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									Home economics
Home economics (also known as family and consumer sciences) is the profession and
field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and
community.[1] Home economics is a field of formal study including such topics as
consumer education, institutional management, interior design, home furnishing,
cleaning, handicrafts, sewing, clothing and textiles, Commercial cooking, cooking,
nutrition, food preservation, hygiene, child development, internet safety, managing
money, and family relationships.

Sexual education and drug awareness might be also covered, along with topics such as
fire prevention and safety procedures. It prepares students for homemaking or
professional careers, or to assist in preparing to fulfill real-life responsibilities at home. It
is taught in secondary schools, colleges and universities, vocational schools, and in adult
education centers; students include women and men.

In the 19th century, home economics classes were intended to ready young women for
their duties in the home. Classes were first offered in the United States, Canada and Great
Britain, followed by Latin America, Asia, and Africa. International organizations such as
those associated with the United Nations have been involved in starting home economics
programs around the world.[2]

The preferred name of the field of study and profession is Home Economics.
Internationally, the field of study has consistently retained the name Home Economics
and is recognised both within and beyond the boundaries of the profession.

Situated in the human sciences, home economics draws from a range of disciplines to
achieve optimal and sustainable living for individuals, families, and communities.
Historically, home economics has been in the context of the home and household, but this
has extended in the 21st century to include the wider living environments as we better
understand that the capacities, choices, and priorities of individuals and families impact at
all levels, ranging from the household to the local and the global community. Home
economists are concerned with promoting and protecting the well-being of individuals,
families, and communities; they facilitate the development of attributes for lifelong
learning for paid, unpaid, and voluntary work. Home economics professionals are
advocates for individuals, families, and communities.

The content of home economics comes from the synthesis of multiple disciplines. This
interdisciplinary knowledge is essential because the phenomena and challenges of
everyday life are not typically one-dimensional. The content of home economics courses
varies, but might include: food, nutrition, and health; personal finance; family resource
management; textiles and clothing; shelter and housing; consumerism and consumer
science; household management; design and technology; food science and hospitality;
human development and family studies; education and community services, among
others. The capacity to draw from such disciplinary diversity is a strength of the
profession, allowing for the development of specific interpretations of the field, as
relevant to the context.

Areas of practice
Home economics can be clarified by four dimensions or areas of practice:

      as an academic discipline to educate new scholars, to conduct research and to
       create new knowledge and ways of thinking for professionals and for society
      as an arena for everyday living in households, families and communities for
       developing human growth potential and human necessities or basic needs to be
      as a curriculum area that facilitates students to discover and further develop their
       own resources and capabilities to be used in their personal life, by directing their
       professional decisions and actions or preparing them for life
      as a societal arena to influence and develop policy to advocate for individuals,
       families and communities to achieve empowerment and wellbeing, to utilize
       transformative practices, and to facilitate sustainable futures.

To be successful in these four dimensions of practice means that the profession is
constantly evolving, and there will always be new ways of performing the profession.
This is an important characteristic of the profession, linking with the 21st century
requirement for all people to be "expert novices", that is, good at learning new things,
given that society is constantly and rapidly changing with new and emergent issues and

Historical skills
In the past, household skills included: herbal medicine, converting hide into leather, soap
making, spinning yarn and thread, weaving cloth and rugs, and patchwork quilting. More
skills were cooking on a wood burning stove, churning butter, baking bread, and
preserving food by drying and by glass-jar canning.[3]

Home cleaning can be analyzed into four parts: litter removal, storage of belongings,
dusting, and washing of surfaces. Laundry is a separate subject. Washing of surfaces is
the most dangerous and complicated part because of the cleaning solutions. For example,
hard water deposits are cleaned with acid solutions and dirt is cleaned with alkaline
solutions; they both harm the skin and both weaken each other. Mixing chlorine bleach
and ammonia together forms toxic gas. Solvents including paint thinner and rubbing
alcohol are toxic and flammable. Disinfectants are poisonous. Even dish water requires
rubber gloves.[4]

Commercial Cooking
Commercial Cooking courses are designed to create an awareness of and to develop
entry-level food preparation skills for the food service industry. The food service industry
is one of the largest employers in Canada. These courses are designed to give students the
skills and practical experiences necessary to enter the cook trade or food service industry
with confidence.

The study of food and cooking methods is essential to the cooking trade; therefore,
lessons for students in cooking theory reinforce practical exercises. Students are also
introduced to standards of professionalism that include the elements of personal hygiene
and the qualities of good workers.

The Commercial Cooking courses are designed to provide students with the opportunity
to challenge the Level I apprenticeship theory within the professional cook trade.
Because a major focus of Level I is the use and maintenance of industry equipment, it is
recommended that students experience practical components of the course using industry
equipment and standards. This practice will help to ensure a successful student challenge
of the apprenticeship examination. Practical experiences may be taught within a school
setting where commercial kitchen facilities and cafeteria exist. Students may also acquire
practical experience through optional work study modules that may include community

The home economist deals with money. A budget is a plan of what to spend on based on
gathered facts. Being frugal includes buying the inexpensive brand. Credit is lending.
Budgeting how much to spend with a credit card is done, as well as how much to save
each paycheck toward a car. Investments are ways to store extra money. They include
bank accounts. Taxpayers sometimes get audited and show financial records to
government officials.[5]

The leading national professional organization for home economics in the United States
is the American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences. The leading international
organization home economics is the International Federation for Home Economics

Home Economics is a vital profession currently enjoying renewed attention in the present
era. Our contemporary world is characterised as one of unprecedented transition from
industrial to knowledge-based culture and globalised economy, with all encompassing
effects on society and culture. The information age is complex, diverse and
unpredictable, yet has a strong commitment to retaining those elements of society that are
valued, while looking ahead to the imperative of improving the world in which we all live
such that sustainable development is possible. Herein lies the potential for Home
Economics and the reason for renewed attention to the field of study, as this is the key
imperative of the profession.

Examples of enacting the transformative powers of home economics professionals

      Home economics professionals were instrumental to instituting the 1994
       International Year of the Family which centred ‗family‘ as a political issue and
       has impacted on family life in many countries of the world
      Poverty alleviation, gender equality and social justice concerns are a priority of
       home economics professionals, with many projects and initiatives conducted in
       such areas
      IFHE, or the International Federation for Home Economics, is an International
       Non Governmental Organization (INGO), having consultative status with the
       United Nations (ECOSOC, FAO, UNESCO, UNISEF) and with the Council of
      Home economists partner with other Non-Governmental Organisations to
       improve the lot of families world wide. Specific areas of
       collaboration/cooperation include: Peace Education, gender issues/ women‘s
       empowerment, women‘s reproductive issues, HIV/AIDS, intervention projects for
       families in distress and other human rights issues
      Home economists are active in lobbying for issues that will improve the well-
       being of a diversity of families and households
      Home economists serve as consultants in major businesses and organizations
       dealing with personal home economics, care and consumer services. They are also
       active entrepreneurs in their own rights
      The current four-year theme on sustainable development for World Home
       Economics Day is a strong stand that impacts on family life positively
      Home economists are strong advocates for individual and family well-being
       worldwide, evident in for example the development of relevant curricula for
       schools and universities.

         Applied Arts and Design
Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics or esthetics) is a branch of philosophy dealing with
the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty.[1] It
is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values,
sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste.[2] More broadly, scholars in the field
define aesthetics as "critical reflection on art, culture and nature."[3][4] Aesthetics is
related to axiology, a branch of philosophy, and is closely associated with the philosophy
of art.[5] Aesthetics studies new ways of seeing and of perceiving the world.[6]

It was derived from the Greek αἰσθητικός (aisthetikos, meaning "esthetic, sensitive,
sentient"), which in turn was derived from αἰσθάνομαι (aisthanomai, meaning "I
perceive, feel, sense").[7] The term "aesthetics" was appropriated and coined with new
meaning in the German form Æsthetik (modern spelling Ästhetik) by Alexander
Baumgarten in 1735.

Aesthetic judgment
Judgments of aesthetic value rely on our ability to discriminate at a sensory level.
Aesthetics examines our affective domain response to an object or phenomenon.
Immanuel Kant, writing in 1790, observes of a man "If he says that canary wine is
agreeable he is quite content if someone else corrects his terms and reminds him to say
instead: It is agreeable to me," because "Everyone has his own (sense of) taste". The case
of "beauty" is different from mere "agreeableness" because, "If he proclaims something
to be beautiful, then he requires the same liking from others; he then judges not just for
himself but for everyone, and speaks of beauty as if it were a property of things."

Aesthetic judgments usually go beyond sensory discrimination. For David Hume,
delicacy of taste is not merely "the ability to detect all the ingredients in a composition",
but also our sensitivity "to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind."
(Essays Moral Political and Literary. Indianapolis, Literary Classics 5, 1987.) Thus, the
sensory discrimination is linked to capacity for pleasure. For Kant "enjoyment" is the
result when pleasure arises from sensation, but judging something to be "beautiful" has a
third requirement: sensation must give rise to pleasure by engaging our capacities of
reflective contemplation. Judgments of beauty are sensory, emotional and intellectual all
at once.

Viewer interpretations of beauty possess two concepts of value: aesthetics and taste.
Aesthetics is the philosophical notion of beauty. Taste is a result of education and
awareness of elite cultural values[clarification needed][citation needed]; therefore taste can be
learned[citation needed]. Taste varies according to class, cultural background, and
education[citation needed]. According to Kant, beauty is objective and universal; thus certain
things are beautiful to everyone.[citation needed] The contemporary view of beauty is not
based on innate qualities, but rather on cultural specifics and individual
interpretations.[citation needed]
Factors involved in aesthetic judgment

Judgments of aesthetic value seem often to involve many other kinds of issues as well.
Responses such as disgust show that sensory detection is linked in instinctual ways to
facial expressions, and even behaviors like the gag reflex. Yet disgust can often be a
learned or cultural issue too; as Darwin pointed out, seeing a stripe of soup in a man's
beard is disgusting even though neither soup nor beards are themselves disgusting.
Aesthetic judgments may be linked to emotions or, like emotions, partially embodied in
our physical reactions. Seeing a sublime view of a landscape may give us a reaction of
awe, which might manifest physically as an increased heart rate or widened eyes. These
unconscious reactions may even be partly constitutive of what makes our judgment a
judgment that the landscape is sublime.

Likewise, aesthetic judgments may be culturally conditioned to some extent. Victorians
in Britain often saw African sculpture as ugly, but just a few decades later, Edwardian
audiences saw the same sculptures as being beautiful. The Abuse of Beauty, Evaluations
of beauty may well be linked to desirability, perhaps even to sexual desirability. Thus,
judgments of aesthetic value can become linked to judgments of economic, political, or
moral value.[8] In a current context, one might judge a Lamborghini to be beautiful partly
because it is desirable as a status symbol, or we might judge it to be repulsive partly
because it signifies for us over-consumption and offends our political or moral values.[9]

"Part and Parcel in Animal and Human Societies". in Studies in animal and human
behavior, vol. 2. pp. 115–195. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1971 (originally pub.
1950.) Aesthetic judgments can often be very fine-grained and internally contradictory.
Likewise aesthetic judgments seem often to be at least partly intellectual and
interpretative. It is what a thing means or symbolizes for us that is often what we are
judging. Modern aestheticians have asserted that will and desire were almost dormant in
aesthetic experience, yet preference and choice have seemed important aesthetics to some
20th century thinkers. The point is already made by Hume, but see Mary Mothersill,
"Beauty and the Critic‘s Judgment", in The Blackwell Guide to Aesthetics, 2004. Thus
aesthetic judgments might be seen to be based on the senses, emotions, intellectual
opinions, will, desires, culture, preferences, values, subconscious behavior, conscious
decision, training, instinct, sociological institutions, or some complex combination of
these, depending on exactly which theory one employs.

