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					UNITED                                                                    EP
            United Nations
            Environment                               UNEP(DEC)/CAR WG.24/INF.4
            Programme                                 9 April 2003

                                                      Original: ENGLISH

Second Meeting of the Interim Scientific, Technical
and Advisory Committee (ISTAC) to the Protocol
Concerning Pollution from Land-Based Sources
and Activities in the Wider Caribbean (LBS)

Managua, Nicaragua, 12-16 May 2003



          United Nations                   International   Date: August 2002
          Environment                      Maritime
          Programme                        Organization    Original: ENGLISH

Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention
and Environmental Management in Ports in
the Wider Caribbean Region

Ocho Rios, Jamaica, 20-24 May 2002

                           REPORT OF THE WORKSHOP


1       Sewage management is an issue of major concern in all Caribbean countries. It is
also the priority of the UNEP Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine
Environment from Land-based Activities (UNEP-GPA) and the Land-based Sources Protocol
to the Cartagena Convention. The emphasis of the GPA and this Protocol in relation to
sewage management is to facilitate the development of appropriate sewage treatment facilities
in the region. Parties to the London Convention and MARPOL 73/78 could complement
these activities by providing:

       .1      information on alternative/beneficial uses of sewage sludge (production of
               which will increase with the expansion of sewage treatment facilities);

       .2      information on pre-treatment programmes for industry discharges to sewer
               collection systems to ensure that sewage sludge is not contaminated and
               exceed criteria for land disposal or beneficial use;

       .3      assistance if any Caribbean countries consider sea disposal of sewage sludge;

       .4      assistance in addressing the problem of sewage waste from ships - especially
               cruise ships.

Administrations should develop incentives to encourage homeowners to link up to sewage
collection and treatment systems, or to install systems, which protect water quality and human

2       Regulation of the impacts of cruise ships: an international approach is needed to the
regulation of waste waters and solid wastes from cruise ships; development of standards is
needed for (1) management of sewage and other wastes generated on board cruise ships and
(2) implementation of those standards (e.g. monitoring of waste discharges); the possibility of
introducing an "environmental tax" on tourists on board cruise ships should be considered to
fund programmes which would enhance coastal water quality, as in the case of the
Organization of the Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) GEF/OECS Solid and Ship-Generated
Waste Management Project.

3       Port reception facilities: The establishment of port reception facilities to receive ship
generated waste in the Wider Caribbean Region under MARPOL 73/78, in particular for
Annex I (oily wastes), Annex IV (sewage), and Annex V (garbage) should be promoted
without delay, also to give effect to the special area designation of the Region under Annex V.
Problems to be overcome include transportation of the wastes, building and operation of
landfills, and construction and operation of treatment facilities. Assistance was requested
with respect to design of facilities and process requirements.

4       Solid waste management is also a general problem since most countries do not have
adequate sanitary landfill sites. Steps need to be taken to facilitate a regional approach to the
establishment of facilities for the re-use/recycling or proper disposal of used oils, POPs,
pesticides, and solid wastes such as plastics, tyres, car bodies, batteries, and asbestos. The
possible role of private enterprise in this initiative would need to be investigated. A regional
policy is needed regarding the importation of used cars (near the end of their life that include
hazardous materials such as lead batteries) and other products (e.g. used cell phones) as a
―means‖ of disposing of these products that, in the not too distant future, become a waste
problem in developing countries in the Wider Caribbean Region.

5      Dredging and dredged material management are critical needs in the Wider
Caribbean Region and enhanced management of dredged materials is needed.

       .1      When dredging near sensitive ecosystems such as coral reefs, special
               measures should be used to control dispersion of turbidity.

       .2      Co-ordination of dredging plans should be promoted countrywide and
               regionally to share dredge mobilization costs and environmental impact
               assessment costs.

       .3      Dredged material should be promoted as a resource and used in beneficial
               manner, such as in beach nourishment or in wetlands/habitat restoration,
               creation or enhancement.

6      A project to promote sound ballast water management should be established. For
this purpose, Colombia will present a proposal for assessment of the transfer of non-
indigenous aquatic organisms through ballast water in the Wider Caribbean Region for the
future IMO Convention for the Control and Management of Ships‘ Ballast Water and
Sediments, possibly as an extension of the current GEF/UNDP/IMO Ballast Water
Management Programme (GloBallast).

7       There is a need to enhance the capacities and capabilities for emergency response
and preparedness in case of chemical spills in ports in the Wider Caribbean Region. In
addition, each country should develop their own regulations for use of oil spill dispersants
with emphasis on defining special areas for use of the dispersants. Complementing that
effort, a regionally coordinated approach should be developed in the Wider Caribbean

8       Regular training and capacity building activities should be supported in various
areas, such as operation and maintenance of sewage treatment and port reception facilities,
and waste management practices in general. Employee advancement and turnover resulting in
loss of employee expertise is noted as a challenge in some countries.

       .1      The communication and co-ordination between countries in the Wider
               Caribbean Region should be improved (e.g. regarding the transfer of non-
               indigenous aquatic organisms through ballast water), and possibly through the
               establishment of technical working groups (email networks of contacts) on
               these issues.
       .2     Scientific/technical resources in the region: A directory of scientific/
              technical resources (e.g. certified or accredited laboratories/consultants) in the
              region should be developed. Such directory could possibly be accessed on the
              UNEP Regional website and distributed through other suitable means.

9       Continued assistance is needed with development of legislation, standards, and
guidelines and the establishment of administrative institutional structures to support the
implementation of international agreements in the Wider Caribbean Region. Suggested
approaches include development of model legislation, or possibly using existing model
legislation from other areas of the world. Exchange of existing legislation between countries
of the Wider Caribbean Region is encouraged.

10     Development of awareness-raising programmes is needed to make the general
public aware of the benefits of high coastal water quality (for tourism, fisheries and amenity
purposes). Initiatives should be developed to increase environmental awareness and to
mobilize and maintain the political will to deal with environmental issues in the Wider
Caribbean Region.

11     Capacities should be developed in the Wider Caribbean Region for valuation of
marine resources, both for resource use management and for liability and compensation

12      Bulky Waste Disposal: An evaluation of the disposal of bulky waste in the region is
needed, with the aim of developing recommendations regarding future regulation of the
activity. Unregulated dumping of appliances and other bulky items has occurred in the
Bahamas, whereas dumping of these types of items is now regulated in OECS States.

13     Shipments of radioactive wastes through the Wider Caribbean Region: Countries
in the Wider Caribbean Region should be notified in advance of shipments of radioactive
materials through the Region.

14     A regional policy is needed on creation of artificial reefs including siting,
construction and types of materials used for artificial reefs. One key element of the policy
should be that tyres should not be used in artificial reef construction.

15     There is a need to promote the establishment of catchment area management
programmes to reduce siltation in bays with consequent impacts on coral reefs and
navigation channels.

16     A status report on decommissioning activities of offshore oil & gas platforms in the
Wider Caribbean Region should be developed, possibly as a basis for a regional approach.
The London Convention Guidelines for Assessment of Platforms or other Man-Made
Structures at Sea may be useful in assessing potential management options including waste
prevention, recycling, and disposal at sea.
17      A status report should be developed on dumping activities carried out and dumping
sites in the Wider Caribbean Region for consideration under the Cartagena Convention and
the London Convention 1972.

18     Accession by countries in the Wider Caribbean Region to the IMO Convention on
the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling-Systems on Ships, 2001, should be promoted. In
addition, the application of best management practices should be promoted for the handling of
TBT paint chip flakes, especially in dry-docking facilities.






1      Welcome and Introduction.….…………………………………………………… ..                            1
       IMO…….…………………………………………………………………………….                                          1
       UNEP…..………………………………………………………………………….….                                        2
       NEPA…..…………………………………………………………………………..…                                        2
       Ministry of Transport and Works, Jamaica.………..………………………………. ..                3
2      Workshop Objectives...……..……………………………………………………. ... 4
3      Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management…..…………………….….                 5
       London Convention………………………………………………………………......                               5
       MARPOL 73/78.…………………………………………………………….……... ..                                 6
       Global Programme of Action (GPA).………………………………………………...                        6
       Cartagena Convention.…………………………………………………………….. ...                            7
4      Environmental Management in Ports: Identification of Issues……………..… ... 7
       Port Reception Facilities…………..………………………………………………. ... 7
       Global Ballast Water Management Programme…..……………………………… .... 9
       Dredging of Ports and Marinas...……….………..……………………………….. .... 10
       Oil Spills in Ports…………………………………………………………………. .... 11
       Land-based Discharges….……………………………………………………… ....... 12
       TBTs…………………………………………………………………………….….... 12
       Case studies: Trinidad, Venezuela, East Asia.…..………………………………… ... 13
5      Waste Management in the Wider Caribbean Region..…..……………………… . 15
       Overview of Waste Management in the Wider Caribbean Region ………………… . 15
       Case Studies: Costa Rica, St. Lucia..…..………..………………………………… ... 16
6      Introduction to Waste Assessment Guidance...……………………..…………… 18
       Key Components of Waste Assessment Guidance.……………………………….. ... 18
       Waste Characterization for Disposal at Sea.………...…………………………….. ... 18
       Waste Management Options/Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring ..... 19
       Identification of Disposal Sites for Disposal of Wastes at Sea……………………. ... 20
       Case Studies: Dutch Experience, Jamaica…………………………………………. .. 21

Annex I:     Workshop Programme
Annex II:    List of Participants
Annex III:   National Reports
                                                       IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                                 Page 1

1      WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION Rear Admiral Peter Brady, Director General,
       Maritime Authority of Jamaica (MAJ).

1.1     In his welcome address, MAJ Director General Brady indicated that the IMO/UNEP
Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental Management in Ports in the
Wider Caribbean Region was a remarkable event, especially at a time when in the shipping
world there was strong focus on security issues. However, in the context of this Workshop,
the event was also remarkable in respect of the environmental protection of an important body
of water in the region. In this connection, he pointed out that participants have come together
to discuss, debate, establish and implement measures for a cleaner Caribbean Sea.

1.2     Director General Brady welcomed all participants to Jamaica and to Ocho Rios, and
assured them that Jamaica took pleasure in hosting and sharing experiences with the
45 participants at the 2002 Ocho Rios Workshop. He took the opportunity to encourage
delegates to go on the field trip to Kingston Harbour on Wednesday (Day 3 of the Workshop)
aboard the US EPA vessel that is in the process of dredging the harbour.

