Acknowledgements. - Pittsburgh Symphony

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Acknowledgements……………………………………………………… 2
Notes on Your Trip to Heinz Hall………………………………………… 4
Pre-concert Preparation & Hints……………………………………….. 5
Transportation and Parking Information……………………………… 6
Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts……………………………………….7
Daniel Meyer………………………………………………………………. 8
Lawrence Loh……………………………………………………………… 9
Second Grade Schooltime: “Meet the Orchestra” Activities……. 10
Fourth Grade Schooltime: “Musicalympics” Activities…………….. 24
Sixth Grade Schooltime: “Happy Birthday, Pittsburgh!” Activities..34
PA Academic Standards………………………………………………... 53
Pittsburgh Cultural Attractions………………………………………….. 57
Survey……………………………………………………………………….. 58




                                 1
                          Acknowledgements

  Schooltime Supplementary Materials were created by past and present
  members of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra Educators’ Committee:

                          Kyle Adams, Fox Chapel
                             Sandra Becker, Burrell
                       Robert Bononi, Keystone Oaks
                         Jill Campion, Mt. Lebanon
                          Susan Darocy, Pittsburgh
                        Ronald DePascale, Montour
                           Joan Gorsuch, Montour
                     Claudette Gray, Pittsburgh/retired
                        Karen Johnson, West Mifflin
                           Dale A. Kline, Freedom
                    Nancy Lonich, Charleroi Area/retired
                        Richard Pantaleo, Ringgold
                         Wayne Walters, Pittsburgh
                           Andy Yalch, Wilkinsburg

  Some materials have been adapted from Slippery Rock University’s The
     Treasure Hunt, prepared for the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra.

               Additional materials provided by Christina Ho,
            2007 Education and Community Engagement intern.




 Grateful thanks to the City of Pittsburgh Police for their help in keeping our
               young audiences safe as they visit Heinz Hall.




 Applause for the teachers, administrators, and parents of all the schools in
 the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra family for supporting music education
   programs in their districts. The PSO believes that no child’s education is
complete without the study of music. Please help keep music in our schools!




                                       2
The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra Educators’ Committee is comprised of
educators from Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Washington, and Westmoreland
counties. The Committee creates materials to complement the Tiny Tots and
Schooltime programs and supports advocacy projects and initiatives of the
Education and Community Engagement Department. Many thanks to all of
the educators who so generously offer their time and expertise by serving on
the Educators’ Committee. If you are interested in joining this group, please
contact the Education and Community Department for a nomination form.




We wish to extend a special thank you to the following organizations, whose
generous support allows the PSO to offer educational programs such as the
                          Schooltime concerts:


 Henry C. Frick Educational Fund of the Buhl            Bayer Corporation
    Foundation                                          Bobby Rahal Volvo
 The Anne L. and George H. Clapp Charitable and         Citigroup Smith Barney
    Educational Trust                                   Columbia Gas of Pennsylvania
 Kathryn J. Dinardo Fund                                Dominion
 Eden Hall Foundation                                   Eat ‘N Park Hospitality Group
 Eichleay Foundation                                    Equitable Resources Foundation
 The Grable Foundation                                  Ernst & Young, LLP
 Hansen Foundation                                      First National Bank of Pennsylvania
 Milton G. Hulme Charitable Foundation                  Hefren Tillotson, Inc.
 The Mary Hillman Jennings Foundation                   Highmark, Inc.
 Roy F. Johns, Jr. Family Foundation                    Levin Furniture
 Martha Mack Lewis Foundation                           MetLife Foundation
 Massey Charitable Trust                                Mine Safety Appliances Company
 William V. and Catherine A. McKinney Charitable        PPG Industries Foundation
    Foundation                                          Sunoco Chemicals
 Howard E. & Nell E. Miller Charitable Foundation       The Macy’s Fund of the Federated
 W.I. Patterson Charitable Fund                             Department Stores Foundation
 PNC Advisors Charitable Trust Committee                The Techs
 Norman C. Ray Trust                                    Union Railroad Company
 Scaife Family Foundation
 Snee-Reinhardt Charitable Foundation
 The Edith L. Trees Charitable Trust
 Hilda Willis Foundation
 Phillip H. and Betty L. Wimmer Family Foundation




                                                    3
                  Notes on Your Trip to Heinz Hall

         Please take a few moments to review these guidelines

All school buses must have a sign in the side
window (next to the door) stating the school
name and bus number. Be sure that all of your
teachers and chaperones remember their bus
number. If you have more than one bus, you
may wish to assign a number to each bus on
the sign (e.g., Main Street Elementary #1 of 3,
Main Street Elementary #2 of 3, etc.).

Please have your students use the restrooms
before they leave school. If students must use
the restrooms at Heinz Hall, they should do so
before or after the performance.

All students should wear a nametag with their
school name and bus number clearly marked.

No food is to be brought into Heinz Hall. Any bag lunches or snacks that you bring must be
left on the bus. No exceptions will be made.

Students are not to bring backpacks, book bags, personal music devices (such as mp3 or
CD players), or electronic games into Heinz Hall.

No cameras or camcorders should be brought into Heinz Hall. Photography, video, and
audio recordings are strictly prohibited.

Students should disembark the bus and proceed to Heinz Hall in an orderly line, each
student with a partner. As educators, you know the importance of keeping your group
together!

Groups are not permitted to approach the stage, nor are they permitted to take
spontaneous tours of Heinz Hall. Tours may be available on a non-performance day by
contacting Heinz Hall Management at 412-392-4844 in advance.

All seat locations are “first-come, first-served,” determined by the date upon which your
reservation form was received by the PSO. You will not receive tickets or a seating location
prior to the concert. Simply check in with a staff member at the entrance to Heinz Hall and
follow your guide to your seating location.

Please remember that there will be over 2,500 children in Heinz Hall for each concert.
Attending to your students is the responsibility of you and your chaperones; please do not
expect a PSO staff member or Heinz Hall Usher to monitor your students’ behavior. All
teachers and chaperones are required to stay with their groups throughout the entire
performance. Groups exhibiting inappropriate behavior will be asked to leave and will not
be invited back to these free performances.


                                           4
                         Pre-Concert Preparation

 Discuss and demonstrate appropriate concert etiquette with your students.

 Discuss the activity that will be taking place at Heinz Hall:
 o Warm-up on stage – Musicians “warm-up” just like athletes or dancers. The musicians
    will enter the stage to practice prior to the start of the concert.
 o Tuning – The concertmaster (first chair violinist) enters the stage; the audience
    applauds. Then the concertmaster gives a signal to the principal oboe player and the
    orchestra begins to tune. It is important for the audience to remain silent while the
    orchestra is tuning.
 o Conductor – Next, the conductor will enter the stage; the audience applauds. Then
    the conductor will begin conducting the first piece.
    The audience should applaud when the conductor puts his hands down and turns to
    face the audience to take a bow.

 Discuss the procedure for leaving after the concert:
 o Do not get up from your seats after the concert ends.
 o Wait for Symphony personnel to dismiss your school from the stage.
 o Exit Heinz Hall in an orderly manner, keeping your entire group together. If some of your
    students must use the restroom, send them with a chaperone; hold the remainder of the
    group in their seats until the group has re-formed in total. Please do not hold your entire
    group in the lobby while students use the restrooms. Over 2,500 students will be exiting
    Heinz Hall and large groups waiting in open areas will disrupt the dismissal process.
 o Cross the street only at the corner and only with the assistance of police officers.
    Symphony personnel will direct you to corners where police officers are present.




Hints for Using Activities with Children with Special Needs
 by Roger C. Thomas, Jr., Music and Special Needs, Western PA School for Blind Children

 Most activities can be adapted for use with special needs children, depending on their
 needs. Plan, before presenting the activity, how a special child’s skills match what is
 required, and then adapt to help make the activity accessible.

 When working with a special learner, repetition is essential. Give assistance as needed.

 For children in wheelchairs, adapt loco-motor activities to be generated with hands. For
 example, instead of stomping, hit hands on a tray or lap. Instead of tiptoeing, use fingertip
 touching.




                                             5
           Transportation and Parking Information



If you are a group traveling by school bus, please inform your driver that City of
Pittsburgh Police Officers will be directing buses to parking spaces in downtown
Pittsburgh.



Information about Port Authority transportation to Heinz Hall can be found on their
website at www.portauthority.org. The site has a “Trip Planner” feature on the main
page that will tell you which buses or T-stops will take you to Heinz Hall.



Automobile parking is available near Heinz Hall in the following garages:

   Sixth and Penn Garage (enter on Penn Avenue near Curtain Call)
   Theater Square Garage (enter on Seventh Street across from Tambellini’s)

   More information can be found on Alco Parking Corp.’s website at
   www.alcoparking.com



Highway repair and closure information is available on PennDOT’s website at
http://www.dot.state.pa.us/Workzone_map/map.html



Detour information for downtown Pittsburgh is available on the Port Authority
website at
http://www.portauthority.org/PAAC/Schedules/Detours/tabid/170/Default.aspx




                                         6
                    Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts

Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts was built in
1927, and it opened on September 6 of that
year as the Loew’s Penn Theatre. The Penn
Theatre was a movie theater, as well as a
venue for numerous vaudeville and stage
shows. It closed in 1964, and it remained
vacant until 1970, when renovations began
to turn the Penn Theatre into Heinz Hall for
the Performing Arts.

Heinz Hall has several notable features.
Among them is the famous 40-foot window
in the Grand Lobby that looks out onto Sixth
Street. Also in the Grand Lobby are two chandeliers suspended from the ceiling, both
of which are 15 feet by 8.5 feet. These chandeliers need to be lowered by pulleys
when they are cleaned or when light bulbs are replaced.

The auditorium of Heinz Hall seats 2,665 people. The theater is divided into three main
seating divisions: the Orchestra level (or main floor), the Grand Tier, and the Balcony—
which is subdivided into the Dress Circle, Family Circle, and Gallery. The stage of Heinz
Hall has a unique feature: a moving floor. The front portion of the stage, called the
apron, is on a hydraulic lift that can be lowered to create an Orchestra Pit, where
musicians sit for an opera or Broadway show. The carpeting of Heinz Hall has a
specially-made design of a triangle pattern, which represents the three rivers of
Pittsburgh. When the original carpet was placed in Heinz Hall in 1971, an equal
amount of the carpet was placed into storage. In 1995, when the carpeting in Heinz
Hall needed to be replaced, the “spare” carpeting was brought out of storage and
used to replace the worn carpeting.

Heinz Hall is one of the premier performance facilities in the world. Its value is
estimated at more than $30 million.




                                             7
                         Resident Conductor Daniel Meyer

                                           As Resident Conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony, Music Director of the
                                           Pittsburgh Youth Symphony, Music Director of the Asheville Symphony,
                                           and new Music Director of the Erie Philharmonic, Daniel Meyer is
                                           recognized as one of the top young conductors of his generation. In
                                           Pittsburgh, Mr. Meyer has worked closely with Mariss Jansons, Sir Andrew
                                           Davis, and Charles Dutoit, led the Pittsburgh Symphony on tour, and
                                           conducted performances with Pinchas Zukerman, Sarah Chang, and
                                           Marvin Hamlisch as soloists. With a talent for creative concerts and a
                                           passion for connecting with audiences, he led the Pittsburgh Symphony’s
                                           Symphony with a Splash, an innovative series designed for professionals,
                                           as well as a Sunday matinee series for families called Popular Classics.

                                          Committed to music education and young audiences, Mr. Meyer has
                                          developed a new series of Tiny Tots concerts based on popular children’s
                                          books to promote music and literacy. He has been featured on WQED-
                                          FM, KDKA-TV, in Pittsburgh Magazine, and has appeared as a guest
lecturer at the Carnegie Mellon Business School. Mr. Meyer and the PSO were recently awarded the 2006 Bank of
America Award for Excellence in Orchestra Education for their groundbreaking work with the Wilkinsburg
community in programs produced over four consecutive years. Last season with the PSO, he led the world
premiere of Richard Danielpour’s Pastime, based on the lives of the great American ballplayers Jackie Robinson,
Josh Gibson, and Henry Aaron.

In June 2008, Mr. Meyer will lead the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony on their first tour to China. In 2004, he led the Youth
Symphony in a special performance at the first ever National Performing Arts Convention and conducted the
orchestra on its first international tour in fifteen years to Vienna, Prague, Leipzig, and Budapest in 2005. He also led
the Youth Symphony in the world premiere of David Stock's Clarinet Concerto with soloist Richard Stoltzman.

In his third season with the Asheville Symphony, he will lead the world premiere of William Jackson’s Fantasia on
Scottish Themes and a new groundbreaking production of Stravinsky’s Petrushka with the Red Herring Puppets. In
his role work with the ASO, he has helped to reinvigorate the orchestra, enlivening the arts community with
innovative programs and a dedication to create and sustain an enthusiastic audience for classical music.

Mr. Meyer was awarded the 2002 Aspen Conducting Prize after his second season as a fellowship Academy
Conductor at the Aspen Music Festival. His residency there culminated in a performance at the Blossom Festival,
where he made his debut conducting the Cleveland Orchestra. In 2003 he served as Assistant Conductor to David
Zinman and returned the following summer to lead a subscription performance. Highlighting his commitment to
new music and contemporary composers, Mr. Meyer conducted several premieres at Aspen, was featured on the
Adventures in Listening new music series, and also appeared on National Public Radio’s Performance Today.

