Introduction to Environmental Systems - PowerPoint by heapsofluvv

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									              Introduction
GEO 123:   Physical Geography:
           Weather and Climate

   Lecture        MWF 8:35-9:50am
   Professor      Paul Price
   Office         222
   Office Hours   MW 02:00-03:00p
                  TR     09:00-10:00a




                                        1
2
         It’s in the Syllabus

•   Announcements
•   Finding Me
•   Dates
•   How class works
    – Attendance
    – Warm-ups
• Getting out of the final




                                3
            Why you are here


• My objective:

  – To learn how the physical world works
  – To learn some about how we know this
  – To fit this into the big picture


• Your Objective?




                                            4
                 Pitfalls

• For every hour spent in class, how many
  hours does the average student need to
  spend on class material outside of the
  average college class to make an A?


• How does the amount of material in an
  average semester-long college course
  compare to the average high school
  course?
                                            5
Questions




            6
                Environmental Systems

•   Introduction
• Environmental Systems               • Introduction
•
•
    Geographic Grid
    Rotation and time
                                       • Scientific Practice
•   Earth-Sun Relationships
•   Seasons                            • Systems Theory
•   Earth’s Atmosphere                    –   Introduction
•   Energy Balance
•   Temperature                           –   Input-Output
•   Pressure and Circulation
•   Moisture                              –   Feedback
•   Lifting Mechanisms and Stability
•   Condensation, Clouds and
                                          –   Equilibrium
    Precipitation
•   Air Masses
•   Midlatitude Cyclones
•   Severe Weather
•   Tropical Weather
•   Climate
•   Soils
•   Ecosystems
•   Biomes


                                                               7
New Orleans after Katrina




US Navy
                            8
                        Hurricane Season 2008




http://www.osei.noaa.gov/Events/Current/TRCeast246_G12.jpg
                                                             9
                            West Bend, 1981




West Bend Daily News (E. Domissee. UWWC)      10
                                    Climate Change




http://www.newscientist.com/data/images/archive/2486/24861402.jpg
                                                                    11
                       Atmospheric Structures




http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=10299   12
                                 Geography




RW Christopherson. Geosystems.
                                             13
Scientific Method




                    14
 Scientific Method


      Theory

Prediction and Testing

 Create Hypotheses

     Gather Data

   Ask a Question
                         15
Scientific Method




                    16
                     Earth Systems




Martin Ruzek, USRA
                                     17
                            What is a System?




Mike Slattery, Ph.D. TCU.
                            What is a System?

     Definition

         “A set of objects or characteristics which are
         related to one another and operate together as a
         complex entity.”

         1971: Chorley and Kennedy


         An ordered, interrelated set of materials or items
         existing separate from the environment, or within
         a boundary. Energy, matter and information
         transformation and storage occur in a system


Mike Slattery, Ph.D. TCU.
Isolated System




                  20
Closed System




                21
Open System




              22
                  Leaf System (Open, Closed or Isolated)




RW Christopherson. Geosystems 5ed.
                                                           23
Input and Output




                   24
          Input and Output




• If Input = Output?

• If Input < Output?

• If Input > Output?



                             25
          Mass Input-Output: Carbon Cycle




Keller. 2000. Environmental Geology 8ed     26
                  Loops in the Earth System




Dewey M. McLean                               27
        Positive Feedback: Climate and Glaciation




http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/earth_system/feedbacks.html
                                                                                      28
Negative
Feedback
Loop




DMS stands for dimethyl
sulphide

CCN for cloud
condensation nuclei




http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/1w1.html
                                             29
Positive and Negative Feedback




                                 30
                   Disturbances and Thresholds




http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/earth_system/feedbacks.html
                                                                                      31
                               Equilibrium: Static

                      Static




          Time




Mike Slattery, Ph.D. TCU.
                            Equilibrium: Steady State

                      Static




          Time




                     Steady state




          Time
Mike Slattery, Ph.D. TCU.
                               Equilibrium: Dynamic
                                                       Dynamic
                      Static




          Time                                  Time




                     Steady state




          Time
Mike Slattery, Ph.D. TCU.
                   Equilibrium: Dynamic Metastable
                                                    Dynamic
                      Static




          Time                           Time




                     Steady state               Dynamic Metastable




          Time                           Time
Mike Slattery, Ph.D. TCU.
Review
1. If you have a question about the class, consult the syllabus or talk to me!

2. What are the most common parts of scientific practice and how are they used?
   What are systems and how does system theory apply to geography and
   earth?

3. How does the movement of energy, mass, or information vary across the
   boundaries of open, closed, or isolated systems?

4. What is input-output analysis and how do the amount of input and output
   determine the change in the amount stored in a system?

5. What are positive and negative feedback and how do they affect the operation
   of systems (its equilibrium)?

6. What are thresholds and disturbances and how do they affect system
   operation?

7. What is equilibrium?

8. What are stable equilibrium, steady-state equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium,
   and dynamic metastable equilibrium and how do they describe the change in
   system operation over time?
                                                                                  36

								
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