1.3    Finally, Director General Brady introduced the following agencies and invited their
representatives to address the Opening Ceremony:

       -       IMO (International Maritime Organization) – Office for the London
               Convention: Mr. René Coenen, IMO/London Convention;

       -       UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) – Regional Coordinating
               Unit: Mr. Tim Kasten, Acting Deputy Coordinator;

       -       NEPA (National Environment and Planning Agency):                 Mr. Franklin
               McDonald, Chief Executive Officer; and

       -       Ministry of Transport and Works, Jamaica:        Dr. Alwin Hales, Permanent


1.4     Mr. René Coenen welcomed delegates to the opening of the IMO/UNEP Workshop.
He explained that while the main mission of the IMO was to work together with its
162 member states for ―safer shipping and cleaner oceans‖ worldwide, a secondary but
important function of the IMO was to administer the London Convention 1972 – a convention
that governs marine pollution prevention from dumping of wastes and other matter – hence
the inclusion on the Workshop programme of waste management issues (e.g. dredged material

1.5   Mr. Coenen reminded participants that the overall theme of the Workshop was the
promotion and implementation of international agreements to protect the marine and coastal
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Page 2

environment and to ensure co-operation within and between countries in the Wider Caribbean
Region to achieve that protection.

1.6     He outlined the importance of international agreements to the work of the IMO, and
pointed out the challenges that the international community faced in its efforts to assist
countries in implementing these agreements. In this regard, he highlighted the co-operation
programme established in 1997 under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and
Assistance Programme, and informed participants that this 2002 Ocho Rios Workshop was
the fourth in a series of similar workshops held under this co-operation programme.

1.7     Mr. Coenen posed further challenges, urging that delegates address them in the course
of their deliberations. These included identifying practical solutions to individual situations,
feedback on case studies presented, sharing concerns and ideas, and thinking strategically
about co-operation opportunities.

1.8   Finally Mr. Coenen expressed his appreciation to the sponsors and hosts of the


1.9    Mr. Kasten welcomed the participants and wished them a productive meeting. He
expressed his pleasure at coordinating this event with the London Convention 1972 on a topic
of such critical importance to the wider Caribbean. He noted that while UNEP tried to do as
much as possible through the CEP for the protection of the marine environment, he realized
the absolute necessity of coordinating these efforts with other instruments. To this end, he
hoped that this meeting would mark the beginning of a fruitful relationship for both the
London Convention and the Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the
Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region.

1.10 Mr. McDonald underscored Jamaica‘s recognition of the need to treat the management
of those marine and land based activities that affect the country‘s fragile marine and coastal
ecosystems as a national priority. In this context, he identified initiatives taken by Jamaica
over the past three decades at the national and regional level that attest to that country‘s
involvement in the governance and management of coastal, marine and ocean resources, and
its commitment to the stewardship of these resources.

1.11 At the international level, Mr. McDonald recognized the challenges and opportunities
presented by the London Convention (ratified in 1991), and the relevance of this Convention
to Jamaica‘s maritime regime, particularly in light of the recent thrust (i.e. the formation of
the National Council on Oceans and Coastal Zone Management) towards integrated coastal
zone management. It was noted that Jamaica‘s new status as an archipelagic state now
challenges that country with management responsibility for a relatively large marine space,
24 times its land area. Consistent with the multilateral agreements to which Jamaica has
committed itself:
                                                       IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                                 Page 3

       .1      the NEPA (implementing arm of the National Resources Conservation
               Authority – NRCA) ensures the application of principles consistent with the
               Dredged Material Assessment Framework and the Waste Assessment

       .2      local laws, including the Shipping Act of Jamaica and the Marine Pollution
               Bill, have been recently revised; and

       .3      closer working relations have been developed with the Maritime Authority of
               Jamaica, and with NEPA stakeholders (e.g. the Port Authority of Jamaica
               which exercises statutory jurisdiction over ship channels).

1.12 In his concluding remarks, Mr. McDonald observed that the workshop was well timed
and represented a regional effort at addressing the challenges and grasping the opportunities
associated with the Convention. He hoped that the deliberations would be successful and
would produce the kind of linkages necessary for regional co-operation and provide a
sustainable context of governance over the region‘s shared marine ecosystems and associated
coastal resources.

Ministry of Transport & Works (Jamaica)

1.13 Mr. Hales welcomed participants on behalf of the Government of Jamaica, and
expressed his confidence that the shared experiences coming out of the Workshop would
redound to the benefit of the states in the Wider Caribbean and to the health of the region‘s
sensitive marine environment.

1.14 Mr. Hales explained that the Maritime Authority of Jamaica (MAJ) as a statutory body
of the Ministry of Transport and Works has the responsibility of ensuring that maritime
transportation and related activities are conducted in accordance with government policies and
plans for the development of the sector and consistent with national and international
standards of maritime safety and pollution prevention.

1.15 Mr. Hales explained further that the Maritime Authority is the focal point for the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) in Jamaica and, in this regard, has supported the
IMO on environmental and other issues of safety and security. He assured participants that all
major marine environmental protection conventions relating to the prevention, response and
compensation with regard to pollution damage have been signed by Jamaica, and are currently
being incorporated into legislation which, when passed, will provide a comprehensive legal
framework aimed at protecting Jamaica‘s fragile ecosystem.

1.16 Mr. Hales referred to the London Convention 1972, which was ratified by Jamaica in
1991. He said that the MAJ works closely with NEPA, the national authority designated to
control all sources of marine pollution and to prevent such pollution through the regulation of
disposal at sea in Jamaica. He further disclosed that Jamaica has yet to ratify the 1996
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Page 4

Protocol, with additional objectives that include a ‗reverse list‘ which prohibits all dumping at
sea unless special permits are granted.

1.17 In concluding, Mr. Hales pointed out that the Government of Jamaica fully recognized
the need for a multi-sectoral approach, with co-operation at the national and international
level, to ensure the protection of the country‘s marine environment and coastal zone. To this
end, the government has established an inter-agency body, the Council on Ocean and Coastal
Zone Management. He commended the collaborative efforts of the national and international
agencies involved in organizing the workshop, and felt that this reflected the co-operation
needed to tackle the marine environment issues contained in the very comprehensive
workshop agenda.


2.1    Dr. Lynn Jackson, chairperson of the London Convention Scientific Group (technical
advisory body of the LC), first presented the contextual framework of the workshop theme:

       .1      Provisions of the London Convention and the 1996 Protocol aimed at
               advancing the objectives of the legal instruments were first developed in 1996
               and further elaborated into a full Technical Co-operation and Assistance
               Programme, adopted 1997—currently being developed further into a ―Strategy
               for Technical Co-operation and Assistance under the London Convention‖.

      .2       Objectives of the 1997 Programme as set out under the framework agreement
               of 1996 are as follows:

               .1      to promote membership of the Protocol;
               .2      to strengthen national marine pollution prevention and management
                       capacities; and
               .3      to co-operate with other organizations and agencies to ensure a
                       coordinated approach to technical co-operation and assistance.

       .3      Programme activities to promote the above objectives include
               meetings/workshops of the Scientific Group – since 1996 held in Brazil, South
               Africa, Australia, and now here in Jamaica – the basic objective being to
               identify technical co-operation and assistance needs. To this end, the Scientific
               Group is seeking GEF funds to facilitate rapid assessment and implementation
               of programmes to address those needs.

2.2     Against this background, Dr. Jackson outlined the Ocho Rios Workshop objectives
and structure.
                                                      IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                                Page 5

Main objectives

       The main objectives are:

       .1     to increase awareness of the LC 1972 and LP 1996 and their relationship to
              other relevant international agreements and programmes;

       .2     to identify barriers to the implementation of LC in this region and to make
              recommendations for overcoming them;

       .3     to promote the use of WAGs developed under LC;

       .4     to promote marine pollution and environmental management in ports by
              highlighting issues of current concern;

       .5     to identify barriers to the implementation of MARPOL, especially the
              management of ship generated waste in ports; and

       .6     to formulate a regional plan for addressing issues of common concern.

Basic structure

       A      Workshop deliberations

       .1     marine pollution management: the legal framework;
       .2     environmental management in ports: identification of the issues;
       .3     waste management and waste assessment guidance; and
       .4     country studies.

       B      Field trip to Kingston harbour

       .1     visit to research US EPA vessel

       C      Working groups which will explore the following issues

       .1     dredged material management;
       .2     sewage and other organic waste; and
       .3     bulky items/industrial.

2.3     Finally each country will be expected to present a brief report which will focus on an
assessment of the most pressing concerns, and will offer recommendations on the treatment of
these issues.
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Page 6


London Convention – Rene Coenen

3.1     Mr. René Coenen (IMO) presented a summary of the basic provisions of the London
Protocol of 1996, and its relationship with the London Convention 1972, from which it
originated, and other international agreements such as MARPOL 73/78 and the Basel
Convention. No dumping of wastes was allowed except for dredged material, sewage sludge,
fish waste, vessels and platforms, inert, inorganic geological materials, organic material of
natural origin and bulky wastes (steel, concrete items), for which the concern is physical
impact if generated on small islands with isolated communities. These wastes could,
however, only be dumped after a thorough assessment of all alternatives had shown that
dumping would be the option having the least impact on the environment and provided a prior
permit was issued.

3.2    He encouraged countries in the Wider Caribbean Region to join the Protocol by
describing the potential environmental, economic and other benefits, as well as costs of
accession. He indicated that, to date, 16 of the 26 countries required for the entry into force of
the Protocol had already ratified or acceded to it. Upon its entry into force, which was not
expected before 2004, the Protocol would replace the London Convention.

MARPOL 73/78 – Bertrand Smith

3.3    Mr. Bertrand Smith, representing the Maritime Authority of Jamaica, made a
presentation on the MARPOL 73/78 Convention (International Convention for the Prevention
of Pollution from Ships 1972 and its Protocol of 1978), in which he highlighted the
comprehensive nature of this instrument for the prevention of ship-source pollution arising
from operational and accidental discharges.

3.4 He gave a brief outline of MARPOL 73/78, indicating the six annexes contained in
MARPOL that specify technical standards. The annexes are as follows:

       -       Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil (Annex I);
       -       Regulations for the Control of Pollution of Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
               (Annex II);
       -       Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances carried by Sea in Packaged
               Form (Annex III);
       -       Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships (Annex IV);
       -       Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships (Annex V); and
       -       Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil (Annex VI).

3.5    He deplored the fact that many Caribbean states had not yet taken the necessary steps
towards adherence to this most valuable of instruments and, in particular, the Caribbean,
which has not yet experienced a major pollution accident.
                                                       IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                                 Page 7

3.6     He cautioned against the region being used for the transport of substances as major
disasters may force ships to move to ‗friendlier‘ areas as a result of previous disasters. The
Caribbean‘s inertia with respect to signature of the MARPOL Convention was identified as
being linked to the lack of administrative capacity, political will and weak compliance
mechanisms such as detection, investigation and subsequent enforcement.