In addition to the Cleveland Orchestra, Mr. Meyer has conducted the Utah, Forth Worth, San Antonio, Syracuse,
Tallahassee, Mansfield, Northeastern Pennsylvania, Youngstown, Santa Barbara, Lansing, and Wheeling Symphonies
as well as orchestras at the Aspen Music Festival. Mr. Meyer was featured at the American Symphony Orchestra
League’s 2003 National Conductor Preview with the Jacksonville Symphony and made his debut with the Portland
Symphony and Erie Philharmonic last season.

A native of Cleveland, Mr. Meyer is a graduate of Denison University and the University of Cincinnati College-
Conservatory of Music. He composed and conducted works for ensembles at both schools, including a Stabat
Mater for soprano, chorus and orchestra. As a doctoral student at Boston University, Mr. Meyer received the
Orchestral Conducting Honors Award. He also studied conducting at the Hochschule für Musik in Vienna as a
Rotary Ambassadorial Scholar.

Prior to his appointments in Asheville and Pittsburgh, Mr. Meyer was Assistant Conductor of the Knoxville Symphony
Orchestra and Music Director of the KSO Youth Sinfonia. He has prepared orchestras for Robert Shaw, Lukas Foss,
Joseph Silverstein, and James Conlon, and choruses for two recordings with the Cincinnati Pops under Erich Kunzel.
As Assistant Conductor of Cincinnati’s Vocal Arts Ensemble, Mr. Meyer designed and conducted a series of ASCAP
award-nominated concerts for inner-city schools.




                                                           8
                        Resident Conductor Lawrence Loh

                               Recently promoted to Resident Conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra
                               starting in the 2007-2008 season and entering his third season as Music Director of the
                               Northeastern Pennsylvania Philharmonic, Lawrence Loh is one of the most exciting
                               young talents on the classical music scene today. He was brought to national
                               attention in February 2004 when he substituted last-minute for an ailing Charles Dutoit
                               with the Dallas Symphony Orchestra. Conducting Stravinsky’s Petrouchka and
                               Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique, Loh received enthusiastic acclaim from orchestra
                               players, audience members and critics, alike.

                             Since his appointment as Music Director of the Northeastern Pennsylvania
                             Philharmonic in 2005, the orchestra has flourished artistically, defining its reputation as
                             one of the finest regional orchestras in the country. His leadership has attracted such
                             artists as André Watts, Anne Akiko Meyers, Jon Nakamatsu, and Sharon Isbin. An
                             advocate of early childhood exposure to music, Loh created a family concert series
that is dedicated to the youngest of audiences. He is very active in the region as an arts leader and music
advocate, and is constantly in demand as a guest speaker and clinician.

As Resident Conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, Lawrence Loh conducts a wide range of concerts.
He leads an array of educational and community engagement concerts and is the conductor of the enormously
popular Fiddlesticks Family Series. He also conducts in the Pops subscription series and is cover conductor for half of
the Classical Masterworks series, working closely with the PSO’s triumvirate leadership team of Sir Andrew Davis, Yan
Pascal Tortelier and Marek Janowski. In addition to his duties on the podium, Lawrence Loh edits radio broadcasts,
delivers pre-concert lectures, and makes many public appearances. His association with Pittsburgh began as
Assistant Conductor in 2005-2006 and Associate Conductor in 2006-2007.

Following a guest conducting appearance at the Detroit Symphony in 2007, Loh was immediately invited to
conduct several concerts in the 2007-2008 season. Other guest conducting engagements include the symphony
orchestras of Portland, Cedar Rapids, Colorado Springs, East Texas, Fort Collins, Fort Worth, Lubbock, Plano,
Shreveport, Sioux City, Spokane, and Tallahassee. He’s also led Korea’s Daejeon Philharmonic Orchestra, the
Binghamton Philharmonic, the Yale Philharmonia, Omaha Area Youth Orchestra, Ottawa’s National Arts Centre
Orchestra and the Dallas Chamber Orchestra. He has appeared at special summer festivals at Bravo! Vail Valley,
Breckenridge, Hot Springs, Performing Arts Institute (PA), Las Vegas, and the Carnegie Mellon Summer Strings Camp.

Lawrence Loh held the positions of Assistant and Associate Conductor of the Dallas Symphony from 2001-2005. He
led the Dallas Symphony in a variety of classical programs throughout each season including classical subscription.
Highlights include meaningful performances of Brahms Requiem, Beethoven’s 3rd Symphony, and Brahms 2nd
Symphony, among many others.

Prior to his Dallas appointment, Lawrence Loh completed a highly successful three-year tenure as Associate
Conductor of the Colorado Symphony Orchestra, with whom he conducted more than 50 concerts annually,
including classical subscription, Pops, education, family, and outreach programs. While in Denver, he was also
Music Director of the Denver Young Artists Orchestra, the premiere youth orchestra in the Colorado Rocky Mountain
Region. Mr. Loh also served as the Interim Director of Orchestras and Head of the Orchestral Conducting Program
at Denver University’s Lamont School of Music.

In May 1998, Lawrence Loh received his Artist Diploma in Orchestra Conducting from Yale University, also earning
the Eleazar de Carvalho Prize, given to the most outstanding conductor in the Yale graduating class. During his
years at Yale, he was chosen to be the Assistant Conductor of the Norwalk Symphony Orchestra and Apprentice
Conductor of the Hot Springs Music Festival. He received further training at the world-renowned Aspen Music
Festival and School. He is also a graduate of Indiana University and the University of Rochester. A dedicated
teacher, Mr. Loh held the position of Associate Instructor in Music Theory at Indiana University and, later, that of
Teaching Assistant at Yale University in Advanced Hearing, Conducting and Orchestration. He was also the Guest
Curator at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science for “What Makes Music?,” an interactive exhibit, offering the
opportunity to explore the science of music and sound, as well as the role of music in culture.

Lawrence Loh was born in southern California of Korean parentage and raised in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He and his
wife Jennifer have a son, Charlie, and a daughter, Hilary.




                                                           9
             Second Grade Schooltime

“Meet the Orchestra”
              Lawrence Loh, Conductor
             May 13, 16, 19, 22, & 28, 2008
                      10:30 am



 Bizet            “Les Toreadors” from Carmen Suite No. 1

 Bartók           Romanian Folk Dances

 Gabrielli        Canzona Septimi toni No. 2

 Abel             Tom-Tom Foolery

 Gounod           Petite Symphonie, Mvt. III

 Tchaikovsky      “The Waltz of the Flowers” from The Nutcracker

 Tchaikovsky      Symphony No. 4 in F minor, Opus 36, Mvt. IV




                    Program subject to change




                               10
                    Instruments of the Orchestra
                                    Woodwind Family

The woodwind family is made up of instruments that create a variety of distinctive
sounds. Sound is created through a vibrating column of air enclosed in the pipe or
tube of the woodwind instrument. Vibrations are caused by means of a single or
double reed, which is part of each woodwind instrument’s mouthpiece (except the
flute). The woodwind instruments each have their own distinctive tone colors. It is
clear to distinguish the brilliant sound of the flute from the mellow, rich tones of the
clarinet and the interesting, exotic sounds created by the oboe and bassoon. These
colorful qualities make the woodwind family an important addition to the total sound
of the orchestra.

        Flute – Flutes are the highest-pitched instruments in the woodwind family.*
       Unlike other woodwinds, the flute is held horizontally to the right. No reed is
      needed to play the flute. The player produces a tone by blowing air across a
    small opening near the top of the instrument. Most modern flutes are made of
  silver, gold, or platinum.
        * A piccolo, which looks like a smaller version of the flute, plays pitches even
          higher than the flute.

Oboe – The oboe has been a member of the orchestra since its beginning and
is also often heard as a solo instrument. The oboe belongs to a group of
woodwinds called the double reeds. Two slips of wood called cane are placed
against each other and wrapped tightly together at one end with special thread.
            Sound is created when the player blows air through these two reeds into
             the oboe.

             English horn – The English horn is another double reed instrument. It is
              larger and plays notes that are lower than the oboe. The English horn has
               been a regular member of the orchestra since the 19th century. Its
                primary function is to extend the range of the oboe family in the
           orchestra, but also functions as a solo instrument.

Clarinet – The clarinet is a single reed instrument, which means that only one
piece of cane is used. The cane vibrates against a mouthpiece when the
player blows air into it, creating the sound. The clarinet is a cylindrical wooden
tube that is slightly longer than the oboe. Since the 19th century, the bass
clarinet, which sounds lower in pitch than the clarinet, has come into use.


       Bassoon – The bassoon is the largest and lowest sounding instrument in the
       woodwind family. Like the oboe and the English horn, the bassoon’s
        mouthpiece is a double reed. The contrabassoon sounds even lower than the
         bassoon and produces the lowest notes in the woodwind family.


                                            11
                                       Brass Family

To produce a sound on a brass instrument, a player must “buzz” his or her lips into a
cup-shaped mouthpiece, which sends vibrations into the instrument. The instrument’s
valves, as well as how fast or slow the player “buzzes” his or her lips into the instrument,
are used to change the pitch of the sound. These instruments are made of brass and
other metals. The brass family can add majesty and power to music, but it can also be
used to play delicately and softly. The brass family usually is seated toward the back
of the orchestra, so it will not overpower the orchestra. This arrangement allows for a
beautiful blend of all the instruments in the orchestra.


Horn – The horn (also known as the French horn) is known for its coiled circular shape,
and it is conical, which means that the tubing gradually gets wider all through the
               instrument. When in its usual playing position, the bell (the open end of
                the instrument from where sound emanates) is pointed down and away
                from the listener. In addition to using the valves, the tone and pitch of
                the horn may be controlled by the player’s right hand, which is placed
                 in different positions inside the bell. The horn is an important solo
                   instrument and a vital link between the brass and woodwind
                    instrument families.



Trumpet – The trumpet is a cylindrical instrument, which means that the tubing is the
same width all the way through the instrument, with the exception of the bell. The
trumpet can sound heroic and festive. It looks smaller in size than all of the
other brass instruments. Mutes, some of which are
cone-shaped, fit inside the trumpet’s bell and are used
to change the sound of the instrument.



Trombone – The trombone is much longer than the trumpet, but like the trumpet, the
trombone is cylindrical. The trombone has a slide, which is moved in and out to
change pitches. Some trombones also have valves. Trombones are usually made of
brass and nickel.




Tuba – The tuba is the largest brass instrument, and it plays the lowest
notes in the brass section. Like the trumpet, the tuba has valves to
produce different pitches. It is conical like the horn. The tuba was not
introduced into the orchestra until 1875.




                                             12
                                    Percussion Family

The percussion family provides the orchestra with accent, rhythm, and many sounds
not obtainable from other instruments. There are two types of percussion instruments:
those with definite pitches and those of indefinite pitch. In most cases, sound is
produced by striking the instrument with another object such as a stick, mallet, beater,
or hand. Sound can also be produced through shaking or scraping. The percussion
family history dates back the farthest of all orchestral instruments; the pounding of
drums as a basic form of communication was common among many ancient cultures.
However, the use of the percussion section in the modern orchestra has grown to
include a role in displaying melodic material, rather than solely establishing a rhythmic
foundation.

The following some of the most commonly used percussion instruments.

Timpani – The timpani, also called “kettle drums,” are the backbone of the percussion
               family. They are played with mallets of varying size and hardness.
                Timpanists usually make their own mallets to produce specific types of
                sounds. The choice of mallet depends on the music to be played. The
               head of the timpani is covered with calfskin, nylon, or plastic. The
              timpani come in many sizes to produce varying pitches. Each drum has
            a pedal which tightens or loosens the drumhead and changes the pitch
             from low to high and back from high to low.

Snare Drum –The snare drum takes its name from the vibrating metal
strings, called snares, which are stretched across the underside of its
bottom drumhead, one of the two drumheads. The snare drum is
played with a pair of drumsticks and has a crisp, dry sound.


         Bass Drum – Bass drums are instruments with indefinite pitch. They vary in size
         from 24 to 36 inches in diameter. The bass drum is supported by a stand and
         played with a large soft mallet.

         Cymbals – Cymbals are large, round metal plates that date back to
ancient times. They are between 14 and 24 inches in diameter. Cymbals are
either used as a pair to “crash” at dramatic moments in music, or singularly,
suspended on a stand and struck with drumsticks.

          Triangle – The triangle is one of the oldest percussion instruments in
           the orchestra. It is a piece of rounded steel bent into the shape of a
            triangle and played with a metal rod. It has a light, bell-like sound.

     Piano – Although it is one of the most popular instruments in
the world, the piano’s inclusion in the symphony orchestra is a
recent event. The piano is considered to be part of the
percussion family because its strings are struck by small hammers.


                                            13
                                         String Family

All string instruments produce sound by the vibrations of strings over the hollow,
wooden body of the instrument. The size of the instrument determines the range of its
pitch; the larger the instrument, the lower its sound. String instruments are played by
drawing a bow of horsehair over the strings. Horsehair is used because of its durability
and coarseness. Other techniques also used by string players include: plucking
(pizzicato), playing with the wooden part of the bow (col legno), bowing two strings at
once (double stops), and rapid movement back and forth in short strokes (tremolo).
The string orchestra covers approximately six octaves from the highest note of the
violin to the lowest note of the bass.

Violin – The violin is the soprano of the string choir. It rests on the left shoulder of
the player and is fingered with the left hand and bowed with the right. There
are two sections of violins in the orchestra. The first violins usually play the
melody and higher pitches. The second violins may also play the
melody, but usually play music that harmonizes the first violins.



          Viola – The viola is the alto of the string family. It is slightly larger than the
          violin and its pitch is lower. The viola’s pitch range is ideal for carrying its own
            melodies or for doubling the violin or cello parts. It is held and played in the
            same manner as the violin.


