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Psychology of Music

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					PS3017 Psychology of Music
Liking for music The problem music debate Music and commerce
http://www.le.ac.uk/pc/acn5/acn.html

WARNING!!!
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Course changed in 2005-6
Ignore questions on earlier past papers set by Mike Beauvois about auditory stream segregation etc.  You can trust questions on past papers about musical preference, music and commerce, and the problem music debate  Questions this year will all be on these topics
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Examples of typical exam questions
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Questions as per past papers still very likely
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Evaluation of Berlyne‟s theory as a complete theory of musical preference, what are the effects of music in shops, does problem music pose a problem for society?
What factors specific to the individual can explain responses to music? How is a listener‟s age and / or personality related to his / her musical preference? What have economics and business studies contributed to our understanding of what music becomes popular? How does music affect customers in commercial environments? Discuss whether musical behaviour is a product of intra- and inter-group processes Is the idolisation of musicians a good or a bad thing for the fans concerned? Should pop music be subject to censorship? i.e. no questions based on one or two slides only Only „big‟ topics lead to questions

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Newer, more detailed, questions now possible also
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No nasty surprises
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How to get high marks
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Lots of extra reading
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i.e. not just book chapters but LOTS of papers (and demonstrate that you‟ve read them) Read up to date material (so use Psyc-info) Dip into other subjects (since much of the material can be found on ASSIA, Business Source Premier, Medline, Econlit etc.) How do different theories relate to each other, what are the limitations of existing areas of research, how can the findings be applied in the real world (e.g. policy, commerce, therapy etc.) Demonstrate it in the exam
You should know names and dates for big theories Spend revision time thinking and reading and NOT learning names and publication dates of minor studies But only if you must!

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Think
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Don‟t worry too much about names and dates of minor studies
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It‟s safe to criticise my research
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Plan of the module
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Three „big‟ topics spread over the lectures
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Liking for music Problem music, censorship, and subculture Music and commerce

Liking for music

What music do you like?
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Who is your favourite musician and why? Many different reasons

What music do you like?
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Who is your favourite musician and why? Many different reasons North and Hargreaves (2002)
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Channel 4 Television, The Guardian, and HMV „Who are the three best pop groups / musicians?‟ 12502 people responded leading to over 37,000 nominations The Beatles (2289), Bob Dylan (1038), Oasis (937), Radiohead (921), Pink Floyd (718), David Bowie (571), Van Morrison (523), Stone Roses (475), U2 (444), Nirvana (437) Same top 10 when divided into two random piles or by region

What music do you like? (cont.)
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Farnsworth (1969) and classical music fashions Broad agreement on „the greatest‟ shows there must be rules governing reactions to music Massive disagreement between individuals shows that these rules must be complicated!

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1938 Bach Beethoven Wagner Mozart Palestrina Haydn Brahms Monteverdi Debussy Schubert Handel Chopin

1 2 3 4 5 6= 6= 8 9 10 11 25

Year of Poll 1944 Bach 1 Beethoven 2 Mozart 3 Wagner 4 Haydn 5 Brahms 6= Palestrina 6= Schubert 8 Handel 9 Debussy 10 Chopin 11 Monteverdi 15

1951 Beethoven Bach Brahms Haydn Mozart Schubert Debussy Handel Wagner Palestrina Chopin Monteverdi

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1964 Bach Beethoven Mozart Haydn Brahms Handel Debussy Schubert Wagner Chopin Monteverdi Palestrina

Liking for music
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The music
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Extra-musical information
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Berlyne Preference for prototypes Berlyne vs. prototypes Konečni‟s work Prototypicality and appropriateness Age Non-human animals Gender Social class Personality
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Conformity effects Informational influence Physical attractiveness

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The situation
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Music in everyday life

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The individual
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The music

Berlyne‟s theory
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Inverted-U between liking and arousal potential Three aspects of music mediate arousal
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Psychophysical (e.g. tempo), ecological (e.g. memories), collative (e.g. familiarity, complexity)
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Why?
On way to cortex the fibres of the RAS pass through pleasure and displeasure centres Pleasure centre has lower threshold and asymptotic level

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Makes adaptive sense – something very arousing could be dangerous Try it for yourself

