HealthcareIT Fortifying Network Closets by dawpow


									Fortifying Network
Improving Patient Care and
Doctor Satisfaction

          Dan Draper
          Manager, Healthcare Industry
          Liebert Products
• Network closets in hospitals and ambulatory care facilities
    – Function and importance
    – Avoiding network downtime
•   Power fundamentals
•   Power best practices
•   Cooling fundamentals
•   Cooling best practices
•   Other areas of IT infrastructure in healthcare settings
•   Critical questions to ask
•   Q&A
Network closets
• Computer room, network access room, wiring closet
  – Typically a 5x5, 6x6 or 8x8 room
  – Dedicated space containing networking and computing
     •   Routers
     •   Switches
     •   Bridges
     •   Hubs
  – The equipment enabling
    data communications
     • Wireless
     • VOIP/ telecommunications
     • E-mail / Internet
Network closet differences
  Hospital Environment              Ambulatory Environment

 Many closets, 1 per 10 beds                 Single closet
      Dedicated support:            If in a health system, remotely
IT, Facilities, Network Services     supported by parent hospital
 Emergency generator on site       Likely, no emergency generator

   Routers, switches, hubs          Routers, (maybe) servers and
         Many closets              Higher heat from server / storage
   Increasing heat densities        Downtime hurts IT acceptance
  Increasing need for power         Lack of dedicated IT expertise
Why should we care?
  • Network Closet: the link to patient data

                                                             Data Storage
Patient        Doctor
                              IT Device        Closet

  • If the closet is down, can’t access EMR, PACS, VOIP
      – Delays, inability to process patients, no orders, no billing
      – Remember: no more paper back up
IT equipment downtime
 • IT equipment needs electricity to run
   – When the power is off, IT won’t work
   – 6 ½ “momentary outages” per year

 • IT equipment produces heat
   – Heat destroys electronics
   – Every 10° increase over 80° F produces
     a 50% reduction in long-term reliability of
     IT hardware

Network closet’s IT infrastructure must be
fortified to ensure availability
 • Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
 • Precision Cooling
UPS fundamentals
 • Instantaneous battery back-up
    – Ride through until generator
      assumes the load
 • Typically rack-mounted in network
 • Two design topologies
    – Line interactive                      UPS in a rack
    – Double conversion

                                Back view
Line Interactive / Double Conversion
    Line Interactive UPS
                              Very efficient, volts in = volts out
                              Load sees a wide range of voltages
                                – Ex: Sag from 120 volts to 100 volts
                                – Critical load only running on 100 volts
                                   • If this were a light bulb it would flicker
                                     and dim
                                – Battery turns on at 90 volts, load at 120 volts
                                – 4 millisecond transfer to battery

                              Rebuilds voltage, always perfect
 Double Conversion UPS
                              Load always sees 120 volts
                                – Ex: Sag from 120 volts to 100 volts
                                – Double conversion changes the 100 to 120
                                – No Battery use until volts drop to 60
                                   • Load never deviates from 120 volts
                                – Zero transfer time to battery
Best practice: When to use which?
                Line Interactive                Double Conversion
                                             Constant regulated output power
   Pro                                       Instantaneous battery switchover
               Less expensive initially
                                                      High reliability
               Load sees voltages sags
   Con                                                Higher initial price
              More battery replacements
 Purchase                                         $3,000 for a 3 kVA UPS
               $1,300 for a 3 kVA UPS

                              Is there a generator present?
                     Key difference is how they deal with fluctuating power
                        Do generators produce clean electricity? No!

               Ambulatory environment             Hospital environment
When to use        No generator                     Generator present
                Less critical loads              Extremely critical loads
Is my UPS sized correctly?
 • Understand what the UPS nameplate means
   – UPS typically sized in VA (volt-amperes)
   – AC watts = volts x amps x power factor

     UPS Name Plate        Power Factor      AC Watts Available
         1000 VA                 .7                 700
         1000 VA                .75                 750
         1000 VA                 .9                 900

   – If you think your 1,000 VA UPS can support 1000 watts of
     computer equipment, you’re wrong
   – Know the power factor of different UPS models
      • Battery run time at different capacities
Focus on hospital network closet UPS
 • Dozens of closets = dozens of UPS
   – Difficult to maintain, high battery management
   – When loads grow, add more UPS
   – Likely redundant UPS
 • Distributed UPS Strategy
    – One small UPS in every closet                   UPS    Closet

    – Ex Five 8 kVA UPS                               UPS   Network

                        Utility   Distribution        UPS    Closet

                                                      UPS    Closet

                                                      UPS    Closet

 Distributed: Typical UPS strategy
    in hospital network closets
Best practice: Centralized UPS
 • Centralized UPS Strategy
   – One large UPS covering multiple closets               Reference Chart: Distributed

   – Ex One 40 kVA UPS (instead of five 8 kVA)
   – If UPS is initially over sized, easy to add loads
     • Instead of a 40 kVA UPS, install a 80 kVA UPS