Cello – The cello, or violincello, is the tenor of the string family. It is held
between the player’s knees and rests on a peg on the floor with the neck
pointing over the left shoulder of the player. The cello’s bow is shorter and
thicker than the violin’s and its tone is fuller and more powerful. It joined
the orchestra in the 17th century and is also an important solo instrument.


          Double Bass – The double bass is the lowest voice in the string family.
           Normally it has four strings, but on some instruments, a fifth string is added.
            The bass is a very large instrument (about six feet tall) and the player must
            stand or sit on a high stool in order to play it. It stands on a peg and rests
             on one knee of the player.



Harp – The harp is one of the oldest instruments in the orchestra. It has 47
strings and encompasses six full octaves plus an additional five notes. The
harp also has pedals that can raise the pitch of each note by a half or
whole step. The strings are plucked by the player’s fingers.




                                               14
                               History of the Orchestra
        adapted from Slippery Rock University’s The Treasure Hunt, created for the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra


The orchestra, which consists of the four families of instruments (percussion, woodwind,
brass, and string), dates to the early 17th century. It started very small with a
membership of 10 to 25 musicians. The primary function of the early orchestras in
England and France were to entertain royalty. Thus, they were known as court
orchestras.

In the late 18th century, the orchestra grew into the full, modern-day orchestra. This
orchestra was created by Franz Joseph Haydn, who is considered the father of the
symphony. The orchestra continued growing with the emergence of the Classical Era
and the great composers of the time: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van
Beethoven.

Moving into the 19th century and the Romanic Era, the orchestra continued to grow in
size. Composers such as Gustav Mahler, Anton Bruckner, and Richard Wagner were
responsible for the growth of the orchestra during this period, by writing compositions
with larger instrumentation.

Composers became more aware of developing rhythmic interest during the 20th
century. This new awareness contributed to the growth of the percussion family.
Some of the 20th century composers responsible for the recent changes in the
orchestra were Igor Stravinsky, Bela Bartok, Jean Sibelius, Petrovich Mussorgsky,
Benjamin Britten, and Leonard Bernstein.

Today’s orchestras sometimes number over 100 players who have spent years
practicing many hours a day. Before being hired, a potential member must audition
for the vacancy. An audition consists of playing from a prepared repertoire of music
as well as sight reading. Each opening in a professional orchestra is apt to have over
200 qualified applicants. Once chosen, a player becomes a permanent member of
the orchestra. In many cases, players retain the position for his or her entire career.

                                        Orchestral Activities
   •   Discuss how a football team needs all of its players, and if some of them were
       missing it would be difficult to win the game.
   •   Discuss how the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra is a team and how they all work
       together. Point out the fact that the Symphony is also part of a city team, and
       the city needs them as much as the business and sports teams. Emphasize that
       all these organizations work together to be a treasure to the community.
   •   Identify places where classical music may be heard other than in Heinz Hall
       (e.g., a high school auditorium, a doctor/dentist office, a movie theater, etc.)
   •   Divide the class into four groups. Assign each group to represent one of the four
       instrument families. Chorally read the book Meet the Orchestra by Ann Hayes.
       Each page of the book tells about a different instrument. Have the group
       whose instrument belongs in that family read the page.

                                                          15
                            The Orchestra Conductor
        adapted from Slippery Rock University’s The Treasure Hunt, created for the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra




The conductor is the musical leader of the orchestra. His or
her role is to direct the musicians to play the music
accurately and to interpret the mood and emotions
indicated by the composer.




                    Conducting Activities
   •   Discuss the conductor’s role in the orchestra.
   •   Clap and count in groups of four as a piece of music in 4/4 time is playing.
       Repeat with a selection written in 3/4 time.
   •   Using pencils as batons, guide the students in conducting to the beat of the
       music in the following manner:

              4/4 time
                 Place the arm at head level and move as follows:
                     Count 1: Straight down, no lower than the chest
                     Count 2: To the left, no farther out than the shoulder
                     Count 3: To the right, to the right shoulder
                     Count 4: Straight up to eye level

                       Repertoire suggestion: “Ode to Joy” from the final movement of
                       Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9



              3/4 time
                 Place the arm at head level and move as follows:
                     Count 1: Straight down
                     Count 2: To the right, to the right shoulder
                     Count 3: Straight up to eye level

                       Repertoire suggestion: “Blue Danube Waltz” by J. Strauss, Jr.




                                                          16
                              Classroom Activities
Focus
   What do you know about an orchestra?
   What would you like to know about an orchestra?
   Generate a list of children’s comments on chart paper and keep it until the end of
   the unit.

Explore
Divide the class into groups. Provide groups with simple materials that will allow them
to create sound-making objects (such as boxes, rubber bands, string, plastic
containers, straws, etc.). Assemble the groups’ hand-made instruments into families:
strings, brass, winds, and percussion.

Reflection
Look at instruments of the orchestra (use pictures, instruments, or whatever you have
available). Compare your instrument to an orchestral instrument. Listen to its sound
and compare/contrast it to that of an orchestral instrument.

Continue to develop this process of exploration and reflection in preparation for the
concert.

Application
Create a symphony of sound with your homemade instruments.
Attend the Second Grade Schooltime concert.
Write a short note to the PSO with your thoughts on the concert.




Science and Music
   Demonstrate sound waves by placing a vibrating tuning fork in a
   glass of water, or near a ping pong ball suspended on a string.

   Place grass, green leaves, or coffee stirrers between lips; blow on them to
   feel vibration.

   Strike a hand drum and place it near your cheek to feel vibration.

   Feel your vocal chords while producing different pitches.

   Place various size nails on a sponge and tap them with a pencil to illustrate pitch.

   Use various size rubber bands stretched over a tissue box or shoe box to pluck and
   create different pitches.

   Soda bottles with various amounts of water create different pitches when blown
   over the bottle opening.


                                           17
Language Arts/Library
   Create stories about the instruments of the orchestra, players in the orchestra, or
   the conductor.

      Find stories or books about the orchestra and its instruments.

      Create poetry, cinquain, or rhymes about the orchestra and its sound.

      Create fictional stories based on the biographies of the concert’s featured
      composers.

      Create stories based on students’ concert experiences. Summarize these stories
      and send them to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra.

Math
  Investigate the number of musicians in each instrument family of the PSO. Make a
  bar graph or pictograph comparing your findings.

      Compare and contrast the number of musicians in each instrument family using
      greater than, less than, and equal to.

      Research the total number of musicians in the Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and
      Philadelphia orchestras. Practice 2- and 3- digit addition by finding the total
      number of musicians in these three orchestras.

      Estimate the length of the Second Grade “Meet the Orchestra” concert. Compare
      the length of the concert to the amount of time spent on other daily activities, such
      as sleeping, eating, doing homework, etc.

Art
      Play excerpts of the PSO supplemental music CD (if ordered). Ask the students to
      interpret the symphonic music they hear using color and design.

      Create a character for each instrument of the orchestra. Assemble all of the
      students’ instruments into a “class fantasy orchestra” on a bulletin board or mural.

      Ask the students to draw comic strips depicting their trip to Heinz Hall to hear the
      Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Include the bus ride, Heinz Hall, the musicians, the
      conductor, the music they heard, and their favorite aspects of the trip. Assemble
      students’ comic strips into a class comic book to display in the classroom.

      Paint posters promoting the “Meet the Orchestra” concert. Include the date, time,
      and location, as well as pictures illustrating the event.

      Make models of the instruments out of clay. Study the curves and lines of each
      instrument. Are any similar in shape?



                                              18
   Study “Three Musicians” by Pablo Picasso. To which families of the orchestra do the
   instruments belong? Cut paper to make musicians in Picasso’s style.

Social Studies/Geography
   Research the geographical origins of orchestral instruments. Plot the locations on a
   map or globe.

   Discover more about the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra musicians by reading their
   biographies at http://www.pittsburghsymphony.org/pghsymph.nsf/webmusicians.
   Some biographies include the hometowns of the musicians. Plot these locations on
   a map or globe.

   Trace the evolution of a trumpet, from its role in ancient times to its place in the
   symphony orchestra today. Create a class timeline.

   Conduct a class survey of students’ music listening habits. Ask what genres of
   music students listen to and how often they do so. Partner with the math teacher
   to create a graphic representation of the data to publish in the school newspaper.


                                     Name that Family!
        adapted from Slippery Rock University’s The Treasure Hunt, created for the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra




Anticipatory Set: Begin this lesson by playing a pre-recorded selection of orchestral
music from a television cartoon or popular film.

Objective: Students will be able to identify the instrument families while listening to
familiar symphonic music.

Materials: Recordings of symphonic music selected from the list of classical music
(following this lesson) or from popular TV cartoons or movies (e.g., Bugs Bunny
cartoons, Fantasia, Beauty and the Beast, Aladdin, Pocahontas).

Procedures:
   • Discuss the different musical families that can be heard on the selected
     recordings.
   • Divide the class into four groups. Give each group a large card that names one
     of the four musical families.
   • As musical selections are played, ask the groups to listen for the sound of the
     musical family named on their card. When they hear it, ask them to hold up
     their card until the sound is replaced by another musical family.
   • Emphasize the fact that the “popular” music they are listening to is considered
     to be symphonic music.

Evaluation: Students will be evaluated on their ability to distinguish the different
musical families in a piece of orchestral music.


                                                          19
                               Suggested Musical Examples

The String Family
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, Mozart (a small ensemble of strings)
Four Seasons, Vivaldi (strings only)
“Waltz of the Flowers,” The Nutcracker, Tchaikovsky (harp)
“Gigue,” Suite for Strings, Corelli
“Sarabande,” Suite for Strings, Corelli
“Pastoral Symphony,” Messiah, Handel
Adagio for Strings, Barber
Serenade in C for Strings, Op. 48, Tchaikovsky

The Woodwind Family
Divertimento in B-flat, Haydn
Summer Music for Woodwind Quintet, Op. 31, Barber
Quintet in E-flat, Beethoven
Suite for Woodwind Quintet, Cowell
Arabesque No. 2, Debussy
“Gavotte,” Suite in B for Winds, Op. 4, Strauss
“Schnelle Viertel,” Klein Kammermusik, Hindemith
Rhapsody in Blue, Gershwin (beginning: clarinet solo)
“Chinese Dance” and “Dance of Mirlitons,” The Nutcracker, Tchaikovsky (beginning:
    piccolo, flutes, bassoons)
“Violin Concerto,” Movement II, Brahms (beginning: oboe)

The Brass Family
“Fanfare,” La Peri, Dukas
“Prelude to Act III,” Lohengrin, Wagner
Prelude and Allegro (Sextet), McKay
Fanfare for Forces of Latin American Allies, Cowell
Fanfare for the Common Man, Copland
“Trumpet Tune,” Purcell
Canzon Duodecimi Toni, G. Gabrieli
“Viennese Musical Clock,” Háry János Suite, Kodály
“La Forza Del Destina,” Opera, Verdi (opening: trombone)
“Light Cavalry,” Suppe Overture (beginning: trumpet)
“Nocturne,” A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Mendelssohn (French horn)
“Spanish Dance,” The Nutcracker, Tchaikovsky (beginning: trumpet)
“Scherza Capriccioso,” Op. 66, Dvorak (beginning: French horn)

The Percussion Family
Symphony No. 9, Beethoven (beginning of Scherzo: timpani solo)
Overture to Candide, Bernstein
1812 Overture, Tchaikovsky
“Radetzky March,” J. Strauss, Jr. (beginning: snare drum and bass drum)
“Hoedown,” Copland
Ionisation, Varese
Toccata for Percussion Instruments, Chavez
October Mountain, Hovhaness
Night Music for Percussion, Starer
Háry János Suite, Kodály


                                              20
     Instrument Scramble and Family Identification
           adapted from Slippery Rock University’s The Treasure Hunt, created for the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra


Unscramble the words in the first column to identify the musical instrument.
In the third column, write the name of the family (string, woodwind, brass,
or percussion) to which the instrument belongs.

                                   INSTRUMENT                           FAMILY NAME

1. tuefl                           __________________                   ____________________

2. muttpre                         __________________                   ____________________

3. rdmu                            __________________                   ____________________

4. ossabon                         __________________                   ____________________

5. aiovl                           __________________                   ____________________

6. lincarte                        __________________                   ____________________

7. oebo                            __________________                   ____________________

8. loelc                           __________________                   ____________________

9. cnerhf norh                     __________________                   ____________________

10. caasamr                        __________________                   ____________________

11. mnetobor                       __________________                   ____________________

12. atbu                           __________________                   ____________________

13. niilvo                         __________________                   ____________________

14. lebls                          __________________                   ____________________

15. gtnsir sabs                    __________________                   ____________________

16. baylcm                         __________________                   ____________________

17. pniiatm                        __________________                   ____________________




                                                             21
                       Musical Newspaper Ads

Can you identify which instrument is being described in the following newspaper
advertisements?


   1. For Sale: Musical instrument made of black
      wood, has many keys, and a single reed.

      This describes a ______________________________


   2. Lost: Musical instrument with coiled tubing and
      three valves. Has a flared bell where the musician
      places his or her hand when playing.

      This describes a ______________________________


   3. Found: Smallest wooden instrument in the string family. Has four strings and
      includes a wooden bow with horse hair.

      This describes a ______________________________


   4. Free-For-The-Asking: Large copper metal drum with a large skin or nylon head
      and foot pedals.

      This describes a ______________________________


   5. Wanted: Musical instrument made of silver or metal with many keys but no reed.
      Carried in a small case, but extends to approximately two feet when assembled.
      Requires a lot of air to play it.

