by Engineers
Canada is another risk assessment tool being used to assess the vulnerability of individual facilities or types
of infrastructure ( The types of infrastructure considered include buildings; roads, bridges and
other transportation infrastructure; stormwater and wastewater systems; and water resources. Engineers
Canada selected Sudbury to use the protocol to assess the vulnerability of its roads to climate change.
Yellowknife used the PIEVC Protocol to assess the threat of thawing permafrost to local buildings.

I.        Scientific resources

A variety of scientific resources exist to help municipalities learn about climate change, prepare analyses of
expected local impacts and, in some cases, begin evaluating adaptation solutions. Some of these resources
    The regional offices of Environment Canada, as well as its Adaptation and Impacts Research Group
    The Earth Sciences Sector of Natural Resources Canada (
    The Canadian Hydrographic Service in the Department of Fisheries and Oceans
    The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium ( ).
    Data from the Atlas of Canada ( and
     Natural Resources Canada‘s CoastWeb (
    Projections from the Canadian Climate Change Scenarios Network (
    Individual scientists such as Norm Catto at Memorial University and David Pearson at Laurentian
    Researchers doing presentations on Alliance for Resilient Cities ( and
     FCM‘s Green Municipal FundTM webinars (

It is important to note that although Canada has an array of research and scientific resources on climate
change, cities are not yet drawing on many of these resources. One reason for this is limited staff time and

J.        Helpful Resources by Region

          1.        British Columbia

    BC Climate Action Toolkit. A climate action resource for local government by local government in
     collaboration with UBCM, Smart Planning for Communities & the Province of BC.
    Climate Change Adaptation: Planning for BC. (2008) Harford, D., Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions,
     University of Victoria, British Columbia
    (Capital Regional District) Capital Region Climate Change Adaptation Study Phase 1: Project Scoping.
     (2008) The Sheltair Group. Prepared for Environmental Services Department, Capital Regional District
    (Corporation of Delta) Delta's Climate Change Initiative: A Corporate Framework for Action. (2008)
     Climate Change Working Group, Corporation of Delta

          2.        Quebec

    Ouranos is a consortium that brings together 250 scientists and professionals from different disciplines.
     It focuses on two main themes: Climate Sciences and Impacts & Adaptation.

          3.        Atlantic Region

    (Halifax Regional Municipality) HRM Climate SMART: Community Action Guide to Climate Change and
     Emergency Preparedness. (2006) Halifax Regional Municipality, Naturally Green, Government of
     Canada, Federation of Canadian Municipalities, Government of Nova Scotia
    (Halifax Regional Municipality) Climate Change Risk Management Strategy for Halifax Regional
     Municipality. (2007) Halifax Regional Municipality
    (New Brunswick) New Brunswick Climate Change Action Plan 2007-2012. (2007) New Brunswick
     Climate Change Secretariat Department of Environment
    (Nova Scotia) Toward a Greener Future: Nova Scotia‘s Climate Change Action Plan (Adapting to
     Climate Change Actions 53-66). (2009) Nova Scotia Department of Environment
     (Prince Edward Island) Prince Edward Island and Climate Change: A Strategy for Reducing the
     Impacts of Global Warming. (2008) Department of Environment, Energy and Forestry, Government of
     Prince Edward Island

          4.        Ontario

    (City of Toronto) Ahead of the Storm… Preparing Toronto for Climate Change: Development of a
     climate change adaptation strategy. (2008). Toronto Environment Office, City of Toronto Climate
     Adaptation Steering Group, Clean Air Partnership
    (City of Ottawa) City of Ottawa White Paper: Climate Change and the Official Plan Review. (2008)
     Planning, Transit and the Environment Department, City of Ottawa
    (Ontario) Adapting to Climate Change in Ontario: Towards the Design and Implementation of a Strategy
     and Action Plan (2009) The Ontario Ministry of the Environment has released a report titled Adapting to
     Climate Change in Ontario: Towards the Design and Implementation of a Strategy and Action Plan,
     authored by Ontario‘s Expert Panel on Climate Change Adaptation. The report lists a broad range of
                                                    APPENDIX 5: SUMMARIES OF ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES

                    recommendations to help Ontario understand climate change impacts, reduce risks and take advantage
                    of beneficial opportunities resulting from climate change.

                         5.        North

                   (Northwest Territories) Northwest Territories Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report. (2008)
                    Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Government of the Northwest Territories.
                   (City of Yellowknife) Creating a More Resilient Yellowknife: Climate Change Impacts and Municipal
                    Decision Making. Final Project Report. (2007) Pryor, J., and Cobb, P., Pembina Institute.
                   (Yukon) Yukon Government Climate Change Action Plan. (2009) Environment Yukon, Yukon
               K.        Regional Climate Resources

               To understand climate impacts in a specific location, in more detail and/or in a particular sector, e.g., coastal
               erosion or water supply, it may be advisable to bring in specialized expertise. There are hundreds of
               scientists, researchers and others working in regional climate centres, governments, universities and
               organizations across the country. Currently, there is no centralized agency that facilitates access to these
               individuals or institutions. Below you will find a list of organizations and institutions that might be working in
               your region. Also investigate local provincial and university departments that are working on climate change.
                   Canadian Forest Service, NRCan –
                   Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction –
                   Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), in particular the Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division
                   Ouranos Consortium –
                   Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium –
                   Prairie Adaptation Research Collaborative (PARC) –
                   Water & Climate Impacts Research Centre (W-CIRC) –
               L.        Resources for Planners as Sustainability Champions

                   The Sustainability Champion's Guidebook, by Bob Willard, outlines how internal leaders can transform
                    their organisation to sustainable enterprises.

