Psychology 4 Option Human Working Memory – Lecture 5 Professor Robert Logie Working Memory in Everyday Life • Original Baddeley & Hitch (1974) concept driven by: ‘What is short-term memory for?’ Demonstrated a role for the phonological loop in reasoning and in language comprehension Sentence Comprehension + Digit Load Reasoning + Digit Memory Load Some Application Areas for Working Memory • • • • • • • • • • • Short-Term Memory Acquiring Language Mental Arithmetic Reading and Comprehension Mental Workload Keeping Track Moment to Moment Reasoning and Decision Making Mental Imagery Creative Thinking Effects of Brain Damage Any task involving on-line cognition Phonological Loop -Acquiring Language • Short-term verbal memory impairments -impairments in vocabulary learning (Baddeley, Papagno & Vallar, 1988) • Articulatory suppression impairs vocabulary learning (Papagno, Valentine & Baddeley, 1991) • Non-word repetition predicts vocabulary in young children (Gathercole and Baddeley, 1989) Phonological Loop -Counting and Mental Arithmetic • Articulatory suppression impairs counting, irrelevant speech does not (Logie & Baddeley, 1987) Dual task study of counting (Logie & Baddeley, 1987) Working Memory and Mental Arithmetic • Articulatory suppression impairs mental arithmetic (Logie, Gilhooly & Wynn, 1994) • Even larger effect of random generation (executive function?) • No effect of concurrent tapping or of watching irrelevant pictures Dual Task Study of Mental Arithmetic (Logie, Gilhooly & Wynn, 1994) Phonological Loop and Task Switching Miyake et al. (2004) Watch Sequence of Numbers - Respond when odd 2 7 4 6 Respond ‘above 5’ 3 9 7 1 8 Respond when odd 7 9 The Phonological Loop for Control of Behaviour? • Miyake et al. (2004) • Articulatory suppression affects accuracy • Argues that subvocal rehearsal helps control behaviour (an executive function?) • – e.g. by rehearsing what we have to do Visual and Spatial Imaging How many windows in your house? Plan how to solve a problem – e.g. Rearrange Furniture, Tower of Hanoi Remember where you put things Describe a route from George Square to Botanic Gardens Learn and follow an unfamiliar route How many mental objects from J and D? Creative thinking for design Working Memory and Navigation (Garden, Cornoldi & Logie, 2002) Padua-Italy. Participants follow Experimenter to learn route, with or without secondary task. Then retrace route. Questionnaire on Spatial Representation • Think about the way you orient yourself in different environments around you. Would you describe yourself as a person: • who tries to create a mental map of the environment? • 1 (not at all) 2 3 4 5 (very much) • • • • Think of an unfamiliar city. Write the name…… Now try to classify your representation of the city: map-like representation? 1 (not at all) 2 3 4 5 (very much) • Low Spatial=Ratings of 1 or 2 • High Spatial=Ratings of 4 or 5 Dual Task Effects on Route Following for High and Low Spatial Participants (Garden et al., 2002) 4 ArtSup Tapping ArtSup 2 Tapping Errors In Retracing Route 0 Control Hi Spatial Low Spatial Central Executive and Dual Task Co-ordination Specific Deficit in Alzheimer’s Disease? (Baddeley et al., 1986;1991;1999; Logie et al., 2004 – see Lecture 4) Central Executive and Reasoning Syllogistic Reasoning (Gilhooly et al., 1993; 1999) All As are B All Bs are C Therefore? All As are C All As are B No Bs are C Therefore? No Logical Conclusion Performance impaired with Random Generation, less so with Articulatory Suppression Working Memory and Planning/Problem Solving • Phillips et al. (2003) - Tower of London Task Tower of London trial goal B start Working Memory As General P urpose Gateway (Based on Atkinson & S hiffrin, 1968) W orking Memory Knowledge Base Working Memory Based on Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) P h o n o lo g ic a l Loop VisuoSpatial Sketch Pad C entral E xecutive Working Memory Based on Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) P h o n o lo g ic a l Loop VisuoSpatial Sketch Pad Executive C entral Functions e.g. dual task co-ordination E xecutive Working Memory as Activated Long-Term Memory e.g. Ericsson & Kintsch, Cowan, Reder et al. Wrk gM o as o in emry A ctivatedL n -T Mm ry o g erm e o Koleg Bs nwde ae PERCEPTION Working Memory as a single system for Temporary Storage and Processing e.g. Engle et al., Daneman & Carpenter Wrk gMm ry o in e o fo S rag an r to e d P cs g ro e sin Koleg Bs nwde ae PERCEPTION Working Memory as a Multi Component Mental Workspace (e.g. Baddeley, Hitch, Logie, Miyake Inner Scribe Inner Speech Visual Cache In e nr S cri b e In e n rr Sp e e ch Vis a u l Ca h e c P E RCE P T IO N PERCEPTION • What is Working Memory? • – You Decide!