      This describes a ______________________________


   6. For Sale: Brass instrument with a long, movable slide.

      This describes a ______________________________




                                           22
                            Answer Keys

Instrument Scramble and Family Identification

                    INSTRUMENT               FAMILY NAME

1. tuefl            flute_______________     woodwind___________
2. muttpre          trumpet____________      brass________________
3. rdmu             drum______________       percussion___________
4. ossabon          bassoon____________      woodwind___________
5. aiovl            viola_______________     string________________
6. lincarte         clarinet_____________    woodwind___________
7. oebo             oboe_______________      woodwind___________
8. loelc            cello_______________     string________________
9. cnerhf norh      French horn_________     brass________________
10. caasamr         maracas____________      percussion___________
11. mnetobor        trombone___________      brass________________
12. atbu            tuba________________     brass________________
13. niilvo          violin________________   string________________
14. lebls           bells________________    percussion___________
15. gtnsir sabs     string bass__________    string________________
16. baylcm          cymbal_____________      percussion___________
17. pniiatm         timpani_____________     percussion___________




Musical Newspaper Ads
1.   Clarinet
2.   French horn
3.   Violin
4.   Timpani
5.   Flute
6.   Trombone




                                      23
               Tiny Tots Concerts


           Fourth Grade Schooltime

  “Musicalympics”
            Daniel Meyer, Conductor
           April 15, 16; May 2, & 6, 2008
                      10:30 am


Torke           Javelin

Smith           The Star-Spangled Banner

Arnaud          Bugler’s Dream

Wieniawski      Scherzo-tarantelle, op. 16

Bach            Fantasia and Fugue in C minor, BWV 537

Tchaikovsky     Finale from Symphony No. 4 in F minor

Williams        Olympic Fanfare and Theme




                 Program subject to change




                            24
The javelin event at the Olympic Games inspired Michael Torke. His piece, Javelin, is
associated with the flight of the javelin and the spirit of competition. Explore the origin
of the Olympic Games and the javelin event.

Origin of the Olympic Games
The ancient Olympics were rather different from the modern Olympic Games. There were
fewer events, and only free men who spoke Greek could compete, instead of athletes from
any country. Also, the games were always held at Olympia instead of moving around to
different sites every time.

                       Like our Olympics, winning athletes were heroes who put their home
                       towns on the map. The winning athletes received a crown of olive
                       leaves and the privilege to have a statue of them set up in Olympia.

                       Although winners did not receive money at the Olympics, the victor was
                       treated much like a modern sports celebrity by his home city. His
                       success increased the fame and reputation of his community in the
                       Greek world. It was common for victors to receive benefits such as
                       having all their meals at public expense or front-row seats at the theater
and other public festivals. One city even built a private gym for their Olympic wrestling
champion.

Origin of the Javelin
The javelin was used for hunting and in war and is mentioned as an event at the funeral
games held in honor of Patroklos in Book 23 of the Iliad.

Athletes threw a light wooden pole as tall as its user with a pointed end for target practice.
Ancient athletes used a thong to throw the javelin. The thong increased the distance the
athlete could throw the javelin and provided a better grip to stabilize flight.

There were two types of javelin competitions, throwing at a target and throwing for distance.
Athletes competing in the pentathlon threw the javelin for distance. Contestants were allowed
to take steps before the throw and the javelin had to land in a defined area. The thrower used
the same throwing style used by modern javelin throwers. However, modern javelin throwers
do not use a thong to throw the javelin. Athletes participating in the second type of javelin
event had to throw the javelin at a target while on horseback. At a gallop and at a certain
distance from the target, the contestant threw the javelin and tried to hit the target.

Modern Facts About the Javelin

   Terje Pedersen of Norway was the first man to throw a javelin over 91
   meters, or 300 feet. He achieved this at the 1964 Olympic Games.

   Elvira Ozolina of the Soviet Union was the first woman to throw a
   javelin over 61 meters, or 200 feet, also in the 1964 Olympic
   Games.




                                               25
                                    Michael Torke
This year’s Fourth Grade Schooltime concert begins with the music of the American
composer Michael Torke, who is a young and active composer at the age of 43. He was
born September 21, 1961, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and studied piano and music
composition beginning at age five. Upon graduating from high school, Torke attended
the Eastman School of Music, where he studied composition with both Christopher Rouse
and Joseph Schwantner. He won numerous prizes for his student compositions.

Upon graduating from Eastman, Torke entered Yale University to pursue graduate study in
composition with Jacob Druckman and Martin Bresnick. Here he completed what were to
become his first two major works, Ecstatic Orange, and shortly thereafter, The Yellow
Pages. By age 23, however, he decided to forego any further study at Yale to work
independently in New York. His first triumph as a professional composer occurred when
the Brooklyn Philharmonic gave the premiere performance of Ecstatic Orange. Other
Color Music pieces soon followed including Bright Blue Music, Green, Purple, and Ash. In
each of these pieces, Torke explores a single specific color and uses his thoughts and
feelings about that color as inspiration for the music.

A second round of success came when Peter Martins of the New York City Ballet noticed
Torke’s music. This led to a five-year collaboration, in which some of Torke’s pieces were
choreographed. Soon, choreographers from other dance companies followed suit and
commissioned works by Torke.
In more recent times, Torke’s piece Javelin became an instant hit on July 19, 1996 when it
was performed at the opening ceremonies of the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. If
success as a composer is judged by the number of people who listen to a particular piece
of music, then Michael Torke is very successful as an estimated world-wide audience of
three billion people heard Javelin performed. That is quite an accomplishment for a
composer who was, at that time, only 35 years old!



His Music
Michael Torke’s piece, Javelin, was originally written for the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra’s
50th Anniversary and was premiered at the Woodruff Arts Center on September 8, 1994.
However, on July 19, 1996, Javelin was performed by the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra
during the opening ceremonies for the 1996 Olympic Games!

Torke’s inspiration for the title Javelin came from the “sense of valor among short flashes
and sweeps that reminded me of something in flight: a light spear thrown, perhaps, but
not in the sense of a weapon, more in the spirit of a competition.”

Torke began writing this piece with three goals in mind: to use the orchestra as a virtuosic
instrument, to use triads (three-note tonal chords), and to make the music thematic. Torke
welcomed swifter changes of mood than what is found in his earlier music (i.e., Color
Music).

Learn more about Michael Torke and his music at www.michaeltorke.com.


                                              26
                  The Olympics: Ancient and Modern
        Use the following link to complete the Venn Diagram activity below:
                      http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics/

Create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting the ancient Olympic Games to
the modern Olympic Games. Consider who is permitted to compete, how the winners
are awarded, the events, how often the Games were/are held, and how the winners
were chosen.




                                        27
                             Athletes and Musicians
In the chart below, make a list of characteristics that an athlete must possess in order
to prepare for the Olympics.

Now make a list of characteristics that a musician must possess in order to prepare for
a professional orchestral audition or concert.

How are athletes and musicians the same? How are they different?


                Athletes                                       Musicians




      For more information about the Olympics and fun activities, visit:
              http://www.enchantedlearning.com/olympics/

                                            28
                           The Star-Spangled Banner
The Star-Spangled Banner was written about the United States flag in 1814, and it was
adopted as the national anthem of the United States in 1931. Francis Scott Key wrote
the lyrics to the song as a poem when he awoke one morning to find that the
American flag was still flying proudly over Fort McHenry after a battle. He set the
poem to a British tune called To Anacreon in Heaven, which was written by John
Stafford Smith around 1775. There are four verses to the song, but traditionally only the
first verse is sung at public events. The lyrics to the first verse are as follows:

      O say can you see by the dawn’s early light,
      What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming,
      Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
      O’er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
      And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
      Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
      O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave,
      O’er the land of the free, and the home of the brave?

When do we sing the National Anthem? Why do you think we sing it before these
events?




The first American Flag was designed by Betsy Ross in 1776. What other important
historical event occurred during that year?




Go to http://www.usa-flag-site.org/history.shtml to complete the following exercise:

What did the first American Flag look like in 1776? Draw it in the space below:




In what year did Congress change the flag’s design to look like it does today?



                                           29
The colors of the American flag represent our country as well. Use a dictionary to write the
definitions of the adjectives below.

Red
Hardiness _________________________________________________________________________________
Valor _____________________________________________________________________________________


White
Purity _____________________________________________________________________________________
Innocence ________________________________________________________________________________


Blue
Vigilance _________________________________________________________________________________
Perseverance _____________________________________________________________________________
Justice ___________________________________________________________________________________


Now that you know what the colors represent, tell the significance of the stars and stripes.

7 Red Stripes:
___________________________________________________________________________________________

6 White Stripes:
___________________________________________________________________________________________

50 Stars:
___________________________________________________________________________________________


Make a list of other American patriotic songs that you know:
___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________




                                               30
                       Beijing, China

The 2008 Summer Olympics will be held in Beijing, China.
Locate Beijing on a globe or world map.

Learn more about Chinese life and culture by researching the
answers to the following questions. Use your findings to host a
China-themed class party.


   What is the capital of China?

   Describe the climate of China.

   How many people live in China? How does this compare to the population of the
   United States? To Pennsylvania? To Pittsburgh? To your class?

   Name three animal species that are found only in China.

   Name and describe three traditional Chinese sports.

   Name and describe three Chinese holidays.

   Compare and contrast three ways that traditional Chinese music and Western
   music are similar and different.

   Name and describe three forms of traditional Chinese performing arts.

   Name and describe three forms of traditional Chinese visual arts.

   Name and describe the three primary types of traditional Chinese clothing. How
   are these styles of clothing incorporated into modern Chinese dress?

   What other aspects of Chinese culture do you find to be interesting?




                                           31
                                 Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, whose name in English-speaking countries is often changed to Peter
Ilich Tchaikovsky, was born in Kamsko-Votkinsk, Russia, on May 7, 1840. He composed his first
tune at the age of four, and began to study piano at the age of five. He eventually attended
the St. Petersburg Conservatory to study music at the age of twenty-one. He attained the post
of Professor of Theory and Harmony at the Moscow Conservatory, and remained there for
eleven years. He was a very prolific composer, and wrote symphonies, concertos, operas,
ballets, overtures, chamber music, works for choir, sets of songs, and solo piano works during
his lifetime. Some of his most famous works include The Nutcracker, Romeo and Juliet, and
Sleeping Beauty. Tchaikovsky died at in 1893 at the age of fifty-three.

Tchaikovsky’s symphonies are based on Russian folksongs. He incorporated or imitated them
in many of his works, including his Fourth Symphony, in which the finale is based on a tune
called “The Birch Tree.” He used very rich harmonies and beautiful melodies in his music to
convey a wide variety of emotions.



Russia

Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer. Find Russia on a map or in an atlas.

What is the capital of Russia? __________________________________________________________

Which countries neighbor Russia? ______________________________________________________

Approximately how many miles is Russia from east to west? From north to south?
______________________________________________________________________________________

How many miles is it from Pittsburgh, PA to Russia? ______________________________________

Which bodies of water surround Russia? ________________________________________________

Which major rivers and lakes are in Russia? _____________________________________________

Find the latitude and longitude locations of the following cities:
Moscow _______________________________________________________________________________

St. Petersburg __________________________________________________________________________

Novgorod _____________________________________________________________________________

Kirov ___________________________________________________________________________________

         Look through your social studies or world cultures book to find information about Russia.
         Look for facts about its climate, natural resources, terrain, agriculture, and flag. Create
         a learning web to organize the information you collect.




                                                  32
                             Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was born on March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany, into a
musical family, which encouraged his musical endeavors at a young age. Bach is
considered one of the greatest composers in history; his works are technically and
intellectually intricate, as well as artistically beautiful. Bach was very methodical in his
composition approach, and he produced a great number of works including
cantatas, large-scale choral works, chorales, sacred songs, organ and keyboard
works, lute music, chamber music, orchestral works, canons, and fugues. Bach held a
number of posts during his career, and the nature of each job contributed to the
music he composed at the time. For example, when Bach worked in Weimar,
Germany, he was a court organist, and as a result, composed much of his organ
music there. Bach held both secular and sacred positions, as a music director in
Cöthen and a cantor in Leipzig, which accounts for the wide variety of his
compositions. Bach is most well-known for his fugues, and a brief explanation of fugue
structure follows.


Fugue

A fugue is like a round. This melody is passed around the orchestra and played at
different times. This can best be understood by having the class sing, “Row, Row, Row
Your Boat.”

Have the class sing “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” once together (unison) and then try as
a round.
            Row, Row, Row your Boat,
            Gently down the stream.
            Merrily, Merrily, Merrily, Merrily,
            Life is but a Dream.

Divide the class into two groups and have the second group begin at Line 1 when the
first group begins singing Line 3. This is a two-part round.

Now, divide the class into three groups having each group take turns entering. Now
divide the class into four groups. The last group to enter should be the last group
singing.

The Harvard Brief Dictionary of Music explains a fugue to be: …a composition based
on one melody, which is stated at the beginning in one voice part alone and then
imitated by other voices in succession, and reappearing throughout the piece at
various places in one voice part or another. The overlapping entrances and voices on
the same melody are the most important characteristics of a fugue.

   Play a recording of Toccatta and Fugue in D minor by J.S. Bach.
      Have students listen for the overlapping entrances and common melody that is
      passed around the orchestra.