Evidence for Berlyne‟s theory
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Several lab studies support Berlyne‟s theory „Real world‟ evidence
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Unfamiliar music is often derided at first
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Classical, jazz, and pop Sales of sheet music (i.e. liking) and radio plugging (i.e. familiarity) Inverted-U relationship Plugging (i.e. changes in familiarity) preceded sales (i.e. changes in liking) by 13 days Inverted-U between sales and plugging Frequency of plugging predicted the speed of rise and fall in popularity Inverted-U in Beethoven‟s work between popularity (e.g. concert performances) and „two-note transition probabilities‟ String quartet music is most complex, operas are least complex Composers compensate for arousal from the number of instruments by writing different types of melody

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Erdelyi (1940)
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Jakobovits (1966)
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Simonton (1987)
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Simonton (1980; 1986)
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The relationship between liking, familiarity and complexity
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Familiarity reduces subjective complexity
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As you know a piece better it‟s easier to predict what it will do next

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Increasing familiarity pushes a song leftwards on the inverted-U Might explain
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Slower sales charts for classical than pop Why people hate modern classical music Why musically trained people like classical music more

Familiarity, complexity, and The Beatles

Berlyne and emotional responses to music

Preference for prototypes
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Prototypicality is the extent to which a given stimulus is typical of it‟s class People classify things more easily if they correspond with a prototype Prototypical things should be preferred because they are classified more easily Try it for yourself Prototypicality explains preference better than does Berlyne
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Martindale and Moore (1989) found 4% complexity and 51% prototypicality Seven other studies found the same

Berlyne versus prototypes?
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BUT just because prototypicality explains more we shouldn‟t discard Berlyne‟s theory
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Importance of typicality and „Berlynian‟ factors in preference depends on the extent to which the music varies in these
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E.g. different dance music tracks vary little in arousal (i.e. >90 bpm, simple melody etc.) Prototypicality has to explain more of variance in liking between the different tracks than does complexity E.g. dance is usually fast tempo so any variation in this Berlynian factor (i.e. tempo) also influences the extent to which any given track is typical of „dance music‟ E.g. the music you listen to has a typical level of arousal, typical frequency of mentioning „dog‟ in the lyrics etc. Prototypicality is a broader-ranging variable than arousal so it has to explain more

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Variations in arousal are also variations in prototypicality
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Variations in any factor are also variations in prototypicality
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The listening situation

Konecni‟s theory
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Berlyne said we prefer music that causes moderate arousal Konečni (1982) said that we prefer music that moderates arousal evoked by the situation
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Arousing situations = simple music Dull situations = arousing music

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Insulted subjects prefer simple music
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Works in reverse also
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People played arousing (i.e. loud, complex) music are more aggressive They use the situation to moderate arousal caused by the music

Prototypicality and appropriateness
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Is arousal moderation everything?
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Appropriateness = typical of music usually heard in a given place
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Positive relationship between liking and appropriateness North and Hargreaves (2000) People either ride an exercise bike or relax and then select music Arousal moderation strategy as per Konečni People either ride an exercise bike or relax while selecting music Arousal polarising strategy Situational arousal-based goal determines preference Explains why we like loud music in a gym but turn down car radio in heavy traffic

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Arousal goals rather than moderation in the listening situation
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The individual
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Age
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Open-earedness Critical periods The unborn Animal welfare Musical preferences Attitudes towards music Preferences Uses of music

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Non-human animals
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Gender
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Social class Personality
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Introversion / extraversion Sensation-seeking Conservatism Rebelliousness

Age
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LeBlanc and „open-earedness‟
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Tolerance for a range of styles
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„(a) younger children are more open-eared, (b) open-earedness declines as the child enters adolescence, (c) there is a partial rebound of open-earedness as the listener matures from adolescence to young adulthood, and (d) open-earedness declines as the listener matures to old age‟ (LeBlanc, 1991, p.2) Preference judgements from 2262 6-91 year olds for 30-second recordings of „art music‟, trad jazz, and rock Generally conformed the model for overall responses, and within each of the three styles There was an „adolescent dip‟ in preference, followed by an increase towards adulthood, and a final decrease in preference in old age

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LeBlanc, Sims, Siivola, and Obert (1993)
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Age
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Two problems …
1. 2.