                   The International Society of Sustainability Professionals (ISSP) is a non-profit, member-driven
                    association for professionals who are committed to making sustainability standard practice.

                   The Natural Step Canada is a national non-profit organization that provides training, coaching and
                    advice to communities and businesses on how to integrate economic, environmental and social
                    priorities into their decision making and planning. Their website includes good case studies and guides
                    on how to do integrated community sustainability planning.

Regional climate cneteres, governemtns, universities and organization (the last two pages of Appendix 4
of March 3 2 day workshop)

Canadian climate modeling resources

Climate modeling clearinghouse (national with regional contacts):
Canadian Climate Change Scenarios Network
Climate modeling centres:
Canadian Institute of Climate Studies
Centre ESCER pour l’edtude et la simulation du climat a l’echelle regionale (regional)
Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis
Ouranos (regional)
Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University
Atmospheric Physics, University of Toronto
Atmospheric Sciences Group, University of Quebec at Montreal
Climate Modelling Group, Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria; Physics and Astronomy
Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, York University; Earth and Atmospheric Science
Montreal Weather Centre, University of Quebec at Montreal
Federal government:
NRCan Climate Change Impacts & Adapt.:
Env Canada Climate Change Programs:
International: World Climate Research Programme
Specialised modeling: Canadian Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate (CSPARC)
       (PI: UofT Physics)

  What is the CCCSN?

       The CCCSN will maintain Canada's reputation for preserving a leading-edge scenarios facility that
       will become one of the premier sources for Canadians and international researchers seeking
       information on climate change scenarios and impacts and adaptation research.
       The content of the network includes:

   •   Canadian climate change scenarios derived from GCM (Global Climate Model) simulations,
       (particularly the Canadian model, available at the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and
       Analysis (CCCma), those scenarios recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
       Change (IPCC) and the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI)
       project. In addition, this website will provide regional scale/high resolution output from the
       Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), through collaboration with the Ouranos consortium,
       along with information on other relevant GCM downscaling methods;

   •   Bioclimate profiles for Canada;

   •   Scenarios and impact and adaptation research documents from within and outside of Canada;

   •   Links to IPCC guidelines on scenario use and interpretation;

 •   On-line instructions for using scenarios and downscaling tools: the Statistical Downscaling
     Model (SDSM), the Automated Downscaling Tool (ASD) and a weather generator (LARS-WG);

 •   Links to other tools used in impacts and adaptation research; and

 •   Scenario Reports and selected scientific publications related to climate scenarios and impacts
     and adaptation research.

The network also allows the user to:

Visualize GCM and CRCM experiments, either as maps or through the use of graphical displays of

Facilitate the analysis and comparison of available simulations from GCMs and the CRCM, when
      comparable simulations are available for the same experiments;

Develop all relevant derived atmospheric variables based extremes to consider plausible anticipated
    changes in duration, frequency and intensity of weather extremes; and

Extract and download all available parameter data for a particular location or region.

The Canadian Institute for Climate Studies

The Institute is housed within the Centre for Global Studies' Climate & Energy Division at the
    University of Victoria. Mission is to further the understanding of the climate system, its variability
    and potential for change and to further the application of that understanding to decision making
    in both the public and private sectors. CICS is the secretariat for the Pacific Climate Impacts
    Consortium (PCIC).

List of past projects gives an overview of how it has focused on the above mission since 1993.

Climate scenarios data and maps remain available from the Canadian Climate Impacts Scenarios
    project which ran from 1999-2004. A new scenarios interface with a regional focus is being
    developed and will be launched on the PCIC website.

Publications and products archive are links to past issues of the Climate Research Network
     Newsletter, Seasonal Climate Predictions, and Seasonal Climate Bulletin publications. PCIC plans
     to make some free general interpretation of seasonal climate predictions available.

Centre ESCER regional modeling member of Global environmental and climate chance centre, the
    Montreal area university                   consortium (

              Université du Québec à Montréal

              Case postale 8888, succursale Centre-Ville

              Montréal (Québec) Canada

     Le Centre ESCER regroupe de vives forces de l’Université du Québec à Montréal - UQAM -
     oeuvrant dans les domaines de l'étude et de la simulation du climat à l'échelle régionale, ainsi
     que     sur     la   compréhension        du      système       climatique     en      général.

     En novembre 2003, la reconnaissance institutionnelle du Centre ESCER a permis de donner une
     visibilité accrue aux activités de recherche prenant place à l’UQAM via le Réseau canadien en
     modélisation et diagnostics du climat régional (MDCR) et pour lesquelles les chercheurs de
     l’UQAM         ont     acquis       une     renommée       nationale     et     internationale.

     Depuis avril 2004, le Centre ESCER constitue le pôle « modélisation du climat régional » dans le
     regroupement stratégique GEC3 (Global Environmental and Climate Change Centre), composé
     d’une quarantaine de chercheurs de l’Université McGill (Centre for Climate and Global Change
     Research – C2GCR, Brace Centre for Water Resources Management), de l’Université de
     Sherbrooke (Centre d'applications et de recherches en télédétection - CARTEL), de l’Université de
     Montréal (Laboratoire de géomorphologie fluviale - LGF) et de l'UQAM (Centre ESCER). Une telle
     alliance a permis la reconnaissance de notre centre de recherche auprès du Fonds québécois de
     la      recherche       sur      la     nature      et      les      technologies       (FQRNT).

     Le Centre est situé au Pavillon Président-Kennedy du Complexe des sciences Pierre-Dansereau,
     201 avenue du Président-Kennedy à Montréal. (Carte)

Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, a division of the Climate Research Branch of
    Environment Canada. CCCma is located on the campus of the University of Victoria.