Are different art forms beautiful, disgusting, or boring in the same

A third major topic in the study of aesthetic judgments is how they are unified across art
forms. We can call a person, a house, a symphony, a fragrance, and a mathematical proof
beautiful. What characteristics do they share which give them that status? What possible
feature could a proof and a fragrance both share in virtue of which they both count as
beautiful? What makes a painting beautiful is quite different from what makes music
beautiful, which suggests that each art form has its own language for the judgement of
At the same time, there is seemingly quite a lack of words to express oneself accurately
when making an aesthetic judgment. An aesthetic judgment cannot be an empirical
judgement. Therefore, due to impossibility for precision, there is confusion about what
interpretations can be culturally negotiated. Due to imprecision in the standard English
language, two completely different feelings experienced by two different people can be
represented by an identical verbal expression. Wittgenstein stated this in his lectures on
aesthetics and language games.

A collective identification of beauty, with willing participants in a given social spectrum,
may be a socially negotiated phenomenon, discussed in a culture or context. Is there some
underlying unity to aesthetic judgment and is there some way to articulate the similarities
of a beautiful house, beautiful proof, and beautiful sunset?[11] Defining it requires a
description of the entire phenomenon, as Wittgenstein argued in his lectures on
aesthetics. Likewise there has been long debate on how perception of beauty in the
natural world, especially perception of the human form as beautiful, is supposed to relate
to perceiving beauty in art or artefacts. This goes back at least to Kant, with some echoes
even in St. Bonaventure.[citation needed]

Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων – arkhitekton, from ἀρχι-
"chief" and τέκτων "builder, carpenter") can mean:

      The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical
      The practice of an architect, where architecture means to offer or render
       professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building,
       or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that
       have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.[1]
      A general term to describe buildings and other structures.
      A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical

A wider definition may comprise all design activity, from the macro-level (urban design,
landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture).
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and constructing
form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, and aesthetic
considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material,
technology, light and shadow. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of
realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction
administration. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and
technical specifications, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or
any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.
Architectural works are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of
art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural

Architecture sometimes refers to the activity of designing any kind of system and the
term is common in the information technology world.

The architect
Architects plan, design and review the construction of buildings and structures for the use
of people. Architects also coordinate and integrate engineering design, which has as its
primary objective the creative manipulation of materials and forms using mathematical
and scientific principles.

Theory of architecture
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by
the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century CE.[3] According to Vitruvius, a
good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas,[4][5] which
translate roughly as -

      Durability - it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
      Utility - it should be useful and function well for the people using it
      Beauty - it should delight people and raise their spirits.

According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes
as well as possible. Leone Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his
treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, although
ornament also played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed
the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was
therefore an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially; and
was based on universal, recognisable truths. The notion of style in the arts was not
developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari.[6] The treatises, by the 18th
century, had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English.

In the early nineteenth century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts
(1836) that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he
disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin
believed, was the only ―true Christian form of architecture.‖

The 19th century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture,
published 1849,[7] was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture.
Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men ... that
the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health, power, and pleasure".
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance. His work goes on to state that a
building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned". For
Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses
or rustication, at the very least.

On the difference between the ideals of "architecture" and mere "construction", the
renowned 20th C. architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone, wood, and concrete,
and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity is at
work. But suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is
beautiful. That is Architecture".[8]

Contemporary concepts of architecture

The great 19th century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding
precept to architectural design: "Form follows function".

While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to
functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing
the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as
encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of a building, not only
practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.

Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the
functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own
particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life
without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.'

To restrict the meaning of (architectural) formalism to art for art's sake is not only
reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades
form into a mere instrumentality".[9]

Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to
building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, and

In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of
both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability. To satisfy the
contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is
environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the
natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon
non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management and
Fashion and arts
Art and design were more closely tied at the turn of the twentieth century than they are
today. Artists did not see the difference between creating an original work of art, such as
a painting, and designing a textile pattern that would be reproduced many times over.
Each was a valid creative act in their eyes.

The famed French couturier Paul Poiret moved in artistic circles, employed Parisian
artists, and collected their work. He went to art galleries and showed his artistic
sensibilities by preferring Impressionist paintings at a time when they were new and
unappreciated by the public at large. Poiret became very interested in modern art and
said, "I have always liked painters. It seems to me that we are in the same trade and that
they are my colleagues."

The Fauvist painter Francis Picabia was his friend, and they shared a love of bright color
with other painters Maurice Vlaminck and Andre Derain, whom he knew from sailing
excursions on the Seine in Chatou. Among other artists whose work he collected were
Picasso, Matisse, Dufy, Rouault, and Utrillo.

Poiret also loved the theater and throughout his career designed costumes for the theater
that served as a springboard for his couture designs. He was famous for his parties,
elaborate costume dramas with decorations by modern artists.

Poiret‘s theatrical background explains his great interest in the Ballet Russes, whose first
appearance in Paris in 1909 impressed Poiret so much. With their colorful designs by
Leon Bakst, echoing Russian peasant art, the costumes and sets expressed for Poiret not
only the exoticism celebrated by painters like Picasso, but the appeal of spontaneity, a
concept at the heart of much modern art. Immediately he began including "oriental"
motifs in his dress designs.

The fashion press employed fine artists to illustrate the designs of the day. A new
technique in printing–pochoir–allowed fashion illustrators to show broad, abstract
expanses of bright color and a simple line. Poiret realized its potential from the beginning
and employed printmaker Paul Iribe to illustrate his radically simplified gowns. In 1908
Iribe illustrated ten Poiret gowns in a limited edition titled les Robes de Paul Poiret;
racontées par Paul Iribe.

           Clothing and Textiles
Bedding refers to the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for warmth and
decorative effect. Bedding does not include the mattress, box spring or bed frame. Down
materials are often used for warmth in bedding.

Bedding sizes
Bedding sizes usually are made with the dimensions of the bed and mattress for which it
is to be used in mind. Bed sizes vary considerably around the world, with most countries
having their own standards and terminology.

Furthermore, mattresses have different thicknesses, which must be kept in mind when
designing bedding for a particular bed, especially if they are to be fitted.

Each component part of the overall bedspread is sized specifically to accommodate the
individual specifications; from duvet covers to fitted sheets, everything needs to be
produced with the appropriate dimensions to avoid excessive overhanging or, worse still,
being too small to fit!

To help give you a clearer understanding of the different sizes and dimensions we‘ve
created the following straightforward chart:

                                     UK Bed Sizes

          Bed Measurements       Fitted Sheet    Flat Sheet Duvet Cover
        UK Single
        90 x 190 cm           90 x 190 x 20 cm 180 x 260 cm 135 x 200 cm
        3ft x 6ft 3in.
        Euro Single IKEA size 90 x 200 x 20 cm 180 x 260 cm 135 x 200 cm
        UK Double
        135 x 190 cm          135 x 190 x 20 cm 220 x 260 cm 200 x 200 cm
        4ft 6in x 6ft 3in
        Euro Double IKEA size 140 x 200 x 20 cm 220 x 260 cm 200 x 200 cm
        UK King Size
        150 x 200 cm          150 x 200 x 20 cm 265 x 275 cm 225 x 220 cm
        5ft x 6ft 6in
        Euro King IKEA size 160 x 200 x 20cm 265 x 275 cm 240 x 220 cm
        UK Super King Size
        183 x 200 cm          183 x 200 x 20 cm 280 x 290 cm 260 x 220 cm
        6ft x 6ft 6in

                                   Europe Bed Sizes
        Bed Measurements Fitted Sheet      Flat Sheet Duvet Cover
                        90 x 190 x 20 cm 180 x 260 cm 150 x 200 cm
        90 x 190 cm
                        140 x 200 x 20 cm 220 x 260 cm 200 x 200 cm
        140 x 200 cm
                        160 x 200 x 20 cm 265 x 275 cm 240 x 220 cm
        160 x 200 cm
        Super King
                        200 x 200 x 20 cm 280 x 290 cm 260 x 220 cm
        200 x 200 cm

                         North American Bed Sizes

   Bed Measurements Fitted Sheet Flat Sheet Duvet/Quilt Cover Comforters
   Twin             39‖ x 76‖ x 8‖ 72‖ x 102‖ 59‖ x 79‖       80‖ x 106‖
   Full             54‖ x 76‖ x 8‖ 87‖ x 102‖ 79‖ x 79‖       100‖ x 106‖
   Queen            60‖ x 80‖ x 8‖ 105‖ x 110‖ 88‖ x 86‖      106‖ x 106‖
   King             76‖ x 80‖ x 8‖ 110‖ x 114‖ 102‖ x 86‖     112‖ x 106‖
   Californian King 73‖ x 85‖ x 8‖ 110‖ x 114‖ 102‖ x 86‖     114‖ x 106‖

                           Australian Bed Sizes [1]

        Bed Measurements Fitted Sheet      Flat Sheet Duvet Cover
                        91 x 193 + 40 cm 180 x 254 cm 140 x 210 cm
        91 x 191 cm
                        36 x 76 +16 in    71 x 100 in 55 x 83 in
        36 x 75 in
        King Single
                        107 x 203 + 40 cm 200 x 270 cm 180 x 210 cm
        106 cm x 203 cm
                        42 x 80 + 16 in   79 x 106 in 71 x 83 in
        41 x 80 in
                        137 x 193 + 40 cm 228 x 254 cm 180 x 210 cm
        137 x 191 cm
                        54 x 76 + 16 in   90 x 100 in 71 x 83 in
        54 in × 75 in
                        152 x 203 + 40 cm 245 x 274 cm 210 x 210 cm
        152 x 203 cm
                        60 x 80 + 16 in   97 x 108 in 83 x 83 in
        60 x 80 in
                        182 x 203 + 40 cm 260 x 274 cm 240 x 210 cm
        183 x 203 cm
                        72 x 80 + 16 in   102 x 108 in 95 x 83 in
        72 x 80 in


                  Spanntuch        Spanntuch
Bettabmessungen                                       Betttuch   Steppdeckenbezug
                   standard           tiefe
Einzel                                                     180 x 260
                    90 x 190 x 20 cm 90 x 190 x 26 cm                     150 x 200 cm
90 x 190 cm                                                cm
Doppel              140 x 200 x 20      140 x 200 x 26     220 x 260
                                                                          200 x 200 cm
140 x 200 cm        cm                  cm                 cm
Extragroß           160 x 200 x 20      160 x 200 x 26     265 x 275
                                                                          225 x 220 cm
160 x 200 cm        cm                  cm                 cm
Super Extragroß     200 x 200 x 20      200 x 200 x 26     280 x 290
                                                                          260 x 220 cm
200 x 200 cm        cm                  cm                 cm

Bedding materials
Bedding is made from a variety of materials, including cotton, flannel, down, polysatin,
polyester, satin, silk, wool and latex

Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and
thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic Era. Before
the discovery of spinning yarn or weaving fabric, archaeologists believe Stone Age
people across Europe and Asia sewed fur and skin clothing using bone, antler or ivory
needles and "thread" made of various animal body parts including sinew, catgut, and

Although usually associated with clothing and household linens, sewing is used in a
variety of crafts and industries, including shoemaking, upholstery, sailmaking,
bookbinding and the manufacturing of some kinds of sporting goods. Sewing is the
fundamental process underlying a variety of textile arts and crafts, including embroidery,
tapestry, quilting, appliqué and patchwork.

For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand. The invention of the sewing
machine in the 19th century and the rise of computerization in the later 20th century led
to mass production of sewn objects, but hand sewing is still practiced around the world.
Fine hand sewing is characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, and
custom dressmaking, and is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of
creative expression.

Elements: stitches and seams
Whether the object to be sewn is made of leather, fabric, paper, or plastic, the basic
components of sewing are the same: stitches and seams.

In sewing, a stitch is a single loop of thread brought in-and-out of the fabric in a
particular way.[2] A variety of stitches are used for specific purposes, named according to
the position of the needle and direction of sewing (running stitch, backstitch), the form or
shape of the stitch (chainstitch, feather stitch) or the purpose of the stitch (tailor's tack,
hem stitch).[3]

Basic machine stitches are chainstitch, lockstitch, and overlock. Fancy machine stitches
mimic traditional hand stitches using variations on the basic stitches.[3]

A row of stitches fastening two objects together is called a seam. Seams are classified by
their position in the finished object (center back seam, side seam) and by their
construction (flat-felled seam).[4]

      Plain sewing: The making or mending of clothing or household linens

      Fancy sewing: Also fancywork. Purely decorative techniques such as shirring,
       smocking, and embroidery.

