Developmental Psychology Infancy DVD-The Secret Life of the Brain Key points from the video: 1. Brain is set up to develop in a particular way AND 2. It is adaptive and responsive to environmental changes. 3. Sensory development is critical as one way the infant learns. 4. Motor development is another, allowing the infant to act on the environment. Erikson’s Psychosocial Crisis Trust vs. mistrust What is trust from an infant’s perspective? 1. Learning that needs will be met with food, physical contact, emotional contact, eye contact, verbal contact, comfort, etc. 2. Learning to trust in control-the infant tests boundaries, limits are set and the infant learns autonomy, self control and the beginning of a conscience. What is mistrust, from an infant’s perspective? 1. Needs will be inconsistently met. 2. Needs may be met without emotional contact. 3. Infant behavior is responded to inconsistently. 4. Limited stimulation in the environment. Attachment theory • Secure attachment-the child seeks contact, is comforted by contact, manages when caregiver leaves. • Anxious-Avoidant-the child ignores or avoids the caregiver, avoids contact. • Anxious-Resistant-the child’s response is hostile passively or actively towards caregiver. • Disorganized-unpredictable behavior and seeming confusion Characteristics linked with secure attachment • • • Social competence in elementary Secure relationships with friends at 16 High level of positive daily emotions in romantic relationships in adulthood Comfort with emotional intimacy in adulthood • Characteristics linked with insecure attachment • Behavior problems in preschool • Detached from environment • Lack of boundaries with new acquaintances • Reactive Attachment Disorder Conditions hypothesized to block a healthy resolution 1. Physical, emotional/verbal, sexual abuse. 2. Physical, emotional neglect. 3. Caregiver’s insensitivity to infant. 4. Caregiver’s insecure attachment representation. Intervention? “Preventing Preschool Externalizing Behavior Problems Through Video-Feedback Intervention in Infancy” • The hypotheses? – That VIPP and VIPP-R would result in a decrease in behavior problems in preschool. – Sensitive parenting, temperament, social support, and stress to be correlated with behavior problems. The results? • The VIPP group had a lower frequency of behavior problems than the other two groups…11% vs. 42% • 11% is the same rate of problems as the general population • Children’s reactivity, crying duration and internalized problem behavior were positively correlated. • Mother’s social support was negatively correlated with reactivity, crying duration, internalizing and externalizing problem behavior • No relationship between mother’s sensitivity and child’s behavior problems. Developmental Tasks-Infants • Maturation of sensory, perceptual and motor functions • Attachment • Sensorimotor intelligence and early of causal schemes • Understand nature of objects and creating categories • Emotional development Early Adolescence • • • • • • Group identity vs. alienation Physical maturation Formal operations Emotional development Membership in peer group Romantic and sexual relationships Later adolescence• • • • • Individual identity vs. identity confusion Autonomy from parents Gender identity Internalized morality Career choice Early adulthood • • • • • Intimacy vs. Isolation Exploring intimate relationships Childbearing Work Lifestyle Application of concepts The Task: To develop and test a prevention program designed to promote secure attachment and healthy resolution of the trust vs. mistrust psychosocial crisis. The Steps: 1. Brainstorm potential target populations. 2. In small groups, choose one of the target populations on which to focus. 3. Use the information we’ve covered to inform program development. – Individual and psychosocial factors influencing a pregnant woman-both risk and protective. – Conditions that contribute to attachment or development of mistrust during infancy. – Existing programs that show some success in improving quality of parenting, i.e. teen parent programs, VIPP. – Developmental tasks of parental age groups and infants. 4. Discuss the method of your program. 5. Present to two other groups.