Why should there be an „adolescent dip‟? Is there only an „adolescent dip‟ for music chosen by researchers?
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North and Hargreaves (1999) Five age groups nominate and rate liking for as many types of a) rock and pop b) classical music and c) jazz as possible Unsurprisingly, younger people liked rock and pop, older people preferred classical and jazz BUT mean liking was consistent across all age groups When people select their own music to respond to the adolescent (and any other) dip disappears Rather different age groups simply have their own musical preferences Leads onto the next age-related influence on musical preference …

Age
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Here is a list of pop musicians who have all had a British number 1 single between 1955 and 1994. Pick a few that you like best …

Perry Como, The Dave Clarke Five, Mud, Wham, Frankie Goes To Hollywood, The Searchers, The Rubettes, Frankie Laine, The Bachelors, The Three Degrees, A-Ha, Guy Mitchell, Cilla Black, David Essex, George Michael, Peter & Gordon, Status Quo, Rosemary Clooney, U2, Bill Haley & His Comets, The Animals, Steve Harley & Cockney Rebel, Chaka Khan, Pat Boone, The Rolling Stones, Slik, Sister Sledge, B-52s, Tommy Steele, Manfred Mann, The Bay City Rollers, T’Pau, Frankie Vaughan, Lonnie Donegan, The Kinks, David Bowie, Eurythmics, Herman’s Hermits, Elvis Presley, The Supremes, The Four Seasons, Madonna, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Moody Blues, Whitney Houston, Leo Sayer, Pet Shop Boys, Paul Anka, The Righteous Brothers, Hot Chocolate, The Everly Brothers, Wings, The Hollies, Mel & Kim, Kate Bush, Conway Twitty, Sandie Shaw, The Commodores, M/A/R/R/S, The Byrds, Shirley Bassey, Russ Conway, KLF, Walker Brothers, The Spencer Davis Group, Boney M, Dusty Springfield, Wet Wet Wet, Buddy Holly, Georgie Fame, 2 Unlimited, Cliff Richard, The Small Faces, Whigfield, Blondie, The Boomtown Rats, Bobby Darin, The Troggs, Gary Numan, Adam Faith, The Shadows, The Four Tops, Take That, Joe Cocker, Marvin Gaye, The Police, Anthony Newley, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Ace Of Base, Johnny Preston, The Beach Boys, Eddie Cochran, Bryan Adams, Mungo Jerry, The Wonder Stuff, Jimmy Jones, Simon & Garfunkel, Snap, Ricky Valance, The Monkees, Dr. Hook, The Specials, Dr. Alban, Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich, The Jam, Seal, Roy Orbison, Smokey Robinson, Dexy’s Midnight Runners, Petula Clark, Jimi Hendrix, Aswad, Roxy Music, The Marcels, Black Box, T-Rex, Floyd Cramer, Rod Stewart, Bros, Slade, The Temperance Seven, Adam & The Ants, Enya, Kylie Minogue, Del Shannon, Don McLean, Donny Osmond, Michael Jackson, Soft Cell, Simple Minds, The Bangles, Helen Shapiro, Human League, Kraftwerk, David Cassidy, Ray Charles, Sinead O’Connor, Madness, The Tornados, Lisa Stansfield, Frank Ifield, Culture Club, Kajagoogoo, The Searchers, Sweet, Vanilla Ice, The Stylistics, Gerry & The Pacemakers, Enigma, The Beatles, James, Duran Duran, The Waterboys, 10cc, Brian Poole & The Tremeloes, Terry Jacks, Roxette, Billy Joel, Wizzard, Danny Williams, Eden Kane, Spandau Ballet, Paul Young, Craig Douglas, Men At Work, Mariah Carey, Buck’s Fizz, Erasure, Boyz II Men, Peters & Lee, The Platters, Shakin’ Stevens, Brian & Michael, Tasmin Archer, Gary Glitter, Tommy Edwards, Chicory Tip, Brotherhood Of Man, Gabrielle , David Soul, Vic Damone, Thunderclap Newman, Culture Beat, Harry Belafonte, Manhattan Transfer, Jazzy Jeff & Fresh Prince, Haddaway, John Denver, Andy Williams, Marmalade, Janet Jackson, The Teenagers, Alvin Stardust, Dickie Valentine, Engelbert Humperdinck, Chaka Demus & Pliers, Sonny & Cher, Jason Donovan, Glenn Medeiros, Rick Astley