      Heirloom sewing: The imitation of fine hand-sewing and fancywork using a
       sewing machine and purchased trimmings.

Weaving is a textile craft in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced to
form a fabric or cloth. The threads which run lengthways are called the warp and the
threads which run across from side to side are the weft or filling.

Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while
filling threads are woven through them. Weft is an old English word meaning "that which
is woven".[1] A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth (warp threads with a weft
thread winding between) can also be made using tablet weaving techniques.

The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The
majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin
weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be plain (in one colour or a simple pattern), or can be
woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries. Fabric in which the warp
and/or weft is tie-dyed before weaving is called ikat.

Though traditional handweaving and spinning remain popular crafts, nowadays the
majority of commercial fabrics in the West are woven on computer-controlled Jacquard
looms. In the past, simpler fabrics were woven on dobby looms, while the Jacquard
harness adaptation was reserved for more complex patterns. Some believe the efficiency
of the Jacquard loom, with its Jacquard weaving process, makes it more economical for
mills to use them to weave all of their fabrics, regardless of the complexity of the design.

Process and terminology
In general, weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each
other: the warp and the weft (older woof). The warp are held taut and in parallel order,
typically by means of a loom, though some forms of weaving may use other methods.
The loom is warped (or dressed) with the warp threads passing through heddles on two or
more harnesses. The warp threads are moved up or down by the harnesses creating a
space called the shed. The weft thread is wound onto spools called bobbins. The bobbins
are placed in a shuttle that carries the weft thread through the shed.

The raising and lowering sequence of warp threads gives rise to many possible weave

      plain weave,
      twill weave,
      satin weave, and
      complex computer-generated interlacings.

Both warp and weft can be visible in the final product. By spacing the warp more closely,
it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warpfaced textile such as rep
weave. Conversely, if the warp is spread out, the weft can slide down and completely
cover the warp, giving a weftfaced textile, such as a tapestry or a Kilim rug. There are a
variety of loom styles for hand weaving and tapestry. In tapestry, the image is created by
placing weft only in certain warp areas, rather than across the entire warp width.

                 Food and Nutrition
Cooking is the process of preparing food with heat. Cooks select and combine
ingredients using a wide range of tools and methods. In the process, the flavor, texture,
appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients can change. Cooking techniques
and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic,
and cultural traditions. Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training.

Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to humans, and some scientists
believe the advent of cooking played an important role in human evolution.[1] Most
anthropologists believe that cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago. The
development of agriculture, commerce and transportation between civilizations in
different regions offered cooks many new ingredients. New inventions and technologies,
such as pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques. Some
modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation.

History of cooking
There is no clear evidence as to when cooking was invented. Primatologist Richard
Wrangham stated that cooking was invented as far back as 1.8 million to 2.3 million
years ago.[2] Other researchers believe that cooking was invented as late as 40,000 or
10,000 years ago. Evidence of fire is inconclusive as wildfires started by lightning-strikes
are still common in East Africa and other wild areas, and it is difficult to determine as to
when fire was used for cooking, as opposed to just being used for warmth or for keeping
predators away. Most anthropologists contend that cooking fires began in earnest barely
250,000 years ago, when ancient hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones, and flint
appear across Europe and the middle East. Back 2 million years ago, the only sign of fire
is burnt earth with human remains, which most anthropologists consider coincidence
rather than evidence of intentional fire.[citation needed]

However, some Fire-cracked rock, such as that in Central Texas (United States) are
burned rock middens, or enormous piles fire-damaged rock dated to c. 3,500 years ago.
These may represent the remains of earth ovens used in cooking since they contain
evidence of Dasylirion wheeleri bulbs and other plants. In Great Britain similar Neolithic,
Bronze Age and Iron Age features exist, but are commonly called 'burnt mounds'.[3]

Ingredients in cooking
Most ingredients in cooking are derived from living things. Vegetables, fruits, grains and
nuts come from plants, while meat, eggs, and dairy products come from animals.
Mushrooms and the yeast used in baking are kinds of fungi. Cooks also utilize water and
minerals such as salt. Cooks can also use wine, an alcohol-based liquid from the
fermentation of juices of grapes or other fruits.

Naturally occurring ingredients contain various amounts of molecules called proteins,
carbohydrates and fats. They also contain water and minerals. Cooking involves a
manipulation of the chemical properties of these molecules.

Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk, eggs and egg whites, contains
substantial amounts of protein. Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and
seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. These may also be a
source of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become denatured and
change texture. In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer
or more friable - meat becomes cooked. In some cases, proteins can form more rigid
structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites. The formation of a
relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component of
much cake cookery, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue.


Grain products are often baked, and are rich sources of complex and simple
Main article: Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates include the common sugar, sucrose (table sugar), a disaccharide, and such
simple sugars as glucose (from the digestion of table sugar) and fructose (from fruit), and
starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, potato. The interaction of heat
and carbohydrate is complex.

Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into simpler sugars when cooked,
while simple sugars can form syrups. If sugars are heated so that all water of
crystallisation is driven off, then caramelization starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal
decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing
caramel. Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic
flavor-enhancing technique.

An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to
the dish being cooked. In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is
used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces. In Asian cooking, a similar effect is
obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water. These techniques rely on the
properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which
causes the familiar thickening of sauces. This thickening will break down, however,
under additional heat.


Types of fat include vegetable oils and animal products such as butter and lard. Fats can
reach temperatures higher than the boiling point of water, and are often used to conduct
high heat to other ingredients, such as in frying or sautéing.

Cooking often involves water which is frequently present as other liquids, both added in
order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and
released from the foods themselves. Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of
the cooking method used may be based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as
in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising and blanching. Heating liquid in an open
container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining
flavor and ingredients - this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making.

Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins are materials required for normal metabolism but which the body cannot
manufacture itself and which must therefore come from soil. Vitamins come from a
number of sources including fresh fruit and vegetables (Vitamin C), carrots, liver
(Vitamin A), cereal bran, bread, liver e ( B vitamins), fish liver oil (Vitamin D) and fresh
green vegetables (Vitamin K). Many minerals are also essential in small quantities
including iron, calcium, magnesium and sulphur; and in very small quantities copper,
zinc and selenium. The micronutrients, minerals, and vitamins[4] in fruit and vegetables
may be destroyed or eluted by cooking. Vitamin C is especially prone to oxidation during
cooking and may be completely destroyed by protracted cooking.[5]

Methods of cooking
There are very many methods of cooking, most of which have been known since
antiquity. These include baking, roasting, frying, grilling, barbecuing, smoking, boiling,
steaming and braising. A more recent innovation is microwaving. Various methods use
differing levels of heat and moisture and vary in cooking time. The method chosen
greatly affects the end result. Some foods are more appropriate to some methods than
others. Some major hot cooking techniques include:

       Roasting - Barbecuing - Grilling - Rotisserie - Searing

       Baking - Baking Blind - Broiling - Flashbaking

       Boiling - Blanching - Braising - Coddling - Double steaming - Infusion -
       Poaching - Pressure cooking - Simmering - Steaming - Steeping - Stewing -
       Vacuum flask cooking
       Frying - Deep frying - Hot salt frying - Hot sand frying - Pan frying - Pressure
       frying - Sautéing - Stir frying

       Food smoking

Nutrition (also called nourishment or aliment) is the provision, to cells and organisms,
of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health
problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.

Nutrition science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to
diet. With advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics, the
study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and metabolic pathways: the
sequences of biochemical steps through which substances in living things change from
one form to another.

Nitrogen is needed by animals to build proteins. Carnivore and herbivore diets vary in
their source of nitrogen, which is a limiting nutrient for both. Herbivores consume plants
to get nitrogen and carnivores consume other animals to obtain nitrogen.[1] Nitrogen is a
common element in the atmosphere but exists in a state that is not usable by most living
organisms. Certain fungi and bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a
form plants can absorb and utilize.

The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar,
starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids
(DNA and RNA). These compounds in turn consist of elements such as carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese,
and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and
combinations (e.g. hormones, vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the
human body and in the plant and animal organisms that humans eat.

The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and
circulated through the bloodstream to feed the cells of the body. Except in the unborn
fetus, which receive processed nutrients from the mother, the digestive system is the first
system involved in breaking down food prior to further digestion. Digestive juices,
excreted into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, break chemical bonds in ingested
molecules, and modulate their conformations and energy states. Though some molecules
are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the
matrix of foods. Unabsorbed matter, along with some waste products of metabolism, is
eliminated from the body in the feces.

Studies of nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after
experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the whole diet and of all material
excreted and eliminated from the body (in urine and feces). Comparing the food to the
waste can help determine the specific compounds and elements absorbed and
metabolized in the body. The effects of nutrients may only be discernible over an
extended period, during which all food and waste must be analyzed. The number of
variables involved in such experiments is high, making nutritional studies time-
consuming and expensive, which explains why the science of human nutrition is still
slowly evolving.

In general, eating a wide variety of fresh, whole (unprocessed), foods has proven
favorable for one's health compared to monotonous diets based on processed foods.

In particular, the consumption of whole-plant foods slows digestion and allows better
absorption, and a more favorable balance of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in
better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as
better regulation of appetite and blood sugar.[2] Regularly scheduled meals (every few
hours) have also proven more wholesome than infrequent or haphazard ones,[3] although
a recent study has also linked more frequent meals with a higher risk of colon cancer in

There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fats, minerals,
protein, vitamins, and water.

These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively
large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients
include carbohydrates, fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and

The macronutrients (excluding water) provide structural material (amino acids from
which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling
molecules are built), and energy. Some of the structural material can be used to generate
energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories (often called
"Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories).
Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram,
while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram.,[5] though the net energy from either depends
on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance
to instance. Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water provide energy, but are required for
other reasons. A third class of dietary material, fiber (i.e., non-digestible material such as
cellulose), is also required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the
exact reasons remain unclear.

Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to
complex polysaccharides (starch and fiber). Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty
acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential
because they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen and
often sulfur in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components
of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential. Some of the
amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose in a process
known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be
produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in
urine[citation needed]. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.[citation needed]

Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to
influence (or protect) some body systems. Their necessity is not as well established as it
is for vitamins and minerals.

Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other
substances, such as toxins of various sorts. Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g.,
the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously. Poor health
can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required
nutrient. For example, both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or
even death in excessive amounts.

                General Works
Etiquette (pronounced /ˈɛtɨkɛt/ or /ˈɛtɨkɪt/) is a code of behavior that delineates
expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a
society, social class, or group. The French word étiquette, literally signifying tag or label
first appeared in English around 1750.[1]

Like culture, etiquette is a word that has gradually grown to become plural, especially in
a multi-ethnic society with many clashing expectations. Thus, it is now possible to refer
to "an etiquette" or "a culture", realizing that these may not be universal. In Britain, the
word "etiquette" has been described as the one word that aptly describes life during the
reign of queen Victoria.[2]

Rules of etiquette
Rules of etiquette encompass most aspects of social interaction in any society, though the
term itself is not commonly used. A rule of etiquette may reflect an underlying ethical
code, or it may reflect a person's fashion or status. Rules of etiquette are usually
unwritten, but aspects of etiquette have been codified from time to time.


Manners involve a wide range of social interactions within cultural norms as in the
"comedy of manners", or a painter's characteristic "manner". Etiquette and manners, like
mythology, have buried histories especially when they seem to have little obvious
purpose, and their justifications as logical ("respect shown to others" etc.) may be equally
revealing to the social historian.