                                             33
                   Tiny Tots Concerts


                 Sixth Grade Schooltime

“Happy Birthday, Pittsburgh!”
               Lawrence Loh, Conductor
             December 11, 12, 13, & 14, 2007
                      10:30 am

   Purcell          Rondeau from Abdelazer Suite

   Bennett          Stephen Collins Foster: A Commemoration
                    Symphony, Mvt. III

   Hanks            Reverie: Through a Mountain of Buried Night

   Strauss          Excursion Train Polka

   Saint-Saëns      Marche Heroique

   Herbert          “March of the Toys” from Babes in Toyland

   Mancini          The Pink Panther

   Copland          John Henry

   Strayhorn        Satin Doll

   Tchaikovsky      Symphony No. 5, Mvt. IV

                     Program subject to change




                                 34
                                   Happy Birthday Pittsburgh!
   Pittsburgh celebrates its 250th birthday in 2008. As Pennsylvania’s second largest
city, it is located at the confluence, or merge point, of the Allegheny and
Monongahela Rivers, forming the Ohio River. Pittsburgh features a skyline of 151
skyscrapers, 446 bridges, two inclines, and a pre-Revolutionary War fort.
     Manufacturing and industry were responsible for the success of Pittsburgh until the
1980s when the steel industry collapsed. The city’s economy is now largely based on
health care, education, technology, and financial services. Pittsburgh remains the
principal cultural economic influence in the eastern Ohio River Valley. Because of its
low cost of living, economic opportunities, education, transportation, and medical
facilities, Pittsburgh is consistently ranked high in livability surveys. In 2007, Places Rated
Almanac named Pittsburgh “America’s Most Livable City.”

                                     History of Pittsburgh
       For more than ten thousand years, Native Americans populated what is today
the Pittsburgh region. In 1754, the French built Fort Duquesne at forks of the Allegheny
and Monongahela Rivers to enforce their territorial claims. This occupation led to the
French and Indian War. In 1758, after British General John Forbes seized Fort Duquesne
from the French, he ordered the construction of Fort Pitt (after William Pitt the Elder,
British Prime Minister) and named the settlement Pittsborough.
       Following the American Revolution, the village around the Fort continued to
grow. Pittsburgh was manufacturing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass
products. The Civil War boosted the city’s economy still further with increased demand
for iron and armaments. The production of steel began in 1875; by 1911, Pittsburgh
was turning out half of the nation’s steel. The opportunities offered by Pittsburgh
attracted many European immigrants to settle there. A major employer at that time
included the steel mills of industrialists Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick at the
Carnegie Steel Company (which later became United States Steel). Another key
employer was Henry John Heinz, who founded the H. J. Heinz Company, a chief
supplier of food products. His “57 Varieties” became a trademark known around the
world. George Westinghouse was credited with such advancements as the air brake
and alternating current; he founded over sixty companies in Pittsburgh, including the
Westinghouse Electric Company. Financiers such as Andrew W. Mellon and Charles M.
Schwab built their fortunes in Pittsburgh as well.
      Following World War II, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization
project known as the “Renaissance.” The industrial base continued to expand through
the 1960s, but the 1980s saw the downfall of the steel industry with massive layoffs and
mill closings.
      Today there are few steel mills in Pittsburgh, although manufacturing continues at
regional mills. Beginning in the 1980s, Pittsburgh’s economy shifted from heavy industry
to services, medicine, higher education, tourism, banking, business, and high
technology. Currently the top two private employers in the city are the University of
Pittsburgh Medical Center (26,000 employees) and the University of Pittsburgh (10,700).
Present-day Pittsburgh—with clean air, a diversified economy, a low cost of living, and
opportunities for higher education and culture—is considered one of America’s finest
cities in which to live.



                                              35
                                 Pittsburgh Crossword
                  Find the answers in the Pittsburgh articles on the previous page.
Across
3. The Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers meet to form this.
5. This Pittsburgher was known for his work with food production and his "57 Varieties."
6. Pittsburgh boasts 446 of these structures.
7. His air brake revolutionized the railroad industry and his electronics businesses helped build
Pittsburgh's economy.
9. Today, Pittsburgh's economy is fed by medical facilities, higher education, tourism, and. . .
10. Pittsburgh was named in honor of this British politician.
11. This steel magnate donated much of his fortune to build libraries.
12. This industry made Pittsburgh famous.

Down
1. In 2007, Places Rated Almanac voted Pittsburgh this honor.
2. The original fort built where the Allegheny and Monongahela meet was called by this name.
4. Pittsburgh's largest employer today includes the medical facilities of . . .
8. General John Forbes seized the French fort and had a new one built which he named . . .




                                                36
Many people in Pittsburgh and western Pennsylvania speak with a distinctive dialect of English
unique to this area, which they call "Pittsburghese." This dialect developed due to the
influence of Scottish-Irish, Welsh, German, Central European, and Eastern European
immigrants. In their attempt to communicate, they contributed bits of their own language to
form Pittsburghese. Locals who speak in this dialect are sometimes referred to as “Yinzers,”
from the local word for “you all,” which is “yinz.” Below is a small collection of words and
phrases in Pittsburghese.

An Abridged Pittburghese Glossary
Aht: where you go when you leave the house. “I’m going aht for a bit.”
Airyago: there you go. “Airyago, now you understand.”
Anymore: the situation as it is today. “They don’t live here anymore.”
Back’air: back there. “I’m never going back’air again.”
Blinkers: turn signals on a vehicle. “He turned left without his blinkers on.”
Bobby-Mo: Robert Morris University. “She won a scholarship to play basketball at Bobby-Mo.”
Bo-chyins: both of you. “Hey, bo-chyins miss the bus to school?”
Buggy: shopping cart. “Is there room in the buggy for more groceries?”
Chipped ham: chipped-chopped ham. “I’m eating a chipped ham sandwich.”
Couttent: could not/couldn’t. “I couttent get there on time.”
Dahntahn: downtown. “Dahntahn is a busy place before a Pirate game.”
Dill: a special price/deal. “I got a good dill on those shoes.”
Drug: past tense of drag. “He drug that bag down the hall.”
Fahr: fire. “There was a fahr in that building today.”
Filled: field. “We got to play football at Heinz Filled.”
Get a shower: take a shower. “I need to get a shower before we go.”
Gyan Iggle: Giant Eagle supermarket. “We went shopping at Gyan Iggle.”
Gum band: rubber band. “Put a gum band on that paper.”
InAir: in there. “Put that box inair.”
Haas: house. “I can’t wait to move into my new haas.”
Hauscome: Why? or What is the reason? “Hauscome the coach played him today?”
Jumbo: bologna. “She eats a jumbo sandwich every day.”
Kennywood’s Open: a subtle way to set another know that their zipper is down. “Look,
Kennywood’s open.”
Like at/Like iss: like that/like this. “I can’t do it like at.”
Mallanar: miles per hour. “That guy was going forty mallanar in a tweny-five mallanar zone.”
Mill: meal. “My mother is making a great mill tonight.”
N’at: and that. “We’re going to work n’at.”
Nebby: nosey, curious. “She sure is a nebby person.”
Paritz: Pirates. “The Pittsburgh Paritz play at PNC Park.”
Redd up: to clean, straighten up. “This haas needs redd up.”
Rilly: really. “This semester is rilly going fast.”
Slippy: slippery. “Careful, the ice is rilly slippy.”
Stillers: Steelers. “The Stillers won five Super Bowls.”
Sahside: South Side. “Station Square is in the Sahside.”
Worsh: wash. “I rilly need to worsh the car.”
Yinz/Younz/Yous: all of you. “What do yinz want for dinner?”


                                              37
                            Can You Speak Pittsburghese?

Below are several fictitious conversations of people speaking in Pittsburghese.
Translate each dialog using words that are more commonly acceptable.

Conversation 1
Randy: Hey Andy, do you want to go aht with us?
        _____________________________________________________________________
Andy:   Where yinz going?
        ______________________________________________________________________
Randy: We’re going to Gyan Iggle to do some shopping. They have a great dill on chipped
        ham, jumbo n’at.
        _____________________________________________________________________
        _____________________________________________________________________
Andy:   I was there yesterday. It was so crowded, I couttent find a buggy.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Randy: Rilly? It shouldn’t be that bad today. There’s a Stiller game on TV.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Andy:   OK. But first I need to get a shower and I’ll be at your haas in about an ahr.
        _____________________________________________________________________



Conversation 2
Sandy: Hauscome you’re so late?
        _____________________________________________________________________
Mandy: The roads were very slippy.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Sandy: Even dahntahn?
        _____________________________________________________________________
Mandy: I couttent believe it. I even went through Sahside to beat the traffic, but was only
        going about 20 mallanar.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Sandy: That’s OK, it gave me some time to redd up the haas.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Mandy: Airyago. Did you have time to worsh clothes too?
        _____________________________________________________________________




                                               38
Sandy: No. That nebby neighbor kept interrupting me.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Mandy: I know, everyone has neighbor like at anymore..
        _____________________________________________________________________


Conversation 3
John: What did youz do with the Gazette?
        _____________________________________________________________________
Ron:   I put a gum band around it and put it inair.
        _____________________________________________________________________
John: Hauscome? I wanted to read the article about the Paritz trades.
       _____________________________________________________________________
Ron:   They’re so bad. The Bobby-Mo girl’s softball team can make them look embarrassed.
        _____________________________________________________________________
John: Speaking of embarrassed, Kennywood’s open.
        _____________________________________________________________________
Ron:   Wow! My face must be red as fahr!
       _____________________________________________________________________
John: Tell your brother to get ready and bochyins can come to the game at the filled.
       _____________________________________________________________________




                                               39
                                  Pittsburgh Trivia Scavenger Hunt
                 How many of these interesting facts about Pittsburgh can you find?
                 Write your answers on the answer sheet.

1. The popular chocolate-coated ice cream treat that was developed in Pittsburgh.
2. Found in just about every amusement park in the world, this amusement ride’s inventor built
    bridges in Pittsburgh.
3. The first public television station, founded in Pittsburgh, is . . .
4. Pittsburgh hosted the first World Series. Who did the Pirates play and in what year?
5. This condiment was first produced on Pittsburgh’s North Side.
6. According to the 2000 U. S. Census, what is the population of Pittsburgh?
7. Where does Pittsburgh rank in size of U. S. cities?
8. Name at least three Pittsburgh Pirates who are in the Baseball Hall of Fame.
9. The world’s first radio broadcast was in Pittsburgh. What year did it take place, and what are
    the call letters of the station?
10. Name at least three Pittsburgh television personalities (newscasters).
11. Name at least two national celebrities who hail from Pittsburgh.
12. In 1968, franchise owner Jim Delligate invented the first of these double-deckers.
13. This Frank Lloyd Wright building, designed for the Kaufmann family, is recognized by architects
    around the world.
14. A Pittsburgh museum is named for this native son whose art is world-famous.
15. This national children’s television show originated here and every episode was filmed in
    Pittsburgh.
16. The Pittsburgh Steelers were the first NFL team to win this number of Super Bowls.
17. This Kennywood coaster took first place in the “Top 10 Coasters in the World” by the
    Amusement Park Historical Association.
18. The first World Series night game was played in Pittsburgh. Who did the Pirates play and in what
    year?
19. In 1954, Dr. Jonas Salk of the University of Pittsburgh developed a vaccine for . . .
20. The fountain in Point State Park sprays this many gallons per minute.
21. Name two famous dancers who hailed from Pittsburgh.
22. Although none of these men played for the Steelers, name at least two NFL stars whom were
    born and raised in the Pittsburgh area.
23. Pittsburgh is the home of at least nine colleges in the actual Pittsburgh metropolitan area.
    Name at least three.
24. The first retractable dome was built in Pittsburgh. What was the original name of this building
    and what is the current name?
25. On whose logo would you find gold, black, and red “hypocycloids?”
26. No Pittsburgh Steelers’ jersey numbers have ever been “retired.” However, these numbers are
    not distributed each season—12, 32, 36, 47, 52, 58, 59, 63, and 75. Can you name at least three
    of the players who wore these jersey numbers?
27. The Pittsburgh Penguins did not always wear black and gold. What was the Pens’ original
    jersey color?
28. How many Stanley Cups did the Penguins win and what is unusual about them?
29. Before Three Rivers Stadium was built, where did the Pirates play their home games? Where
    did the Steelers play their home games?
30. What Pirate hit the game-winning home run at the 1960 World Series against the Yankees?
31. What are the names of the two Pittsburgh inclines?
32. During the 1970’s, Pittsburgh was known as the “City of . . .”
33. The tallest building in Pittsburgh is the . . .
34. What tunnel would you drive through to get directly from downtown Pittsburgh to South Hills?
35. The popular “mascot” of Eat ‘n Park Restaurants is the . . .