Age and critical periods
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North and Hargreaves (1995)
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9-10 years, 14-15 years, 18-24 years, 25-49 years, and 50+ years All shown the same list of 200 pop groups and singers who had all enjoyed a number 1 single in the United Kingdom charts 50 had had their first number 1 between 1955 and 1964, 50 had had their first number 1 between 1965 and 1974 etc. Choose up to 30 from the list “who in your own personal opinion have performed music that deserves to be called to the attention of others”

50+ year olds
10. Petula Clarke 9. The Bachelors 8. The Shadows = 3. Perry Como / Shirley Bassey / Cliff Richard / Harry Belafonte / Andy Williams 2. Simon & Garfunkel 1. The Beatles

25-49 year olds
10. U2 9. The Beach Boys 8. Jimi Hendrix 7. The Police 5=. Eurythmics / Rolling Stones 4. Elvis Presley 3. Simon & Garfunkel 2. David Bowie 1. The Beatles

18-24 year olds
10. Rolling Stones 9. George Michael 8. The Police 7. Jimi Hendrix 6. Madonna 5. Eurythmics 4. Elvis Presley 3. Madness 2. U2 1. The Beatles

14-15 year olds
9=. U2 / Take That 8. Haddaway 7. Whitney Houston 5. Bryan Adams 4. Elvis Presley 1=. Madonna / Wet Wet Wet / The Beatles

9-10 year olds
10=. Take That / Janet Jackson 9. Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince 8. Ace of Base 6=. Madonna / Michael Jackson 5. Pet Shop Boys 3=. The Beatles / Elvis Presley 2. Wet Wet Wet 1. 2 Unlimited

Age
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„Golden greats‟ always do well but late adolescence / early adulthood critical period Further evidence from North and Hargreaves (2002)
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12502 people nominated the greatest musician (from HMV, The Guardian, and Channel 4) Calculated the mean year in which people‟s nominated musicians achieved their first top 10 UK album Late adolescence / early adulthood critical period Under 19 year olds =1990, 19-34 year olds = 1983, 35-54 year olds = 1975, 55+ year olds = 1971

Age
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Holbrook and Schindler agree
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“Preferences toward popular music appear to reflect tastes acquired during late adolescence or early adulthood”. (Holbrook and Schindler, 1989, p.119) They find the same for preferences for movies (Holbrook and Schindler, 1996), the appearances of male and female movie stars (Holbrook and Schindler, 1994), males‟ preferences for automobile styles (Schindler and Holbrook, 2003), mens‟ tastes in female fashion models‟ personal appearance (Schindler and Holbrook, 1993), and among 21 other categories such as novels, talk-show hosts, soft drinks, cereals, and toothpastes (Holbrook, 1995). Haack‟s (1988) nominations of the top 10 songs of all time (1945-1982) showed preference for music that was popular while participants were in their mid-20s

Age
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Why? At least three possibilities …
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1. Analogous to imprinting
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Young animals at a critical stage in their development form a strong and irreversible attachment to a parent Late adolescence / early adulthood period represents a time of maximal sensitivity toward and liking for any music that we might hear

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2. Peer influences or associations with certain rites of passage 3. Nostalgia
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Holbrook‟s notion of „nostalgia-proness‟ (e.g. „Things used to be better in the old days‟, „Things are getting worse all the time‟) Preferences for movie stars and movies both showed an earlier age-related peak among nostalgia-prone participants than among those scoring lower on this variable

Age
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Two final points about critical periods …
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Peak liking may be not for music released at this time but instead for music we first became aware of during late adolescence / early adulthood
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May explain enduring popularity of Elvis and The Beatles their music was present during everyone‟s critical period Only way for critical periods research to explain how we like music released before we were adolescent (e.g. most classical music!)