Global Programme of Action – Tim Kasten

3.7     Mr. Timothy Kasten, Acting Deputy Co-ordinator, UNEP Regional Co-ordinating
Unit (Kingston) gave a brief summary of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection
of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA), highlighting the raison d’être,
the status and the future of this initiative. He explained that this was a non-binding global
action programme, adopted in 1995, which aims at preventing the degradation of the marine
environment from land-based activities, including the physical alteration and destruction of
habitats. He pointed out that, given the tremendous importance of coasts and oceans, as well
as the deplorable state of the oceans, the GPA was the only international programme that
addressed the interface between land, fresh water, coasts, and oceans, specifying action at the
national level, with an emphasis on regional and international co-operation.

3.8      Although UNEP carries out the function of Secretariat, the GPA calls for regular
intergovernmental reviews. However, the first Intergovernmental Review Meeting revealed
that factors such as a lack of awareness, lack of political will, lack of financing and an
institutional divide between fresh water, coasts and the marine sectors were major
impediments to the GPA implementation. The future of the GPA, he stated, rested heavily on
moving from a state of planning to one of action over the next five years. It also implies
finding innovative ways to address known problems, finding new partnerships, appropriate
technology, new and additional financing, including better use of domestic resources.

       Cartagena Convention

3.9    In his presentation of an overview of the Cartagena Convention for the Sustainable
Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean, Mr. Timothy Kasten
underscored the fact that it was the ―only agreement developed by the countries of the Wider
Caribbean Region.‖ Indeed, the Cartagena Convention is the only legally binding regional
agreement of the Wider Caribbean for the protection and development of the marine
environment although other international or global agreements and programmes of action
abound including the Law of the Sea Convention, Agenda 21, GPA and the London Dumping
Convention. Adopted in 1983, the Convention entered into force in October 1986 and to date,
has been ratified by 21 countries of the Wider Caribbean Region.

3.10 The Cartagena Convention is an umbrella agreement that provides for general
obligations as well as the necessary legal and institutional arrangements for the operation of
the Convention, establishes mechanisms for regional co-operation and provides for the
adoption of more specific protocols.
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Page 8

3.11 Specific areas of focus in the Convention include pollution from ships, dumping of
wastes, land-based sources, seabed activities, airborne pollution and specially protected areas.
These areas have given rise to the adoption of three protocols – the Oil Spills Protocol (1983),
the Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Protocol (1990), and the Land-based Sources of
Marine Pollution Protocol (1999).


Port Reception Facilities (PRF) – Lt. Cdr. Curtis Roach

4.1    This presentation set out to examine the following areas:

       Overview of port reception facilities

       Under this item the following main points were addressed:

       .1      discharge ashore as the preferred means of preventing pollution from ships by
               ship generated waste;

       .2      the role of MARPOL (International Convention on Marine Pollution
               Prevention 1972 and its 1978 Protocol) in providing for PRF to receive ship
               generated waste; and

       .3      the requirement that PRF meet the needs of ships in port without causing
               undue delay to the ships.

4.1     The presenter explained that MARPOL 73/78 – PRF requirements were contained in
the relevant sections of Annexes 1, II, IV, V and VI of the Convention, and characterized
special areas under these requirements as follows:

       .1      areas identified in MARPOL as requiring special mandatory methods for the
               prevention of sea pollution by oil spillage;

       .2      PRF are doubly important in special areas; and

       .3      special area status takes effect when all PRF required have been provided.

4.2    In this regard, he noted that although the Wider Caribbean Region was identified in
1993 as a special area under Annex V of MARPOL, this status has not yet been formalized.

4.3     Lt Cdr Roach concluded his overview by itemizing those substances requiring PRF,
viz. oil cargo residues, ship‘s oily waste and oily ballast water; residues and mixtures
containing NLS; sewage; garbage; ozone depleting substances and equipment containing
                                                      IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                                Page 9

them; exhaust gas cleaning residues.       He added a list of IMO publications that he
recommended as relevant.

       The Caribbean challenge

4.4    Under this item the presentation addressed the challenge of keeping the Caribbean
clean and free from pollution, particularly by oil and garbage. In this context, the following
relevant factors were highlighted:

       .1     importance of tourism to Caribbean economies;

       .2     huge maritime traffic (50% of the world‘s cruise shipping; N/S and E/W

       .3     special area status (see above);

       .4     treatment and final disposal of waste; and

       .5     inadequate resources.

       Some significant responses

4.5     This item examined some significant responses, citing the following agencies, and
identifying their respective projects, activities, objectives and main outcomes/

       .1     WCISW 1994-1998 (GEF funded/executed by IMO). Objective: to support
              ratification and implementation of MARPOL as well as to give effect to
              special area designation under Annex V;

       .2     IMO Forum on Marine Pollution Prevention in the Wider Caribbean Region
              (Santo Domingo 1999). One of the main outcomes: the recommendation that
              measures be taken to ensure that special area status for the Caribbean is in
              effect by 2003;

       .3     OECS Solid and Ship-generated Waste Management Project (initiated
              1995/completion date – 2002). Objective: To protect coastal and maritime
              systems by facilitating implementation of the Annex V special area status; and

       .4     Waste Oil Management Project/Environmentally Sound Management of Used
              Oils in the Caribbean. Coordinators: CARIRI/CEHI/BASEL Secretariat/

4.6    The presenter concluded by recommending that:
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Page 10

       -       the Eastern Caribbean should have the necessary PRF in place to facilitate
               early implementation of special area status under Annex V of the MARPOL
               Convention, and

       -       the proposed waste oil project could facilitate a further proposal for Annex I
               special area status for the Caribbean.

Global Ballast Water Management Programme - Dr. Lynn Jackson

4.7    The presentation first examined:

       .1      The issue: identifying invasive marine species as one of four major threats to
               the world‘s oceans. In the critical area of shipping, which accounted for 80
               percent of the world‘s commodities and transfers 12 billion tones of ballast per
               year, it was noted that 4,500 species of microbes, plants and animals were
               carried at any one time. This leads to multiple area invasion of shipping
               related vectors resulting, for example, in the fouling of vessel hulls, propeller
               shafts, the sea chest and internal piping and of anchors. The obvious
               ecological, economic, and human health impacts were highlighted.

       .2      Case Studies: The European Zebra Mussel (Great Lakes) was identified as one
               of the invasive species that infests 40 percent of US waterways and fouled
               water intake pipes. The case of the Comb Jelly (Black Sea) was also cited.
               This vector carried with it 1,000 million tones of biomass. In both cases
               damage costs were massive, in the latter case recording US$500 million

4.8     Dr. Jackson updated participants on the response to the ballast water issue. At the
global level, the MEPC has a Ballast Water Working Group which has established a
comprehensive set of guidelines for the control and management of ships‘ ballast water to
minimize the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens. She also reported that a
new mandatory regime was being developed for presentation at a conference targeted for
2003. Generally speaking, however, it was noted that there was, currently, no approach that
fully addressed the problem. To this end, the ongoing research and development efforts are
aimed at probing alternative methods such as filtration; several kinds of treatment (e.g. heat,
UV, ozone, chemical); and alternative ballast handling arrangements. Dr. Jackson described
the management programme as a co-operative initiative involving six demonstration
sites/regions, viz.

       Brazil, China, India, Iran, S. Africa, Ukraine

       London (IMO), New York (UNDP), Washington DC (GEF).
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4.9     She concluded by identifying the following development objectives:

        .1     assistance to countries in regard to reducing the transfer of harmful organisms
               in ships‘ ballast water;

        .2     increased adherence to current IMO voluntary guidelines; and

        .3     assistance to countries in preparation for the implementation of the new IMO
               mandatory regime.

Dredging of Ports and Marinas - Mr. Robert Engler

4.10 Mr. Robert Engler began his presentation by identifying the physical impacts of
dredging. He itemized these as follows:

         .1    circulation changes (salinity);
         .2    sediment removal;
         .3    sediment resuspension (turbidity);
         .4    habitat modification/loss;
         .5    noise;
         .6    entrainment;
         .7    shipping increase (indirect);
         .8    changes in waves/currents – erosion;
         .9    recreation;
       .10     archaeological assets; and
       .11     fishery migration blockage.

4.11    He further identified the physical impacts in the area of disposal as follows:

        .1     habitat loss/modification;
        .2     sediment resuspension (turbidity);
        .3     shipping impacts;
        .4     fishing obstacles;
        .5     circulation/wave attenuation;
        .6     recreation impacts;
        .7     mineral extraction;
        .8     wetlands loss; and
        .9     loss of aquatic vegetation.

4.12 The third area of impact was categorized as chemical (contaminated sediments), listed
as follows:

        .1     water quality;
        .2     toxicity to aquatic organisms;
        .3     bioavailability;
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       .4      fish movement impacts;
       .5      human health concerns (body contact);
       .6      contaminant redistribution;
       .7      short and long term concerns; and
       .8      recreation.

4.13   Fourthly, the biological impacts (contaminated sediments) were listed as follows:

       .1      loss of species productivity;
       .2      loss of species diversity;
       .3      loss of fishery resources;
       .4      bioaccumulation; and
       .5      human health concerns (food).

4.14 Mr. Engler suggested, in conclusion, that all the above impacts can be mitigated
through appropriate pre-dredge assessment, disposal site selection, and monitoring
programmes. He added that there were no technology limitations.

Oil Spills in Ports - Mr. Rick Rodriguez

4.15 Mr. Rodriguez began by explaining briefly the role and function of the Regional
Marine Pollution Emergency, Information and Training Centre (REMPEITC-Carib) in
assisting countries in implementing the Cartagena Convention Oil Spill Protocol and the
OPRC Convention, with a view to achieving a sustainable marine environment.

4.16 In an effort to highlight the importance of REMPEITC-Carib‘s role in preventing and
responding to major oil pollution incidents in the marine environment, Mr. Rodriguez
informed the Workshop that 80 percent of all goods are transported over water worldwide,
and that by 2004 it is projected that sea-borne trade will account for 5.34 billion tones

4.17 He went on to outline the tiered response to the management of oil pollution incidents
in the context of the port area, and identified the following tiers: the facility‘s response plan;
the port emergency plan; the city and provincial emergency plans; the national emergency
plan; and finally, to conclude this graded response, the resources resulting from an appeal to
international organizations, a regional response centre or other foreign authority.

4.18 In order to combat such maritime accidents, in particular oil, gas and chemical
releases, a co-operative approach worldwide has been adopted and is rooted in regional and
bilateral agreements. The most important global instrument in this regard is the International
Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC), adopted in
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4.19 Mr. Rodriguez concluded by outlining the steps required by this Convention to
implement the oil pollution emergency plans established for all such incidents. These steps

       .1     identifying the emergency response participants and establishing their roles,
              resources and concerns;
       .2     evaluating the risks and hazards that may result in emergency situations;
       .3     emergency plan review;
       .4     required response identification of tasks not covered by existing plans;
       .5     matching of tasks to available resources;
       .6     upgrading and integration of existing plans;
       .7     obtaining of government approval of integrated community plans;
       .8     education and training of participating groups, as well as educating the general
              community about the integrated plan; and
       .9     establishment of procedures for periodic testing, review and plan updating.

