Critical Thinking An Introduction to Situational Awareness and - PowerPoint by heapsofluvv


									                                                              Critical Thinking
                               An Introduction to Situational Awareness
                                        and Decision Making

                                                                     Thinking about thinking

This presentation provides an overview of how to improve critical thinking. It is intended to enhance the reader's awareness but it shall not supersede the applicable regulations or airline's
operational documentation; should any deviation appear between this presentation and the airline’s AFM / (M)MEL / FCOM / QRH / FCTM, the latter shall prevail at all times.

             This self-study guide provides advice on how to improve your thinking and introduces the
                   associated aspects of situational awareness and decision making. These subjects
                   are essential processes in threat and error management, which must be used in
                   daily operations. Thinking is the core skill in these activities; critical thinking involves
                   controlling our thinking; thinking about our own thinking.

             The guide is in five sections:
                               1. Threat and Error Management
                               2. Situational Awareness
                                     3.     Decision Making
                                     4.     Critical Thinking
                                     5.     Thinking — Situational Awareness and Decision Making

                       Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is
                       biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or downright prejudiced. Yet, the quality of our life
                       — and that of what we produce, make or build — depends precisely on the quality of
                       our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence
                       in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated.

Speaker’s notes provide additional information, they can be selected by clicking the right mouse button, select Screen, select Speakers notes.
This presentation can be printed in the notes format to provide a personal reference document.
             Threat and Error Management

             Threat and error management (TEM) is a major safety process in aviation.
             TEM consists of detecting, avoiding or trapping threats and errors that challenge safe
               operations. Where threats and errors are not contained, the resulting conditions
               must be managed and their adverse effects reduced.

                                                        All flight and ground operations

                                             Threats                Errors          Undesired States

                        Avoid / Trap                     Situational Awareness

                        Resolve                                 Decision Making

                        Path                Fly the aircraft, Navigate, Communicate, Manage

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Situational Awareness

             Situational awareness is having an accurate understanding of our
                surroundings — where we are, what happened, what is happening, what
                is changing and what could happen.

             Good situational awareness requires:
                     1.   Gathering data (sensing, perception), seeking cues in the environment
                     2.   Assembling information to give understanding (comprehension)
                     3.   Thinking ahead (projection)

             Thinking about situational awareness involves:
                     –    Directing our attention to seek data; scanning a range of sources
                     –    Evaluating information without bias, for accuracy and relevance
                     –    Understanding, using our knowledge and previous experiences
                     –    Comparing and checking, visualizing future events — ‘What if?’
                     –    Planning ahead, considering possible outcomes

                          Gathering                                            Situation      Now   Future
                                                            Ahead              Path


Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Decision Making

             Decision making involves assessment and choosing a course of action.
             Decision making requires an understanding of the situation and controlled thinking.
             The situation determines the urgency of the decision, risks and limits of action.

             Controlled thinking:
                     –   Reduces risk
                     –   Moderates behavior                                                 OODA
                     –   Manages time constraints                                           Observe
                     –   Uses knowledge; seeks options
                     –   Judges relevance and the quality of the choice
                     –   Prepares for action, evaluates the outcome or a future situation

                         DECIDE                                 GRADE                       5D
                         Detect a change                        Gather Information          Detect
                         Estimate significance                  Review Information          Determine
                         Choose a safe outcome                  Analyze Alternatives        Decide
                         Identify possible actions              Decide                      Do
                         Do take action                         Evaluate Outcome of         Discipline
                         Evaluate the result                                  Action

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking

             Critical thinking provides the mental control and discipline required for
               situational assessment and decision making. It involves several skills
               that can be learned, practiced and improved.

             Control your mind by:
                     –   Seeking and understanding information, facts and data
                     –   Effective planning, briefing and communication
                     –   Increasing knowledge; gaining experience
                     –   Learning within a context (situation)           Critical thinking is the skill of
                                                                         thinking about your thinking

             Maintain discipline by:
                     –   Being aware of how you think; hazardous attitudes
                     –   Evaluating your actions; having self regulation
                     –   Being aware of all available resources
                     –   Being sensitive to feedback

                                                        Think inside the box
                                                          before you think
                                                         outside of the box

                         ―Are we in charge of our thinking, or is our thinking in charge of us?―
Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — Self awareness

             Self awareness — self questioning, self monitoring
                     Am I biased in my thinking?
                     Have I made a plan for what I want to do?
                     Are my ideas or knowledge on this issue correct?
                     Am I aware of my thinking; what am I trying to do?
                     Am I using all of the resources for what I want to do?
                     Am I evaluating my thinking; what would I do differently next time?
                     Am I aware of how well I am doing; do I need to change my actions or intentions?

                                   Monitoring is checking the quality or testing the accuracy of a situation
                                                   on a regular basis. It is keeping a close watch over
                                                                parameters and supervising the outcome.
                                                                        It is checking for threats in our thinking.