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Certainly explains the common observation that “today‟s pop music is rubbish compared with that of {insert year of your choice}”

Age
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Music in the womb Hepper (1991)
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Experiment 1 - newborns
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Newborns exposed to the theme of a popular TV programme (e.g. Neighbours) during gestation exhibited changes in heart rate, number of movements, and behavioural state two to four days after birth (although these effects disappeared by 21 days of age) Foetuses between 29 and 37 weeks of gestational age exhibited changes in their movements when they were played a tune they had already heard earlier during pregnancy

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Experiment 2 – third trimester foetuses
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Effects in both experiments were specific to the music heard previously rather than to any music
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Foetus is not simply responding to an external stimulant, but has instead learnt the specific music

Age
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Shahidullah and Hepper (1993)
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foetus will first respond to acoustic stimulation at 20 weeks of gestational age

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Lecanuet, Graniere-Deferre, Jacquet, and DeCasper (2000)
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foetuses at 36-39 weeks could distinguish different piano notes

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Responses to music develop while in the womb
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Shahidullah and Hepper (1994)
foetuses at 35 weeks could better distinguish pure tone frequencies than could foetuses at 27 weeks Kisilevsky, Hains, Jacquet, Granier-Deferre, and Lecanuet (2004)
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Foetuses at 28-32 weeks showed an increase in heart rate to Brahms‟ Lullaby played at 105 or 110 decibels Over time the foetuses reacted to quieter music Older foetuses are better able to pay attention to music

Age
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Implications of music in the womb
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Development post-birth (Lafuente, Grifol, Segarra, Soriano, Gorba, and Montesinos, 1998)
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Pre-natal music can have a positive impact on a child‟s post-natal development. Women in the last third of their pregnancy wore a waistband containing loudspeakers connected to a tape recorder After birth the mothers then noted the age at which their babies developed a range of behaviours (e.g. gross and fine motor activities, linguistic development) Those exposed to the music developed earlier Not just teenagers listening to iPods in their bedrooms

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We need a broad definition of „music listening‟ and „musical preference‟
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Medical implications
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Understanding of the development of hearing and the early detection of deafness Hepper and Shahidullah (1992) - the rate of habituation to a foetal auditory stimulus may discriminate children who will from those who will not be born with Down‟s syndrome If music learning occurs mid-pregnancy then implications for abortion law?

Non-human animals
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Well-known ethological research on birdsong
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i.e. functions (e.g. territory marking) and learning (e.g. regional accents)

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Research aimed at understanding human perception of music has considered how animals use and perceive music Growing evidence concerning specifically how non-human animals react to music
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impact of music on animal welfare the existence and modification of musical preferences in non-human animals

Non-human animals
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Animal welfare
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/somerset/4665252.stm Consistent with Konečni‟s arousal moderation Calming music may counteract the stress of captivity Human conversation, classical music (most soothing), heavy metal music (least soothing), pop music, and a control to 50 dogs in an animal rescue shelter Classical music led to the dogs spending more time resting, more time quiet, and less time standing - behaviours “suggestive of relaxation” (p.385) Heavy metal led to the dogs spending more time barking

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Wells, Graham, and Hepper (2002)
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Non-human animals
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North, MacKenzie, and Hargreaves (unpublished)
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1408434.stm Fast and slow tempo music to dairy cows in crowded winter shelters Milk yield indicates well-being 3% higher yield in the slow than the fast music condition Exposing rats to stimulating rock music reduced ability to heal wounds Played music to mice over two weeks “(1) classical music produced more interaction … (4) easy listening increased huddling; and (5) rock tended to increase aggression but decrease sexual activity” (p.51)

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McCarthy, Ouimet, and Daun (1992)
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Peretto and Kippschull (1991)
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Non-human animals
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Two other studies harder to explain in terms of Konečni still show welfare effects
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Uetakea, Hurnika, and Johnson (1997)
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19 cows over a 69 day period The number of cows accessing milking compartments of an automatic milking machine increased from 22.3% in the absence of music up to 45.0% when music was played Increasing the cage size of macaques was ineffective for welfare relative to the provision of music under their control Henley (1992) talks about captive apes, elephants, and dolphins

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Line, Markowitz, Morgan, and Strong (1991)
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Many captive animals now given artistic activities
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BUT
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Cloutier, Weary, and Fraser (2000, p.107)
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Music did not improve condition of piglets during handling and weaning