Land-based Discharges - Mr. Tim Kasten

4.20 Mr. Kasten pointed out that the issues and concerns regarding marine pollution from
land-based activity have been addressed by governments of the Wider Caribbean. He
indicated that GESAMP 1990 found that 80-90 percent of marine pollution was land based,
and disclosed, further, that the 1994 Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP) regional
survey results identified seven major categories of point sources with the largest pollutant
load. The pollutants of concern were characterized as sewage, hydrocarbons, sediments,
nutrients, pesticides and other toxic substances, solid waste and marine debris. He listed the
following survey conclusions:

       .1     priority land-based sources: domestic wastewater; agricultural non-point
              sources; and

       .2     policies and tools as mechanisms to promote the control of the above sources:
              integrated coastal area management; most appropriate technologies;
              demonstrations; financial mechanisms.

4.21 In addition, legal and policy solutions included the 1995 Global Programme of Action;
the 1996-1999 negotiations on LBS Protocol to the Cartagena Convention; and the 1999
adoption of the LBS Protocol. The latter instrument was source-specific, and applied the
most appropriate technologies and best management practices with initial focus on domestic
sewage and agricultural non-point sources – the main objective being to provide small grants
to pilot innovative agricultural practices.

4.22 Mr. Kasten described in detail some of the current activities being developed by the
CEP. These projects include reducing pesticide run-off through improved management;
integrated coastal area planning and management; and sewage treatment activities.
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4.23 In conclusion, the presenter addressed the proposed GPA/Caribbean Clearinghouse
Node, a prototype to be used as an active and useful tool for Caribbean and extra-regional
countries with similar socio-economic conditions. It is expected that the clearinghouse
database will house and facilitate dissemination of information on preventing, reducing and
controlling pollution from land-based activities.

TBTs - Edward Kleverlaan

4.24 Mr. Edward Kleverlaan of Environment Australia focused on the topic of
Environment Management in Ports, providing an overview on TBT contamination in ports
and its impacts in the wider oceans. During a short historical discussion, he pointed out why
TBTs had been introduced in anti-fouling systems on ships‘ hulls and why they proved to be
extremely effective in preventing marine organisms from attaching themselves to ships and
creating an uneven surface, thus reducing speed and manoeuvrability and increasing operating
costs. The environmental advantage of a decrease in the transport of marine pests through
international and coastal shipping was also underscored.

4.25 The presentation highlighted the harmful effects of organotins such as TBT on the
marine environment and the international campaign to remove it from the environment. This
work, spearheaded by the IMO‘s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), had
culminated in the adoption of a new international Convention to ban the use, application and
ultimately the presence of organotins on ships by 2008.

4.26 The Government of Australia, under Australia‘s Oceans Policy, will ban the use of
TBT by 2006 on vessels being repainted in Australian docks, unless the IMO sets an earlier
date for this ban. To this end, several government entities, as well as private sector interest
groups, are co-operating in the National Anti-fouling Paint Patch Trials in order to provide
effective biocidal alternatives and to reassure industry that normal commercial conditions will
persist after the ban.

Case Studies

       Summary of Ports and Environmental Issues in Trinidad and Tobago – James Allen

4.27 A number of ports, sufferance ports, harbours, terminals, marinas, fishing centres and
anchorages that cater to the servicing of ships involved marina related activities that
contribute significantly to the economic development of Trinidad and Tobago. Most of these
ports and other facilities are located on the West Coast of Trinidad bordering the Gulf of
Paria. The major ports are the ports of Port of Spain, Point Lisas and Pointe-à-Pierre.

4.28 The volume and nature of ship traffic, the type of industrial, recreational and other
activities taking place in and around these ports, and the fact that there is a lack of dedicated
reception facilities for receiving the wastes from the ships calling at the ports pose a great
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threat by oil and other hazardous substances, garbage and sewage to Trinidad and Tobago‘s
marine environment.

4.29 The possibility of accidental, intentional and operational discharge of oil, the
intentional dumping of garbage and sewage, the effects of the use of TBT in antifouling
paints, the destruction of wetland areas owing to port development and expansion (dredging
and reclamation) and the possible effect of these on marine life are among the threats to the
marine environment.

4.30 Studies are inconclusive at this time to indicate the contribution of port operations to
the pollution and degradation of the marine environment in Trinidad and Tobago in relation to
the significant part played by land-based activities. A precautionary approach should
therefore be adopted. A comprehensive policy and an integrated approach are needed that
take into consideration, inter alia, the impact of port operations on wetland areas. In addition,
the Shipping (Marine Pollution) Bill should be made law.

       Control of Oil Pollution in Coastal and Marine Areas – Janin Mendoza

4.31 Miss Janin Mendoza (M.A.R.N., Venezuela) presented a paper entitled ―Normas para
el Uso y Aplicación de Dispersantes en el Control de Derrames de Hidrocarburos en Zonas
Marino-Costeras‖ (Norms for the Use and Application of Dispersants in the Control of Oil
Waste in Coastal and Marine Areas) in which she pointed out that Venezuela, as a major oil-
producing nation, was particularly vulnerable to oil spills as more and more foreign
companies are involved in business activity in Venezuela, thereby increasing the possibility of
spills and related consequences.

4.32 She highlighted various options being considered by Venezuela for combating oil
spills, such as mechanical and natural disposal, in situ combustion, clean-up campaigns,
biodegradation speed-up and the use of chemical dispersants. Given the potential
environmental and operational consequences of this activity, those responsible for waste
disposal need to carefully address these consequences when deciding which strategy to
employ, bearing in mind the environmental benefits.

4.33 The norms presented attempted to establish a relationship between the oil spills
practices and the concept of environmental benefits, giving rise to an assessment of the
ecological, social, cultural and economic advantages and disadvantages as well as the various
actions that can be taken before a disaster occurs. This takes into consideration aspects such
as the quantity and quality of the crude oil spilt, potential for dilution of dispersants, water
temperature, toxicity, distribution and final outcome of dispersed and non-dispersed crude oil.
She also pointed out that one innovation had been the creation of a Technical Evaluation
Committee that would decide on a National Contingency Plan for the type of action to be
taken in the event of an oil spill. The Committee will also have responsibility for determining
special areas for application of dispersants or restriction of their use.
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       Ship Wastes and Port Environmental Management –Scott McKnight

4.34 Mr. Scott McKnight of Land and Sea Environmental, Canada, provided a brief
overview of ship waste and port environmental management in which he narrowed the scope
of the problem to the presence of commercial shipping, yachts and urban wastes in ports. He
highlighted the international basis for ship-waste management such as MARPOL 73/78,
Regional Seas Agreements, Port State Control, MOUs, shipping with ISO 14001 registration,
national laws and development bank guidelines for port financing and expansion.

4.35 He further pointed to initiatives undertaken in Asia in general under the East Asia
Marine Waste Management Projects and, in particular, the China Ship Waste Project, the
Philippines Marine Environment Improvement Project (MEIP) and the Indonesia Port
Environment Improvement Project (PEIP). In the first case, the results were deemed
satisfactory, whereas in the other two cases the project could not proceed due to government
financial constraints. Mention was also made of the limited success of the OECS Waste
Management Project.

4.36 He concluded with a set of guidelines for port environmental management:
management of waste to comply with local laws or international conventions, management of
wastes to meet environmental stewardship goals, promotion of pollution prevention,
promotion of cleaner production, linking of port environmental management with coastal
environmental management issues and the linking of port environmental management with
urban environmental issues. For best results in environmental management, he reiterated that
it should address ship and port wastes, dredging and dredged material disposal, tier 1 and
tier 2 oil spill response, chemical spill response and treat the port as an environmental centre
with its own unique impacts.


Overview of Waste Management in the Wider Caribbean Region - Derrick Balladin

5.1    Dr. Derrick Balladin of the Caribbean Industrial Research Institute presented an
overview of waste management in the Wider Caribbean Region.

5.2     He noted that within the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) increases in population,
industrialization, consumerization, imported goods and travel activities have resulted in
higher levels of waste generation, and cruise ship tourism compounded by ship-generated
waste. In addition, solid waste management (SWM) in areas of concern such as public
awareness is extremely low: littering, poor storage, disposal by landfill, industrial and
commercial solid waste, are all relatively uncontrolled.

5.3    In the WASW Report No. 5, SWM programmes were described as weak in these main
areas – laws are old but adequate with minimum enforcement practised, inadequate budgets,
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increased public education drive, compounded by poor public participation; national
programmes are under-developed.

5.4     It can be noted that poor SWM is a very large challenge in the WCR, with most
countries lacking the required port facilities for Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 Convention.
This may lead to solid wastes being disposed of at sea, with the risk of being transported by
wind and currents to observable distances away from the discharge points. Other issues of
concern relate to the disposal of used oil, disposal of POPs, toxic waste (used lead-acid
batteries, asbestos, plastics, heavy metals and hospital waste streams).

5.5     Due to different reporting methods in many Caribbean countries, it is extremely
difficult to produce reliable statistics on the generation and cross-border movement of wastes.
According to 1999 Statistical reports from 36 Parties to the Basel Convention, about
200 million metric tonnes of hazardous waste were generated within the WRC, when
compared to a worldwide generation in excess of 400 million metric tonnes.

5.6     With respect to the future, consideration must be given to the identification of hidden
hazardous waste imports and life-cycle assessment for consumer products. In addition,
CARIRI, the Regional Centre for the Basel Convention, is currently executing a regional
project to determine the best options available for the management of used lead acid batteries
and developing a project on options for the management of used oil.

Case Studies

       Port Environment Management in Costa Rica – Mr. Edwin Cyrus Cyrus

5.7    In his presentation relating to Port Environment Management in Costa Rica,
Mr. Edwin Cyrus Cyrus identified some of the main challenges for port management in
Central America in general and in Costa Rica in particular.

5.8     He outlined these as the disposal of solid and liquid wastes produced by ships,
management of loading and offloading of petroleum, management of loading and offloading
of hazardous merchandise, management of liquid and solid wastes produced in port
installations and transported by land.

5.9     He pointed to action that had been taken by Costa Rica in the area of port management
including the contracting of services for painting and repairing of ships and for the disposal of
solid and petroleum wastes. He highlighted some of the recommendations emanating from a
workshop for Central American Countries, chief among which were those relating to the
strengthening of the legal and institutional framework within the region through greater
adherence by Central American countries, and Costa Rica in particular, to the legal
instruments established for regulating port activities.

       Overview of Environmental Issues in Saint Lucia – Shirlene Simmons
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5.10 The presentation was made up of two parts, firstly, general statistics, and secondly an
overview of environmental management issues, both being faced by the island, and also the
actions the Government of Saint Lucia have developed, and plan to develop in the medium

5.11 Saint Lucia is a small island state with a total area of 616 km2 and total population of
155,996 (2000). The country‘s main income generators are agriculture (bananas), tourism,
and a small-scale manufacturing sector.

