There are many different
types of narratives.
6. Historical fiction
7. Science fiction
Social function :
To amuse, entertain and to deal with
actual or vicarious experience in
Narrative deal with problematic
events which lead to a crisis or
turning point of some kind, which in
turn find a resolution
Model Narrative Text 1 : Fable
Once there was a Hare who used to laugh scornfully at a
ORIENTATION Tortoise because he plodded along so slowly. "You never can get Past
anywhere with those short legs of yours. Look at my long legs!
They're so swift no one would dare race me." All the animals Tense
of field and forest were tired of hearing the Hare brag.
At last the Tortoise said, "If we were to run a race, I'm sure I
COMPLICATION would beat you." The animals were astonished for they knew
the Tortoise was the slowest of them all, and the Hare, bursting
into loud laughter, cried, "What a joke!” That slowpoke thinks Participant
he can beat me! Come on, Mr. Tortoise, you shall see what my
feet are made of. Why I can beat you before you are even half-
started!" "You'd better not be too sure," cautioned the Tortoise
All the big and little animals gathered to watch the race. At the Action
SERIES OF signal the Hare leaped forward in a great bound and soon left
EVENTS the plodding Tortoise far behind him on the dusty road. verbs
Looking back, the Hare could not even see the Tortoise after a
"Hum-m, I've as good as won this race already," the thought,
"There's really no reason to hurry." So, as the sun was very
warm, he decided to rest a bit under a shady tree. "I'll come in Time
away ahead of that Tortoise, anyhow," he told himself. Soon
he was sound asleep. The little rest stretched into a good long Conjunction
Meantime, the Tortoise jogged steadily along on the hot,
RESOLUTION dusty road, ever so slowly, but surely, and soon he passed the
Hare who was still peacefully sleeping. Quietly the Tortoise
plodded on nearing the goal. When the Hare finally woke up
with a start, he saw the Tortoise just reaching the finish line far
ahead and he could hear all the animals cheering the winner.
Boastful and careless, the Hare had lost the race. Now he
REORIENTATION would never again be able to count on his speed.
Moral of the story: Perseverance wins the race
Model Narrative Text 2 : Legend
Orientation Long time ago, in a small village near the beach in West Sumatera, lived a woman and her
son, Malin Kundang.
Malin Kundang's father had passed away when he was a baby, and he had to live hard
with his mother.
Malin Kundang was a healthy, dilligent, and strong child. He usually went to the sea to
catch fish, and brought it to his mother, or sold it in the town.
One day, when Malin Kundang was sailing as usual, he saw a merchant's ship which was
being raided by a small band of pirates. With his brave and power, Malin Kundang
defeated the pirates. The merchant was so happy and asked Malin Kundang to sail with
him. Malin Kundang agreed.
Many years later, Malin Kundang became a wealthty merchant, with a huge ship, loads of
trading goods, many ship crews, and a beautiful wife. In his journey, his ship landed on a
beach. The villagers reconigzed him, and the news ran fast in the town: Malin Kundang
became a rich man and now he is here. His mother, in deepful sadnees after years of
loneliness, ran to the beach to meet her beloved son again.
When the mother came, Malin Kundang, in front of his well dressed wife, his crews and
his own gloriness, denied to meet that old, poor and dirty woman. For three times she
begged Malin Kundang and for three times yelled at him. At last Malin Kundang said to
her "Enough, old woman! I have never had a mother like you, a dirty and ugly peasant!"
Then he ordered his crews to set sail.
Enraged, she cursed Malin Kundang that he would turn into a stone if he didn't apologize.
Malin Kundang just laughed and set sail.
In the quiet sea, suddenly a thunderstorm came. His huge ship was wrecked and it was
too late for Malin Kundang to apologized. He was thrown by the wave out of his ship, fell
on a small island, and suddenly turned into stone.
Story handed down from the past . Legends are often based on
historical events or people but are not true history or doubtful
Setting in the past ORIENTATION location
Hard live COMPLICATION
Happy ending REORIENTATION
Model Narrative Text 3 : Historical Fiction -
TROY Through time men have waged war. Some for power, some for glory, some for
honour. and some for love.
In ancient Greece. the passion of two literature’s of most notorious lovers.
Paris prince of Troy and Helen , Queen of Sparta ignited as a war that would
devastate civilization. When Paris spirits away from her husband, King
Menelaus, it was an insult that could not be suffered. Familiar pride dictated
that an affront to Manelaus was an affront to his brother, powerful King of
the Mycenaeans , who soon united all the massive tribes of Greece to steal
Helen back from Troy in defence of his brother’s honour.