                                                 40
         Pittsburgh Trivia Scavenger Hunt Answer Sheet

1. ______________________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________________________________
6. ______________________________________________________________________
7. ______________________________________________________________________
8. ______________________________________________________________________
9. ______________________________________________________________________
10. ______________________________________________________________________
11. ______________________________________________________________________
12. ______________________________________________________________________
13. ______________________________________________________________________
14. ______________________________________________________________________
15. ______________________________________________________________________
16. ______________________________________________________________________
17. ______________________________________________________________________
18. ______________________________________________________________________
19. ______________________________________________________________________
20. ______________________________________________________________________
21. ______________________________________________________________________
22. ______________________________________________________________________
23. ______________________________________________________________________
24. ______________________________________________________________________
25. ______________________________________________________________________
26. ______________________________________________________________________
27. ______________________________________________________________________
28. ______________________________________________________________________
29. ______________________________________________________________________
30. ______________________________________________________________________
31. ______________________________________________________________________
32. ______________________________________________________________________
33. ______________________________________________________________________
34. ______________________________________________________________________
35. ______________________________________________________________________



                                    41
                         Scavenger Hunt Answers
1.  Isaly’s Klondike
2.  Ferris Wheel
3.  WQED (1954)
4.  1903 – Boston (Pilgrims)
5.  Heinz Ketchup
6.  350,363
7.  13th largest city in the U. S.
8.  Roberto Clemente, Willie Stargell, Bill Mazeroski, Ralph Kiner, Pie Traynor, Honus
    Wagner, etc.
9. 1920 (November 2) - KDKA radio
10. Ken Rice, Sonni Abatta, Keith Jones, Jeff Verszyla, Bob Pompeani, Peggy
    Finnegan, John Fedko, etc.
11. Christina Aguilera, Michael Keaton, Dennis Miller
12. McDonalds’ Big Mac
13. Falling Water
14. Andy Warhol
15. Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood
16. 4
17. Thunderbolt
18. 1971 – Baltimore Orioles
19. Polio
20. 1,000 gallons per minute
21. Gene Kelly, Martha Graham
22. Dan Marino, Joe Namath, Joe Montana, Tony Dorsett, Johnny Unitas
23. University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie-Mellon University, Duquesne University, Robert
    Morris University, LaRoche College, Carlow University, Point Park University,
    Chatham University, Community College of Allegheny County
24. Civic Arena, now Mellon Arena
25. Pittsburgh Steelers
26. 12 – Terry Bradshaw, 32 – Franco Harris, 36 – Jerome Bettis, 47 – Mel Blount , 52 –
    Mike Webster, 58 – Jack Lambert , 59 – Jack Ham, 63 – Dermotti Dawson, 75 –
    Joe Greene
27. Powder blue
28. 2, back-to-back in 1991, 1992
29. Pirates at Forbes Field, Steelers at Pitt Stadium
30. Bill Mazeroski
31. Duquesne Incline and Monongahela Incline
32. Champions
33. USX Tower (US Steel Building)
34. Liberty Tubes
35. Smiley Cookie




                                         42
                                Plan a Visit to Pittsburgh
       If you were to act as a tour guide for a friend from another city, organize a trip
       to Pittsburgh by answering the following questions and following these
       guidelines:

  •   In which city does your friend live?
  •   How will he/she be traveling to Pittsburgh?
  •   What season or month of the year will he/she visit?

  Take him/her to some of these attractions:
  • a sporting event
  • a cultural event
  • an historical place
  • a restaurant (unique to Pittsburgh, not a national chain)
  • a shopping mall
  • places of interest
  • a park (in season)
  • a museum/zoo, etc.
  • a sight-seeing tour

The assignment must be in paragraph form using complete sentences. Briefly describe
and tell your friend about each of the places that you will visit. Keep in mind the
elements of the PSSA writing rubric.

                                 A Two-Part Survey

This survey can be used within the classroom, or the students may survey family
members, neighbors, friends, etc. and compile the results. Results can be tabulated in
any number of ways including: “What percentage of people answered each question
in part one correctly?” or, “What was the total number of people who answered
questions in part two correctly?” etc. Use the survey form on the following page.

Answers for Part 1:
1.   Sidney Crosby              Pens
2.   Timothy Adams              PSO
3.   Hines Ward                 Steelers
4.   Jason Bay                  Pirates
5.   Andres Cardenes            PSO
6.   Freddie Sanchez            Pirates
7.   Evgeni Malkin              Pens
8.   Jeffrey Turner             PSO
9.   Ben Roethlisberger         Steelers
10.  George Vosburgh            PSO

Answers for Part 2:
Lawrence Loh is Resident Conductor of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra
Manfred Honeck is Music Director (Designate) of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra

                                            43
                                    SURVEY FORM

                                     Student name_______________________________

Use this key to record your answers below:
Correct answer = +
Incorrect answer/did not know = o


Part One:
Question: Who does ____________play for?

                        1     2      3     4       5     6     7     8    9     10

A. Sidney Crosby        ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

B. Timothy Adams        ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

C. Hines Ward           ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

D. Jason Bay            ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

E. Andres Cardenes      ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

F. Freddie Sanchez      ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

G. Evgeni Malkin        ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

H. Jeffrey Turner       ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

I. Ben Roethlisberger   ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

J. George Vosburgh      ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___


Part Two: Please answer these questions.

Who is _______?

K. Lawrence Loh         ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___

L. Manfred Honeck       ___   ___   ___    ___    ___   ___   ___   ___   ___   ___




                                             44
              Music and Composer Background Information

                                      Robert Russell Bennett
                                             His Life
       Robert Russell Bennett was born in Missouri in 1894; his father was a band director and
his mother was a pianist. As a child, Bennett learned to play the piano and almost every other
musical instrument in the orchestra. This knowledge would serve him well in his future role as a
composer, arranger, and conductor.
       In 1926, Bennett moved to New York City and established himself as a leading arranger,
particularly for Broadway shows. At the height of his career, Bennett had twenty-two different
shows running on Broadway simultaneously. He arranged music for many of the most
important names in musical theater, including Irving Berlin, Rudolf Friml, George Gershwin,
Jerome Kern, Frederick Loewe, Cole Porter, and Richard Rodgers. Later, he worked in
Hollywood (before Henry Mancini) writing scores for films and television. As a composer,
Bennett traveled to Paris to study composition with Nadia Boulanger around the same time as
Aaron Copland. However, Bennett’s and Copland’s paths in the musical world would be very
different. Bennett’s music leaned more toward the popular and Broadway styles, yet his
output of “serious” music was also very substantial, with pieces being written in all forms and
for every conceivable type of ensemble.

                                                His Music
        Robert Russell Bennett wrote his Commemoration Symphony in 1959 using the traditional
four-movement symphonic form. What we will hear today is only the third movement, which is
based on Stephen Foster’s Oh! Susanna. Also, the entire symphony is very easy to listen to,
since it contains other Foster songs that you would be able to recognize.
        There is an interesting bit of trivia connected to this work. When asked about how he
wrote it, Bennett confessed that the idea came to him very slowly. He was worried that
Stephen Foster’s songs would not be a good subject for a symphony and later reported that in
order to write this symphony, he had to create a fantasy in his mind. Bennett imagined that he
was composer living at the same time as Stephen Foster. Since Stephen Foster was not a
symphonic composer, he needed Bennett to compose and orchestrate a large symphony by
using some of his shorter songs. The fantasy worked and helped Bennett create his
Commemoration Symphony. But this story also gives you some clues as to how a composer’s
mind works: composers oftentimes use mental images that help them to create music.


                                          Stephen Foster
                                              His Life
        Stephen Collins Foster was born on July 4, 1826, in the section of Pittsburgh that we now
call Lawrenceville, overlooking the Allegheny River. He was the youngest in a family of nine
children. Legend suggests that Foster did not like school and was poorly educated, but quite
to the contrary, he merely disliked rote learning and went on to become a literate and well-
educated person. During his schooling, Foster also had the opportunity to learn music, which
opened many doors for him to enjoy the friendship of some of Pittsburgh’s most prosperous
and influential families.
        At age 20, Foster moved to Cincinnati to work as a bookkeeper for his brother’s
steamship company. He continued to write songs and piano pieces, including his first big hit,
Oh! Susanna. Upon his return to Pittsburgh, he met and married Jane Denny McDowell in 1850.
The following year marked the birth of their daughter, Marion, as well as the beginning of his
career as professional songwriter.


                                               45
        In 1860, Foster and his family moved to New York City so he could be close to his
publisher and because New York was, as it is today, one of the great centers for music. Foster
believed that if he were ever to be successful as a songwriter, he needed to be in a place
where his pieces would be performed and where people would buy his songs. Moreover, New
York was the center for a new type of musical show called the “minstrel show,” which was a
perfect vehicle for the type of songs he wrote.
        Foster lived a rather difficult life. In a time before any type of “music business” existed,
he achieved a degree of success as America’s first great professional songwriter. Although he
was a good businessman, he was underpaid for his work. Other publishers copied his songs
and sold them without paying him. Likewise, performers who sang or played his music never
paid him for the performance rights. In today’s world, Stephen Collins Foster would have been
a millionaire many times over. Unfortunately, on January 13, 1864, he died from a fall that he
suffered in his hotel room. Sadly, America’s first great songwriter died at the tender age of 37
with only 38 cents in his pocket. A note was also found in his coat that day. It read, “Dear
friends and gentle hearts,” which may have been his parting thoughts to the world or perhaps
the beginnings of yet another song. We will never know.

                                              His Music
       Composing did not come easily to Stephen Foster. Although he was extremely gifted
as a songwriter, he labored to make each of his songs a perfect gem in expressing exactly he
wanted. He, like Beethoven, was never without his “sketchbook,” where he would work out his
songs and lyrics. His greatest “hits” include many that you may know: Oh! Susanna (1848);
Camptown Races (1850); Old Folks at Home (1851); Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair (1854);
and Beautiful Dreamer (1862).
       The piece the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra will play for you on this concert is the third
movement from the Commemoration Symphony, written in 1959 by another American
composer and arranger, Robert Russell Bennett. The third movement is based on Stephen
Foster’s song, Oh! Susanna.


                                        Aaron Copland
                                             His Life
       Aaron Copland was born in Brooklyn, New York, in 1900. While his parents did not push
him toward music, he decided early in his life that he was going to become a composer.
After graduating high school, Copland decided not to go to college, but rather decided to
study piano and composition with some of the leading teachers in New York City and support
himself by playing piano.
       In 1921, he made a pivotal decision to go to France to study with a world-renowned
composition teacher, Nadia Boulanger, who proved to be an inspiration to his career as a
composer. A series of his early compositions during the 1920s, including his Symphony for
Organ and Orchestra, premiered at Carnegie Hall in 1925 and launched his career as an
important 20th century American composer.
       Copland went through several style changes during his lifetime. Early in his career, after
returning from Paris, he worked with elements of jazz music, which was a strong force in
American music at the time. Around 1936, his style became much simpler, as he infused his
works with American folk elements such as cowboy songs, sailing songs, dance tunes, and
hymns. During this period, he produced three of his most popular works: Billy the Kid (1938),
Rodeo (1942), and Appalachian Spring (1944).
       In his later years, Copland changed to a third style of composition by adopting
techniques from the 12-tone school of writing made popular by Arnold Schoenberg. In 1970,
Copland stopped composing altogether, but continued to give lectures and serve as a guest


                                                46
conductor for orchestras. He died in 1990 of complications from Alzheimer’s disease. His
reputation and stature as the “Dean of American Composers” has only continued to increase.

                                              His Music
        Could there be a more fitting piece of music for Pittsburgh, “the steel town,” than Aaron
Copland’s John Henry, the story of a steel-driving man? The legend of John Henry tells the
story of a tall, strong African American man who worked building railroads in the late 1800s.
His job was to drive steel stakes into rocks so that dynamite could be placed in the hole and
the rock blown apart to create tunnels. Around this time, the steam drill was invented and it
could supposedly drill these holes faster than a man. John Henry’s boss was skeptical about
this claim, but agreed to purchase one of the machines if, in a contest, it could beat his best
man. The contest was held and John Henry beat the steam drill, but unfortunately, he died
from sheer exhaustion with his hammer in his hand. We will never know whether this story is
actually true, but it was so popular that an American folk song was inspired by it.
        In 1940, Aaron Copland, using that same folk song, wrote his version of John Henry for
small orchestra. Later, he revised it for a much larger orchestra. The piece is written as a
“theme and variations,” which means that you will hear the basic folk song (theme) played six
times but in different ways (variations). As you listen to the piece, pay particular attention to
how Copland uses the percussion instruments to help tell the story. These instruments include
some special effects ones such as anvil, sandpaper blocks, and train whistle, but also include
traditional percussion instruments like timpani, bells, triangle, bass drum, cymbals, and tam-tam
drums.


                                         N. Lincoln Hanks
                                               His Life
        Many modern composers find employment through “commissions” or teach at colleges
of music. Such is the case with Dr. N. Lincoln Hanks, who is on the faculty of Pepperdine
University in California and has been commissioned by many important musical organizations
to write pieces for them.
        N. Lincoln Hanks was born in 1969 in Muscatine, Iowa, where he began his musical
education with piano lessons at age five. He later studied with several important American
composers, including John Harbison and Pittsburgh native Don Freund. Dr. Hanks is indeed a
contemporary composer, but he is also a talented vocalist who has a passion for performing
really old music. In fact, he helped found an award-winning early music group called “The
Concord Ensemble.”
                                             His Music
        Dr. Hanks’ piece, Reverie: Through a Mountain of Buried Night is a brand-new piece of
music commissioned by the Northeastern Pennsylvania Philharmonic Orchestra. It received its
premiere on May 4, 2007 under the baton of today’s conductor, Lawrence Loh. The piece is a
tribute to the coal mining industry in Pennsylvania.


                                           Victor Herbert
                                               His Life
       In the world of musical superstars, Victor Herbert would undoubtedly be amongst the
greatest of all time. He was a virtuoso cellist, a composer of hundreds of popular songs and
numerous symphonic works, a member of the New York Philharmonic, conductor of New York
National Guard Band, and the composer of many Broadway shows. He is connected to
Pittsburgh because he was one of the first conductors of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra
from 1898 until 1902, and he took the orchestra to its very first Carnegie Hall appearance in
New York.

                                               47
          Victor Herbert was born in Dublin, Ireland, on February 1, 1859. He was educated in
Germany with an eye towards a career in medicine. However, by the time he was a
teenager, his family did not have the money to send him to medical school. Young Herbert
fell back on music, perhaps as a way of making a living. First he studied piano, then flute and
piccolo. Finally, he settled fortuitously on the cello, and his musical career took off. He was
soon employed by various European orchestras and even came face-to-face with three of
the most famous living composers of that time: Brahms, Liszt, and Saint-Saëns. Herbert later
acknowledged these meetings as some of his grandest memories and greatest influences in
his life.
          In 1885, Herbert met Therese Forster, who was a soprano with the Royal Court Orchestra.
Herbert fell hopelessly in love with her and soon they were engaged. The young couple’s
migration to America came as a result of Therese being invited to sing with the Metropolitan
Opera Company, while Herbert was employed as a cellist in the orchestra.
          In New York, Herbert made the acquaintance of some of the most important people in
the New York musical scene. Later, he was invited to join the New York Philharmonic, where
he performed for eleven seasons and often was a soloist. Herbert then was the conductor for
the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, and later formed his own orchestra: The Victor Herbert
Orchestra, which toured the country and distinguished itself by playing a mixture of both
classical music and lighter works that thrilled audiences. As a result, “Victor Herbert” became
a household name in the early 20th century. As a composer, Herbert continued to expand his
musical horizons by writing two operas and over forty operettas. He also became involved in
the battle for composers rights (to be paid and protected) and was one of the founding
members of ASCAP (American Society of Composers and Performers), which is still in existence
today. Victor Herbert also became America’s first movie composer with his score for The Fall
of a Nation in 1916. He died in 1924 with a legacy of music and influence that still exist today.