Non-human animals
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Musical preferences exist in non-humans
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McDermott and Hauser (2004)
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Tamarin monkeys have sound preferences Different to those of humans exposed to the same materials Adult and juvenile female cowbirds‟ preferences for different types of birdsong could be modified Rats could discriminate the original from a version of Yesterday performed by one of the experimenters Could distinguish the music of Mozart Could distinguish music and white noise

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King, West, and White (2003)
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Okaichi and Okaichi (2001)
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Non-human animals
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Payne (2000)
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Songs of humpback whales arise through improvisation rather than by accident or as conveyors of information Clear musical thematic structure Hens could distinguish between music, and the sounds of a water-hose, poultry, and a train Pigeons could discriminate between Bach flute music and Hindemith viola music, and between Stravinsky‟s Rite of Spring and a Bach organ piece amongst others College students responded similarly “The pigeon‟s response to complex auditory events may be more like the human's than is often assumed” (p.138).

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McAdie, Foster, Temple, and Matthews (1993)
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Porter, Reed, and Neuringer (1984)
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Non-human animals
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Non-humans have responses to music that are not very dissimilar from those of humans Implications
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For music psychology
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How and why do these apparent preferences emerge? Does music help welfare because of aesthetic effects or simply by masking background noise? Are we really experimenting on inferior „dumb animals‟? Happy animals taste better: if music does help then what music is best? But non-vegetarians may be eating a Coldplay fan for dinner tonight

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For research on animals
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For the food business
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Gender
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Evidence on three aspects
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Attitudes, preferences, uses of music

Females have more positive attitudes and participate more
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North, Hargreaves, and O‟Neill (2000)
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2465 13-14 year olds asked do you play an instrument 64.7% of the musicians were female, 35.3% were male Girls regard themselves as more musically-competent than do boys Liking for school music lessons in 11-13 year olds was associated with higher Femininity scores on Boldizar‟s Children‟s Sex Role Inventory

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Eccles, Wigfield, Harold, and Blumenfeld (1993)
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Colley, Comber, and Hargreaves (1994)
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Comber, Hargreaves, and Colley (1993)
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This pattern may be changing Boys are more positive than girls in their attitudes towards music technology More music technology in National Curriculum

Gender
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No short-term differences in preference for individual pieces of music
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Sopchack (1955) - men and women were equally responsive to music

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Over the long-term, females prefer „softer‟ musical styles
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North and Hargreaves (2005)
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Survey of 2532 people aged 12-85 years Females disproportionately liked chart pop, disco, musicals Males disproportionately liked rock and rap

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Same results from other studies (e.g. Robinson, Weaver, and Zillmann, 1996; Took and Weiss, 1994) Why the long-term difference?

Gender
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Is this a reason why you like your favourite music? Please answer yes or no To enjoy the music To help me get through difficult times To be trendy or cool To create an image for myself To express my feelings / emotions To please or impress my friends To reduce loneliness

Gender
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Gender differences in uses of music
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North, Hargreaves, O‟Neill (2000) Why do you listen to music? Males „create an impression to others‟ (e.g. „to be cool‟, „create an image for myself‟) Females „satisfy emotional needs‟ (e.g. „express my emotions‟, „get through difficult times‟, „reduce tension and stress‟) Usually only in terms of interaction with other factors Other factors explain much more E.g. the situation – even though they‟re female, women in the gym listen to loud, fast music not slow, quiet music E.g. age – even though a male, my Dad hated heavy rock

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Generally, gender is studied little in its own right
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Gender is a red herring
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Social class
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Sociologists in 1960s and 1970s argued for massification
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Homogeneity reduces financial risk to music industry

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Others (e.g. Bourdieu, 1971; 1984) argued for diversification
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Upper social classes control means of cultural production They „legitimise‟ some art and not other art They preserve legitimised art for themselves (e.g. classical music) Upper social classes should like classical music and opera more Musical taste in determined by your position in society A socioeconomic sub-group of the population who share particular tastes

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In practical terms
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Led to research on „taste publics‟
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Social class
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Taste publics defined by social class (e.g. income) are linked to musical preference
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Fox and Wince (1975)
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„Jazz-blues‟ taste public related positively to hometown size, father‟s education and occupation, and being atheist, agnostic, or Jewish In past 12 months 18% of professionals had attended a symphony concert versus 4% of manual workers



Dimaggio and Useem (1978)




North and Hargreaves‟ (2005) lifestyle survey found day-to-day evidence for this


e.g. access to financial resources (e.g. credit cards), spending on food, drinking wine (rather than beer etc.), education (e.g. PhDs), choice of radio stations, choice of TV programmes etc.