Canadian         Centre         for             Climate            Modelling             and            Analysis
    University       of         Victoria,           PO            Box        3065              STN          CSC
    Victoria BC V8W 3V6

Models developed:

AGCM1    The      first      generation     atmospheric    general     circulation                       model.
   AGCM2     The     second      generation    atmospheric   general    circulation                      model.
   AGCM3     The      third     generation    atmospheric   general     circulation                      model.
   AGCM4/CanAM4 The fourth generation and current atmospheric general circulation                        model.
   CGCM1      The        first     generation     coupled     global      climate                        model.
   CGCM2 The       second        generation      coupled     global       climate                        model.
   CGCM3      The        third     generation      coupled    global       climate                       model.
   CGCM4/CanCM4 The fourth generation and current coupled global climate model.

Data availability: and downloading:

The CCCma also participates in several Climate Research Network model development projects. These
    have lead to the development of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM), the current
    Canadian Regional Climate Model (versions of the CRCM), and recently a new Canadian Regional
    Climate Model (CanRCM4).

Under its analysis function, CCCma studies past and predicted climate variations to gain a deeper
    understanding of the climate system and provides science–based quantitative information to the
    national and the international community, notably coordinated model experiments organized by
    the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and contributions to the Intergovernmental
    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).


Consortium on Regional Climatology and Adaptation to Climate Change

Network of some 250 scientists and professionals, with total estimated resources of $12 M/year,
    three CRAY-SX-6 supercomputers, with available continuous calculation capacity of over
    0.2 TFLOP and 725 terabytes of memory

    550                                     Sherbrooke                                               West
    West                         Tower,                             19th                             floor
    Montreal,                                                                                     Quebec
    H3A                                                                                               1B9
    Tél.:                                                                                  (514) 282-6464
    Fax: (514) 282-7131

General Info/creating the inventory:

                _PCP/PCP_Resources/PCPFiveMilestoneFramework-e.pdf, 5-6
                inventories/greenhouse-gas-inventory-for-springfield-oregon.pdf, 5-7

Guidelines for setting up an inventory:


Principles and inventory requirements:

                ards/ICLEI_IEAP_2009.pdf (International Local Government GHG Emissions Analysis
                Protocol), 5-7


               Vancouver study -
               Montreal -
               Prince George, BC -
               Winnipeg -
               Hamilton (very detailed)-
                _PCP/PCP_Members_Inventory_Action_Plans/City-Hamilton-inventory.pdf -
               Haverford Township, Penn. -
      , table on
                page 10
               Springfield, Ore. -

General issues: Vancouver report –

            , Appendix A

     Outputs                 Data Source                            Data                     References

Building          Electricity and natural gas use    Energy Consumption                 Vancouver Study

                 (BC Hydro and Terasen Gas)           (electricity and fuel use)

Transportation   Gas sales and vehicle mileage        Light-duty and heavy-duty          Vancouver Study
                 data (AirCare testing) for LDVs;     vehicle emissions
                 modeling (kms traveled
                 estimates) for HDVs

Waste            CH2M Hill Ltd.’s model for           GHG emissions from the             Vancouver Study
                 landfill gas generation              decomposition of organic
                                                      waste in landfills


Land cover


Aviation         Fuel loaded onto plane or 2)         Fuel usage of flights              International Local
                 fuel usage apportioned to            originating at airport or 2) air   Government GHG
                 percentage of airport users who      travel footprint of residents      Emissions Analysis
                 are residents of the locality                                           Protocol, 35

NRCan/CIP Projects and Initiatives on climate change
Since 2007, CIP has been working in partnership with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and, more recently with
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) and the Government of Nunavut (GN), to bring climate change
knowledge, adaptation strategies and plans, policies and tools to professional planners in all parts of Canada.

Specifically, CIP set out to do the following:
        Establish a national policy for the institute and its members (see Appendix 1 CIP Policy on Climate
        Create educational learning modules to increase members', planning students' and stakeholders'
         awareness of planning related climate change issues.
        Create tools and resources to better equip CIP members, students and stakeholders to deal with climate
         change impacts and adaptation (see ).

CIP gratefully acknowledges the vital funding and professional contributions of Natural Resources Canada, Indian
and Northern Affairs Canada, and the Government of Nunavut, which have made this work possible. In addition,
many thanks to the many CIP members who have volunteered their expertise and hundreds of hours of their time
to make the project a success.

Educational Learning Modules

CIP, along with its Affiliates, have launched a Continuous Professional Learning (CPL) program that provides
educational opportunities to help Canadian planners remain current in their practice. Under its collaboration with
Natural Resources Canada, CIP is developing three educational learning modules on climate change:
        A 2-hour overview seminar, based on CIP's national Policy on Climate Change, available for delivery at
         Affiliate, CIP and other conferences or events;
        A university level module of 3 to 5 sessions for inclusion in the core curriculum of first-year planning
         courses, developed in close cooperation with the Association of Canadian University Planning Programs;
        A two-day intensive workshop for planners and related professionals on climate change adaptation,
         available for Affiliate CPL programs.
The learning modules are intended to equip planners to implement the CIP Policy On Climate Change that calls
upon members to consider climate change in their actions and recommendations.
                                                   APPENDIX 5: SUMMARIES OF ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES

Summaries of Adaptation Activities in Selected Communities
I.    Corporation of Delta, British Columbia

      Delta is a low-lying community bordered by the Fraser River to the north and the Strait of
      Georgia to the west. The community is aware of its vulnerability to climate change. Sea-level rise
      is of primary concern, considering the fact that the municipality maintains 60 kilometres of dikes.
      Availability of water for drinking and irrigation is also a concern.