In the United States, the notion of etiquette, being of French origin and arising from
practices at the court of Louis XIV, is occasionally disparaged, especially by those
unfamiliar with etiquette's social foundations and functions, as old-fashioned or elite, a
code concerned only with apparently remote directives such as "which fork to use". Some
such individuals consider etiquette to be an unnecessary restriction of freedom of
personal expression; others consider such a philosophy to be espoused only by the
unschooled, the unmannerly and the rude. For instance, wearing pajamas to a wedding in
a cathedral may indeed be an expression of the guest's freedom, but also may cause the
bride and groom to suspect that the guest in pajamas is expressing amusement,
disparagement, or disrespect towards them and their wedding. Etiquette may be enforced
in pragmatic ways: "No shoes, no shirt, no service" is a notice commonly displayed
outside stores and cafés in the warmer parts of North America. Others feel that a single,
basic code shared by all makes life simpler and more pleasant by removing many chances
for misunderstandings and by creating opportunities for courtesy and mutual respect.

An example for a company offering etiquette and manners advice is Debrett's. Founded
in England in 1769, its origins were in chronicling the British aristocracy and outlining
the protocol for court and social occasions. The twenty first century Debrett's is much
more contemporary and egalitarian, offering advice on a whole range of formal and
informal etiquette on its comprehensive website and in printed form. Indeed their guides
to manners and form have long been the last word among polite society. Traditional
publications such as Correct Form have recently been updated to reflect contemporary
society, and new titles such as A - Z of Modern Manners, Etiquette for Girls and Guide
for the Modern Gentleman act as guides for those who want to combine a modern
lifestyle with traditional values.
Western office and business etiquette

The etiquette of business is the set of written and unwritten rules of conduct that make
social interactions run more smoothly. Office etiquette in particular applies to coworker
interaction, excluding interactions with external contacts such as customers and suppliers.
When conducting group meetings in the United States, the assembly might follow
Robert's Rules of Order, if there are no other company policies to control a meeting.

Both office and business etiquette overlap considerably with basic tenets of netiquette,
the social conventions for using computer networks. These rules are often echoed
throughout an industry or economy. For instance, 49% of employers surveyed in 2005 by
the American National Association of Colleges and Employers found that non-traditional
attire would be a "strong influence" on their opinion of a potential job candidate.[3]

Adjusting to foreign etiquettes is a major complement of culture shock, providing a
market for manuals.[4]

Table manners
Table manners are the rules of etiquette used while eating, which may also include the
appropriate use of utensils. Different cultures observe different rules for table manners.
Each family or group sets its own standards for how strictly these rules are to be

Chopstick usage
      Chopsticks should always be held correctly, i.e. between the thumb and first two
       fingers of the right hand.
      When not in use, chopsticks must always be placed neatly on the table with two
       sticks lying tidily next to each other at both ends. Failure to do so is evocative of
       the way the dead would be placed in a coffin before the funeral and is a major
       faux pas.
      Chopsticks are traditionally held in the right hand only, even for the left-handed.
       Although chopsticks may now be found in either hand, a few still consider left-
       handed chopstick use improper etiquette. One explanation for the treatment of
       such usage as improper is that within the confines of a round table this may be
      Never point the chopsticks at another person. This amounts to insulting that
       person and is a major faux pas.
      Never wave your chopsticks around as if they were an extension of your hand
      Never bang chopsticks like drumsticks. This is akin to telling others at the table
       you are a beggar.
      Never use chopsticks to move bowls or plates.
      Never suck the chopsticks.
      Decide what to pick up before reaching with chopsticks, instead of hovering them
       over or rummaging through dishes.
      To keep chopsticks off the table, they can be rested horizontally on one's plate or
       bowl; a chopstick rest (commonly found in restaurants) can also be used.
      When picking up a piece of food, never use the tips of your chopsticks to
       penetrate the food as with a fork; exceptions include tearing apart larger items
       such as vegetables. In more informal settings, smaller items or those more
       difficult to pick up such as cherry tomatoes or fishballs may be stabbed, but this is
       frowned upon by traditionalists.
      Never stab chopsticks vertically into a bowl of rice, as this resembles incense
       sticks used at temples to pay respects to the deceased. This is considered the
       ultimate dinner table faux pas.

Communal chopsticks

      When there are communal chopsticks, it is considered impolite to use your own
       chopsticks to pick up the food from the shared plate, or to eat using the communal
      It is considered impolite to use the blunt end of one's own chopsticks to transfer
       food from a common dish to one's own plate or bowl; use the communal
       chopsticks instead.
      When communal chopsticks are not provided, it is considered polite (and sanitary)
       to use the blunt end of one's own chopsticks to serve a guest by transferring food
       from the common dish to a guest's plate or bowl.
      An exception to the above can usually be made in intimate settings such as at

Other utensils

      If noodle soup is served, many consider a more elegant way to eat by picking the
       noodle into a serving spoon first, and eating from the spoon, rather than slurping
       directly from the bowl into the mouth using chopsticks.
      Chinese traditionally eat rice from a small bowl held in the left hand, however by
       no means is this good etiquette. It is believed this is the way most people eat but
       not at all an indication of how it should be done. The rice bowl is raised to the
       mouth and the rice pushed into the mouth using the chopsticks. Some Chinese
       find it offensive to scoop rice from the bowl using a spoon. If rice is served on a
       plate, as is more common in the West, it is acceptable and more practical to eat it
       with a fork or spoon. The thumb must always be above the edge of the bowl.

Eating from common dishes
      Pick the food on the dish that is at the top and nearest to you in distance. Never
       rummage through the dish or pick from the far side for your favorite food.
      In general, more conservative Chinese frown upon the practice of picking more
       than one or two bites of food in your bowl or serving plate as if you were eating in
       the Western way. Most Chinese would understand the practice during infectious
       disease epidemics, or if the person is from the West.
      If both a serving bowl - separate from rice bowl - and plate are provided, never
       put any food items to be eaten onto the serving plate. This rule may be relaxed for
      If a dish is soupy, pull the serving bowl near the serving dish and reduce the
       distance the chopsticks need carrying the food. Spilling plenty of sauce on the
       table is a major faux pas.
      After you have picked up a food item, do not put it back in the dish.

Seniority and guests at the table
      The elderly or guest(s) of honour are usually the first to start the meal.
      The youngest or least senior may serve the eldest or most senior first, as part of
       the Confucian value of respecting seniors.
      The youngest on the table addresses all of the elder members at the table before
       starting, perhaps telling them to please "eat rice" as a signal to help themselves.
      The best food in a dish should be left to the elderly, children, or the guest of
       honour, even if they are one's favourite.
      The eldest person present, or the guest of honour, is given a seat facing the door.
      When the hostess says her food is not good enough, the guest must disagree and
       tell her it is one of the finest foods they have ever tasted.

      The host should always make sure everyone's cups are not empty for long. One
       should not pour for oneself, but if thirsty should first offer to pour for a neighbor.
       When your drink is being poured, you should say "thank you", and/or tap your
       index and middle finger on the table to show appreciation, especially when you
       are in Southern China, e.g. Guangdong Province. This action is evocative of
       bowing your head.
      When people wish to clink drinks together in the form of a cheer, it is important
       to observe that younger members should clink the rim of their glass below the rim
       of an elder's to show respect.
      Strong alcohol, called baijiu, is often served throughout the meal; and it is
       customary for the host[s]/hostess[es] to insist that guests drink to "show
       friendship". If the guests prefers not to drink, they may say, "I'm unable to drink,
       but thank you". [in Mandarin: "Wo bu neng he jiu, xie xie".] The host may
       continue to insist that the guests drink, and the guests may likewise continue to
       insist upon being "unable" to drink. The host's insistence is to show generosity.
       Therefore, refusal by the guests should be made with utmost politeness. Beware:
       If a guest drinks alcohol with a subordinate at the table, the guest will be expected
       [if not forced] to drink a glass of the same alcohol with each superior at that table,
       and possibly at other tables too—if the guest has not passed out yet.
      The phrase "gan bei" is used to toast. Literally translated into English, "gan bei"
       means dry cup, meaning all the alcohol is consumed. Watch other guests to verify
      if everyone is drinking the entire glass or only taking sips. You may be expected
      to drink the entire glass of alcohol if small thimble sized glasses are provided.

     Smoking in China is extremely prevalent, especially among men. During meals,
      the host will sometimes pass out cigarettes to all the men around the table. If a
      guest prefers not to smoke, she/he should politely refuse. In Mandarin, one could
              不 菸 謝
      say, "我 抽 , 謝 " (Wo bu chou yan, xie xie).

Business meals
     During business meals, it is best not to eat to the point of satiation, as business
      and not food is the actual main purpose of the gathering.

     In the past, some people tended to sit at least 1 metre (3 chi) from the dining table
      so they would not be literally rubbing elbows with other guests. Nowadays, this
      practice is rarely observed.
     When eating food that contains bones, it is common for the bones be spat out onto
      the table next to one's plate. Spitting bones onto the floor is almost never
     Belching, smacking, and slurping are common.
     By Western standards, the conversations during meals often are quite loud and
     Treatment of staff at restaurants is somewhat "rough", with waiters/waitresses
      often being advised by patrons to 快 (kuai dian), which means "hurry up".
     Talking with a full mouth and eating with the elbows on the table are both very
      common, and tasting food from a table guest's plate is also not uncommon.[1]


     Wait to be asked before moving into the dining room or helping yourself to food.
     Wait to be told where to sit. There may be a seating plan.
     The head of the household, usually the father, or the guest of honor is usually
      seated at the head of the table.
     It is polite to wait for the host to invite you to start eating before doing so.
     When one is offered by the host to try some food, refusing to consume the food
      offered is considered highly offensive. Although to some, it can be a sign of
     Guests are often served first and offered second or third helpings.
     Never place your elbows on the table.
     Meals are often served family-style or buffet-style where you serve yourself.
      A fork and spoon are the typical eating utensils. The fork is held in the left hand
       and is used it to guide food, especially rice, to the spoon held in the right hand.
       The fork is also used to cut the food.
      Eating with your hands in casual settings is acceptable and more common than
      Normally the head of the family recites a prayer before passing around food to be
      If you and someone else want to get a serving of food, let the other go first.
      Never play with your food, or else the host may think that the food isn't good
      Always use a serving spoon.
      When you have completed your meal, always place your fork and spoon together
       with the tines of the fork and spoon facing up on your plate.
      Consume all food on your plate, as this indicates that you love the food served.
      Do not use the spoon and fork as drumsticks, as you can be seen as childish by
       adults, elders, and sometimes even children.
      Always pour drinks for the ones that are older, especially elders.
      After the meal, it's normal for guests to help clean up the table.

                 Home Economics
Eugenics is the "applied science or the biosocial movement which advocates the use of
practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population," usually referring
to human populations.[2] The word has almost as many meanings as there are discussions
of the subject. Eugenics was widely popular in the early decades of the 20th century,[3]
but has fallen into disfavor after having become associated with Nazi Germany and with
the discovery of molecular evolution[citation needed]. Since the postwar period, both the
public and the scientific communities have associated eugenics with Nazi abuses, such as
enforced racial hygiene, human experimentation, and the extermination of "undesired"
population groups. However, developments in genetic, genomic, and reproductive
technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised many new questions and concerns
about the meaning of eugenics and its ethical and moral status in the modern era.