                                            His Music

                                       Toyland, Toyland,
                                    Little girl and boy land
                                    While you dwell within it
                                   You are ever happy then.

                                     Childhood's joy land,
                                    Mystic, merry Toyland,
                                   Once you pass its borders
                                  You can never return again.

       Just reading the lyrics from one of the title songs from Victor Herbert’s operetta Babes in
Toyland serves to illustrate the innocent, magical quality embodied in this music. The March of
the Toys, which you will hear today, is typical of the light style of music that Victor Herbert
created for this show and is typical of some of the popular music of that era.
       Babes in Toyland was written in 1903 as musical fantasy similar to The Wizard of Oz. It,
like many children’s stories, is a journey to a distant land, filled with both wonderful and scary
elements. Briefly, the story concerns two orphans, Jane and Alan, who live with their miserly
Uncle Barnaby who threatens to kill them. Jane and Alan decide to escape by embarking on
a magical sea voyage to the garden of Contrary Mary, where they meet many of the
characters from Mother Goose fables. There, they also encounter a cruel Toymaker who
brings his toys to life (i.e., March of the Toys). All the toys then band together and kill the
Toymaker. However, Alan is falsely accused and sentenced to be hanged. At the very last
moment, he proves his innocence and returns home with his sister Jane. Uncle Barnaby again


                                                48
plots to do the children harm by poisoning them, but accidentally drinks a poison. This enables
the children to live in peace and enjoy life forever more.


                                           Henry Mancini
                                               His Life
       The same year that Victor Herbert died (1924), Henry Mancini was born in Cleveland,
Ohio. He began flute lessons at the age of eight, studying with his father. A few years later, the
family moved to Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, where Mancini took up the piano and developed
an interest in music theory and arranging. After graduating from high school in 1942, he
attended the prestigious Juilliard School in New York. However, his college career was
suddenly cut short when he was drafted into the Air Force in 1943, during World War II.
       After the war, Mancini joined the Glenn Miller-Tex Beneke Orchestra as a pianist and
arranger, where he met and married Ginny O’Connor, a singer with the band. His career
advanced when he joined the music department of Universal International Studios in
Hollywood and became involved in composing music for motion pictures. At Universal Studios,
Mancini wrote the music for over one hundred films. Later, he met and collaborated with
writer/producer Blake Edwards on many movies and the very popular television series Peter
Gunn. This immense body of work earned Mancini twenty Grammy Awards, four Academy
Awards, four Oscars, one Golden Globe Award, and two Emmy Award nominations.
       In 1958, Mancini left Universal Studios to pursue his fortunes as a freelance composer,
arranger, and conductor. By this time, he was one of America’s most successful movie
composers and was also in high demand by symphony orchestras all over the world. He
collaborated with many of the greatest names in classical and jazz music, and he conducted
over six hundred symphony concerts during his career. He received four honorary doctorates
and established numerous scholarships and endowments to help young composers at
colleges and universities around the country.
       In 2004, the United States Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp honoring Henry
Mancini’s lifetime achievements in film music and to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the film
Pink Panther. He died in 1994 at the age of 70.

                                          His Music
      The theme from The Pink Panther, along with Moon River, is one of Henry Mancini’s most
popular and easily recognized songs. There are some ten films in the Pink Panther series with
another scheduled to be released in 2008. Most contain the original Mancini theme that the
orchestra will play for you today.


                                           Henry Purcell
                                               His Life
       Often recognized as England’s finest native composer, Henry Purcell changed the
music world through his integration of Italian and French stylistic elements, resulting in a
peculiarly English style of Baroque music. Purcell was born in Westminster in 1659. His father
was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal and sang at the coronation of King Charles II of
England.
       Unfortunately, Purcell’s father died in 1664, leaving Purcell to be placed under the
guardianship of his uncle, Thomas Purcell. Thomas arranged for his nephew to be admitted as
a chorister in the Chapel Royal, where Purcell remained until his voice broke in 1673. Although
Purcell is said to have begun composing by the age of nine, his earliest identifiable work dates
back to 1670, which was an ode for the King’s birthday. Purcell attended Westminster School
and was appointed organist at Westminster Abbey in 1676.


                                               49
        In 1680, Dr. John Blow, organist of Westminster Abbey and Purcell’s teacher, resigned his
office in favor of his student, Purcell. As the organist of Westminster Abbey, Purcell devoted
himself entirely to the composition of sacred music, severing his ties with the theatre for six
years. In 1682, Purcell was appointed organist of the Chapel Royal, a position he held
simultaneously with his Westminster Abbey position.
        Purcell suddenly died at the height of his career in 1695. Although the cause of his
death is unclear, scholars believe that he died of tuberculosis. Purcell is buried adjacent to the
organ in Westminster Abbey.

                                              His Music
        As one of the greatest Baroque composers and one of the greatest English composers,
Purcell made his mark in the history of music through his stage works, church music, secular
vocal music, instrumental music, and keyboard music. Although his earliest surviving works
date from 1670, the works show maturity and a comprehensive command of the craft of
composition.
        Because Purcell spent most of his life in the service of the Chapel Royal, he wrote a
number of verse anthems and full anthems for the liturgy of the Church of England. However,
Purcell is best known for his theater music, which consists of songs and instrumental pieces for
spoken plays, and five ‘semi-operas,’ in which the music plays an integral part along with
divertissements, songs, choral numbers, and dances.
        Purcell’s only true opera was Dido and Aeneas, an important landmark in the history of
English dramatic music. It was written for a girls’ school at Chelsea and is comprised of three
acts, lasting about one hour. Although Dido and Aeneas never found its way to the theater, it
was very popular among private circles.
        After Purcell’s death, he was honored by many of his contemporaries, including John
Blow and John Dryden. Purcell had a strong influence on English musical Renaissance
composers in the early twentieth century, including Benjamin Britten.


                                        Camille Saint-Saëns
                                               His Life
        Camille Saint-Saëns was born in Paris on October 9, 1835. He was a gifted child
musician. He played piano, and he even composed music for the instrument starting at the
age of three. By his tenth birthday, he was performing Mozart and Beethoven concertos. As a
young boy, he enjoyed collecting fossil shells. Although Saint-Saëns spent much of his time
studying music, he also delved into other subjects such as geology, archaeology, botany, and
lepidoptery (the study of butterflies and moths).
        By the early 1900s, Saint-Saëns was studying organ and composition. As a composition
student, he won many top prizes which brought him recognition, resulting in his introduction to
Franz Liszt, who would become one of his closest friends. Saint-Saëns composed his first
symphony at the age of 16.
        Saint-Saëns had a long career as a recitalist, conductor, teacher, and composer. His
travels took him to Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Uruguay (he wrote their national anthem),
the Canary Islands, Scandinavia, and Russia. In addition to composing, teaching, performing,
and writing musical criticism, Saint-Saëns held scholarly discussions with Europe’s finest scientists
and was the author of several musical, scientific, and historical literary works. The French
government recognized Saint-Saëns’ accomplishments by awarding him the Légion
d’honneur. On December 16, 1921, Saint-Saëns died of pneumonia in Algiers. His body was
sent back to Paris, honored with a state funeral at La Madeleine, and buried in Paris.

                                             His Music


                                                 50
        Saint-Saëns began his musical career by introducing to France the symphonic poem
and radical works of Liszt and Wagner at a time when Bach and Mozart were the staples of
classical music. Throughout his long career, Saint-Saëns wrote over three hundred works and
was the first major composer to write music specifically for the cinema.
        Saint-Saëns wrote many dramatic works, including four symphonic poems and thirteen
operas. In addition, he composed five symphonies, which played a significant role in halting
the decline of the French symphonic tradition. With the composition of five piano concertos,
three violin concertos, two cello concertos, and about twenty smaller concertante works for
soloist and orchestra, Saint-Saëns mad a huge contribution to the French concertante
literature. Although Le Carnaval des Animaux is one of Saint-Saëns’ most popular works today,
he forbade the complete performance of it shortly after its premier, worrying that it would
damage his reputation as a serious composer, as the work was written as a musical jest.


                                         Johann Strauss, Jr.
                                              His Life
       Johann Strauss, Jr. was born on October 25, 1825 in Vienna. Although he was born into
a musical family, his father did not want him to become a musician. Instead, he wanted his
son to become a banker. His father, Johann Sr., was also a composer and founder of the
family’s dynasty of dance orchestras. Strauss Jr.’s brother Josef was also a composer, and
another brother, Eduard, also had his own orchestra. Despite his father’s demands, Strauss Jr.
studied violin secretly as a child and faced the wrath of his father when his secret was
revealed.
       Strauss Jr. was not able to devote himself to a musical career until his father left the
family when Strauss Jr. was 17. He then studied counterpoint and harmony with Professor
Joachim Hoffman. His talent as a composer and violinist were soon recognized. By the time
he was 19, he had his own orchestra. They played in cafés in the suburbs and were very
popular. He and his musicians toured throughout Austria, Germany, and Poland. He
performed in Paris and London, and in 1872 visited the United States. Idolized in Vienna,
Strauss eventually surpassed his father’s fame and became one of the most popular waltz
composers of the era. Johann Jr. died June 3, 1899 in Vienna at the age of 73.

                                              His Music
       Strauss Jr. became known as the “Waltz King.” The popularity of the waltz in Vienna
during the 19th century is due in large part to Strauss. He composed stage works and dance
music throughout his life. His dance music includes waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and marches.
Interestingly, Strauss wrote the “Centennial Waltzes” for the 100th anniversary of the
Declaration of Independence. However, his most famous work is The Blue Danube. Today,
Strauss’ music is regularly performed at the annual Neujahrskonzert (New Year’s Concert) of
the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.


                                         Peter Illych Tchaikovsky
                                                   His Life
        One of the most popular and best-loved "Romantic" composers is Peter Ilyich
Tchaikovsky. Tchaikovsky was born in Russia on May 7, 1840. His father was a mine inspector
and his mother was a very cultured woman of French ancestry who played piano.
        As a child, Tchaikovsky naturally developed a liking for music. Even as a very young
child, he could often be found listening intently to the music of Mozart (his favorite composer).
Tchaikovsky was so fascinated with this music that he often tried to write it down, and he
sometimes complained that he couldn't fall asleep at night because the music was “buzzing
around in my head." By the age of five, he began to take piano lessons.

                                               51
        As he grew older, many events shaped Tchaikovsky's life. His parents enrolled him in a
boarding school to learn to be a law clerk. He did not like this school and soon began to
realize that he was not suited for office work. After returning from a tour of Europe, he made
up his mind to be a musician and enrolled in a new conservatory (music school) founded by
Anton Rubinstein, one of the most famous musicians in St. Petersburg at that time. Sensing
great talent in this young student, Rubinstein worked hard with young Tchaikovsky in
developing his musical skills. Upon graduation, Tchaikovsky was immediately offered a
teaching job at the newly-founded Moscow Conservatory.
        Unfortunately, Tchaikovsky did not particularly like this job either, but it did provide him
the money he needed to support his rather lavish lifestyle and allowed him to begin to
compose music. He soon started work on what was to be the first of his six symphonies. He
also composed other types of music, particularly ballets and operas which became instant hits
with audiences. Tchaikovsky worked very hard on all of his compositions, often to the point
where he was exhausted and sick. He was never happy and tended to worry about
everything. Even conducting public performances of his own music made him extremely
nervous. In fact, at one performance, he was able to use only one hand to lead the orchestra
because the other was needed to keep his head from shaking!
        In 1891, Tchaikovsky made his only trip to America where he met Andrew Carnegie (the
rich Pittsburgh industrialist) who asked him to conduct four concerts for the opening of
Carnegie Hall in New York City. American audiences seemed to love Tchaikovsky, perhaps
even more than audiences in Russia. However, he eventually returned to his homeland to
write his sixth and final symphony. In 1893, at the age of 53, Tchaikovsky died of cholera from
drinking contaminated water.

                                            His Music
        The Fifth Symphony is an excellent example of Tchaikovsky’s style; it is in many ways a
mirror of his personality. When Tchaikovsky was writing this work, he never particularly liked it
and greatly feared that it would please no one. He only began to appreciate it after he
conducted it and heard it performed. For Tchaikovsky, his fifth symphony, like Beethoven’s
Fifth Symphony, was a battle with fate and overcoming his own personal weaknesses. The
fourth movement, which you will hear today, is the triumphal movement of this symphony. It is
also interesting to note that Manfred Honeck, the new Music Director Designate for the
Pittsburgh Symphony, chose this symphony for his first concert with the orchestra in his newly
adopted county of America, much like Tchaikovsky programmed it on his first visit to America
at the dedication of Carnegie Hall.




                                                52
                            Pennsylvania Department of Education
                                    Academic Standards
  The following are the Pennsylvania Academic Standards addressed in the previous
                               supplementary materials.