              Delta is concerned about the following effects of climate change:
                  Increased precipitation.
                  More extreme weather events.
                  Increased vulnerability to flooding.
                  Overall loss of biodiversity as invasive plants and animals replace native species.
                  Threats to Delta‘s dike system and salinization of valuable farm land as a result of rising sea levels.

              In 2007, the Delta Council approved Delta‘s Climate Change Initiative, which has two main goals: to reduce
              GHG emissions from municipal buildings, fleet vehicles and operations; and to adapt municipal infrastructure
              and emergency plans to ensure that the community is well prepared for and protected against climate
              change impacts.

              Some of the specific adaptation activities contained within the initiative include:
                  Upgrading dykes to provide extra protection against floods and storm surges.
                  Monitoring changes in temperature, nutrients, contamination and biodiversity in creeks and streams that
                   flow from land to sea.
                  Tree planting.

              For more detailed information, please visit the Corporation of Delta‘s Climate Adaptation Project website

II.   Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia

              In its Climate Change Risk Management Strategy, completed in December 2007 and released in April 2008,
              the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM) identified a wide range of climate change vulnerabilities and
              prioritized them based on the probability of their occurrence and the severity of the likely impact

              High-priority impacts include:
                  Coastal zone impacts from sea-level rise and storm surges, causing damage to coastal ecosystems and
                   increased erosion.
                  Flooding and damage to buildings and infrastructure from sea-level rise, storm surges and extreme
                   weather events.
                  Impacts on port operations.
                  Increases in insurance costs and in economic and social costs associated with adaptation.
                  Increased risk of forest fire in the urban–rural fringe.

                Increased variability in the quality and quantity of water for agriculture from surface water sources.
                Salt water intrusion into groundwater supplies.
                Spread of vector-borne diseases such as Lyme Disease and West Nile virus.
                Tree blow down from extreme weather events.
                Storm, hail or drought damage to crops (in rural parts of the municipality).
                Impacts on terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity resulting from temperature and flow changes.

             Halifax has been working formally on climate change adaptation since 2004, spurred on by the experience of
             Hurricane Juan in 2003, followed by the blizzard ―White Juan‖ in 2004.

             The formation in 2001 of ClimAdapt (a network of eight Atlantic Canadian private sector environmental firms
             and two non-governmental organizations interested in climate change adaptation ( was
             an important precursor to Halifax‘s work on adaptation. ClimAdapt helped bring together funds and partners
             for an intensive program of research and development of tools for climate change adaptation decision-
             making. The resulting Halifax Climate SMART program involves both mitigation and adaptation.

             For more detailed information, please visit the Climate SMART website (

III.   Greater London Authority, United Kingdom

             London‘s vulnerabilities were described in a detailed assessment, London’s Warming, released in 2002
             ( Some of the potential
             vulnerabilities include the following:
                Higher average temperatures and more heat waves (600 people died in the 2003 heat wave).
                Increased electricity demand for air conditioning.
                Flooding both from extreme precipitation (especially in winter) on the Thames floodplain and from sea
                 level rise and storm surges.
                Water shortages in summer, coupled with increased demand.
                Impacts on the financial sector from domestic and global extreme weather events.
                Worsened air quality from temperature inversions, increased ozone concentrations and higher pollen
                Degradation and loss of habitat in London ecosystems.
                Building and road subsidence and heave (shifting of foundations) resulting from the drying out of clay
                Disruption of transportation as a result of flooding and extreme weather.
                Increased damage from stronger windstorms.

             Led by the Greater London Authority, the London Climate Change Partnership (LCCP) was created in 2001
             ( LCCP includes representatives of local governments,
             utilities, transportation, water and health agencies, business associations and environmental NGOs. In
             addition to the vulnerability assessment mentioned above, LCCP has undertaken sectoral studies of climate
             change impacts and adaptation options and published several guides to adaptation. Its publications are all
             publicly available at Greater London Authority‘s LCCP website.
                                                  APPENDIX 5: SUMMARIES OF ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES

             For more detailed information, please visit the City of London‘s climate change website

IV.   City of St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador

             The Atlantic Chapter of From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007
             ( outlines the climate changes expected in the
             region, including:
                 longer, hotter and drier summers
                 thunderstorm and lightning activity
                 increased storm activity
                 more winter and spring precipitation
                 stronger winds
                 variable snow cover
                 decreased fog

             St. John‘s is very concerned about flooding. The city has experienced major floods from extreme weather
             events in the past, such as Hurricane Gabriel and other storms that normally occur once every 100 or 150
             years. Flooding has already done major damage to the city‘s storm sewage system and this is a primary
             vulnerability concern.

             The city‘s first formal participation in climate adaptation planning was via ICLEI Canada‘s Climate Adaptation
             Pilot Project in 2007, which tested the usefulness of the King County and ICLEI USA publication, Preparing
             for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional and State Governments, in the Canadian context. The
             project involved three workshops with city staff. Staff discussed the guidebook‘s strategies for conducting a
             climate impacts and resilience study, identifying priority planning areas for action, setting preparedness goals
             and developing a preparedness plan.

             Although this pilot project has concluded, the city will continue its climate adaptation activities through its
             Integrated Sustainability Community Planning (ISCP).