5.12 Waste management, energy resources, land-use management, coastal-zone
management, climate change and integrated development planning (IDP) are environmental
management issues facing Saint Lucia at this time.

5.13 Solid, liquid and hazardous waste is a serious environmental issue for the island. Poor
waste management and disposal practices by the indiscriminate and illegal disposal of wastes;
inefficient garbage collection systems; and the high frequency of littering in public places are
some of the critical issues in waste management. The seaports on the island are also faced
with issues ranging from lack of collection facilities, to the indiscriminate and illegal disposal
of wastes.

5.14 The importation of refined petroleum products; the vulnerability to shocks in the
supply market; and the lack of resources, both financial and human, to explore the indigenous
sources of energy such as biomass, wind, geothermal and solar are some of the issues facing
the island with respect to energy resources.

5.15 Another environmental issue facing the country is land-use management. Land-use
planning continues to be a major challenge for the government as evidenced by land-use
conflicts; the incidence of unplanned development; zoning; and continued environmental

5.16 Saint Lucia‘s coastal zone continues to be under increasing pressure from
urbanization; pollution; tourism development; continued development in environmentally
sensitive areas; and erosion from agriculture and other land resources is another
environmental problem for the country.

5.17 The issues associated with climate change is the lack of financial and human resources
to strengthen the administrative and co-ordination structure for climate change activities; and
also the lack of funding for awareness activities; and the problems in sourcing funds to
implement key activities.

5.18 Integrated Development Planning is an approach to planning which will seek to
integrate and co-ordinate economic, social, cultural, environmental, spatial, financial, and
population interrelationships to ensure the sustainable and efficient use of human, financial,
and natural resources for the improvement in the quality of life of the population.
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5.19 The following is a list of actions undertaken, or to be undertaken, by the Government
of St. Lucia:

       .1      formulation and implementation of appropriate management strategies, polices
               and programmes;
       .2      strengthening of institutional arrangements;
       .3      formulation and implementation of legal and regulatory frameworks;
       .4      increase in public education and awareness;
       .5      introduction of capacity building programmes; and
       .6      commitment to the numerous international and regional conventions the
               country is signatory to.


Key Components of the Waste Assessment Guidance – Dr. Lynn Jackson

6.1     Dr. Lynn Jackson, Chairperson of the Scientific Group of the London Convention, in
her presentation of background and introduction to this discussion, outlined the approaches
adopted by the London Convention with regard to dumping of waste. It was the 1996
Protocol to the London Convention, however, that prohibited the dumping of all wastes
except for seven specified categories, namely dredged material, sewage sludge, fish waste,
vessels and platforms, inert inorganic geological material, organic material of natural origin,
and bulky items (e.g. steel, iron, concrete). This 7-item list constitutes the Reverse List.

6.2    The Waste Assessment Guidance (WAG) adopted at the 19th Consultative Meeting of
Contracting Parties to the London Convention in 1997 outlines the assessment process that, it
was noted, also includes wastes from the Reverse List.

6.3    The presenter discussed in detail the key components of the WAG. In summary, these

       .1      waste characterization – the results of which are compared against an Action
               List (comprising set limits of specific contaminants in the case of chemical

       .2      waste management options – the two aspects of which are the waste prevention
               audit and the identification of alternatives to dumping;

       .3      dumpsite selection – an appropriate site is key to mitigating any potential
               impacts, and must take into consideration a range of factors such as type of
               waste and character of dumpsite; proximity to amenities or other marine-based
               activities; operational feasibility;
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       .4      impact assessment and monitoring – as a basis for permit approval and for
               defining environmental monitoring requirements to be included in conditions
               of approval, which also cover compliance monitoring;

       .5      permitting – varies from country to country depending on the legal system

Waste Characterization for Disposal at Sea - Ms Linda Porebski

6.4     Ms. Porebski first presented an overview of relevant legislation at the international
level (the London Convention 1972 and the London Protocol 1996) and national level. She
indicated that at the national level legislation either similar or more stringent by comparison
and provided for use of the WAG lists, issue and control permits, and reporting and

6.5    She continued by discussing the areas in the 1996 Protocol that represented advances
following the 1972 Convention in relation to:

       .1      prohibition (no additional steps);
       .2      wastes (Reverse List/Action list developed);
       .3      characterization (tiered approach: toxic/persistent/bioaccumulation); and
       .4      processing guidelines (WAG developed).

In this context, Ms. Porebski reminded Workshop participants of the key components of the
WAG and listed the items classified as waste and other matter, which were governed by the
WAG as follows: dredged material, sewage, fish waste, vessels, inert inorganic geological
material, organic material of natural origin, bulky substances.

6.6     The factors and goal of characterization were described in relation to each of these
items, and examined the physical characterization of dredged material by drawing on the case
of Clamshell Dredge that was used to dredge on of the main shipping channels in the Ports of
New York and New Jersey. She observed that as a general rule sufficient dredge data may
already be available from sources such as government, previous work, related sites and
research; but cautioned that contaminants of concern should be established. It was proposed
that sampling from the proposed dredge site should reflect vertical and horizontal distribution,
and the variability of material. Ms. Porebski also advised the Workshop on the kind of
analytical methods, using the ―Draft Guidance‖ developed by the London Convention (SG 25,
2002) which looked at selection of variables; selection of methods; quality assessment and
quality control.

6.7     In concluding, Ms. Porebski addressed the issue of ocean disposal in relation to a
national action list and levels of environmental concern – in compliance with permit
conditions. In this regard, she presented selected action values for dredged material in some
Western European countries. In this context, she advised on the use of bio-assessment tools,
indicating, among other things, that if a decision still cannot be made, biological testing
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should be done, and that local species should be considered for acute toxicity, chronic
toxicity, bio-accumulation and tainting and, in this connection suggested a list of issues
related to biological responses and ended by emphasizing the use of the Action List:

       .1     establish level; and
       .2     depending on result: proceed to disposal site, etc.; revisit waste management
              options; do further characterization

Waste Management Options/Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring -
Dr. Tom O’Connor

6.8    Dr. O‘Connor in separate presentations, viz. Waste Management Options and
Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring to Workshop Session #5: ―Introduction to
Waste Assessment Guidance‖, cautioned against dumping at sea ―just because it is easy‖.
This approach to options advises that sea dumping should be used only when NEED is
demonstrated, and that the options of reuse, recycling, treating should be considered. In this
connection, he also cautioned that it was important that waste prevention audits be done to
reduce need.

6.9      With regard to bulky wastes (e.g. appliances, vehicles, drums, cargo containers, gas
cylinders) – primarily comprised of iron, steel, concrete, or other non-harmful material for,
and limited to, those circumstances where wastes are generated at locations such as small
islands with isolated communities having no practical access to disposal options other than
ocean dumping – Dr. O‘Connor advised reuse for the intended purpose, return to sender,
metal recycling or landfill use, but cautioned clean-up prior to dumping (i.e. removal of
fluids, floatables, soluble material, etc.).

6.10 In the case of inert inorganic wastes (e.g. excavation material, demolition debris), he
advised what was the obvious route of use and recycle options, ensuring that contaminants are
removed. Organic wastes (fish processing, sewage sludge, etc.), on the other hand, could be
used as fertilizer once contaminants are removed and the action list checked.

6.11 Where dredged material is concerned, provided contaminated material is isolated, it is
possible to apply this material in many ways, some of which are: beach nourishment, land
creation, marsh creation, upland use (e.g. soil, construction).

6.12 Dr. O‘Connor‘s presentation on Impact Assessment can be summarized along the
following lines. The procedure requires:

       .1     characterization of waste and dumpsite;
       .2     prediction of physical and chemical changes;
       .3     prediction and acceptance of biological response;
       .4     fourthly, prediction and acceptance of the risk to humans; and
       .4     the issuing of permit.
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Follow-up impact monitoring would determine whether or not the assessment was correct;
while compliance monitoring would determine if the dumping was done in compliance with
(a) designated location, (b) permitted amount, and (c) dumping method.

6.13 Monitoring would also assess change: ephemeral change, permanent physical change,
or permanent chemical change. In the case of sewage sludge dumping in deep water, for
example, it was noted that physical and chemical change was predicted on the basis of
currents, sludge characteristics, dumping frequency, settling rates, etc. In this example, there
was no predicted biological change, but checks were advised for bioaccumulation. In the case
of dredged material impact assessment, where there is physical burial of organisms at the
dumpsite, the mound may be predicted to remain intact or disperse; chemical predictions
depend on material; biological predictions are certain, and bioaccumulation is possible.
Impact monitoring would examine mound stability, recolonization and bioaccumulation.

Identification of Disposal Sites for Disposal of Wastes at Sea - Mr. Chris Vivian

6.14 The site procedure should proceed through a sequential series of stages designed to
weed out unsuitable areas and ultimately to present the regulatory authority with a suitable
site or sites for designation. Based on this procedural outline, Mr. Vivian guided Workshop
participants through the steps for the selection of sites, which he observed needed to be done
in such as way as to minimize any interference with other present and potential uses of the sea
area concerned (e.g. fishing, navigation, aquaculture, recreation). These steps are:

       .1      assessment of need for a new site;
       .2      identification of potentially suitable areas;
       .3      identification of site requirements related to waste characteristics;
       .4      selection of candidate sites;
       .5      determination of potential adverse effects at each candidate site;
       .6      comparison of candidate sites;
       .7      assessment of acceptability of potential adverse effects; and
       .8      site selection.

6.15 Mr. Vivian concluded his presentation with further recommendations for the
monitoring process, based on the example taken from the UK where a new Dredged Material
Disposal Site (DMDS) was selected off Cumbria. He explained that since the primary effect
of the disposal was predicted to be a physical one of blanketing the seabed, it was a priority to
map the physical extent of the dumped material. A licence condition requiring self-
monitoring of depth during the disposal process came first, while independent monitoring to
check sediment movements subsequent to disposal and any associated biological changes

Case Studies

       The Dutch Experience – EIA Development, Disposal and Monitoring of Dredged
       Material: Mr. Joost Stronkhorst
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6.16 The presenter, Mr. Stronkhorst, gave an overview of national and international
policies on pollution control which traced the 1970 Pollution of Water Act; the 1987-1989
North Sea Ministers Conference which triggered the issue of permits for waste disposal and
effluent discharge; the 1992 Oslo and Paris Convention of NE Atlantic; the 1995 North Sea
Ministers Conference which also examined emission control measures; and the 1995 UN
Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based

6.17 Mr. Stronkhorst continued by focusing on the Port of Rotterdam in regard to the
reduction of zinc emission and of dioxin emission by major point sources over the period
1985-1995. He also identified fish-eating birds and organochlorine contamination (PCB) in
the SW Netherlands (1950-1990), and liver tumours in flat fish and PAH‘s in sediment in the
Dutch coastal waters (1985-1994).

