Critical Thinking An Introduction to Situational Awareness and Decision Making Thinking about thinking This presentation provides an overview of how to improve critical thinking. It is intended to enhance the reader's awareness but it shall not supersede the applicable regulations or airline's operational documentation; should any deviation appear between this presentation and the airline’s AFM / (M)MEL / FCOM / QRH / FCTM, the latter shall prevail at all times. Introduction This self-study guide provides advice on how to improve your thinking and introduces the associated aspects of situational awareness and decision making. These subjects are essential processes in threat and error management, which must be used in daily operations. Thinking is the core skill in these activities; critical thinking involves controlling our thinking; thinking about our own thinking. The guide is in five sections: 1. Threat and Error Management 2. Situational Awareness 3. Decision Making 4. Critical Thinking 5. Thinking — Situational Awareness and Decision Making Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or downright prejudiced. Yet, the quality of our life — and that of what we produce, make or build — depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. Speaker’s notes provide additional information, they can be selected by clicking the right mouse button, select Screen, select Speakers notes. This presentation can be printed in the notes format to provide a personal reference document. Threat and Error Management Threat and error management (TEM) is a major safety process in aviation. TEM consists of detecting, avoiding or trapping threats and errors that challenge safe operations. Where threats and errors are not contained, the resulting conditions must be managed and their adverse effects reduced. All flight and ground operations Threats Errors Undesired States Detect Avoid / Trap Situational Awareness Mitigate Resist Resolve Decision Making Recover Plane Path Fly the aircraft, Navigate, Communicate, Manage People Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Situational Awareness Situational awareness is having an accurate understanding of our surroundings — where we are, what happened, what is happening, what is changing and what could happen. Good situational awareness requires: 1. Gathering data (sensing, perception), seeking cues in the environment 2. Assembling information to give understanding (comprehension) 3. Thinking ahead (projection) Thinking about situational awareness involves: – Directing our attention to seek data; scanning a range of sources – Evaluating information without bias, for accuracy and relevance – Understanding, using our knowledge and previous experiences – Comparing and checking, visualizing future events — ‘What if?’ – Planning ahead, considering possible outcomes Gathering Situation Now Future data Plane Planning Understanding Ahead Path People Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Decision Making Decision making involves assessment and choosing a course of action. Decision making requires an understanding of the situation and controlled thinking. The situation determines the urgency of the decision, risks and limits of action. THINK Controlled thinking: – Reduces risk – Moderates behavior OODA – Manages time constraints Observe Orient – Uses knowledge; seeks options Deduce – Judges relevance and the quality of the choice Act – Prepares for action, evaluates the outcome or a future situation DECIDE GRADE 5D Detect a change Gather Information Detect Estimate significance Review Information Determine Choose a safe outcome Analyze Alternatives Decide Identify possible actions Decide Do Do take action Evaluate Outcome of Discipline Evaluate the result Action Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking Critical thinking provides the mental control and discipline required for situational assessment and decision making. It involves several skills that can be learned, practiced and improved. Control your mind by: – Seeking and understanding information, facts and data – Effective planning, briefing and communication – Increasing knowledge; gaining experience – Learning within a context (situation) Critical thinking is the skill of thinking about your thinking Maintain discipline by: – Being aware of how you think; hazardous attitudes – Evaluating your actions; having self regulation – Being aware of all available resources – Being sensitive to feedback Think inside the box before you think outside of the box ―Are we in charge of our thinking, or is our thinking in charge of us?― Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — Self awareness Self awareness — self questioning, self monitoring Am I biased in my thinking? Have I made a plan for what I want to do? Are my ideas or knowledge on this issue correct? Am I aware of my thinking; what am I trying to do? Am I using all of the resources for what I want to do? Am I evaluating my thinking; what would I do differently next time? Am I aware of how well I am doing; do I need to change my actions or intentions? Monitoring is checking the quality or testing the accuracy of a situation on a regular basis. It is keeping a close watch over parameters and supervising the outcome. It is checking for threats in our thinking. Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — Knowledge Improving your thinking — Knowledge About yourself – Commitment: to safety, not following feelings or preference – Positive attitudes: persistence, resourcefulness, learning from failure – Attention to detail: seeing the big picture, determining relevance, assessing risk About the thinking processes – Knowing the facts necessary to do a task by seeking information – Knowing how to do a task, how to scan, understand and think ahead – Knowing why certain strategies work, when to use them, why one is better than another Knowledge to control the thinking processes – Self evaluation: assessing current technical knowledge, setting objectives, selecting resources – Self regulation: checking progress; reviewing choices, procedures, objectives, resources – Planning: choosing and planning a path to the objective, using procedures Planning is the process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening or not happening. Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — Habits Improving your thinking — Habits Changing our thinking habits requires effort; clear thinking is an essential part of airmanship and has to be developed throughout our careers. Unskilled: Basic training only provides those skills necessary to be safe. Safe: Continuation training and experience enable an effective operation. Effective: More technical knowledge, practiced skills and experience give an efficient operation. Efficient: Skillful command in controlling the aircraft and team leadership move toward a precision operation. Precision: An operator who has gained and maintains precise technical and non- technical skills as a result of great personal effort. Expert thinkers Focus on central issues Identify relevant information Consider information on merit Test and check the basis of their awareness and decisions Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — Personal briefing Improving your thinking — Briefing Before flight, self-briefing reinforces memory cues and knowledge, which aid the recall of information for use in situational assessment and decision making. Know what, who, where and when to prioritize your attention Always brief routine operations — repetition aids memory Structure the briefing along the intended flight path Visualize your actions (plane, path, people) Consider the significant threats Recall lessons from training Refresh SOPs Questions Do not rush: Your thoughts control your actions. Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — Personal debrief Improving your thinking — Debrief After each flight, consider the following points — Plus, Minus, Interesting Plus: What was good What went according to plan Minus: What was not so good, and why What didn’t you know; find the answer before the next flight Interesting: Have you changed the way you see things: threats, risks, people or procedures What did you learn, why, and where did the information come from? Will you share this with others; if not why not? Anything for an air safety event report? Any issues for confidential reporting? Did you experience: High workload Plus Poor attitudes Minus Biased opinions Interesting Mismanaged time Unanswered questions Debriefing Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Thinking about Situational Awareness and Decision Making Situational awareness and decision making depend on our ability to think. Thinking enables humans to be very successful, but this ability also enables errors that, if not controlled, present risks in our daily activities. Value your ability, use it wisely All flight and ground operations Threats Errors Undesired States Feedback Senses: Situational See Action Hear Awareness Decision Making Response Touch Smell Monitor Pattern recognition Choice Taste Comparison Selection Review Working memory Long-term memory - knowledge, biases, beliefs Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — for Situational Awareness Critical thinking for situational awareness — seek information Essential components: – Accuracy — Is the information true? – Clarity — Can the information be understood? – Precision — Seek detail to understand the situation. – Relevance — Is the information connected to the situation? – Depth — Does the information address the complexity of the situation? – Breadth — Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this situation? – Logic — Does your understanding of the situation make sense? Whenever you do not understand something, ask yourself a question for clarification ? Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking — for Decision Making Critical thinking for decision making — the choice of action Essential components: – State the objective of the decision to be made – Identify information to be used in making the decision – Gather the evidence and information required to make a decision – Make a decision based on criteria (a safe outcome), information and risks – Ask what the evidence and information mean, considering the objective Situation Routine Needs Skill Think about the situation, compare with SOPs, training and previous experience Trained Uses Rules Think about which SOP applies to For the situation, compare with training Unusual Requires Knowledge Almost automatic action; SOPs have Novel been thought through during training Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Critical Thinking Critical thinking is at the center of all safety processes and human activity. Threat and Error Management Critical Thinking Situational Decision Awareness Making Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making Information To print the Presenter Notes: In Windows Explorer, change the presentation file extension from .pps to .ppt Open the new ppt file and select File, Print, print what Notes Pages. If the presentation seems to be running slowly, try one or more of the following: Reduce the resolution for the slide show presentation display. On the Slide Show menu, click Set Up Show. Under Performance, in the Slide show resolution box, click 640x480 in the list. Note. Changing resolution may cause the slide image to be slightly shifted. If this happens, either choose a different resolution or click Use Current Resolution. Set the colour depth to 16 bit for optimal performance. For information on changing the number of colours displayed on your monitor, see Microsoft Windows Help. On the Slide Show menu, click Set Up Show. Under Performance, select the Use hardware graphics acceleration check box. If your computer has this capability, Office PowerPoint 2003 will attempt to use it. Note. If you notice performance problems with the slide show after you change this setting, turn off the option. Your computer may not have this capability. Animations (PowerPoint Ver 2003 required). Download reader from http://office.microsoft.com/search/redir.aspx?AssetID=XT011683791033&Origin=HH011891411033&CTT=5 Animation performance will be much better with a video card that has Microsoft Direct 3D. (Direct 3D is a component of Microsoft DirectX, which is a set of advanced multimedia system services built into the Microsoft Windows operating system.) Many video card manufacturers take advantage of this technology; check with the documentation you received with your computer to find out if Direct 3D is supported.
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