             For more detailed information, please visit the City of St John‘s climate change website

V.    City of Greater Sudbury, Ontario

             The following climate changes are projected for Sudbury by 2050:
                 average temperature increase of 2–3°C
                 shorter snowfall season
                 more frequent and intense extreme weather events
                 10–15 per cent increase in annual precipitation
                 more rain and less snow
                 more extreme heat days
                 increased variability in wet and dry periods
                 longer growing season
                                                  APPENDIX 5: SUMMARIES OF ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES

              The City of Greater Sudbury has participated in several climate adaptation activities, including the following:
                  The city is involved in a project to assess the impacts of climate change on roads and associated
                   structures. This is part of a countrywide project by the Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability
                   Committee of Engineers Canada ( In Sudbury, staff engineers are
                   evaluating whether the city will need to change road pavement standards to cope with forecasted
                   climate impacts.
                  The city is working with the Sudbury District Health Unit on the development and implementation of the
                   Hot Weather Response Plan to educate the public about extreme heat and ensure that public spaces
                   with air conditioning are available during heat waves.
                  The City of Greater Sudbury has been a participant in ICLEI Canada‘s Climate Adaptation Pilot Project,
                   a series of workshops to introduce and evaluate the first three milestones in the Preparing for Climate
                   Change guidebook.

              For more detailed information, please visit the EarthCare Sudbury website

VI.    City of Toronto, Ontario

              Toronto‘s vulnerabilities were first summarized in A Scan of Climate Change Impacts on Toronto, published
              by the Clean Air Partnership in 2006 ( A number
              of vulnerabilities were also discussed in Ahead of the Storm, a discussion paper prepared to help the city
              develop its adaptation strategy (

              These documents identified a number of potential impacts, including:
                  More hot days and heat waves, with increases in related illness and deaths.
                  Increased demand for electricity for air conditioning, and stress on electrical distribution systems.
                  Poorer air quality and more smog, with impacts on health and mortality.
                  Impacts on water quality from higher water temperatures, decline in lake levels and increased dredging.
                  Flooding from intense rainstorms, with damage to buildings, road and utility infrastructure and streams.
                  Increased incidence of droughts.
                  Expansion of insect vectors that spread infectious disease, as well as pests that attack trees.
                  Damage to roads from increased freeze–thaw cycles.

              The City of Toronto has begun adaptation planning (see Toronto‘s Climate Change Adaptation Strategy
              ( The city has an interdepartmental
              adaptation team that meets regularly. Of all the Canadian communities surveyed, Toronto may have the
              strongest mandate to move forward with the adaptation process.

              For more detailed information, please visit the City of Toronto climate adaptation website

VII.   City of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories

              Some of Yellowknife‘s vulnerabilities to climate change were outlined in an unpublished report prepared for
              the city by the Pembina Institute ( These include:
                  Freeze/thaw ―heaving‖ of roads and other infrastructure.
                  Increased erosion of riverbanks, depositing sediment into the water supply.

                 Higher-intensity storms, which may result in localized flooding.
                 More intense and frequent snowstorms and increased cost of road clearing.
                 A reduced season for ice roads, which affects mines in the area.
                 Greater weight of hoar frost on power lines, which increases the risk of power disruption and increases
                  maintenance requirements.
                 Vulnerability of hydroelectricity supply from changes in water levels.
                 Changes in insect populations and resulting impacts on health, recreation and the food chain.

             Thawing permafrost is also a problem in some areas of Yellowknife. For example, the airport runway
             required extensive restoration after permafrost began to thaw.

             Several adaptation workshops and other events involving City of Yellowknife officials have taken place in the
             city in recent years, including a one-day workshop on municipal climate change adaptation organized by
             Ecology North, a local environmental NGO, in March 2006.

             Later in 2006, the Pembina Institute approached the City of Yellowknife with an offer to help the city develop
             the tools, capacity and decision-making processes necessary to address climate change impacts in the
             community. Pembina secured $70,000 for the project from Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. The institute
             had previously worked with Yellowknife on the development of a community energy plan.

             For more detailed information, please visit the City of Yellowknife‘s website

VIII.   Nunavut

             Under its partnership with NRCan, and through the dedicated work of numerous CIP members and other
             partner organizations, a significant volume of work has begun to emerge that should serve as a helpful
             reference resource for CIP members and others. See
    for a report of work done in Nunavut: Building
             Community Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation Action Planning. Clyde River and Hall Beach, Nunavut,
             October 2007 - March, 2008
          Information and links to select adaptation plans and studies
 Adaptation          A) Lead author; B)            What step is the        Compreh          How plan fits in with            Contact          Date of
  Plan and          How collaborative the            process at            ensive vs.         other city plans                               document
  website                  plan is                                          sectoral

Toronto –         A) Toronto environment        Climate Change             Compreh      Some initiatives:             For leaving comments   April 2008
Ahead of the      office. B) In collaboration   Action Plan adopted        ensive                                     -
Storm             with the City of Toronto      by City Council in July                 - City of Toronto             Changeisintheair@tor
                  Climate Adaptation            2007. The                               Integrated Energy   , or David
                  Steering Group and the        development of a                                                      MacLeod (fax - 416
                  Clean Air Partnership.        climate change                          Strategy                      338-0808)
http://www.t                                    adaptation plan                                   represents an action
/pdf/ahead_o                                    in this plan. Still need
f_the_storm.p                                   to develop a long-                      Some recommendations:
df                                              term comprehensive
                                                adaptation policy,
                                                                                        - Collaborate with
                                                                                        Regional, Provincial,
                                                                                        National and International

                                                                                        Networks and Programs

                                                                                        - Incorporate adaptation
                                                                                        into city policies and high
                                                                                        level plans (Master plan,
                                                                                        transit plan, emergency
                                                                                        plan, etc.)