As a social movement, eugenics reached its height of popularity in the early decades of
the 20th century. By the end of World War II eugenics had been largely abandoned.[4]
Although current trends in genetics have raised questions amongst critical academics
concerning parallels between pre-war attitudes about eugenics and current "utilitarian"
and social theories allegedly related to Darwinism,[5] they are, in fact, only superficially
related and somewhat contradictory to one another.[6] At its pre-war height, the
movement often pursued pseudoscientific notions of racial supremacy and purity.[7]

Eugenics was practiced around the world and was promoted by governments, and
influential individuals and institutions. Its advocates regarded it as a social philosophy for
the improvement of human hereditary traits through the promotion of higher reproduction
of certain people and traits, and the reduction of reproduction of other people and traits.[8]

Today it is widely regarded as a brutal movement which inflicted massive human rights
violations on millions of people.[9] The "interventions" advocated and practiced by
eugenicists involved prominently the identification and classification of individuals and
their families, including the poor, mentally ill, blind, deaf, promiscuous women,
homosexuals and entire racial groups -- such as the Roma and Jews -- as "degenerate" or
"unfit"; the segregation or institutionalisation of such individuals and groups, their
sterilization, euthanasia, and in the extreme case of Nazi Germany, their mass

The practices engaged in by eugenicists involving violations of privacy, attacks on
reputation, violations of the right to life, to found a family, to freedom from
discrimination are all today classified as violations of human rights. The practice of
negative racial aspects of eugenics, after World War II, fell within the definition of the
new international crime of genocide, set out in the Convention on the Prevention and
Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.[11]

The modern field and term were first formulated by Sir Francis Galton in 1883,[12]
drawing on the recent work of his half-cousin Charles Darwin.[13][14] At its peak of
popularity eugenics was supported by prominent people, including Margaret
Sanger,[15][16] Marie Stopes, H. G. Wells, Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, Emile
Zola, George Bernard Shaw, John Maynard Keynes, John Harvey Kellogg, Linus
Pauling[17] and Sidney Webb.[18][19][20] Its most infamous proponent and practitioner was,
however, Adolf Hitler who praised and incorporated eugenic ideas in Mein Kampf and
emulated Eugenic legislation for the sterilization of "defectives" that had been pioneered
in the United States.[21]

G. K. Chesterton was an early critic of the philosophy of eugenics, expressing this
opinion in his book, Eugenics and Other Evils. Eugenics became an academic discipline
at many colleges and universities, and received funding from many sources.[22] Three
International Eugenics Conferences presented a global venue for eugenicists with
meetings in 1912 in London, and in 1921 and 1932 in New York. Eugenic policies were
first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States.[23] Later, in the 1920s and 30s,
the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in a variety of
other countries, including Belgium,[24] Brazil,[25] Canada,[26] and Sweden,[27] among
others. The scientific reputation of eugenics started to decline in the 1930s, a time when
Ernst Rüdin used eugenics as a justification for the racial policies of Nazi Germany, and
when proponents of eugenics among scientists and thinkers prompted a backlash in the
public. Nevertheless, In Sweden the eugenics program continued until 1975.[27]
Since the postwar period, both the public and the scientific communities have associated
eugenics with Nazi abuses, such as enforced racial hygiene, human experimentation, and
the extermination of "undesired" population groups. However, developments in genetic,
genomic, and reproductive technologies at the end of the 20th century have raised many
new questions and concerns about what exactly constitutes the meaning of eugenics and
what its ethical and moral status is in the modern era.

Meanings and types
The word eugenics derives from the Greek word eu (good or well) and the suffix -genēs
(born), and was coined by Sir Francis Galton in 1883, who defined it as "the study of all
agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future
generations".[28] Eugenics has, from the very beginning, meant many different things to
many different people. Historically, the term has referred to everything from prenatal care
for mothers to forced sterilization and euthanasia. To population geneticists the term has
included the avoidance of inbreeding without necessarily altering allele frequencies, for
example J. B. S. Haldane wrote that "the motor bus, by breaking up inbred village
communities, was a powerful eugenic agent."[29] Much debate has taken place in the past,
as it does today, as to what exactly counts as eugenics.[30] Some types of eugenics deal
only with perceived beneficial and/or detrimental genetic traits. These are sometimes
called ―pseudo-eugenics‘ by proponents of strict eugenics.

The term eugenics is often used to refer to movements and social policies influential
during the early 20th century. In a historical and broader sense, eugenics can also be a
study of "improving human genetic qualities." It is sometimes broadly applied to describe
any human action whose goal is to improve the gene pool. Some forms of infanticide in
ancient societies, present-day reprogenetics, preemptive abortions and designer babies
have been (sometimes controversially) referred to as eugenic. Because of its normative
goals and historical association with scientific racism, as well as the development of the
science of genetics, the western scientific community has mostly disassociated itself from
the term "eugenics", although one can find advocates of what is now known as liberal
eugenics. Despite its ongoing criticism in the United States, several regions globally
practice different forms of eugenics.

Eugenicists advocate specific policies that (if successful) they believe will lead to a
perceived improvement of the human gene pool. Since defining what improvements are
desired or beneficial is perceived by many as a cultural choice rather than a matter that
can be determined objectively (e.g., by empirical, scientific inquiry), eugenics has often
been deemed a pseudoscience.[31] The most disputed aspect of eugenics has been the
definition of "improvement" of the human gene pool, such as what is a beneficial
characteristic and what is a defect. This aspect of eugenics has historically been tainted
with scientific racism.

Early eugenicists were mostly concerned with perceived intelligence factors that often
correlated strongly with social class. Many eugenicists took inspiration from the selective
breeding of animals (where purebreds are often strived for) as their analogy for
improving human society. The mixing of races (or miscegenation) was usually
considered as something to be avoided in the name of racial purity. At the time this
concept appeared to have some scientific support, and it remained a contentious issue
until the advanced development of genetics led to a scientific consensus that the division
of the human species into unequal races is unjustifiable.

Eugenics has also been concerned with the elimination of hereditary diseases such as
hemophilia and Huntington's disease. However, there are several problems with labeling
certain factors as genetic defects. In many cases there is no scientific consensus on what a
genetic defect is. It is often argued that this is more a matter of social or individual
choice. What appears to be a genetic defect in one context or environment may not be so
in another. This can be the case for genes with a heterozygote advantage, such as sickle-
cell disease or Tay-Sachs disease, which in their heterozygote form may offer an
advantage against, respectively, malaria and tuberculosis. Although some birth defects
are uniformly lethal, disabled persons can succeed in life. Many of the conditions early
eugenicists identified as inheritable (pellagra is one such example) are currently
considered to be at least partially, if not wholly, attributed to environmental conditions.
Similar concerns have been raised when a prenatal diagnosis of a congenital disorder
leads to abortion (see also preimplantation genetic diagnosis).

Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories. Positive eugenics is
aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged. Possible
approaches include financial and political stimuli, targeted demographic analyses, in vitro
fertilization, egg transplants, and cloning.[32] Negative eugenics is aimed at lowering
fertility among the genetically disadvantaged. This includes abortions, sterilization, and
other methods of family planning.[32] Both positive and negative eugenics can be
coercive. Abortion by fit women was illegal in Nazi Germany[33] and in the Soviet Union
during Joseph Stalin's reign.[citation needed]

During the 20th century, many countries enacted various eugenics policies and programs,
including: genetic screening, birth control, promoting differential birth rates, marriage
restrictions, segregation (both racial segregation and segregation of the mentally ill from
the rest of the population), compulsory sterilization, forced abortions or forced
pregnancies and genocide. Most of these policies were later regarded as coercive and/or
restrictive, and now few jurisdictions implement policies that are explicitly labeled as
eugenic or unequivocally eugenic in substance. However, some private organizations
assist people in genetic counseling, and reprogenetics may be considered as a form of
non-state-enforced liberal eugenics.

Implementation methods

There are three main ways by which the methods of eugenics can be applied.[citation needed]
One is mandatory eugenics or authoritarian eugenics, in which the government mandates
a eugenics program. Policies and/or legislation are often seen as being coercive and
restrictive. Another is promotional voluntary eugenics, in which eugenics is voluntarily
practiced and promoted to the general population, but not officially mandated. This is a
form of non-state enforced eugenics, using a liberal or democratic approach, which can
mostly be seen in the 1900s.[34] The third is private eugenics, which is practiced
voluntarily by individuals and groups, but not promoted to the general population.

Notable proponents
Charles Davenport, a scientist from the United States, stands out as history's leading
eugenicist. He took eugenics from a scientific idea to a worldwide movement
implemented in many countries.[35] Davenport obtained funding to establish the
Biological Experiment Station at Cold Spring Harbor in 1904[36] and the Eugenics
Records Office in 1910, which provided the scientific basis for later Eugenic policies.[37]
He became the first President of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations
(IFEO) in 1925, an organization he was instrumental in building.[38] However,
Davenport's racist views were not supported by all geneticists at Cold Spring Harbor.[39]

In 1932 Davenport welcomed Ernst Rüdin, a prominent Swiss eugenicist and race
scientist, as his successor in the position of President of the IFEO.[40] Rüdin worked
closely with Alfred Ploetz, his brother-in-law and co-founder with him of the German
Society for the Racial Hygiene.[41] Other prominent figures in the Eugenics included
Harry Laughlin (United States), Havelock Ellis (United Kingdom), Irving Fischer (United
States), Eugen Fischer (Germany), Madison Grant (United States), Lucien Howe (United
States), and Margaret Sanger (United States, founder of Planned Parenthood).[42]

Euthenics deals with human improvement through altering external factors such as
education and the controllable environment, including the prevention and removal of
contagious disease and parasites, environmentalism, education regarding home
economics, sanitation, and housing.

The term was derived in the late 19th century from the Greek verb "euthenein": "thrive",
"flourish". Ellen Swallow Richards (1842–1911) was one of the first writers to use the
term, in The Cost of Shelter (1905), with the meaning "the science of better living".

Euthenics is distinguished from eugenics primarily in that the latter is concerned with the
improvement of the human species through the manipulation of genetic inheritance
(using various techniques of selective breeding), while euthenics is concerned with
uninheritable improvements in human beings at a particular time and place, though this
can have genetic consequences. For example, while eugenics would typically deal with
the problem of an inheritable disease such as thalassemia by sterilising sufferers, or by
limiting their reproductive rights through legislation, euthenics would approach the
problem through allocating more resources to screening for the disease and by education,
giving sufferers the chance to make informed decisions about whether or not to have

The result of the euthenics approach would thus have long-term, genetic effects, but
would achieve them very differently from eugenics.

Many who support eugenics believe that euthenics is ultimately pointless, or at least less
effective than eugenics, because it deals with the consequences of a problem rather than
the problem itself. Those who support euthenics argue that eugenic approaches work by
taking choices – and especially reproductive choices – away from people, while euthenics
allows people to make better-informed decisions, as in the example of genetic diseases.

                Home Management
Personal budget
A personal budget is a finance plan that allocates future personal income towards
expenses, savings and debt repayment. Past spending and personal debt are considered
when creating a personal budget. There are several methods and tools available for
creating, using and adjusting a personal budget.

Sample budget
A budget allocates or distributes expected income to expected expenses and intended
savings. The following sample illustrates how income might be allocated.

                                                            Annual           Monthly
                 Category                    Percentage
                                                            Amount           Amount
Total Income

Net Spendable
Percentages below are for percent of Net
Net Spendable
Debt Repayment
Entertainment and Recreation

Average annual expenses (2007) per household in the United States are:[1]

                                                   % Change 05-            % Change 06-
        Category              2005     2006     2007
                                                      06                       07
Food at home                 3,297 3,417 3,465 3.6                        1.4
Food away from home          2,634 2,697 2,668 2.3                        -1.0
Housing                      15,167 16,366 16,920 7.9                     3.4
Apparel and services         1,886 1,874 1,881 7.9                        3.4
Transportation               8,344 8,508 8,758 2.0                        2.9
Health Care                  2,664 2,766 2,853 3.8                        3.1
Entertainment                2,388 2,376 2,698 -0.5                       13.6
Personal Insurance and
                             5,204    5,270    5,336    1.3               1.3
Other Expenditures           4,823 5,129 5,060 6.3                        -1.3
     Avg. annual Exp.        $46,409 $48,398 $49,638          4.3%               2.6%

Several tools are helpful for constructing a personal budget. Regardless of the tool used, a
budget's accuracy is only as good as the accuracy of the updated budget data; an old
budget that does not reflect actual income or expenses is of little use to a current budget.
Computer generated budgets have become commonly used as they replace the need to
rewrite and recalculate the budget every time there is a change.

Pencil and paper

A simple budget can be written on a piece of a paper with a pencil, and optionally, a
calculator. Such budgets can be organized in three-ring binders or a file cabinet. Simpler
still are the pre-formatted household budgeting or bookkeeping forms that creates a
budget by filling in the blanks.