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — Knowledge

             Improving your thinking — Knowledge
             About yourself
                –   Commitment: to safety, not following feelings or preference
                –   Positive attitudes: persistence, resourcefulness, learning from failure
                –   Attention to detail: seeing the big picture, determining relevance, assessing risk

             About the thinking processes
                –   Knowing the facts necessary to do a task by seeking information
                –   Knowing how to do a task, how to scan, understand and think ahead
                –   Knowing why certain strategies work, when to use them, why one is better than another

             Knowledge to control the thinking processes
                –   Self evaluation: assessing current technical knowledge, setting objectives, selecting resources
                –   Self regulation: checking progress; reviewing choices, procedures, objectives, resources
                –   Planning: choosing and planning a path to the objective, using procedures

                Planning is the process of thinking about what you will do in
                   the event of something happening or not happening.

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — Habits

             Improving your thinking — Habits
             Changing our thinking habits requires effort; clear thinking is an essential
              part of airmanship and has to be developed throughout our careers.
             Unskilled: Basic training only provides those skills necessary to be safe.
             Safe:           Continuation training and experience enable an effective operation.
             Effective: More technical knowledge, practiced skills and experience give an
                        efficient operation.
             Efficient:      Skillful command in controlling the aircraft and team leadership move
                             toward a precision operation.
             Precision: An operator who has gained and maintains precise technical and non-
                        technical skills as a result of great personal effort.

             Expert thinkers
                Focus on central issues
                Identify relevant information
                Consider information on merit
                Test and check the basis of their awareness and decisions

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — Personal briefing

                   Improving your thinking — Briefing
                   Before flight, self-briefing reinforces memory cues and knowledge, which aid the recall
                      of information for use in situational assessment and decision making.

                        Know what, who, where and when to prioritize your attention
                        Always brief routine operations — repetition aids memory
                        Structure the briefing along the intended flight path
                        Visualize your actions (plane, path, people)
                        Consider the significant threats
                        Recall lessons from training
                        Refresh SOPs

                                                                Do not rush:
                                                                Your thoughts control your actions.

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — Personal debrief

             Improving your thinking — Debrief
             After each flight, consider the following points — Plus, Minus, Interesting
                       What was good
                       What went according to plan
                       What was not so good, and why
                       What didn’t you know; find the answer before the next flight
                       Have you changed the way you see things: threats, risks, people or procedures
                       What did you learn, why, and where did the information come from?
                           Will you share this with others; if not why not?
                           Anything for an air safety event report?
                            Any issues for confidential reporting?
                       Did you experience:
                            High workload                                             Plus
                            Poor attitudes                                                   Minus
                            Biased opinions                                                      Interesting
                            Mismanaged time
                             Unanswered questions

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
Thinking about Situational Awareness and Decision Making

               Situational awareness and decision making depend on our ability to think.
                    Thinking enables humans to be very successful, but this ability also enables errors
                              that, if not controlled, present risks in our daily activities.

                                                 Value your ability, use it wisely
                                                 All flight and ground operations
                                     Threats                       Errors               Undesired States

                     Senses:    Situational
                       See                                                                                           Action

                                Awareness                              Decision Making
                      Smell                                                                                          Monitor
                                                                  Pattern recognition       Choice
                                                                         Comparison        Selection        Review
                                    Working memory
                                    Long-term memory - knowledge, biases, beliefs

  Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — for Situational Awareness

             Critical thinking for situational awareness — seek information
             Essential components:
                     –   Accuracy — Is the information true?
                     –   Clarity — Can the information be understood?
                     –   Precision — Seek detail to understand the situation.
                     –   Relevance — Is the information connected to the situation?
                     –   Depth — Does the information address the complexity of the situation?
                     –   Breadth — Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this
                     –   Logic — Does your understanding of the situation make sense?

                             Whenever you do not understand something,
                               ask yourself a question for clarification


Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking — for Decision Making

             Critical thinking for decision making — the choice of action
             Essential components:
                     –   State the objective of the decision to be made
                     –   Identify information to be used in making the decision
                     –   Gather the evidence and information required to make a decision
                     –   Make a decision based on criteria (a safe outcome), information and risks
                     –   Ask what the evidence and information mean, considering the objective

                           Routine         Needs    Skill     Think about the situation, compare with
                                                              SOPs, training and previous experience

                                                   Uses              Rules     Think about which SOP applies to
                             For                                               the situation, compare with training

                                                          Requires           Knowledge   Almost automatic action; SOPs have
                            Novel                                                        been thought through during training

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
             Critical Thinking

             Critical thinking is at the center of all safety processes and human activity.

                                                            Threat and Error

                                                                                Critical Thinking

                       Situational                                             Decision
                       Awareness                                                Making

Critical Thinking - Situational Awareness and Decision Making
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