6.18 The decision-making framework described two processes for the disposal of dredged
material: first, decisions regarding issuing permits at the harbour/dredging site in relation
hazard assessment; and, secondly, decisions regarding monitoring compliance and feedback at
the recipient body/dumping site in relation to risk assessment.

6.19 With regard to the impact hypothesis for the disposal of dredged material from the
Port of Rotterdam, Mr. Stronkhorst presented the following projections: firstly, at the new
disposal site, the macrobenthos community will be severely impacted; concentrations of
contaminants in sediment and biota will be elevated; ecotoxicological effects will occur in flat
fish and starfish within one year and over an area of 1 – 5 km east from the disposal site.
Secondly, at the former disposal site, recover of the macro-benthos community will take
four years; recovery of chemical quality of biota and sediment will take two years; recovery
of the ecotoxicological effects on flat fish and starfish will take two years.

6.20 Finally, on the question of water management, Mr. Stronkhorst disclosed to the
Workshop that the Fourth Policy Document on Water Management in the Netherlands (1998)
aims to add to its methods of testing (in 2002) an integrated assessment system based on
biological effect measurements and environmental impact of the pollutants present, as the
present action levels offer insufficient possibilities for assessing the complex of pollutants in
the dredged material proposed for offshore disposal.

Jamaica – Port Development Programme – Mr. Krishna Desai and Mr. Don Rose

6.21 A case study of the regulatory framework for dredging and management of wastes,
based on the current development of the port of Kingston, was presented by Mr. Krishna
Desai of the National Environment Planning Agency (NEPA) and Mr. Don Rose of the
Technological and Environmental Management Network (TEMN). It focused on the
regulatory framework that Jamaica has in place to begin to address the obligations of the LC,
especially as it relates to the disposal of dredged material, including the Beach Control Act
(1956) and the newer Natural Resources Conservation Act of 1991. This premier piece of
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Page 24

environmental legislation has a set of associated regulations, the Permit and Licence
Regulations of 1996 that speak to certain types of development requiring environmental
permits. He also pointed out that a comprehensive E/A process accompanied each
development project and included consultation at the internal, governmental and civil levels.

6.22 Mention was made of the Guidelines for the Planning and Execution of Coastal and
Estuarine Dredging Works and the disposal of Dredged Materials which seek to cover the
areas of permitting, engineering, as well as the environmental aspects of projects, so as to
eliminate or mitigate the potentially harmful impacts that dredging works can have upon the
coastal and estuarine environment at a project planning stage.

6.23 He referred to the aspect of dumping, which, though not strictly concerned with the
aspect of ‗dumping‘ as defined under the London Convention, relates to the deployment of
certain types of structures in the marine environment. The presenter underscored the
sensitivity of the system of protected areas developed by Jamaica and the particular context of
the dredging activity being carried out in the vicinity of two declared protected areas. An
example was provided of successful relocation of corals within this context.

                                                IMO/UNEP Workshop, Jamaica 2002

                                  ANNEX I

                  JAMAICA (20 - 24 May 2002)



08:00 – 09:00   Registration of participants

Session 1
09:00 – 10:00   Opening Ceremony

                Welcome and Introduction

                Director General, Maritime Authority of Jamaica - Rear Admiral Peter
                IMO-Office for the London Convention - Mr. René Coenen
                (IMO/London Convention)
                Acting Deputy Co-ordinator UNEP Regional Co-ordination Unit –
                Mr. Tim Kasten
                National Environmental Planning Authority-Jamaica - Mr. Franklin
                McDonald Chief Executive Officer
                Permanent Secretary of Ministry of Transport and Works - Dr. Alwin

10:10- 10:30    Workshop Objectives

                Objectives and structure of the workshop: Chair of the London
                Convention Scientific Group: Dr. Lynn Jackson

10:30 – 11:00   COFFEE & TEA BREAK

Session 2
11:00 – 12:30   Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management (Moderator –
                Mr. Craig Vogt Vice-Chair of the LC Scientific Group)
                Introduction to London Convention 1972 and its 1996 Protocol and
                Implications of Membership - Mr. René Coenen
                MARPOL 73/78 Convention - Mr. Bertrand Smith, Director, Legal
                Affairs (Maritime Authority)
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Annex I
Page 2

                  UNEP/GPA (Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the
                  Marine Environment from Land-based Activities - Mr. Franklin
                  McDonald (Chief Executive Officer, National Environmental Planning

                  Cartagena Convention - Mr. Tim Kasten UNEP-RCU


12:30 – 14:00     LUNCH BREAK

Session 3
14:00 – 16:00     Environmental Management in Ports: Identification of Issues
                  (Moderator - Mr. Craig Vogt)

                  Port Reception Facilities - Lt. Cdr. Curtis Roach
                  Management of Ballast Water Discharges - Dr. Lynn Jackson
                  Dredging of Ports and Marinas - Mr. Robert Engler (United States)


                  Oil spills in Ports - Mr. Rick Rodriguez (REMPEITC)
                  Land-Based Discharges - Mr. Tim Kasten (UNEP)
                  TBTs - Mr. Edward Kleverlaan (Australia)


16:00 – 16:30     COFFEE & TEA BREAK

16:30 – 17:30     Environmental Management in Ports: Identification of Issues
                  (Moderator - Mr. Jim Osborne, Canada) (continued)

                  Case studies

                  Trinidad - Overview of Commercial Ports & Environmental Issues in
                  Trinidad - Mr. James Allan Goodridge
                  Study of Ballast Water in Cartagena Bay, Colombia - Silvia Rondon
                  USA - Overview of Pollution Prevention and Best Management
                  Practices at USA Ports - Mr. Richard Delaney, USA


18:30             Cocktail Reception (causal attire)
                                                  IMO/UNEP Workshop- Jamaica 2002
                                                                          Annex I
                                                                           Page 3


Session 4
09:00 – 10:30   Waste Management in the Wider Caribbean Region (Moderator:
                Dr. Lynn Jackson)

                Introduction to Waste Management Principles: (USEPA: Craig Vogt)
                Overview of Waste Management in the WCR: Dr. Derrick Balladin

                Case Studies

                Costa Rica: Edwin Cyrus
                St. Lucia Shirlene Simmons


10:30 – 11:00   COFFEE & TEA BREAK

Session 5
11:00 – 13:00   Introduction to Waste Assessment Guidance (Moderator: Dr. Lynn

                Key components of Waste Assessment Guidance: Dr. Lynn Jackson
                Waste Characterization: Ms. Linda Porebski (Canada)
                Waste Management Options: Dr. Tom O’Connor (United States)
                Identification of Disposal Sites: Mr. Chris Vivian (United Kingdom)


13:00 – 14:30   LUNCH BREAK

                Introduction to Waste Assessment Guidance (Moderator: Dr. Lynn

14:30 – 16:00   Permitting Process: Ms. Linda Porebski (Canada)
                Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring: Dr. Tom O’Connor
                (United States)
                Case Study: Dutch Experience—EIA Development, Disposal, and
                Monitoring of Dredged Material: Mr. Joost Stronkhorst (Netherlands)


16:00 – 16:30   COFFEE & TEA BREAK
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Annex I
Page 4
16:30 - 17:30         Case Studies

                      Jamaica NEPA: Mr. Krishna Desai
                      Jamaica: Port Development Programme: Kingston Trans-shipment Port
                      Mr. Don Rose
                      (optional: South Africa: Emergency Dumping)

DAY 3                 Field Trip – Kingston Harbour/U.S. EPA Vessel


Session 6             Working Group Sessions

                      (Convening of Working Group 1 is definite. Working Groups 2 and 3
                      are optional and these sessions will be determined on the basis of
                      responses received from invited countries.)

9:00 – 17:30          Working Group 1: Dredged Material Management
                      Mr. Gerard van Raalte (IADC)
                      Dr. Robert Engler (PIANC/USACE)
                      Mr. Neville Burt (WODA/HR Wallingford)

The working group session is planned in two parts. The morning session will be a series of
lectures about various aspects of dredged material management. For this, delegates will
receive a free set of CEDA/IADC Guides – Environmental Aspects of Dredging. Opportunity
will be given during and at the end of each lecture for questions. The afternoon will provide
an opportunity for presentation of cases by delegates followed by a panel discussion led by
the speakers and other invited experts.

09:00 – 09:10         Introduction to the workshop Mr. Neville Burt (WODA/HR

09:10 – 09:45         Application of the LC to dredged material Mr. Bob Engler (U.S
                      Corps of Engineers)

                      London Convention/Protocol: Specific Waste Assessment Guidelines
                      for Dredged material

                      The role of The International Navigation Association, PIANC:

                             Dredged Material Management Guide,
                                                 IMO/UNEP Workshop- Jamaica 2002
                                                                         Annex I
                                                                          Page 5

                      Management of Aquatic Disposal of Dredged Material,
                      Managing Contaminated Dredged material,
                      Dredging: The Environmental Facts - where to find what you
                      need to know.

09:45 – 10:30   Investigation, Interpretation, and Impact Mr. Neville Burt
                (WODA/HR Wallingford)

                      Project planning
                      Initial evaluation
                      Field surveys, sampling and lab tests
                      Interpretation of results

10:30 – 1100    COFFEE & TEA BREAK

11:00 – 12:00   Machines, Methods, and Mitigation Mr. Gerard van Raalte (IAPH)

                      Types of project
                      Phases of a project
                      Dredging equipment
                      Recent developments
                      Transport and disposal equipment and techniques
                      Mitigating measures
                      Monitoring and Control

12:00 – 13:00   Re-use, Recycle or Relocate Mr. Neville Burt (WODA/HR

                      Management alternatives
                      Selection of best option
                      Material properties
                      Beneficial use
                      Open water disposal
                      Confined disposal

13:00 – 14:30   LUNCH BREAK

14:30 – 15:00   Dredging in coral reef areas Caroline Fletcher (WODA/HR

15:00 – 16:00   Case studies presented by delegates

                      Panama         Mr. Jorge Rodriguez*
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Annex I
Page 6
                            Cuba           Mr. Marta Martinez Canals
                            Others         TBD

                     Note: The time can be extended after the break if there are many

16:00 – 16:30        COFFEE & TEA BREAK

16:30 – 17:30        Panel discussion chaired by Mr. Neville Burt
                     Panel members:

                            Mr. Bob Engler
                            Mr. Gerard van Raalte
                            Ms Caroline Fletcher
                            Mr. Craig Vogt
                            Mr. Chris Vivian

Working Groups 2 and 3 operate concurrently in the afternoon with Working Group 1

13:30- 15:15         Working Group 2 - Sewage and Other Organic Wastes
                     Facilitator: Mr. Craig Vogt