Spreadsheet software
Spreadsheet software, including Microsoft Excel, iWork Numbers or
Calc, helps to arrange budgets according to need and performs calculations easily with
rudimentary formulas. For example, budget spreadsheets are used to keep track of income
and expenses. The major reason most people discontinue using budget spreadsheets that
don't offer date-shifting is that the information needs to be reentered or moved at the end
of each month. Spreadsheets are still excellent for complex budgets and planning.

Money-management software

Some software is written specifically for money management. Products such as
Moneydance, Quicken, Microsoft Money(discontinued), and GnuCash are designed to
keep track of individual account information, such as checking, savings or money-market
accounts. These programs can categorize past expenses and display monthly reports that
are useful for budgeting future months.

Money-management websites

Several websites, such as and Thrive, have been devised to help manage
personal finances. Some may have a privacy policy governing the use and sharing of
supplied financial information.

Spending-management software

Spending-management software is a variation of money-management software. Unlike
typical budgeting that allocates future personal income towards expenses, savings and
debt repayment, this type of software utilizes a known amount of money, the cash on
hand, to give the user information regarding what's left to spend in the current month.
This method eliminates some of the guess work associated with forecasting what a person
might receive for income when it comes to allocating budgeted money. Like money-
management software, some spending-management software packages can connect to
online bank accounts in order to retrieve a current status report.

Personal budgeting, while not particularly difficult, tends to carry a negative connotation
among many consumers. Sticking to a few basic concepts helps to avoid several common
pitfalls of budgeting.


A budget should have a purpose or defined goal that is achieved within a certain time
period. Knowing the source and amount of income and the amounts allocated to expense
events are as important as when those cash flow events occur.

The more complicated the budgeting process is, the less likely a person is to keep up with
it. The purpose of a personal budget is to identify where income and expenditure is
present in the common household; it is not to identify each individual purchase ahead of
time. How simplicity is defined with regards to the use of budgeting categories varies
from family to family, but many small purchases can generally be lumped into one
category (Car, Household items, etc.).


The budgeting process is designed to be flexible; the consumer should have an
expectation that a budget will change from month to month, and will require monthly
review. Cost overruns in one category of a budget should in the next month be accounted
for or prevented. For example, if a family spends $40 more than they planned on food in
spite of their best efforts, next month's budget should reflect an approximate $40 increase
and corresponding decrease in other parts of the budget.

"Busting the budget" is a common pitfall in personal budgeting; frequently busting the
budget can allow consumers to fall into pre-budgeting spending habits. Anticipating
budget-busting events (and underspending in other categories), and modifying the budget
accordingly, allows consumers a level of flexibility with their incomes and expenses.

Budgeting for irregular income

Special precautions need to be taken for families operating on an irregular income.
Households with an irregular income should keep two common major pitfalls in mind
when planning their finances: spending more than their average income, and running out
of money even when income is on average.

Clearly, a household's need to estimate their average (yearly) income is paramount;
spending, which will be relatively constant, needs to be maintained below that amount. A
budget being an approximate estimation, room for error should always be allowed so
keeping expenses 5% or 10% below the estimated income is a prudent approach. When
done correctly, households should end any given year with about 5% of their income left
over. Of course, the better the estimates, the better the results will be.

To avoid running out of money because expenses occur before the money actually arrives
(known as a cash flow problem in business jargon) a "safety cushion" of excess cash (to
cover those months when actual income is below estimations) should be established.
There is no easy way to develop a safety cushion, so families frequently have to spend
less than they earn until they have accumulated a cushion. This can be a challenging task
particularly when starting during a low spot in the earning cycle, although this is how
most budgets begin. In general, households that start out with expenses that are 5% or
10% below their average income should slowly develop a cushion of savings that can be
accessed when earnings are below average. Whether this rate of building a cushion is fast
enough for a given financial situation depends on how variable income is, and whether
the budgeting process starts at a high or low point during the earnings cycle.
The household is "the basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption,
inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out"; [the household]
"may or may not be synonymous with family".[1]

The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and
government models. The term refers to all individuals who live in the same dwelling.

In economics, a household is a person or a group of people living in the same residence.[2]

Most economic models do not address whether the members of a household are a family
in the traditional sense. Government and policy discussions often treat the terms
household and family as synonymous, especially in western societies where the nuclear
family has become the most common family structure.[dubious – discuss] In reality, there is not
always a one-to-one relationship between households and families.

For statistical purposes in the United Kingdom, a household is defined as "one person or
a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and for a
group, either share at least one meal a day or share the living accommodation, that is, a
living room or sitting room" National Statistics.

The United States Census definition similarly turns on "separate living quarters", i.e.
"those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the
building"[3] A householder in the U.S. census is the "person (or one of the people) in
whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained);" if no person qualifies,
any adult resident of a housing unit is a householder. The U.S. government formerly used
the term head of the household and head of the family to describe householders;
beginning in 1980, these terms were officially dropped from the census and replaced with

The official definition is clearer:

A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a
house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied
(or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living
quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons
in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a
common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or
more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who
share living arrangements. (People not living in households are classified as living in
group quarters.)
According to Statistics Canada, since July 15, 1998, "a household is generally defined as
being composed of a person or group of persons who co-reside in, or occupy, a

Economic theories
Most economic theories assume there is only one income stream to a household; this a
useful simplification for modeling, but does not necessarily reflect reality. Many
households now include multiple income-earning members.

In Social Work the household is a residential grouping defined similarly to the above in
which housework is divided and performed by householders. Care may be delivered by
one householder to another, depending upon their respective needs, abilities, and perhaps
disabilities. Different household compositions may lead to differential life & health
expectations & outcomes for household members.[7][8] Eligibility for certain community
services and welfare benefits may depend upon household composition.[9]

In Sociology 'household work strategy', a term coined by Ray Pahl,[10][11] is the division
of labour between members of a household, whether implicit or the result of explicit
decision–making, with the alternatives weighed up in a simplified type of cost-benefit
analysis. It is a plan for the relative deployment of household members' time between the
three domains of employment: i) in the market economy, including home-based self-
employment second jobs, in order to obtain money to buy goods and services in the
market; ii) domestic production work, such as cultivating a vegetable patch or raising
chickens, purely to supply food to the household; and iii) domestic consumption work to
provide goods and services directly within the household, such as cooking meals, child–
care, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts. Household work
strategies may vary over the life-cycle, as household members age, or with the economic
environment; they may be imposed by one person or be decided collectively.[12]

Feminism examines the ways that gender roles affect the division of labour within
households. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in The Second Shift and The Time Bind
presents evidence that in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about
equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework.[13][14]
Feminist writer Cathy Young responds to Hochschild's assertions by arguing that in some
cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting.[15]

Household models
Household models in anglophone culture include the family and varieties of blended
families, share housing, and group homes for people with support needs. Other models of
living situations which may meet definitions of a household include boarding houses, a
house in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US).
Historical households
In feudal or aristocratic societies, a household may include servants or retainers, whether
or not they are explicitly so named. Their roles may blur the line between a family
member and an employee. In such cases, they ultimately derive their income from the
household's principal income.

Time management
Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to manage time
when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. This set encompasses a wide
scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation,
analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, and prioritizing. Initially, time
management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term
broadened to include personal activities as well. A time management system is a designed
combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods. Usually time management is a
necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion time and

Stephen R. Covey has offered a categorization scheme for the hundreds of time
management approaches that they reviewed:

      First generation: reminders based on clocks and watches, but with computer
       implementation possible; can be used to alert a person when a task is to be done.
      Second generation: planning and preparation based on calendar and appointment
       books; includes setting goals.
      Third generation: planning, prioritizing, controlling (using a personal organizer,
       other paper-based objects, or computer or PDA-based systems) activities on a
       daily basis. This approach implies spending some time in clarifying values and
      Fourth generation: being efficient and proactive using any of the above tools;
       places goals and roles as the controlling element of the system and favors
       importance over urgency.[1][2]

Time management literature can be paraphrased as follows:

      "Get Organized" - paperwork and task triage
      "Protect Your Time" - insulate, isolate, delegate
      "Set gravitational goals" - that attract actions automatically
      "Achieve through Goal management Goal Focus" - motivational emphasis
      "Work in Priority Order" - set goals and prioritize
      "Use Magical Tools to Get More Out of Your Time" - depends on when written
      "Master the Skills of Time Management"
      "Go with the Flow" - natural rhythms, Eastern philosophy
      "Recover from Bad Time Habits" - recovery from underlying psychological
       problems, e.g. procrastination

More unconventional time usage techniques, such as those discussed in "Where Did Time
Fly,"[3] include concepts that can be paraphrased as "Less is More," which de-emphasizes
the importance of squeezing every minute of your time, as suggested in traditional time
management schemes.

In recent years, several authors have discussed time management as applied to the issue
of digital information overload, in particular, Tim Ferriss with "The 4 hour workweek",[4]
and Stefania Lucchetti with "The Principle of Relevance"[5]

Time management and related concepts
Time management has been considered as subsets of different concepts such as:

      Project management. Time Management can be considered as a project
       management subset and is more commonly known as project planning and project
       scheduling. Time Management has also been identified as one of the core
       functions identified in project management.[6]
      Attention management: Attention Management relates to the management of
       cognitive resources, and in particular the time that humans allocate their mind
       (and organizations the minds of their employees) to conduct some activities.
      Personal knowledge management: see below (Personal time management).

Conceptual Effect on Labor

Professor Stephen Smith, of BYUI, is among recent sociologists that have shown that the
way workers view time is connected to social issues such as the institution of family,
gender roles, and the amount of labor by the individual.[7]

Personal Time Management
Time management strategies are often associated with the recommendation to set
personal goals. These goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project, an
action plan, or a simple task list. For individual tasks or for goals, an importance rating
may be established, deadlines may be set, and priorities assigned. This process results in
a plan with a task list or a schedule or calendar of activities. Authors may recommend a
daily, weekly, monthly or other planning periods associated with different scope of
planning or review. This is done in various ways, as follows.
Task list

A task list (also to-do list or things-to-do) is a list of tasks to be completed, such as
chores or steps toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an
alternative or supplement to memory.

Task lists are used in self-management, grocery lists, business management, project
management, and software development. It may involve more than one list.

When one of the items on a task list is accomplished, the task is checked or crossed off.
The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil, usually
on a note pad or clip-board.

Writer Julie Morgenstern suggests "do's and don'ts" of time management that include:

       Map out everything that is important, by making a task list
       Create "an oasis of time" for one to control
       Say "No"
       Set priorities
       Don't drop everything
       Don't think a critical task will get done in spare time.[8]

Numerous digital equivalents are now available, including PIM (Personal information
management) applications and most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list
applications, many of which are free.[citation needed]

Task list organization
Task lists are often tiered. The simplest tiered system includes a general to-do list (or
task-holding file) to record all the tasks the person needs to accomplish, and a daily to-do
list which is created each day by transferring tasks from the general to-do list.[8]

Task lists are often prioritized:

       An early advocate of "ABC" prioritization was Alan Lakein. In his system "A"
        items were the most important ("A-1" the most important within that group), "B"
        next most important, "C" least important.[9]

       A particular method of applying the ABC method[10] assigns "A" to tasks to be
        done within a day, "B" a week, and "C" a month.

       To prioritize a daily task list, one either records the tasks in the order of highest
        priority, or assigns them a number after they are listed ("1" for highest priority,
        "2" for second highest priority, etc.) which indicates in which order to execute the
        tasks. The latter method is generally faster, allowing the tasks to be recorded more
      A completely different approach which argues against prioritising altogether was
       put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and
       Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating
       "closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the
       traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work
       will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every
       day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going
       wrong and what needs to change.[11]

Software applications

Modern task list applications may have built-in task hierarchy (tasks are composed of
subtasks which again may contain subtasks),[12] may support multiple methods of filtering
and ordering the list of tasks, and may allow one to associate arbitrarily long notes for
each task.

