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					The Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud
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A gigantic intellectual achievement (rather, set of achievements) Major cultural influence Spawned a variety of less-well thought-out offshoots

The Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud-4 contributions
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Theory of personality (our focus) Method of treatment Set of clinical observations (e.g., defenses) Methods of investigation (free association, dream analysis)

Freud’s Theory of PersonalityMajor Assumptions
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Psychic determinism--all behavior has a purpose
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Was radical at the time; now, fairly well-accepted

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Unconscious motivation-universally accepted

Unconscious motivation and processes
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Freud not the first, but first systematic attempt to understand Emphasized the predominance of unconscious motives and processes recent translation into cognitive

The topographical theory of consciousness/the mind
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Consciousness = tip of iceberg; that of which you are aware Preconscious = available to consciousness from memory Unconscious = bulk of the iceberg; only available via hypnosis or psychoanalysis

The topographical theory of consciousness/the mind
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Original theory, based on experience with Charcot/hypnosis and early treatment of hysteria Repression of sexual trauma/desires “Talking cure” = recovery
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The Instincts and psychic energy
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What drove these events into the unconscious, created symptoms, accounted for emotional reactions at their recovery? Energy--based on physics and biology; reductionistic

The Instincts and psychic energy
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Instinct = inherited condition that gives behavior direction Two categories Life instinct (eros): bodily needs, survival, pleasure (libido) Death instinct (thanatos): aggression, self 

The Instincts and psychic energy
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Eros defined broadly, but always assumed to be rooted in sexual organs Creativity, knowledgeseeking, all approach behaviors = evidence of eros!
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The Instincts and psychic energy
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Thanatos represented reaction to WWI, observation of “repetition compulsion” Attempt to explain un-eros-like behavior, so posit a new instinct Not accepted today
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The Instincts and psychic energy
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Energy construct has limited utility for psychological phenomena; does not function like physical energy Presumably “stored up”, but not measurable Never really dissipates
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The Instincts and psychic energy
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Major problem = circular reasoning Why did he do that? Instinct! How do we know it was instinct? He did it! Not operationalizable
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Structural Theory of Personality
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Late elaboration of map of consciousness and unconscious Id-unconscious source of energy Ego-mostly conscious, partly unconscious Superego-mostly unconscious
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Structural Theory of Personality
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Id present at birth--wild horse Ego develops out of Id to deal with reality constraints during first year Superego - identification and introjection during Oedipal complex; ego-ideal (approval) and conscience (punishment)

Structural Theory of Personality
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Id present at birth Completely unconscious Primary process thinking (dreams); understand via analysis Pleasure principle--the Id wants it and the Id wants it now!!
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Structural Theory of Personality
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Ego is facing a stacked deck A rider on a bucking bronco (Id) Constrained by real world Standards of Superego Uses secondary process thinking to follow reality principle
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Psychosexual Development
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Final layer of theorizing-attempt to explain how it all came together Psychological aspects of sexual instincts Stages identified by bodily focus of eros First 5 years of life
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Psychosexual Development
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Each stage has typical problem At each stage, the “right amount” of libidinal satisfaction must occur Danger of fixation or regression Basis of character types Major event = Oedipal complex
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The Oedipal Complex
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Both sexes close to mother because of her caretaking responsibility Father = rival for mother’s attention Universal unconscious fantasies Complex develops and resolves differently for boys and girls

The Oedipal Complex--Boys
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Closeness to mother becomes unconscious incestuous desire Unconscious desire to eliminate father Castration anxiety = fear of father striking back

Resolution of The Oedipal Complex--Boys
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Identification with the aggressor = compromise Can’t beat him, so join him Vicarious possession of mother Strong identification key for development of healthy superego and sex role
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The Oedipal (Electra) Complex--Girls
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More complicated and less likely to be resolved--persists longer Discovery of lack of penis leads to penis envy (imagined loss) Penis envy leads to desire for father and resentment of mother

Resolution of The Oedipal (Electra) Complex--Girls
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Identification with both parentsweaker than boys’ identification with dad Therefore, women have weaker superegos Having a baby (especially boy) compensates for lack of penis

Anxiety and the Psychological Defenses
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Anxiety = threat Reality: danger in external world Neurotic: fear of id out of control Moral: fear of conscience Ego defends against anxiety-often unconscious, more and
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The Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud-Evaluation
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Extraordinarily ambitious theory of everything Brilliant clinical insights Enduring ideas: Unconscious motives, childhood experience, parenting, defenses

The Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud-Systematicity
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Assumptions fairly clear Clear network of relations Some vague definitions, specification of antecedents & consequences--higher levels of abstraction clearest

The Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud-Systematicity
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Post-hoc explanation easy, but prediction hard due to: Vagueness of some links Unclear antecedents and consequences Reliance on instincts
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Psychoanalytic TheoryOperationalizability
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Major problem Reliance on Interpretation questionable Symbols? When is a cigar just a cigar?  Motives? The “analytic lie:” Disagreement = Denial = Proof
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Psychoanalytic TheoryOperationalizability
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Descriptions of defensive behaviors useful--eventually spawned coping research also Cognitive psych, other methods can be used to measure at least some unconscious processes

Psychoanalytic theoryContent and Process
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Thorough theory provides both Structural theory, Theory of Psychosexual stages both integrate content and process

Psychoanalytic theoryContent Issues
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Experience more than Heredity “Biology is destiny” but importance of childhood experience more General than Specific: Core personality influences everything
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Psychoanalytic theoryContent Issues
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Internal vs. External determinants: Before Oedipal complex, heavy emphasis on external (parenting) After Oedipal complex, heavy emphasis on internal
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Psychoanalytic theoryProcess Issues
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Time sequences specified but links often vague Therapy ideas are wellintegrated but logical limit to change if character is fixed before age 6 Motivation is instinctual
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Psychoanalytic theoryMotivational assumptions
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Instinctual energy = one of the most problematic aspects of theory Reductionistic Circular logic  Inconsistent with physics of energy Contemporary psychoanalysts seeking alternative approaches
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