                     Case Studies

                     Bahamas: Overview of Environmental Issues in Bahamas: Mr. Stefan
                     Venezuela   Ms. Janin Mendoza

15:15-15:45          COFFEE & TEA BREAK

15:45-17:30          Working Group 3 Bulky Items/Industrial Waste
                     Facilitator: Mr. Jim Osborne

                     Case Studies


08:00-09:00          Preparation reports on national priorities and draft Action Plans

Session 7
09:00-09.15          Presentation results from Working Group 1 (Moderator: Dr. Mearle

09.15-10.45          Presentation of national reports
                                               IMO/UNEP Workshop- Jamaica 2002
                                                                       Annex I
                                                                        Page 7

10:45-11:15   COFFEE & TEA BREAK

11:15-11:30   Identification of funding       opportunities    for   Environmental

11:30-12:30   Recommendations of the Workshop
              Introduction by the Rapporteur of the Workshop: Dr. Mearle Barrett

              Discussion and adoption of the recommendations

12:30         Closing Ceremony

              Closing Remarks Mr. René Coenen (IMO/London Convention)
              Closing Remarks Mr. Franklin McDonald (Chief Executive Officer,
              National Environmental Planning Authority-Jamaica)

13:00         Closure of Workshop

                                                        IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                                Annex II
                                                                                  Page 1

                                        ANNEX II

                               LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

                           COUNTRY REPRESENTATIVES


BATTICK, Bancroft
Chief Engineer Designate
Ministry of Infrastructure, Communication & Utilities
Coronation Ave,
The Valley, Anguilla, B.W.I.
Telephone: (264) 497-2651
Telefax: (264) 497-3651

                               ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

MACK, Hugh                                   GARDINER, Dwight
Operations Manager                           Senior Deputy Director/Registrar of
Antigua Port Authority                       Ships/Legal Counsel
P.O.Box 1052                                 Department of Marine Services
Deepwater Harbour                            P.O. Box 1394
St. John‘s, Antigua                          St John‘s, Antigua
Telephone: (268) 462-0754                    Telephone: (268) 462-1273
Telefax: (268) 462-2510/462-9482             Telefax: (268) 462-4358
E-mail:               E-mail:

O’MARDE, Dorbrene
Planner/Project Manager
National Solid Waste Management Authority
P.O. Box 2224
St John‘s, Antigua
Telephone: (268) 562-1351
Telefax: (268) 562-1352
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Page 2

                                    THE BAHAMAS

MOSS, Stefan
Senior Environmental Officer
The Best Commission
P.O. Box CB10980
Nassau, Bahamas
Telephone: (242) 327-4691
Telefax: (242) 327-4626


HULSE, Jeavon
Environmental Officer
Dept of the Environment
10/12 Ambergris Avenue
Belmopan, Belize
Telephone: (501)822-2542/2816
Telefax: (501) 822-2862


Dirección Intereses Marítimos
Ministerio de Defensa
Calle 20 de octubre – Sopocachi, Bolivia
Telephone: (591) 2-432417 (ext0 4307
Telefax: (591) 2-243-1739

Chief Marine Environment
Environment Canada
351 St Joseph Blvd.
Hull, Québec, Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-2265
Telefax: (819) 953-0913
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SERRATO URREGO, Luis Edilberto               RONDON DELGADO, Silvia Rocio
Dirección General Marítima                   DIMAR-CIOH
(Autoridad Marítima Colombiana)              Escuela Naval Almirante Padilla
Transversal 41 No. 27-50 CAN                 Centro         de        Investigaciones
Bogotá, Colombia                             Oceanograficas e Hidrograficas
Telephone: (57-1) 220-0490 (ext) 2320/2321   Isla de Manzanillo
Telefax: (57-1) 222-2636                     Cartagena, Colombia
E-mail:            Telephone: (57-5) 669-4104 (ext) 105
              Telefax:   (57-5) 669-4390

                                     COSTA RICA

CYRUS, Edwin
Ministerio del Ambiente y Energía
Apartado 1077-7300 Limón
Limón, Costa Rica
Telephone: (506) 795-3170/795-1446
Telefax: (506) 795-3996


Institute of Oceanology ,CITMA
Ave 1ra No. 18406 Playa
Ciudad Habana, Cuba
Telephone: (53-7) 271-0003 / 271-6008 / 271-1380 / 271-1424
Telefax: (53-7) 339112


FRÄNKEL, Ramón                         HENRIQUEZ, Russell
Harbor Master/Nautical Advisor/ Island Port Safety Inspector
Coordinator Oil Spill                  Curacao Ports Authority N.V.
Curacao Ports Authority                Werf de Wilde
Werf de Wilde                          Curacao, Netherlands Antillles
Curacao, Netherlands Antillles         Telephone: 5999-434-5999
Telephone: (599) 9-434-5915            Telefax: 5999-461-3907
Telefax: (599) 9-461-3907              E-mail:
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
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Page 4


BROWNE, Oliver                               FERROL, Steve
General Manager                              Maritime Administrator
Dominica Solid Waste Mgt Corp                Dominica Maritime Administration
P.O. Box 79                                  20 Bath Road
Roseau, Dominica                             Roseau, Dominica
Telephone: (767) 449-8168                    Telephone: (767) 448-4722
Telefax: (767) 449-8173                      Telefax: (767) 448-7245
E-mail:                    E-mail:


Chargé de Mission responsable de la cellule Qualité des Eaux Littorales
Ministère de l‘écologie et du développement durable
Direction régionale de l‘environnement - CQEL
Massal, Immeuble Boulevard de Verdun
97200 Fort de France, Martinique
Telephone: (059) 671 3005
E-mail: laurent.courgeon


JOSEPH, Christopher
Environmental Protection Officer
Ministry of Health and the Environment
Ministerial Complex, Tanteen
St George‘s
Grenada, West Indies
Telephone: (473) 440-3845
                                                    IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
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                                                                              Page 5


PINEDA MILLA, Cesar Modesto            MARTINEZ CRUZ, Mariano
Empresa Nacional Portuaria             Empresa Nacional Portuaria
1ra Ave. 1ra Calle                     Primera Avenida, Primera Calle
Puerto Cortes                          Puerto Cortes
Apartado Postal #18, Honduras          Apartado Postal #18, Honduras
Centro America                         Centro America
Telephone: (504) 665-4435/             Telephone: (504) 665-0549/665-0182 (ext.)2700
            (504) 665-0182 (ext)2714   Telefax: (504) 665-0549
Telefax:                               E-mail:


AMILCAR, Helliot                            GERMAIN, Bethy
Program Coordinator                         Technical Coordinator
Ministère de l‘Environnement d‘Haiti        Coastal Zone Management Programme
181 Haut de Turgeau, Haiti                  Ministère de l‘Environnement d‘Haiti
Telephone: (509) 245-0504                   181 Haut de Turgeau, Haiti
Telefax: (509) 245-7360                     Telephone: (509) 245-0504
E-mail:          Telefax: (509) 245-7360


BARRETT, Mearle                             DESAI, Krishna
Director, Environmental Management          Coastal Zone Management Branch
National Environment & Planning Agency      National Environment & Planning Agency
10 Caledonia Avenue                         10 Caledonia Avenue
Kingston 5, Jamaica                         Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 754-7557                   Telephone: (876) 754-7569
Telefax: (876) 754 7599                     Telefax: (876) 754-7595/4
E-mail:            E-mail:

GUTHRIE, Gillian                            HALES, Alwin
Director, Projects and Environment          Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Land and Environment            Ministry of Transport & Works
1 Devon Road                                1c Pawsey Road
Kingston 6, Jamaica                         Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 929-8880-5 (ext) 2152      Telephone: (876) 784-2613
Telefax: (876) 920-7262                     Telefax: (876) 920-8763
E-mail:          E-mail:
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Page 6

DAVIS-MATTIS, Laleta                         McGHIE, Katarina
Director, Legal & Regulatory Services Div.   Chief Director, Marine Transport
National Environment & Planning Agency       Minister of Transport and Works
10 Caledonia Avenue                          1c-1f Pawsey Road
Kingston 5, Jamaica                          Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 908-3314                    Telephone: (876) 754-1900-1 (ext) 299
Telefax: (876) 754-7599                      Telefax:
E-mail:       E-mail:

McDONALD, Franklin                           MENDES, Gimen
CEO                                          Assistant Vice President
National Environment & Planning Agency       Harbours & Port Services
10 Caledonia Ave                             The Port Authority of Jamaica
Kingston 5, Jamaica                          15-17 Duke Street
Telephone: (876) 754-7550 / 754-7526         Kingston, Jamaica
Telefax: (876) 754-7594                      Telephone: (876) 922-2214
E-mail:             Telefax: (876) 922-6419

McLEAN, Audley
Operations Manager
Solid Waste Management Authority
2 Stormont Road
Ocho Rios, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 974-5465


OUIBRAHIM, Nouria                            TJALLINGII, Frans
Adviser, International Affairs               Ministry of Transport, Public Works &
Ministry of Transport, Public Works &        Water Management
Water Management                             North Sea Directorate
North Sea Directorate                        P.O. Box 5807
P.O. Box 5807                                2280 HV Rijswijk, The Netherlands
2280 HV Rijswijk, The Netherlands            Telephone: (+3170) 336-6612 (ext) 846
Telephone: (+3170) 336-6612 (ext) 674        Telefax: (+3170) 350-0691
Telefax:    (+3170) 350-0691                 E-mail:
                                                     IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                             Annex II
                                                                               Page 7


CASTELLON, René Salvador                     LACAYO, Erick
Ministerio del Ambiente y Los RRNN           Programa RAAN-ASDI-RAAS
Km 12 ½ Carretera Norte                      Avalcard, 1c Abajo Bolonia
Frente a Zona Franca, Nicaragua              Managua, Nicaragua
Telephone: (505) 233-1173/263-2595           Telephone: (505) 268-6359
Telefax: (505) 233-1173                      Telefax: (505) 268-6360
E-mail:            E-mail:


CARO, Rafael                                 CEDEÑO CONCEPCIÓN, Algis Eliecer
Autoridad Marítima de Panamá                 Autoridad Marítima de Panamá
8062, Panama 7, Panamá                       8062, Panama 7, Panamá
Telephone: (507) 232-7320                    Telephone: (507) 232-6282
Telefax: (507) 232-8268                      Telefax: (507) 232-6282
E-mail:                E-mail:

                                         SAINT LUCIA

SALTIBUS, Dermot                             SIMMONS, Shirlene
Director of Maritime Affairs                 Sustainable Development and Environment
Saint Lucia Air and Sea Port Authority       Officer
P.O. Box 651                                 Ministry of Planning, Development,
Castries, Saint Lucia                        Environment and Housing
Telephone: (758) 452-2893/4                  Graham Louisy Admin Building
Telefax: (758) 452-9062                      Box 709, Waterfront, Castries, St. Lucia
E-mail:             Telephone: (758) 468-4461
                                             Telefax: (758) 451-6958