In contrast to the concept of allowing the person to use multiple filtering methods, at least
one new software product additionally contains a mode where the software will attempt
to dynamically determine the best tasks for any given moment.[13]

Many of the software products for time management support multiple users. It allows the
person to give tasks to other users and use the software for communication[14]

In law firms, law practice management software may also assist in time management.

Task list applications may be thought of as lightweight personal information manager or
project management software.

Attention Deficit Disorder

Excessive and chronic inability to manage time effectively may be a result of Attention
Deficit Disorder (ADD). Diagnostic criteria include: A sense of underachievement,
difficulty getting organized, trouble getting started, many projects going simultaneously
and trouble with follow-through.[15]

      Prefrontal cortex: The prefrontal cortex is the most evolved part of the brain. It
       controls the functions of attention span, impulse control, organization, learning
       from experience and self-monitoring, among others. Some authors argue that
       changing the way the prefrontal cortex works is possible and offers a solution.[16]

Techniques for setting priorities
There are several ways to set priorities.
ABC analysis

A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the
categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B, and C—
hence the name. Activities are ranked upon these general criteria:

      A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important.
      B – Tasks that are important but not urgent.
      C – Tasks that are neither urgent nor important.

Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. To further refine priority, some individuals
choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC analysis can
incorporate more than three groups.[9]

ABC analysis is frequently combined with Pareto analysis.

Pareto analysis

This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time. The
remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to sort tasks
into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that
fall into the first category be assigned a higher priority.

The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that 80% of the
productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. If productivity is the aim of time
management, then these tasks should be prioritized higher.

It depends on the method adopted to complete the task. There is always a simpler and
easy way to complete the task. If one uses a complex way, it will be time consuming. So,
one should always try to find out the alternate ways to complete each task.

The Eisenhower Method

All tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not urgent and
put in according quadrants. Tasks in unimportant/not urgent are dropped, tasks in
important/urgent are done immediately and personally, tasks in unimportant/urgent are
delegated and tasks in important/not urgent get an end date and are done personally. This
method is said to have been used by US President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and is outlined
in a quote attributed to him: What is important is seldom urgent and what is urgent is
seldom important.[citation needed]

POSEC method

POSEC is an acronym for Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing and
The method dictates a template which emphasizes an average individual's immediate
sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests that by attending to one's personal
responsibilities first, an individual is better positioned to shoulder collective

Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization which mirrors Abraham
Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".

   1. Prioritize - Your time and define your life by goals.
   2. Organizing - Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful. (Family
      and Finances)
   3. Streamlining - Things you may not like to do, but must do. (Work and Chores)
   4. Economizing - Things you should do or may even like to do, but they're not
      pressingly urgent. (Pastimes and Socializing)
   5. Contributing - By paying attention to the few remaining things that make a
      difference. (Social Obligations).

Housing, Furnishings, and Equipment

Electric light
Electric lights are used both at night and to provide additional light during the daytime.
These lights are normally powered by the electric grid, but some run on local generators,
and emergency generators serve as backups in hospitals and other locations where a loss
of power could be catastrophic. Battery-powered lights, usually called "flashlights" or
"torches", are used for portability and as backups when the main lights fail.

Types of electric lighting include:

      incandescent light bulbs
      arc lamps
      gas discharge lamps, e.g., fluorescent lights and compact fluorescent lamps, neon
       lamps, flood lamps, modern photographic flashes
      lasers
      light-emitting diodes, including OLEDs
      sulfur lamps

Different types of lights have vastly differing efficiencies and color of light. [1]
                          Nominal Lifetime     Color                                             Color
    Name                 efficiency (MTBF) temperature                            Color        rendering
                          (lm/W) (hours)     (kelvins)                                           index
Incandescent                        1000-                                     Warm white
              Continuous 12-17             2700                                             100
light bulb                          20000                                     (yellowish)
Halogen                             3000-                                     Warm white
              Continuous 16-23             3200                                             100
lamp                                6000                                      (yellowish)
              Mercury                                                         White (with a
Fluorescent                         8000-
              line +     52-100            2700-5000*                         tinge of      15-85
lamp                                20000
              Phosphor                                                        green)
Metal halide Quasi-                 6000-
                         50-115            3000-4500                          Cold white       65-93
lamp          continuous            20000
Sulfur lamp Continuous 80-110              6000                               Pale green       79
High pressure                       10000-                                    Pinkish
              Broadband 55-140             1800-2200*                                          0-70
sodium                              40000                                     orange
Low pressure                                   18000-                         virtually no
             Narrow line 100-200                            1800*                              0
sodium                                         20000                          color

 Color temperature is defined as the temperature of a black body emitting a similar spectrum; these spectra
are quite different from those of black bodies.

The most efficient source of electric light is the low-pressure sodium lamp. It produces an
almost monochromatic orange light, which severely distorts color perception. For this
reason, it is generally reserved for outdoor public lighting usages. Low-pressure sodium
lights are favoured for public lighting by astronomers, since the light pollution that they
generate can be easily filtered, contrary to broadband or continuous spectra.

Incandescent light bulb

Incandescent light bulb as we know it today, with a coiled filament of tungsten, was
commercialized in the 1920s developed from the carbon filament lamp introduced in
about 1880. As well as bulbs for normal illumination, there is a very wide range,
including low voltage, low-power types often used as components in equipment, but now
largely displaced by LEDs

There is currently interest in banning some types of filament lamp in some countries,
such as Australia planning to ban standard incandescent light bulbs by 2010, because they
are inefficient at converting electricity to light. Sri Lanka has already banned importing
filament bulbs because of high use of electricity and less light. Less than 3% of the input
energy is converted into usable light. Nearly all of the input energy ends up as heat that,
in warm climates, must then be removed from the building by ventilation or air
conditioning, often resulting in more energy consumption. In colder climates where
heating and lighting is required during the cold and dark winter months, the heat
byproduct has at least some value.

Halogen lamp
Halogen lamps are usually much smaller than standard incandescents, because for
successful operation a bulb temperature over 200 °C is generally necessary. For this
reason, most have a bulb of fused silica (quartz), but sometimes aluminosilicate glass.
This is often sealed inside an additional layer of glass. The outer glass is a safety
precaution, reducing UV emission and because halogen bulbs can occasionally explode
during operation. One reason is if the quartz bulb has oily residue from fingerprints. The
risk of burns or fire is also greater with bare bulbs, leading to their prohibition in some
places unless enclosed by the luminaire.

Those designed for 12 V or 24 V operation have compact filaments, useful for good
optical control, also they have higher efficacies (lumens per watt) and better lives than
non halogen types. The light output remains almost constant throughout life.

Fluorescent lamp

Fluorescent lamps have much higher efficacy than filament lamps. For the same amount
of light generated, they typically use around one-quarter to one-third the power of an

Fluorescents were mostly limited to linear and a round 'Circline' lamp until the 1980s,
with other shapes never gaining much popularity. The compact fluorescent lamp (CFL)
was commercialized in the early 1980s.

Most CFLs have a built-in electrical ballast and fit into a standard screw or bayonet base.
Some make use of a separate ballast so that the ballast and tube can be replaced

Typical average lifetime ratings for linear fluorescent tubes are 10,000 and 20,000 hours,
compared to 750 hours (110 V) and 1000 hours (240 V) for filament lamps.

Some types of fluorescent lamp ballast have difficulty starting lamps in very cold
conditions, so lights used outdoors in cold climates need to be designed for outdoor use to
work reliably.

Fluorescents come in a range of different color temperatures. In some countries cool
white (CW) is most popular, while in some, warmer whites predominate.

In America, fluorescents most often come in cool white (CW), with some home bulbs
being a warm white (WW), which has a pinkish color. In between there is an "enhanced
white" (EW), which is more neutral. There is also a very cold daylight white (DW).
Compact fluorescent lamps are usually considered warm white, though many have a
yellowish cast like an incandescent. "Warm" and "cool" are entirely relative terms and
almost arbitrary so color temperature and the color rendering index (CRI) are used as
absolute scales of color for fluorescents, and sometimes for other types of lighting.

LED lamp

Solid state LEDs have been popular as indicator lights since the 1970s. In recent years,
efficacy and output have risen to the point where LEDs are now being used in niche
lighting applications.

Indicator LEDs are known for their extremely long life, up to 100,000 hours, but lighting
LEDs are operated much less conservatively (due to high LED cost per watt), and
consequently have much shorter lives.

Due to the relatively high cost per watt, LED lighting is most useful at very low powers,
typically for lamp assemblies of under 10 W. LEDs are currently most useful and cost-
effective in low power applications, such as nightlights and flashlights. Colored LEDs
can also be used for accent lighting, such as for glass objects, and even in fake ice cubes
for drinks at parties. They are also being increasingly used as holiday lighting.

LED efficacies vary over a very wide range. Some have lower efficacy than filament
lamps, and some significantly higher. LED performance in this respect is prone to being
misinterpreted, as the inherent directionality of LEDs gives them a much higher light
intensity in one direction per given total light output.

Single color LEDs are well developed technology, but white LEDs at time of writing still
have some unresolved issues.

   1. CRI is not particularly good, resulting in less than accurate color rendition.
   2. The light distribution from the phosphor does not fully match the distribution of
      light from the LED die, so color temperature varies at differing angles.
   3. Phosphor performance degrades over time, resulting in change of color
      temperature and falling output. With some LEDs degradation can be quite fast.
   4. Limited heat tolerance means that the amount of power packable into a lamp
      assembly is a fraction of the power usable in a similarly sized incandescent lamp.

LED technology is useful for lighting designers because of its low power consumption,
low heat generation, instantaneous on/off control, and in the case of single color LEDs,
continuity of color throughout the life of the diode and relatively low cost of

In the last few years, software has been developed to merge lighting and video by
enabling lighting designers to stream video content to their LED fixtures, creating low
resolution video walls.
For general domestic lighting, total cost of ownership of LED lighting is still much
higher than for other well established lighting types.

Carbon arc lamp

Carbon arc lamps consist of two carbon rod electrodes in open air, supplied by a current-
limiting ballast. The electric arc is struck by touching the rods then separating them. The
ensuing arc heats the carbon tips to white heat. These lamps have higher efficacy than
filament lamps, but the carbon rods are short lived and require constant adjustment in use.
The lamps produce significant ultra-violet output, they require ventilation when used
indoors, and due to their intensity they need protecting from direct sight.

Carbon arc lamps operate at high powers, and had high efficacy compared to other pre-
1920s light sources. They also are a point source of light. These properties made them
ideally suited to search lights, follow spots and film projector lights.

Their need for ongoing attendance and adjustment, and frequent rod replacement made
them ill suited to general lighting, though they were used for high power lighting in the
years when nothing else with comparable output power existed. Carbon arcs fell out of
use even for niche applications during and after World War 2.

Discharge lamp

A discharge lamp has a glass or silica envelope containing two metal electrodes
separated by a gas. Gases used include, neon, argon, xenon, sodium, metal halide, and

The core operating principle is much the same as the carbon arc lamp, but the term 'arc
lamp' is normally used to refer to carbon arc lamps, with more modern types of gas
discharge lamp normally called 'discharge lamps'.

With some discharge lamps, very high voltage is used to strike the arc. This requires an
electrical circuit called an igniter, which is part of the ballast circuitry. After the arc is
struck, the internal resistance of the lamp drops to a low level, and the ballast limits the
current to the operating current. Without a ballast, excess current would flow, causing
rapid destruction of the lamp.

Some lamp types contain a little neon, which permits striking at normal running voltage,
with no external igniter circuitry. Low pressure sodium lamps operate this way.

The simplest ballasts are just an inductor, and are chosen where cost is the deciding
factor, such as street lighting. More advanced electronic ballasts may be designed to
maintain constant light output over the life of the lamp, may drive the lamp with a square
wave to maintain completely flicker-free output, and shut down in the event of certain
faults. These more complex ballasts are chosen in the film industry for example.
Lamp life expectancy
Life expectancy is defined as the number of hours of operation for a lamp until 50% of
them fail. This means that it is possible for some lamps to fail after a short amount of
time and for some to last significantly longer than the rated lamp life. This is an average
(median) life expectancy. Production tolerances as low as 1% can create a variance of
25% in lamp life. For LEDs, lamp life is when 50% of lamps have lumen output drop to
70% or less.