                       Utility    UPS       Distribution                Closet


 Centralized: Best practice among                                      Network
  new build and high IT growth
Distributed vs. centralized

                           Distributed                              Centralized
               •   Easier capital appropriation         •   Greater energy efficiency

               •   Smaller individual footprint         •   Single system to service
               •   Easy to install                      •   Frees up rack / room space
               •   Easy to relocate                     •   Sized for future kVA requirements
               •   Lower perceived cost                 •   Lower UPS capital cost
                                                        •   Lower UPS operating cost

               •   Utilizes vital rack space          • Equipment room needed
               •   Higher failure rate                • Electrical contractor for installation
               •   Lower energy efficiency            • Up front capital allocation
               •   Individual batteries to service
               •   Aggregate cost of total UPS higher

                   TCO for centralized is 25% to 35% less than distributed
Precision Cooling Fundamentals
 • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
   and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
     – Recommends inlet temperature range of 64 to 80 degrees F
     – Humidity level (dew point) should fall within 42 to 59 degrees F
         • 2008 change: was 68-77 degrees and 40%-50% RH
 • Quick hits:
     – Inlet temperature, don’t go by a wall reading
     – Higher temps = more equipment fan use
     – 72 degrees is the norm, with 45% RH (data center avg. closets run warmer)
         • Most IT equipment has an upper operating temp of 95 - 100 degrees
    What is precision cooling?
    When do I need precision cooling?
Why traditional building A/C won’t cut it
       Comfort Cooling                     Precision Cooling
         Designed for people          Designed for critical electronic
 • 2500 hrs / year operation                    equipment
 • Allow for a large range of      • 8760 hrs / year operation
   fluctuations in temperature and   (24 hours / 365 days)
   humidity                        • Microprocessor control of
 • High cost to operate              temperature and humidity ratios
                                   • Energy efficient technology
When do I need precision cooling?
 •   Too warm to work in comfortably
 •   Switches / servers failing (too late!)
 •   Over 1000 watts of heat
 •   It all depends…
     – Room size, amount of IT
     – Existing air exchanges

 • Heat is a major problem in ambulatory
   network closets
     – Switch produces 1000 watts of heat, but
       what else is in the room?
     – Possibly servers and storage for local EMR
     – Building A/C turns off at night and in winter
Precision cooling
Air cooled – most common solution

 • Heat will need to be rejected
    – Outdoor condenser
 • Other Options: Water, Glycol,
   Chilled Water

    Cooling Best Practices
     – Save space, use overhead
     – Ceiling units not install directly
       above equipment                                           Overhead
                                                              3.5 kW to 28 kW
     – Are Cooling units on
       emergency power?
                                            Integrated Rack
     – At least have a plan, think           2 kW to 14 kW
       about supply lines, install
       ducting today
More best practices
 • Physical security
   – HIPAA: “safeguard equipment from unauthorized physical
     access, tampering and theft”
   – Box fan in the open door way…

       No cooling = Open door = Security risk
   – Lack of cooling results in possible HIPAA violation
   – Solutions: Cooling and rack with a locking door
More best practices
 • Remote monitoring
   – Hospital systems have dozens of remote offices
     • IT Staff not physically on site
   – Infrastructure monitoring: power and environmental
   – Web interface using HTTP and SNMP support
   – Provides alarm notifications via email and text messaging
   – Address issues before they take the network down
More best practices
 • Consult with experts
   – Contractor, Value Added Reseller, IT Integrator
   – 85% of hospitals had to upgrade their power and cooling
     within one year of an IT implementation
         • 40% upgraded after the HW & SW were implemented
   – If your IT vendor isn’t bringing up power and cooling, ask why
         • Complicated, unfamiliar, expensive
         • Look for a VAR who proposes power and cooling
         • VARs: become a true solution provider
More best practices
 • Have everyone at the table
   – Who “owns” the closet?
      • IT, network services, facilities?
   – Who maintains it?
     • Decision maker buying twenty UPS units may not be the guy
       who has to check batteries and temperatures
   – Decisions impacting the network closet should
     incorporate all players
Critical questions to ask
 • Have I considered the need for power and cooling?
    – What is my current IT growth plan?
    – What can my existing IT Infrastructure support
 • Is my IT load on the generator?
   – Which UPS is best: Double conversion or line interactive?
   – How much battery do I need?
 • If distributed UPS, can I centralize?
   – If distributed (even remotely), can I monitor?
 • Do I need cooling?
    – What about in 2 years?
 • Is my cooling on emergency power?
   – How long can I operate without cooling my IT?
•   Network closet is the link to patient data
•   IT availability is potentially life critical
•   Power and cooling solutions protect and ensure uptime
•   Consult with the experts, follow best practices

           UPS                      Cooling                   Availability

                Power and cooling solutions prevent:
           •   Lost patient data / missing images
           •   Patients and staff waiting for IT reboot
           •   Hospital staff dissatisfaction / reluctance to IT
           •   Equipment damage from heat
           •   Unauthorized equipment access

            Dan Draper
      Manager, Healthcare Industry
           Liebert Products

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