                                      SAINT VINCENT

KING, Brenan
Director of Maritime Services
St. Vincent Port Authority
Box 1237
Kingstown, St Vincent
Telephone: (784) 456-1830 (ext) 113
Telefax: (784) 456-2732
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Page 8


PALMAN, Willem
Head, Traffic and Inspection
Maritime Authority, Suriname
Cornelis Jongbawstr. No. 2
Paramaribo, Suriname
Telephone: (597) 476733 (ext) 234
Telefax: (597) 472940

                               TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

BURROWES, Ravidya                         GOODRIDGE, James A.
Manager, Technical Advisory Services      Principal Research Officer
Institute of Marine Affairs               Institute of Marine Affairs
Hilltop Lane                              P.O. Box 3160, Carenage P.O.
Chaguaramas, Trinidad & Tobago            Trinidad & Tobago
Telephone: (868) 634-4991–4               Telephone: (868) 634-4291 – 4 (ext) 502
                   (ext) 543/505          Telefax: (868) 634-4433
Telefax: (868) 634-4433                   E-mail:

PERSAD, Deenesh                           MENDEZ, Christopher
Manager, Environmental Management         Deputy General Manager
PLIPDECO                                  Port Authority of Trinidad and Tobago
P.O. Bag 191                              Dock Road
Couva Post Office, Trinidad & Tobago      Port-of-Spain. Trinidad & Tobago
Telephone: (868) 636-1888 (ext) 3315      Telephone: (868) 625-3836
Telefax: (868) 636-4008                   Telefax: (868) 627-2666
E-mail:            E-mail:

                           TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS

Assistant Maritime Officer
Turks and Caicos Government
Palm Grove
Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands
Telephone: (649) 946-2801 (exts) 40510/40511
Telefax: (649) 946-1120
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GARCIA CASTRO, Sergio                            MENDOZA MORALES, Janin
Ministerio de Ambiente y de Recursos             Water Quality Director
Naturales                                        NADEZHKA
Calle Cazarla Sector Salamanca                   C.S.B. Torre Sur MARN
La Asunción                                      Piso 28
Estado Nueva Esparta, Venezuela                  Dirección de Calidad Ambiental DGCA
Telephone: (58-295) 242-0895/242-0382            El Silencio, 1010
Telefax: (58-295)242-0895                        Caracas, Venezuela
E-mail:                 Telephone: (58-212) 408-1141/4081142
                                                 Telefax: (58-212) 408-1118


Scientific Officer, Centre for Marine Sciences
University of the West Indies
Kingston 7, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 977-0262 (ext) 2444
Telefax:    (876) 977-1033

WARNER, George
Director, Centre for Marine Sciences
University of the West Indies
Kingston 7, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 977-0262
Telefax: (876) 977-1033

Consulting Principal, Environmental Solutions Ltd
20 West Kings House Road
Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 929-9481/960-8627
Telefax:   (876) 929-5731
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BYLES, Kathy                                LAWRENCE, Arlene
Executive Director, Friends of the Sea      Project Manager, Waste Management
P.O. Box 327                                Friends of the Sea
St Ann‘s Bay P.O., Jamaica                  P.O. Box 327
Telephone: (876) 974-4428                   St Ann‘s Bay P.O., Jamaica
Telefax:   (876) 974-7811                   Telephone: (876) 974-4428
E-mail:           Telefax:    (876) 974-7811

Office for the London Convention
Marine Environment Division
4 Albert Embankment
London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom
Telephone: (44-207) 735-7611
Telefax: (44-207) 587-3210


Oosterweg 19995 VJ Kantens, The Netherlands
Telephone: (31-595) 551772
Telefax: (31-595) 5522115


LAMBERT, Judy-Ann                           WILSON, Markland
Assistant Marine Environmental Protection   Marine Environment Protection Officer
Officer                                     JDF Coast Guard
JDF Coast Guard                             H.M.J.S. Cagway
H.M.J.S. Cagway                             Port Royal
Port Royal                                  Kingston, Jamaica
Kingston, Jamaica                           Telephone: (876) 967-8191-2
Telephone: (876) 967-8031-3 (ext.) 236      Telefax: (876) 967-8278
Telefax: (876) 967-8278                     E-mail:
                                                   IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
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                                                                            Page 11


GILLIS, Cynthia
Vice President
Land and Sea Environmental
47 North Street
Nova Scotia B2Y 1B7, Canada
Telephone: (902) 463-0114
Telefax: (902) 466-5743

SEALEY, Deniese
Foreign Service Officer
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade
21 Dominica Drive,
Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 926-4220-8 (ext) 2145
Telefax:    (876) 929-6733

Executive Director
Montego Bay Marine Park Trust
Pier One
Howard Cooke Boulevard
Montego Bay, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 952-5619
Telefax: (876) 940-0659


EXCELL, Carol                        KNIGHT, Dillard
Senior Legal Officer                 Environmental Monitoring & Assessment Branch
NEPA                                 NEPA
10 Caledonia Ave                     10 Caledonia Ave
Kingston 5, Jamaica                  Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 754-7526            Telephone: (876) 754-7550/927-1552
Telefax: (876) 754-7594              Telefax: (876) 754-7594
E-mail:       E-mail:
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Page 12

LYN, Cowell                               McKENZIE, Anthony
Consultant                                Manager, Policy & Projects Division
NEPA                                      NEPA
15 Gibson Drive                           10 Caledonia Ave
Kingston 6, Jamaica                       Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 927-1210                 Telephone: (876) 754-7543
Telefax:                                  Telefax: (876) 754-7594
E-mail:             E-mail:


McHARGH, Melissa
Planning and Research Manager
Solid Waste Management Authority
61 Half Way Tree Rd
Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 754 5951 (ext) 227
Telefax: (876) 754-5955


Senior Parliamentary Counsel
Office of the Parliamentary Counsel
First Floor – North Tower
Mutual Life Complex
20 Oxford Road
Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 906-1717-21 (ext) 2222
Telefax: (876) 906-5214


Senior Director Mitigation Planning and Research
12 Camp Road
Kingston 4, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 928-5111-4 (ext) 249
Telefax: (876) 928-5503
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Pletterijweg Z/N
Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
Telephone: (5999) 461-4012
Telefax: (5999) 461-1996


Industrial Relations Officer
Shipping Association of Jamaica
4 Fourth Avenue
Newport West, P.O. 1050
Kingston, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 923-6813 / 923-6762 / 923-3491-2
Telefax: (876) 923-5619 / 923-3421


GAYLE, Samantha
Coastal Environmental Manager
Smith Warner International
2 Seymour Avenue, 2 Seymour Park
Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 978-8950
Telefax: (876) 978-


ROSE, Donovan
Technological and Environmental Management Network Ltd.
20 West Kings House Road
Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 920-6012/968-3173-5
Telefax: (876) 920-6012/968-3260
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Annex III
Page 14


KASTEN, Timothy
Acting Deputy Co-ordinator
14-20 Port Royal Street
Kingston, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 922-9267-9
Telefax: (876) 922-9292


Analytical Chemist
Caribbean Industrial Research Institute (CARIRI)
c/o University of the West Indies
St Augustine Campus, Trinidad & Tobago
Telephone: (868) 662-7171 (ext) 2549
Telefax:    (868) 662-7177

BURT, Neville
Technical Director
WODA / HR Wallingford
Oxon, OX10 8BA, United Kingdom
Telephone: (44-1491) 822-348
Telefax: (44-1491) 832-233

Office for the London Convention
Marine Environment Division
4 Albert Embankment
London SE1 7SR, United Kingdom.
Telephone: (44-207) 735-7611
Telefax: (44-207) 587-3210
                                                   IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                           Annex II
                                                                            Page 15

ENGLER, Robert
Senior Scientist (Environmental)
3909 Halls Ferry Road
Vicksburg MS 39180, U.S.A.
Telephone: (601) 634-3624
Telefax: (601) 634-3528

FLETCHER, Caroline
Senior Scientist (Environmental)
c/o HR Wallingford Ltd.
Howbery Park
Oxon OX10 OXE, United Kingdom
Telephone: (44-1491) 835-381 (ext.) 2379
Telefax: (44-1491) 832-233

Deputy Director
Department of the Environment, Agriculture and Tourism
Private Bag X2
Roggebaai 8012, South Africa
Telephone: (27-21) 402-3344
Telefax: (27-21) 421-5342

KASTEN, Timothy
Acting Deputy Co-ordinator
United Nations Environment Programme CAR/RCU
14-20 Port Royal Street
Kingston, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 922-9267-9
Telefax: (876) 922-9292
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Annex III
Page 16

Assistant Director
Environment Australia
GPO Box 787
Canberra ACT 2600, Australia
Telephone: (61) 2-6274-1750
Telefax: (61) 2-6274-1006

Land and Sea Environmental
Department of Chemical Engineering
47 North Street
Nova Scotia B2Y 1B7, Canada
Telephone: (902) 463-0114
Telefax: (902) 466-5743

O’CONNOR, Thomas
Physical Scientist
1305 East West Highway
Silver Spring
MD 20910, U.S.A.
Telephone: (301) 713-3028 (ext.) 151
Telefax: (301) 713-4388

Head, Disposal at Sea
Environment Canada
12th Floor, 352 St Joseph Blvd
Gatineau Quebec, Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-4341
Telefax: (819) 953-0913
                                               IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
                                                                       Annex II
                                                                        Page 17

ROACH, Curtis
Regional Maritime Adviser
International Maritime Organization
Corner Queen and Henry Street
P.O. Box 493
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad & Tobago
Telephone: (868) 624-6159
Telefax: (868) 625-8666

SMITH, Bertrand
Director Legal Affairs
Maritime Authority
40 Knutsford Boulevard
Kingston 5, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 754-7260
Telefax: (876) 754-7256

Project Manager, RIKZ, Netherlands
P.O. Box 20907
2500 EX The Hague, Netherlands
Telephone: (31-70) 311-4377
Telefax:   (31-70) 311-4300

IADC (represented by ‗Boskalis‘)
The Hague, Netherlands
Telephone: (31-78) 696-9213
Telefax:   (31-78) 696-9869

Topic Leader, CEFAS
Cefas Burnham Lab.
Rememberance Avenue
Essex, CMO 8HA, United Kingdom
Telephone: (44-1621) 787-200
Telefax: (44-1621) 784-989
IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002
Annex III
Page 18

VOGT, Craig
Deputy Director, Oceans and Coastal Protection Division
1200 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W.
Washington D.C. 20460, USA
Telephone: (202) 566-1235
Telefax: (202) 566-1334

                IMO/UNEP Workshop, Jamaica 2002


                                                   IMO/UNEP Workshop – Jamaica 2002


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