Social class


Criticisms of research on taste publics


They are poorly-defined and hypothetical


“Surely, nobody is able to stake out the actual taste publics of heavy metal, reggae, or folk music” (Zillmann and Gan, 1997, p.172) e.g. jazz used to be regarded as a type of pop music The research therefore gets outdated very quickly



Patterns of legitimation are changing constantly






Hard to think of acclaimed music that does not satisfy both legitimate, high-brow aesthetic and non-legitimate, low brow aesthetic


„Great music‟ tends to have artistic value and also to sell by the truckload

Personality


Not researched much
The role of music in personality has not been addressed  i.e. we sometimes listen to a particular piece to express a trait and sometimes to compensate for that same trait (e.g. listen to aggressive music to pump us up further or as catharsis)  Therefore some traits (e.g. extraversion) do not always lead reliably to particular musical preferences


Personality




Other factors more clear-cut and imply reflection of personality rather than compensation Sensation-seeking


The need for varied, novel, and complex experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of obtaining such experiences Which tends to be loud and fast, to deal with risqué themes in its lyrics, and to be the subject of visually dynamic live performances e.g. Arnett, 1991, 1992 Kim, Kwak, and Chang, 1998; McNamara and Ballard, 1999 High sensation seekers also more likely to get emotionally involved with music



Links to liking for heavy music






Litle and Zuckerman (1986)


Personality


Conservatism


i.e. anti-abortion, death penalty etc.



Another instance of reflection of personality rather than compensation for it


People low on conservatism prefer „problem music‟ styles such as rock and rap Participants with conservative attitudes were most likely to support music censorship: participants who listened to „problem‟ music lyrics did not support their censorship Participants who held conservative attitudes toward sexuality and those who attended religious services disliked heavy metal and rap



McLeod, Detenber, and Eveland (2001)




Lynxwiler and Gay (2000)




Glasgow and Cartier (1985)


Conservatives prefer simple, familiar, and „safe‟ artistic objects

Personality


Rebelliousness and heavy metal / rap fans




Another instance of reflection of personality rather than compensation for it Robinson, Weaver, and Zillmann (1996)


Undergraduates who scored highly on measures of psychoticism and reactive rebelliousness enjoyed rebellious videos more than did participants who scored low on these factors



Bleich, Zillmann, and Weaver (1991)


Highly rebellious participants consumed less non-defiant rock music
Liking for defiant music was related to forms of rebelliousness



Dillmann-Carpentier, Knobloch, and Zillmann (2003)


Personality


Factors indicative of rebelliousness give rise to similar results


McCown, Keiser, Mulhearn, and Williamson (1997)


Psychoticism related to a preference for music with „exaggerated bass‟
Heavy metal fans were higher on „Machiavellianism‟ and „machismo‟, and were lower on measures of need for cognition than were non-fans Experimental exposure to antisocial music videos increased participants‟ tolerance of antisocial behaviour (i.e. an obscene hand gesture) as compared with exposure to non-antisocial videos. Heavy metal fans have positive attitudes to pre-marital sex, drug and alcohol use, and satanism Heavy metal fans have greater belief in witchcraft and the occult Heavy metal fans more prone to dangerous driving, shoplifting, and vandalism



Hansen and Hansen (1991)




Hansen and Hansen (1990)




Yee et al (1988)




Trostle (1986)




Arnett (1991)


Extra-musical information
Compliance effects Informational influence effects

Compliance effects


Some evidence that listeners will „go along‟ with the musical judgements of the majority


Radocy (1975)
  

