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Human Working Memory Lecture 5

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									Psychology 4 Option Human Working Memory – Lecture 5 Professor Robert Logie

Working Memory in Everyday Life
• Original Baddeley & Hitch (1974) concept driven by: ‘What is short-term memory for?’

Demonstrated a role for the phonological loop in reasoning and in language comprehension

Sentence Comprehension + Digit Load

Reasoning + Digit Memory Load

Some Application Areas for Working Memory
• • • • • • • • • • • Short-Term Memory Acquiring Language Mental Arithmetic Reading and Comprehension Mental Workload Keeping Track Moment to Moment Reasoning and Decision Making Mental Imagery Creative Thinking Effects of Brain Damage Any task involving on-line cognition

Phonological Loop -Acquiring Language
• Short-term verbal memory impairments -impairments in vocabulary learning (Baddeley, Papagno & Vallar, 1988) • Articulatory suppression impairs vocabulary learning (Papagno, Valentine & Baddeley, 1991) • Non-word repetition predicts vocabulary in young children (Gathercole and Baddeley, 1989)

Phonological Loop -Counting and Mental Arithmetic
• Articulatory suppression impairs counting, irrelevant speech does not (Logie & Baddeley, 1987)

Dual task study of counting (Logie & Baddeley, 1987)

Working Memory and Mental Arithmetic
• Articulatory suppression impairs mental arithmetic (Logie, Gilhooly & Wynn, 1994) • Even larger effect of random generation (executive function?) • No effect of concurrent tapping or of watching irrelevant pictures

Dual Task Study of Mental Arithmetic (Logie, Gilhooly & Wynn, 1994)

Phonological Loop and Task Switching Miyake et al. (2004)
Watch Sequence of Numbers - Respond when odd 2 7 4 6 Respond ‘above 5’ 3 9 7 1 8 Respond when odd 7 9

The Phonological Loop for Control of Behaviour?

• Miyake et al. (2004)

• Articulatory suppression affects accuracy • Argues that subvocal rehearsal helps control behaviour (an executive function?) • – e.g. by rehearsing what we have to do

Visual and Spatial Imaging
How many windows in your house? Plan how to solve a problem – e.g. Rearrange Furniture, Tower of Hanoi Remember where you put things Describe a route from George Square to Botanic Gardens Learn and follow an unfamiliar route How many mental objects from J and D? Creative thinking for design

Working Memory and Navigation (Garden, Cornoldi & Logie, 2002)

Padua-Italy. Participants follow Experimenter to learn route, with or without secondary task. Then retrace route.

Questionnaire on Spatial Representation
• Think about the way you orient yourself in different environments around you. Would you describe yourself as a person: • who tries to create a mental map of the environment? • 1 (not at all) 2 3 4 5 (very much) • • • • Think of an unfamiliar city. Write the name…… Now try to classify your representation of the city: map-like representation? 1 (not at all) 2 3 4 5 (very much)

• Low Spatial=Ratings of 1 or 2 • High Spatial=Ratings of 4 or 5

Dual Task Effects on Route Following for High and Low Spatial Participants (Garden et al., 2002)

4 ArtSup


ArtSup 2 Tapping

Errors In Retracing Route

0 Control Hi Spatial Low Spatial

Central Executive and Dual Task Co-ordination
Specific Deficit in Alzheimer’s Disease? (Baddeley et al., 1986;1991;1999; Logie et al., 2004 – see Lecture 4)

Central Executive and Reasoning
Syllogistic Reasoning (Gilhooly et al., 1993; 1999)
        All As are B All Bs are C Therefore? All As are C All As are B No Bs are C Therefore? No Logical Conclusion

 Performance impaired with Random Generation, less so with Articulatory Suppression

Working Memory and Planning/Problem Solving
• Phillips et al. (2003) - Tower of London Task
Tower of London trial goal



Working Memory
As General P urpose Gateway (Based on Atkinson & S hiffrin, 1968)

W orking Memory

Knowledge Base

Working Memory Based on Baddeley & Hitch, 1974)

P h o n o lo g ic a l


VisuoSpatial Sketch Pad

C entral E xecutive

Working Memory Based on Baddeley & Hitch, 1974)

P h o n o lo g ic a l


VisuoSpatial Sketch Pad

Executive C entral Functions e.g. dual task co-ordination E xecutive

Working Memory as Activated Long-Term Memory e.g. Ericsson & Kintsch, Cowan, Reder et al.
Wrk gM o as o in emry A ctivatedL n -T Mm ry o g erm e o

Koleg Bs nwde ae

Working Memory as a single system for Temporary Storage and Processing e.g. Engle et al., Daneman & Carpenter

Wrk gMm ry o in e o fo S rag an r to e d P cs g ro e sin

Koleg Bs nwde ae

Working Memory as a Multi Component Mental Workspace (e.g. Baddeley, Hitch, Logie, Miyake
Inner Scribe Inner Speech Visual Cache

In e nr S cri b e In e n rr Sp e e ch

Vis a u l Ca h e c



• What is Working Memory? • – You Decide!

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