Halifax –         A) Halifax Regional        Formally launched in          Compreh      - Are incorporating climate Stephen King             Dec 2007
ClimateSMAR       Municipality. B) Partnered March 2004                    ensive       change considerations
T                 with all levels of                                                    into policy                 Manager –
                  government and the                                                    - Links to be made with     Environmental
                  private sector                                                        regional plans:
                                                                                                                    Performance (Air &
http://www.h                                                                            “As HRM moves forward       Land),                                                                         with the implementation     Sustainable
te/documents                                                                            of the Regional Municipal Environment
/ClimateChan                                                                            Planning Strategy,
geRiskManage                                                                                                        Management Office,
mentStrategyf                                                                           HRM will be developing
orHRMDecem                                                                              Functional Plans dealing    Environmental
ber2007.pdf                                                                             with hazards to             Management
                                                                                        - Calls for better
                                                                                        integration between levels (902) 490-6188,
                                                                                        of government
                                                                              APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

Dawson City –    A) Dawson Adaptation         - This document is         Compreh     - Plan suggests to           Through the Northern    Dec 2009
Dawson           Project Team, B) which       the plain language         ensive      integrate climate change     Climate ExChange
Climate          contains a mix of people     summary.                               assessment into rural        (see
Change           from all levels of                                                  planning process   
Adaptation       government and also from     - Adaptation plans                                                  /nce/contact.html)
Plan             a few universities in        implemented                            - Calls for mainstreaming
                 Ontario                      summer 2009.                           of climate change in the
                                              Implementation                         community (integrate into
                                              report planned for                     plans and development
http://taiga.n                                summer, 2010                           projects)

Elkford, BC –    A) It is not clear who the   - This document is a       Compreh     The process will result in   District of Elkford:    2009
District of      main author is, lists the    Background Report.         ensive      an Official Community        (250) 865-4000,
Elkford          following: Smart Growth                                             Plan that guides             email:
Official         Advisory Services,           - The District is in the               development and    
Community        ThinkBright Environmental    process of creating an                 addresses changing local
Plan and         Innovations, Zumundo         Integrated Official                    weather patterns in the
Climate          consultants and              Community Plan and                     District.
Change           Community Advisory           Climate Change
Adaptation       Committee Members            Adaptation Strategy.
               B) Elkford (along with         - This report proposes
               Kimberley, BC), was            draft policy
               selected by the Columbia       recommendations
http://www.el Basin Trust (CBT) to pilot a one-year community             - Apparently the
de/get.php?n learning, engagement and         district now has an
odeid=78       planning process on            official Community
               climate change                 Plan
               adaptation. The CBT
               therefore made this
               project possible.

Edmonton –       A) The city’s forestry staff - - Expected to be         Urban       An effective example of      Jenny Wheeler           June 2006
Urban Forest     River Valley, Forestry and passed by council in         forest      how climate change can       Principal of Forestry
Management       Environmental Services         summer, 2010             managem     be incorporated into a       City of Edmonton:
Plan                                                                     ent         municipal plan for           780-442-0224; email:
               B) The plan was developed                                 (drought)   managing urban forests       Jeannette.Wheeler@
               in a collaborative manner.                                                               
               A multi-stakeholder
http://adapta advisory board provided
tion.nrcan.gc. regular input and include
ca/case/edmo members of the public and
nton_e.php     affected interest groups
               (e.g. city transportation
               and drainage personnel).
                                                                             APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

Quebec City –    A) Environmental services. - Project approved         Severe       The City’s executive           Matthieu Alibert
Environmenta     B) Work started based on (April 2009),                weather      committee has approved         Division de la qualité
l Services       a report done by Ouranos. implementation in           events.      an expansion of the            du milieu, la ville de
Adaptation                                  progress.                  Most         adaptation initiative to all   Quebec
Plan                                                                   measures     of the City’s operations.      418-641-6411 x2961,
                                              - The process has        relate to                                   matthieu.alibert@
                                              helped to build          the                               
                                              support for a citywide   aquatic
http://adapta                                 adaptation plan as       environm
tion.nrcan.gc.                                well.                    ent and
ca/case/queb                                                           drinking
ec_e.php                                                               water

London –         A) The City’s                - Strategy passed by     Compreh      - Construction of all          Berta Krichker
London ON’s      Environmental and            city council in Dec,     ensive,      stormwater management          Manager of
Climate          Engineering Services         2007                     but with a   infrastructure transferred     Stormwater
Change           Department (?)                                        focus on     from private developers to     City of London:
Adaptation                                - Project and                flooding     the city. This allows an       519 -661-2500 x4724,
Strategy       B) Work initiated due to a implementation in                         integrated systems   
               report done by a           progress                                  approach.
               University of Western ON
               research team. This team
http://adapta was engaged by the City to
tion.nrcan.gc. do preliminary research on
ca/case/londo rainfall. A collaborative
n_e.php        partnership therefore
               existed between the City
               and climate change
               specialists in academia.