Music students played a „standard tone‟ and then three comparisons Four confederates answer first (sometimes incorrectly) Conformity to incorrect confederates on 30% of trials involving pitch judgements and 49% of volume judgement trials Similar method to Radocy No compliance in musical preferences when judging pop music Non-music students complied when judging orchestral (i.e. unfamiliar) music School pupils‟ compliance greatest in judgement of jazz (i.e. unfamiliar) Each person chooses continually between four channels (two liked, two disliked) (False) feedback on what others were listening to When person thinks the majority are listening to the disliked channel they tend to listen also



Furman and Duke (1988)
  



Inglefield (1968)




Crowther (1985)


 

Informational influence


Occur when we have little knowledge about the music and so base judgement on external sources


Rigg (1948)
 



Six pieces (three by Wagner) rated for enjoyment Played again – one group told Wagner was a Hitler favourite, one told nothing, and one heard a description of the music Enjoyment ratings increased in all cases, but least in the „Hitler‟ group and most in the „description‟ group Approval of classical music by a teacher and a DJ increased liking for classical music Misattributing pieces to Bach and Beethoven influenced judgements of musical quality A programme of „popular gramophone music‟ received only half the radio audience when it was repeated a week later as a programme of „classical music‟



Alpert (1982)




Fiese (1990)




Geiger (1950)


Informational influence: evaluation of music by females


Lists of the „greats‟ are male-dominated



Farnsworth‟s all-male top 10 classical composers One female (Annie Lennox) among 10 favourite pop musicians, and no female classical music composer received more than a single nomination (North and Hargreaves, 1996)



A „special case‟ of informational influence?


Goldberg (1968)
 

Females read articles attributed to males or females Articles allegedly by males were given higher ratings on 44 of the 54 measures (e.g. competence)



Colley, North, and Hargreaves (2003)


Anti-female bias in new age music when people told composer‟s (supposed) name
Specific reactions to the music (e.g. „gentle‟ or „soothing‟) influenced by gender stereotypes



North, Colley, and Hargreaves (2003)


Informational influence: evaluation of music by attractive people
 

„What is beautiful is good‟ North and Hargreaves (1997)







20 pieces of pop music and a picture of the „performer‟ Attractive performers more poised, sophisticated, emotionally warm, feminine, intelligent, and likely to be popular (rather than talentless idiots) Music by attractive performers liked more, perceived as possessing more artistic merit, and as being more sophisticated, intelligent, and likely to be popular Same effects for performers who were the same-sex as participant
Evaluations of classical music singers higher when audiovisual (rather than audio-only) performance presented Attractive females were judged to perform better than unattractive females even when audio-only presented Several other studies repeat the latter Attractive performers must also receive better training



Wapnick, Darrow, Kovacs, and Dalrymple (1997)
 




Music in everyday life

Music in everyday life


Responses to music involve an interaction of four elements
   

The music (e.g. arousal, prototypicality) The listening situation (e.g. arousal-evoking qualities, appropriateness) The listener (e.g. age, sex, personality) Extra-musical information (e.g. compliance, informational influence) Cannot just isolate the music, listener, or listening situation Must study musical behaviour in everyday contexts



We must study music in this complete context






Particularly important because of digital revolution


Internet music retailers, high capacity portable music players, digital broadcasting
 1. 2.

Can listen to whatever, whenever, wherever we want … Music may be worth less as it is less scarce High control over music means we might use music to achieve very specific ends in very specific circumstances

Music in everyday life


North, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves (2004)



346 people sent one text per day over 14 days Questionnaire about who, what, when, where, and why
Only 26.3% of listening episodes occurred while participants were on their own Classical music accounted for only 3% of listening episodes Music more commonly experienced in the evening (esp. 22.00-22.59), and at weekends rather than weekdays Only 50.1% of music listening episodes occurred within the home



Who?




What?




When?




Where?


Music in everyday life


Why? Three predictions based on digital revolution
1.

Music is common


Could be heard on 38.6% of those occasions on which participants received their text

2.

Music perceived as being worth little






Music was the main thing they were doing in only 26.4% of musical experiences Only 11.9% of episodes occurred while participants were deliberately listening to music either at home or in a concert Disinterested and passive attitude (e.g. „It helped to create the right atmosphere‟ rather that „It aided my attempts to do what I was trying to do‟)
Participants thought that music had different functions depending on who they were with, what music they could hear, when they listened to it, and where they were listening

3.

Music used to achieve very specific goals in specific settings



				
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