Lamps are also sensitive to switching cycles. The rapid heating of a lamp filament or
electrodes when a lamp is turned on is the most stressful event on the lamp. Most test
cycles have the lamps on for 3 hours and then off for 20 minutes. (Some standard had to
be used since it is unknown how the lamp will be used by consumers.) This switching
cycle repeats until the lamps fail and the data is recorded. If switching is increased to
only 1 hour on, the lamp life is usually reduced because the number of times the lamp has
been turned on has increased. Rooms with frequent switching (bathroom, bedrooms, etc.)
can expect much shorter lamp life than what is printed on the box.

Plumbing (from the Latin plumbum for lead, as pipes were once made from lead) is the
skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water
systems and the drainage of waste. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping
systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry
is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy due to the need for clean
water, and proper collection and transport of wastes.[1]

Plumbing also refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the
distribution of potable water and the removal of waterborne wastes. Plumbing is usually
distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one
building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.

Plumbing was extremely rare until the growth of modern cities in the 19th century. At
about the same time public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal
systems to be installed. Earlier, the waste disposal system merely consisted of collecting
waste and dumping it on ground or into a river. Standardized earthen plumbing pipes
with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban
settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[2] Plumbing originated during
the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese
civilizations as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water, and
drainage of wastes. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft.
Improvement in plumbing systems was very slow, with virtually no progress made from
the time of the Roman system of aqueducts and lead pipes until the 19th century.
Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems
eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools. Most large cities today pipe solid wastes
to treatment plants in order to separate and partly purify the water before emptying into
streams or other bodies of water. The use of lead for potable water declined sharply after
World War II because of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was
introduced as a better and safer alternative to lead pipes.[3]

Another material used for plumbing pipes, particularly water main, was hollowed
wooden logs wrapped in steel banding. Logs used for water distribution were used in
England close to 500 years ago. The US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 18th
through the 19th centuries.[3]

Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or
channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo wood or stone. Present-day water-supply
systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper,[4]
brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material. Present-day drain and vent lines are made of
plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead is not used in modern water-supply piping due to
its toxicity.[5][6][7]

The "straight" sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. A pipe is typically
formed via casting or welding, where a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has
thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, where tubing is thinner-walled and requires
special joining techniques such as "brazing", "compression fitting", "crimping", or for
plastics, "solvent welding".

Fittings and valves
In addition to the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems,
such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions. The piping and plumbing fittings and valves
articles discuss these features further.

Plumbing fixtures are designed for the end-users. Some examples of fixtures include
water closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and
kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye
wash stations.

Plumbing equipment, not present in all systems, include, for example, water meters,
pumps, expansion tanks, backflow preventers, filters, water softeners, water heaters,
wrenches, heat exchangers, gauges, and control systems.

Now there is more equipment that is technologically advanced and helps plumbers fix
problems without the usual hassles. For example, plumbers use video cameras for
inspections of hidden leaks or problems, they use hydro jets, and high pressure hydraulic
pumps connected to steel cables for trench-less sewer line replacement.

The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:

      Potable cold and hot water supply
      Traps, drains, and vents
      Septic systems
      Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage
      Fuel gas piping

For their environmental benefit and sizable energy savings hot water heat recycling units
are growing in use throughout the residential building sectors. Further ecological concern
has seen increasing interest in grey-water recovery and treatment systems.

Firestopping is required where mechanical penetrants traverse fire-resistance rated wall
and floor assemblies, or membranes thereof. This work is usually done worldwide by the
insulation trade and/or specialty firestop sub-contractors.

Much of the plumbing work in populated areas is regulated by government or quasi-
government agencies due to the direct impact on the public's health, safety, and welfare.
Plumbing installation and repair work on residences and other buildings generally must
be done according to plumbing and building codes to protect the inhabitants of the
buildings and to ensure safe, quality construction to future buyers. If permits are required
for work, plumbing contractors typically secure them from the authorities on behalf of
home or building owners. In the United Kingdom the professional body is the newly
Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (educational charity status) and
it is true that the trade still remains virtually ungoverned;[8] there are no systems in place
to monitor or control the activities of unqualified plumbers or those home owners who
choose to undertake installation and maintenance works themselves, despite the health
and safety issues which arise from such works when they are undertaken incorrectly; see
Health Aspects of Plumbing (HAP) published jointly by the World Health Organization
(WHO) and the World Plumbing Council (WPC).[7][9] WPC has subsequently appointed a
representative to the World Health Organization to take forward various projects related
to Health Aspects of Plumbing.[7]

Sewerage refers to the infrastructure that conveys sewage. It encompasses receiving
drains, manholes, pumping stations, storm overflows, screening chambers, etc. of the
sanitary sewer. Sewerage ends at the entry to a sewage treatment plant or at the point of
discharge into the environment.

In the USA, sewerage is also used to refer to sewage.[citation needed]

Implementation and usefulness
In many European countries, citizens are obliged to connect their home sanitation to the
national sewerage system (where possible). This has resulted in large percentages of the
population being connected to a sewerage system. For example, the Netherlands have
99% of the population connected to the sewerage system, and 1% has an individual
sewage disposal system (eg septic tank, ...). Others have slightly lower (though still
substantial) percentages; eg 96% for Germany and 86% for Belgium.

Of these countries connected to the sewerage system however, purification of the
sewerage is not always fully implemented. For example, in Belgium, only 64% of the
sewerage is actually purified.[1]

Given the great financial costs of a sewerage system however, much of the sewage is not
efficiently (and sometimes not at all) treated, and (in case no purification is implemented)
great environmental damage may occur using this system. Many people [2][3]have thus
opted to discontinue the setup of the system in nations/areas where no sewerage has yet
been build. In addition, even in nations where the system has been set up, calls have been
made to keep the system to drain rainwater, yet implement composting toilets to process
the sewage.

       Teaching and Communication
Agricultural education
Agricultural education is instruction about crop production, livestock management, soil
and water conservation, and various other aspects of agriculture. Agricultural education
includes instruction in food education, such as nutrition. Agricultural and food education
improves the quality of life for all people by helping farmers increase production,
conserve resources, and provide nutritious foods.

There are four major fields of agricultural education:

      Elementary agriculture education
      Secondary agricultural education
      College agricultural education
      General education in agriculture

Elementary agriculture is taught in public schools and private schools, and deals with
such subjects as how plants and animals grow and how soil is farmed and conserved.
Vocational agricultural trains people for jobs in such areas as production, marketing, and
conservation. College agriculture involves training of people to teach, conduct research,
or provide information to advance the field of agriculture and food science in other ways.
General education agriculture informs the public about food and agriculture.

In the United States
The chief sources of agriculture education in the United States are:

      High Schools
      Community Colleges
      Universities and colleges
      Youth organization
      10x15

High schools

High schools in every state, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin
Islands provide vocational agriculture training for over half a million students yearly
(2007). The purpose of agricultural education is to provide students with the personal,
academic, and career experiences essential for success in the fields of science, business,
and technology. High school agricultural education programs consist of three
components: classroom/laboratory instruction, Supervised Agricultural Experiences
(SAE), and FFA.

Classroom curriculum and laboratory exercises provide students a foundation of
knowledge in agricultural practices, preparing them for careers in food, fiber, and natural
resource industries. Supervised Agricultural Experiences provide students the opportunity
to experience ownership of their own agricultural enterprise or work in the industry.
Examples of SAE projects would be a student raising a crop or an animal, working on a
farm, or employment at an agriculture business, such as a machinery dealer. These
projects offer "real world" experiences to students as well as practical application of
concepts learned in the classroom. SAE's also enable students to develop skills in
agriculturally related career areas. FFA is a national organization that develops students'
potential for premier leadership, personal growth, and career success. Students grow as
individuals and leaders through their involvement in competitions, degree programs,
community service projects, and state and national leadership conventions. Members of
the FFA gain self-confidence and interpersonal skills that will assist them in achieving
success in their educational, career, and personal futures. The combination of the three
components of agricultural education, classroom/laboratory, SAE, and FFA, develop
proud, well-rounded individuals who will become future leaders of the agriculture

Colleges and universities

Colleges and universities award about 21,000 bachelor's degrees in agriculture each year
(1988). About 6,000 other students receive a master's or doctor's degree (1988).

Land-grant universities
Land-grant universities award more than three-quarters of all agricultural degrees (1988).
These state schools receive federal aid under legislation that followed the Morrill Act of
1862, which granted public lands to support agricultural or mechanical education. Land-
grant universities have three chief functions:

      Teaching.
      Research.
      Extension service.

Colleges of agriculture prepare students for careers in all aspects of the food and
agricultural system. Some career choices include food science, veterinary science,
farming, ranching, teaching, marketing, agricultural communication, management, and
social services.

The Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), the largest national
education association dedicated to the advancement of education that prepares youth and
adults for careers, provides resources for agricultural education.

Each land-grant university has an agricultural experiment station equipped with
laboratories and experimental farms. There, agricultural scientists work to develop better
farming methods, solve the special problems of local farmers, and provide new
technology. Research published in scholarly journals about agricultural safety is available
from the NIOSH-supported National Agricultural Safety Database. The American Dairy
Science Association provides research and education scholarships focused on the dairy
farm and processing industries.

Scholarly journals
      North American Colleges and Teachers of Agriculture Journal
      Journal of Dairy Science

Extension service
The Cooperative Extension System is a partnership of the federal, state, and county
governments. This service distributes information gathered by the land-grant universities
and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to farmers, families, and young people. County
extension agents, located in most countries (1988), train and support about 3 million
(1988) volunteer leaders. Agents and volunteers carry out extension programs through
meetings, workshops, newsletters, radio, television, and visits.

Youth organizations

Youth organizations involved in agricultural education include 4-H and National FFA
Organization (FFA). Members of 4-H carry out group and individual projects dealing
with conservation, food and agriculture, health and safety, and other subjects. The 4-H
program in the United States is part of the Cooperative Extension Service and has about 6
million members (2006). More than just a club, the FFA is an integral part of the program
of agricultural education in many high schools as a result of Public Law 740 in 1950
(Currently revised as Publication 105-225 of the 105th Congress of the United States),
with 500,823 FFA members (2007–2008). Local chapters participate in Career
Development Events (individually and as a team), each student has a Supervised
Agricultural Experience program (SAE), and participates in many conferences and
conventions to develop leadership, citizenship, patriotism and excellence in agriculture.
The National FFA Organization is structured from the local chapter up, including local
districts, areas, regions, state associations, and the national level. The FFA Mission is to
make a positive difference in the lives of students by developing their potential for
premier leadership, personal growth, and career success through agricultural education.


The rapid growth of agricultural education began during the late 19th century. In 1862,
the United States Congress created the Department of Agriculture to gather and distribute
agricultural information. The Morrill Act, which provided the land-grant schools, became
law that same year. The Hatch Act of 1887 gave federal funds to establish agricultural
experiment stations. The first dairy school in the U.S. was created at the University of
Wisconsin–Madison in 1890.[1]

Government support for agricultural education has increased during the 20th century. For
example, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 created what is now the Cooperative Extension
System (1988). The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 and the George-Barden Act of 1946
financed high-school instruction in farming. The Vocational Education Act of 1963
funded training in other fields of agriculture.

Agricultural science and education expanded after 1900 in response to a need for more
technical knowledge and skill. This development led to the use of modern farming
methods that required fewer farmworkers. Another major result of this change was the
creation of larger farms and ranches. This development increased the need for more
agriculture science and education.

Types of Corporate Headings
State Agricultural Experiment Station
State Agricultural Extension Service
State Bureau of Agricultural Education
State Bureau of Educational Experiments
State College of Home Economics
State Department of Agriculture
State Department of Home Economics
State Education Department
State Education Dept., Vocational Division
State Fair
State Farm Bureau (Federation)

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