In truth, Argamemnon’s pursuit of honour was computed by his
overwhelming greed-he needs to conquer Troy to control seize of the Aegean,
thus insuring the supremacy of his already vast empire. The walled city under
leadership of King Priam and defended by mighty prince Hector, was a
citadel that no army had ever been able to breach.
One man alone stood as the key to victory or defeated over Troy – Archilles ,
believed to be the greatest warrior alive.
Arrogant, rebellious and seemingly invincible, Archilles had allegiance to
nothing and no one, save his own glory. It was his insatiable hunger for
eternal renown that led him to attack the gates of Troy under Agamemnon’s
banner – but it would be love for Brisies, Prince Hector’s Cousin that
ultimately decided his fate.
Two words would go to war for honour and power. Thousands would fall in
our suit of glory. And for love, a nation would burn to the ground.
Here are the features of typical historical
Description of a
A setting in the past ORIENTATION
period in history
Good met evil Good versus evil
Action related to COMPLICATION Description of life
History In the time
affected by the
events of history
Honour RESOLUTION the chaos of the time
The end of the war
Summation REORIENTATION Loss and destruction
Who are these characters?
Model Narrative Text 4 : Romance - A Story of
Cinderella. Once upon a time not so very long ago a young
girl named Sam Martin lived in the San Fernando
Valley with her widowed father. He delighted in
reading her fairy tale stories every night, as well as
teaching her good values, including standing up for
her. He was an a successful diner and one day,
married again to give Sam a mother; a woman named
Fiona who had daughters of her own, fraternal twins
Brianna and Gabriella. And then Sam’s father died in
the Northridge earthquake, leaving her alone with her
stepmother and two stepsisters. With no will found to
speak of, Fiona took over the house and the diner,
relegating Sam to live in the attic.
Fast forward eight years; Sam had grown up into
a pretty young senior in a high school (who was often
lost in the crowd) , and must balance mounds of
schoolwork, working at the diner, and taking care of
her spoiled stepmother’s every whim. While Sam
disliked being made into a slave, she tried to keep her
stepmother happy in order to get money to attend
Princeton. She had a text message secret admirer who
she communicated with on a regular basis. Along with
her best friend Carter they attended the school’s
Halloween dance incognito, where Sam was set to
meet her secret admirer for the first time. Dressed in a
never-before-been-worn wedding gown and mask, she
was loaned by friends, including fairy god mother
Ronda who had worked at the diner since Sam was
still a child. Sam was ready to meet her Prince
When Sam discovered that her secret admirer was non
other than popular quarterback, Austin Ames she was sure
anything between them would never work out; After all. Why
would the most popular boy in school be interested in her?
They played ‘20’ questions, she gave him 10. And Austin
learned some things about her; just when he was about to lift
her mask and discovered her identity, Sam cell rang and she
ran away, leaving her cell phone behind. Austin began
searching the school to discover his Cinderella’s identity;
Austin although jock–popular boy on the surface, longed to
be a writer and attended Princeton ( his dad wanted him to be
a USC man like him). But can he convince the elusive Sam
that he liked her for herself. And when fellow seniors
discovered who Austin’s Cinderella really was, things could
get ugly. They mocked her as a diner girl. And this really
hurt her heart.
Carter tried to encourage Sam to be strong. He asked
her to go to the soccer match where Austin played as
quarterback. When most of the spectators cheered for
Austin, Sam wanted to leave the match for she couldn’t stand
looking at Austin. She wanted to get out of soccer field. Sam
could not concentrate in playing the game. Knowing that
Sam was leaving the soccer field, he ran after her to explain
what really happened. Then they hugged each other happily.
One day when Sam felt that she could not stand to live
with her stepmother anymore, she came to Ronda her fairy
godmother to stay with her. Fortunately, Sam found a will
dropped from the fairy tale book given by her late father
saying that all the house and the diner belonged to her.
Since then her stepmother and stepsisters worked at
the diner and Sam happily continued her study at Princeton
together with her prince Austin Ames.
The romance narrative typically tells of two lovers who
overcome difficulties to end up together. Here are the
Male and female
ORIENTATION Sunset, beach,
who is looking for love
COMPLICATION Boy met girl
hurt & pain
Development of love,
Marry, and live
Boy got girl REORIENTATION
happily ever after