 Vancouver –   A) Greater Vancouver           - Member                 Protect      - Integrates “…water           Ed von Euw,
Greater        Regional District (GVRD)       municipalities have      against      management issues
Vancouver      through the Stormwater         agreed to implement      the          including watershed            Stormwater
Regional       Interagency Liaison Group      ISMPs by 2014            negative     health, land use planning,     Interagency
District’s     (SILG). B) The GVRD, its                                impacts      engineering, community         Liaison Group:
Stormwater     municipalities, and            - Several are already    associate    values and climate change
Management     provincial and federal         completed, underway      d with       and variability. Although      (604) 436-6900,
Program        environmental agencies         or planned               storm        climate change is not the
               formed the SILG to                                      and          primary driver in the          ed.voneuw@gvrd.bc.
               facilitate the co-ordination                            rainwater    development of these           ca
               and sharing of common                                   discharge    plans (expanding
http://www.c- research related to                                      to the       urbanization and intensive stormwater management                                   environm     agriculture are), climate
daptations_e. in 2002.                                                 ent          change has been
pdf            - The process actively                                               integrated into the ISMP
               seeks and uses input from                                            process and other
               various stakeholder                                                  approaches directed at
               groups within each                                                   managing the health of
               watershed                                                            streams in the region.”
                                                                                    - Brings together planning,
                                                                                    engineering, ecology, and
                                                                                    flood and erosion
                                                                                    protection within an
                                                                                    adaptive management
                                                                        APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

Le Goulet, NB    A) University of Moncton     Adaptation plan     Coastal      - Created an innovative     Benjamin Kocyla
– Le Goulet’s    climate change specialists   complete,           erosion      zoning bylaw to address     Directeur - Conseiller
Climate          (invited to do the work by   implementation in   and rising   this problem: “the [local   en urbanisme
Change           community leaders). B)       progress            sea levels   planning] commission        Commission
Adaptation       The community at large                                        identified a zone where     d'aménagement de la
Plan             was also involved through                                     climate change impacts      Péninsule acadienne:
                 focus groups exploring                                        are considered a major      506 -727-7979,
                 adaptation options. The                                       risk that developers are    benjaminkocyla@nb.a
                 plan is basically a                                           obliged to consider in
http://adapta    university-community                                          their plans. The zoning
tion.nrcan.gc.   partnership.                                                  bylaw provides an
ca/case/legou                                                                  opportunity to educate
let_e.php                                                                      developers about the
                                                                               climate change related
                                                                               risks to humans and
                                                                               infrastructure, and
                                                                               ensures that appropriate,
                                                                               but not prescriptive,
                                                                               measures are taken to
                                                                               accommodate those risks”

Vancouver -      A) The Sheltair Group                                                                                              2003
Vancouver -
Impacts and
Strategies for
Systems in

                                                                             APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

            In Progress, Studies, Reports

  Adaptation         A) Lead author; B)        What step is the      Comprehe        How plan fits in             Contact             Date of
     Plan           How collaborative the        process at           nsive vs.      with other city                                      docu
                           plan is                                    sectoral           plans                                           ment

Sept-Iles –         A) Ouranos Consortium    - A technical           Coastline                             François Morneau,      June 2008
Etude de la         B) Assisted by the       committee               erosion
sensibilite des     technical support of     comprised of                                               Ouranos Consortium &
cotes et de la      academia and             representatives from                                         Ministère de
vulnerabilite       provincial and federal   the provincial
des                 government               government, the                                               la Sécurité publique
communautes         departments and          regional county
du golfe du St-     climate change           municipality and the                                          (418) 646-3049,
Laurent aux         scientists.              city is working to
impacts des                                  establish a master                                            morneau.francois@
changements                                  plan for coastline                                                ouranos.c
climatiques:                                 intervention in order
Synthese des                                 to deal with erosion
                                                                                                           Claude Bureau,
resultats                                    and coastal
                                                                                                           General Director,
                                             problems over the
                                             short, medium and
                                             long terms.                                                   Ville de Sept-Îles
                                                                                                           (418) 964-3202

Iqaluit – The       A) City of Iqaluit,      - Report presents       Sustainabl                         City of Iqaluit: (867)    March
City of Iqaluit’s   B) Funding provided by   options,                e                                  979-5660,                      2007
Climate             Indian and Northern      recommendations         subdivisio               
Change              Affairs Canada. Input    and strategies.         n - risks to
Impacts,            from various other                               infrastruct
Infrastructure      government groups                                ure and
Risks &             and consultants                                  the
Adaptive                                                             developm
Capacity                                                             ent of
Project                                                              adaptation

                                                                           APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

Annapolis        A) A citizens-based        - Results and           Flooding      - The Annapolis          Steve Hawboldt,
Royal, NS –      group, Clean Annapolis     recommendations         and tidal     Climate Change
The Tidal        River Project (CARP),      presented to Town       surge         Outreach Project is    Executive Director
Surge Project    conducted an               Council in 2009                       the coastal flooding      Clean Annapolis
                 assessment of the                                                component of the                River
                 town’s vulnerability to    - Some adaptive                       Annapolis Climate
                 storm surges.              planning measures                     Change Outreach          Project (CARP):
http://www.c-                               undertaken in the                     Project   B) Results were            past as well.                                                  1-888-547-4344
daptations_e.p   presented to citizens.
df               This led to spinoffs and                                                                  (902) 532-7533,
                 further research was
                 conducted with                                                                            carp@annapolisriver
                 municipal, regional and                                                                        .ca
                 provincial groups

Sudbury –        A) Principal researcher    - The Nickel District   Appear to                                                      2007
                 - Dr. Liette Vasseur of    Conservation            be
                 Laurentian University      Authority initiated     concerned
                 B) In collaboration with   the creation of the     with all    academia, NGOs,            Greater Sudbury         aspects of    industry, government       Climate Change          climate
R/rdonlyres/31   and the community          Consortium in 2009      change,
FE7FF3-4B5A-                                                        but
44AA-8FE3-                                                          haven’t
ED6821EB6F3F                                                        been able
/0/Adaptation                                                       to find
eng.pdf                                                             much