Second Grade – “Meet the Orchestra”
Arts and Humanities
9.1.3.A Know and use the elements and principles of each art form to create works in the arts and
         humanities.
9.1.3.B Recognize, know, use and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to
         produce, review and revise original works in the arts.
9.1.3.C Recognize and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms.
9.1.3.D Use knowledge of varied styles within each art form through a performance or exhibition of
          unique work.
9.1.3.E Demonstrate the ability to define objects, express emotions, illustrate an action or relate an
         experience through creation of works in the arts.
9.1.3.F Identify works of others through a performance or exhibition
9.1.3.I Identify arts events that take place in schools and in communities.
9.2.3.A Explain the historical, cultural and social context of an individual work in the arts.
9.2.3.B Relate works in the arts chronologically to historical events (e.g., 10,000 B.C. to present).
9.2.3.G Relate works in the arts to geographic regions.
9.3.3.A Recognize critical processes used in the examination of works in the arts and humanities.
9.3.3.B Know that works in the arts can be described by using the arts elements, principles and concepts
9.3.3.D Explain meanings in the arts and humanities through individual works and the works of others
          using a fundamental vocabulary of critical response.
9.3.3.F Know how to recognize and identify similar and different characteristics among works in the arts
9.4.3.B Know how to communicate an informed individual opinion about the meaning of works in the arts

Civics and Government
5.1.3.B Explain the purposes of rules and laws and why they are important in the classroom, school,
         community, state and nation.
5.2.3.F Explain the benefits of following rules and laws and the consequences of violating them.
5.3.3.C Identify reasons for rules and laws in the school and community.

Economics
6.4.3.A Define specialization and the concept of division of labor.
6.4.3.D Identify local resources.
6.4.3.E Define specialization and identify examples of interdependence.
6.5.3.B Identify different occupations.

Geography
7.1.3.A Identify geographic tools and their uses.
7.1.3.B Identify and locate places and regions.

Health, Safety, and Physical Education
10.3.3.A Recognize safe/unsafe practices in the home, school and community.
10.4.3.F Recognize positive and negative interactions of small group activities.

History
8.1.3.A Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
8.4.3.A Identify individuals and groups who have made significant political and cultural contributions to
        world history.

Mathematics
2.1.3.B Use whole numbers and fractions to represent quantities.
2.1.3.D Use drawings, diagrams or models to show the concept of fraction as part of a whole.
2.2.3.A Apply addition and subtraction in everyday situations using concrete objects.
2.2.3.C Determine and compare elapsed times.
2.6.3.A Gather, organize, and display data using pictures, tallies, charts, bar graphs, and pictographs.


                                                         53
 Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening
1.1.3.F Understand the meaning of and use correctly new vocabulary learned in various subject areas.
1.1.3.G Demonstrate after reading understanding and interpretation of both fiction and nonfiction text.
1.1.3.H Demonstrate fluency and comprehension in reading.
1.2.3.A Read and understand essential content of informational texts and documents in all academic areas.
1.3.3.D Identify the structures in poetry
1.3.3.F Read and respond to nonfiction and fiction including poetry and drama.
1.4.3.A Write narrative pieces (e.g., stories, poems, plays).
1.6.3.A Listen to others.
1.8.3.B Locate information using appropriate sources and strategies.

Science and Technology
3.1.4.C Illustrate patterns that regularly occur and reoccur in nature.
3.2.4.B Describe objects in the world using the five senses.
3.2.4.C Recognize and use the elements of scientific inquiry to solve problems.



Fourth Grade – “Musicalympics”
Arts and Humanities
9.1.5.A Know and use the elements and principles of each art form to create works in the arts and
         humanities.
9.1.5.B Recognize, know, use, and demonstrate a variety of appropriate arts elements and principles to produce,
         review, and revise original works in the arts.
9.1.5.C Know and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms.
9.2.5.A Explain the historical, cultural and social context of an individual work in the arts.
9.2.5.B Relate works in the arts chronologically to historical events.
9.2.5.D Analyze a work of art from its historical and cultural perspective.
9.2.5.F Know and apply appropriate vocabulary used between social studies and the arts and humanities.
9.2.5.L Identify, explain and analyze common themes, forms and techniques from works in the arts
9.3.5.A Identify critical processes in the examination of works in the arts and humanities.

Civics and Government
5.1.6.G Describe the proper use, display, and respect for the United States Flag and explain the significance
        of patriotic activities.
5.4.3.A Identify how customs and traditions influence governments.
5.4.3.B Recognize that the world is divided into various political units.
5.4.3.C Identify ways in which countries interact with the United States.

Geography
7.1.3.A Identify geographic tools and their uses.
7.1.3.B Identify and locate places and regions.
7.3.3.A Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
7.3.3.B Identify the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.


History
8.1.3.A  Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
8.1.3.B   Develop an understanding of historical sources.
8.1.3.D   Understand historical research.
8.3.3.A  Identify contributions of individuals and groups to United States history.
8.3.3.B   Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts, and historic sites important in United States
          history.
8.3.3.C Identify important changes in United States history
8.4.3.B Identify historic sites and material artifacts important to world history.
8.4.3.C Compare similarities and differences between earliest civilizations and life today.

Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening
1.1.3.F Understand the meaning of and use correctly new vocabulary learned in various subject areas.
1.1.3.G Demonstrate after reading understanding and interpretation of both fiction and nonfiction text.
1.1.3.H Demonstrate fluency and comprehension in reading.
1.2.3.A Read and understand essential content of informational texts and documents in all academic


                                                           54
          areas.
1.4.3.C   Write an opinion and support it with facts.
1.5.3.A   Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.
1.5.3.B   Write using well-developed content appropriate for the topic.
1.5.3.C   Write with controlled and/or subtle organization.
1.5.3.D   Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
1.5.3.E   Revise writing to improve detail and order by identifying missing information and determining
          whether ideas follow logically.
1.5.3.F   Edit writing using the conventions of language.
1.5.3.G   Present and/or defend written work for publication when appropriate.
1.6.3.A   Listen to others.
1.8.3.A   Select a topic for research
1.8.3.B   Locate information using appropriate sources and strategies.
1.8.3.C   Organize and present the main ideas from research.




Sixth Grade – “Happy Birthday, Pittsburgh!”
Arts and Humanities
9.1.5.C Know and use fundamental vocabulary within each of the arts forms.
9.1.5.E Know and demonstrate how arts can communicate experiences, stories or emotions through the
         production of works in the arts.
9.2.5.A Explain the historical, cultural and social context of an individual work in the arts.
9.2.5.B Relate works in the arts chronologically to historical events (e.g., 10,000 B.C. to present).
9.2.5.C Relate works in the arts to varying styles and genre and to the periods in which they were created
9.2.5.D Analyze a work of art from its historical and cultural perspective.
9.2.5.E Analyze how historical events and culture impact forms, techniques and purposes of works in the
         arts.
9.2.5.F Know and apply appropriate vocabulary used between social studies and the arts and humanities.
9.2.5.G Relate works in the arts to geographic regions.
9.2.5.J Identify, explain and analyze historical and cultural differences as they relate to works in the arts.
9.2.5.L Identify, explain and analyze common themes, forms and techniques from works in the arts.

Geography
7.1.6.A Describe geographic tools and their uses.
7.1.6.B Describe and locate places and regions.
7.3.6.A Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their population characteristics.
7.3.6.B Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
7.3.6.C Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
7.3.6.D Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
7.3.6.E Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.

History
8.1.6.A Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time.
8.2.6.A Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania
        history from Beginnings to 1824.
8.2.6.C Identify and explain how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from
        Beginnings to 1824.
8.2.6.D Identify and explain conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania’s
        history from Beginnings to 1824.

Mathematics
2.1.5.D Use models to represent fractions and decimals.
2.2.5.A Creative and solve word problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole
        numbers.
2.2.5.D Demonstrate the ability to round numbers.
2.4.5.A Compare quantities and magnitudes of numbers.
2.4.5.B Use models, number facts, properties, and relationships to check and verify predictions and explain
        reasoning.
2.4.5.C Draw inductive and deductive conclusions within mathematical contexts.
2.4.5.D Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information in a mathematical problem.
2.4.5.E Interpret statements made with precise language of logic.


                                                          55
2.4.5.F Use statistics to quantify issues.
2.5.5.A Develop a plan to analyze a problem, identify the information needed to solve the problem, carry out the
        plan, check whether an answer makes sense, and explain how the problem was solved.
2.5.5.B Use appropriate mathematical terms, vocabulary, language symbols, and graphs to explain clearly and
        logically solutions to problems.
2.5.5.C Show ideas in a variety of ways, including words, numbers, symbols, pictures, charts, graphs, tables,
        diagrams, and models.
2.5.5.D Connect, extend, and generalize problem solutions to other concepts, problems, and circumstances in
        mathematics.
2.5.5.E Select, use, and justify the methods, materials, and strategies used to solve problems.
2.5.5.F Use appropriate problem-solving strategies.
2.6.5.A Organize and display data using pictures, tallies, tables, charts, bar graphs, and circle graphs.
2.6.5.D Predict the likely number of times a condition will occur based on analyzed data.
2.6.5.E Construct and defend simple conclusions based on data.

Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening
1.1.5.C Use knowledge of phonics, syllabication, prefixes, suffixes, the dictionary, or context clues to decode and
understand new words during reading. Use these words accurately in writing and speaking.
1.1.5.D Identify the basic ideas and facts in text using strategies and information from other sources to make
        predictions about text.
1.1.5.E Acquire a reading vocabulary by correctly identifying and using words.
1.1.5.F Identify, understand the meaning of, and use correctly key vocabulary from various subject areas.
1.1.5.G Demonstrate after reading understanding and interpretation of both fiction and nonfiction text.
1.5.5.A Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.
1.5.5.B Write using well-developed content appropriate for the topic.
1.5.5.C Write with controlled and/or subtle organization.
1.5.5.D Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.
1.5.5.E Revise writing to improve organization and word choice; check the logic, order of ideas, and precision of
        vocabulary.
1.5.5.F Edit writing using the conventions of language.
1.5.5.G Present and/or defend written work for publication when appropriate.
1.1.5.H Demonstrate fluency and comprehension in reading.
1.2.5.A Read and understand essential content of informational texts and documents in all academic areas.
1.6.5.A Listen to others.
1.7.5.B Identify differences in formal and informal speech.
1.8.5.A Select and refine a topic for research.
1.8.5.B Locate information using appropriate sources and strategies.
1.8.5.C Organize and present the main ideas from research.



                      The complete standards can be found at:
        http://www.pde.state.pa.us/stateboard_ed/cwp/view.asp?a=3&Q=76716




                                                        56
   To enhance your visit to Heinz Hall, consider also visiting these
             exciting Pittsburgh cultural attractions!


Andy Warhol Museum                               Mattress Factory
412.237.8300                                     412-231-3169
www.warhol.org                                   www.mattress.org

August Wilson Center for African American        National Aviary
Culture                                          412-323-7235
412-258-2700                                     www.aviary.org
www.augustwilsoncenter.org
                                                 Phipps Conservatory and Botanical
Carnegie Museum of Art and Natural               Gardens
History                                          412-622-6914
412-622-3131                                     www.phipps.conservatory.org
www.cmoa.org
www.carnegiemnh.org                              Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
                                                 412-655-3640
Carnegie Science Center/UPMC                     www.pittsburghzoo.org
SportsWorks
412.237.3400                                     Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional
www.carenegiesciencecenter.org                   History Center
                                                 412.454.6000
Children’s Museum of Pittsburgh                  www.pghhistory.org
412.322.5058
www.pittsburghkids.org                           Silver Eye Center for Photography
                                                 412-431-1810
Fort Pitt Museum                                 www.silvereye.org
412.281.9284
www.fortpittmuseum.com                           Society for Contemporary Craft
                                                 412-261-7003
Frick Art & Historical Center                    www.contemporarycraft.org
412-371-0600
www.frickart.org

Gateway Clipper Fleet
412-355-7980
www.gatewayclipper.com




                                            57
                                    We want your feedback!
Please take a moment to share your thoughts on the supplementary materials, and return this survey to the
                  Education and Community Engagement Department. Thank you!

  Please circle which supplementary materials you used in your classroom.

                                            “Meet the Orchestra”
                                              “Musicalympics”
                                         “Happy Birthday, Pittsburgh!”

  Please rate the effectiveness of the supplementary materials in preparing your students for the concert.

     (Not helpful)         1         2      3      4       5        (Very helpful)

  Please rate the effectiveness of the supplementary materials in relating concepts presented during the
  concert to other subjects.

     (Not effective)       1         2      3      4       5        (Very effective)

  Please rate the effectiveness of the supplementary materials in fulfilling objectives of the PA Academic
  Standards.

      (Not effective)      1         2      3      4       5        (Very effective)

  Please rate the ease of use of incorporating the supplementary materials into your classroom lesson
  plans.

     (Difficult)           1         2      3      4       5        (Easy)

  Please rate the educational quality of the supplementary materials.

     (Poor quality)        1         2      3      4       5        (High quality)

  Please include any additional comments:




                                                Please return to:
                                        Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra
                               Education and Community Engagement Department
                                                600 Penn Avenue
                                              Pittsburgh, PA 15222

                                            Fax: 412-392-4910




                                                    58
                       Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts
                               600 Penn Avenue
                          Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3259
                                 412-392-4900

              Education and Community Engagement Department
                education_outreach@pittsburghsymphony.org
                            Phone: 412-392-4870
                             Fax: 412-392-4910

Suzanne Perrino, Senior Vice President of Education and Strategic Implementation
            Jessica Schmidt, Senior Director of Community Programs
                  Lisa Belczyk, Director of Education Programs
Christine Frattare, Audience Engagement and Learning Development Coordinator




                                      59

				
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