Ottawa -         A) City of Ottawa          - This is a review of   - Not         - This is only a         David Miller            2008
White Paper:                                the City’s Official     many          chapter in a                   Planning,
Climate                                     Plan. It should have    details are   planning document              Transit and the
Change and                                  been approved by        provided.     not specifically               Environment
the Official                                City Council in early   Appears to    dealing with                   Department,
Plan Review –                               2009                    be more       climate change                 613-580-
BRIEFLY                                                             comprehe                                     2424, ext.
DISCUSSES                                                           nsive in      - The city sees                21447,
ADAPTATION                                                          nature        planning and the               david.miller@
                                                                                  issue of climate and 
                                                                                  planning as
                                                                                  inseparable. The
http://www.ot                                                                     Official Plan is                                                                    therefore seen as a
nts/public_con                                                                    tool to combat and
sult/beyond_2                                                                     adjust to climate
020/papers/w                                                                      change.
                                                                            APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

Fredericton –    A) Dr. Shawn Dalton-         - This is a document   Comprehe                                                    March
Climate          Environment and              providing              nsive                                                            2008
Change           Sutainable                   stakeholder input
                 Development Research
Adaptation       Centre (ESDRC) from
Strategy:        the University of New
Stakeholder      Brunswick/ Fredericton
Input            Area Watersheds
                 Association (FAWA),

                 Michael D. Riley- Riley    Environment Limited,
rg/downloads/    William Richards-
Fredericton-     Environment Canada,
report.pdf       Greg LeBlanc- ESDRC

                 B) Stakeholder and city
                 involvement was
                 crucial to the project.

                 - A charette took place
                 as well

Kimberley, BC    A) Ingrid Liepa (project                            Three                            Project Coordinator:       June 2009
– Adapting to    coordinator)                                        main                             Ingrid Liepa,
Climate          B) This is a pilot project                          concerns:                           kimberleyclimate@s
Change in        made possible by the                                                                 
Kimberley, BC:   Columbia Basin Trust’s                              1) Water
Report and       Communities Adapting                                and
Recommendat      to Climate Change                                   forests
ions             initiative (similar to
                 Elkford). A local                                   2)
                 steering committee                                  Municipal
                 guided the project.                                 infrastruct
http://cbtadap   The City was also                                   ure
tation.squares   actively involved.    Other government                                    3) Tourism
age/June17Fin    groups and UBC were
al-LowRes.pdf    also involved.
                                                                            APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

Delta, BC –       A) International Council   - After the              Not stated                          Office of Climate Action   2008
Climate           for Local                  completion of this                                           and Environment:
Change            Environmental              research project,                                            (604) 946-3253,
Adaptation        Initiatives (ICLEI         Natural Resources                                            climatechange@corp.d
project           Canada) and Natural        Canada announced in                                
                  Resources Canada           June 2009 that it will
                  B) The Corporation of      partner again with
                  Delta was one of three     ICLEI Canada to take     Canadian communities       the results from   to participate in a        previous work and
EN/main/resid     unique pilot project.      create a toolkit
ents/771/5084     ICLEI Canada and           document that may
5/59147/iclei.    Natural Resources          be used by
html              Canada partnered to        communities across
                  assess                     the nation.
                  Delta's vulnerability to
                  climate and how to
                  protect the community

Prince George,    A) City of Prince          - Adaptation             Comprehe     - Adaptation                                      Sept 2009
BC - Adapting     George                     document presented       nsive        strategy to be
to Climate        B) Report written by       to city council                       incorporated into
Change in         the city’s chief                                                 ICSP and OCP
                  engineer and a PhD         - Adaptation strategy                 process
Prince George     candidate from the         to be created
                  University of Northern                                           - Also to be
                  BC                                                               incorporated into
                                                                                   Annual Provisional
http://ubcm.c                                                                      Final Plan and Asset
a/assets/Librar                                                                    Management Plan
Convention20                                                                       - Aims to have
09/Session~Pr                                                                      climate change
esentations/Tu                                                                     considered in all
esday~Afterno                                                                      planning and
on~Sessions/D                                                                      operations
yer-                                                                               procedures



St. John’s


                                                   APPENDIX 6: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL AND COP-15 BACKGROUNDER

The Kyoto Protocol & COP-15 Backgrounder

       Since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into
        force in 1994, the parties to the convention have met annually in Conferences of the Parties
       The UNFCCC set no mandatory limits on GHG emissions for individual nations and contained
        no enforcement provisions. Rather, the treaty called for updates or “protocols” that would
        seek to set mandatory emission limits. The principal update is the 1997 Kyoto Protocol,
        which was adopted by COP 3.
       The Kyoto Protocol set binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European
        community for GHG emissions reduction. These targets averaged 5% reductions relative to
        1990 levels over the 2008-2012 period.
       By the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a new
        international framework needs to have been negotiated and ratified that can deliver the
        stringent emission reductions the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has
        indicated are needed. This was the focus of the COP 15 meeting in Copenhagen (December
        7-18, 2009).
       On December 19, delegates approved a motion to "take note of the Copenhagen Accord of
        December 18, 2009".
       The Copenhagen Accord recognizes the scientific case for keeping temperature rises below
        2°C, but does not contain commitments for reduced emissions that would be necessary to
        achieve that aim.
       The Accord did require countries to submit intended climate mitigation commitments by
        January 31, 2010. As of February 2, 2010, 55 countries had complied with this requirement.
        Of note, Canada reduced its earlier 2020 target from a 20% to 17% cut.
       One part of the agreement pledges US$ 30 billion to the developing world over the next
        three years, rising to US$ 100 billion per year by 2020, to help poor countries adapt to
        climate change.
       As of February 2010 it was not clear what happens next. Although the commitments send an
        encouraging signal that all the major emitters support the Accord, there is still disagreement
        over how to move negotiations forward.
        For further information and updates see

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