-BY DR. CHIRAG TAMBOLI
-M. D. Hom
-Anand Hom. Med. College, P. G.
Dept., Anand. Gujarat.
ANATOMY: anatome: to disect.
‘the dissecting of an animal or
plant in order to determine the position,
structure, etc. of its parts.’
‘the science of the morphology
or structure of animals or plants.’
‘the study of structures and
relationship among the structures.’
Surface Anatomy Developmental
Gross Anatomy Embryology
Systemic Anatomy Anatomy
Regional Anatomy Histology
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL
PRINCIPAL SYSTEMS OF HUMAN
1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM :
STRUCTURES: The skin and structures
derived from it, such as Hair, Nail, Sweat
and Oil Glands.
FUNCTIONS: Regulate body temperature,
Protection, Elimination, Synthesizes Vit.D
& Receives stimuli such as pain, pressure
2. SKELETAL SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: All the bones, related
cartilages & Joints of the body.
FUNCTIONS: Support, Protection, Houses
cells which produces blood cells, Stores
3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Includes entire range of
musculature of body.
FUNCTIONS: Maintaining of posture,
bringing on the motion & heat production.
4. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Organs containing lymphatic tissues such
as spleen, thymus gland, lymphocytes and lymph
nodes; lymph vessels & lymph.
FUNCTIONS: Protection, filtration, returns plasma &
body fluids to CVS, transports digested fat from
intestines to Lever via circulation.
5. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Long tube called GIT, associated
organs such as salivary glands, liver, gall
bladder & pancreas.
FUNCTIONS: Physical & Chemical breakdown
of food, absorption, elimination.
6. CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Blood, Heart & Blood Vessels.
FUNCTIONS: Distributes 02 & takes away Co2 &
waste products from the cell, provides
Nutrients to all the cells, maintains Acid – Base
& fluid balance, regulates temperature,
protection & prevents hemorrhage.
7. NERVOUS SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Brain, Spinal Cord, Meninges,
CSF, Nerves & sensory organs.
FUNCTIONS: Generation, propagation &
regulation of nerve impulse, responsible for
various bodily activities.
8. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Lungs & series of structures
forming air passage & carrying air in and out.
FUNCTIONS: Supplies 02 & eliminates Co2 with
other waste products, maintains acid-base
9. EXCRETORY SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES: Pair of Kidney, Ureter, a
FUNCTIONS: Produces, Collects & Eliminates
Urine; regulates Chemical composition of
Blood; regulates acid-base balance; regulates
electrolyte-fluid balance; eliminates wastes.
10. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:
STRUCTURES & FUNCTIONS: All glands
producing & secreting hormones.
11. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
STRUCTUREE: Testes/Ovaries, structures for
storage & transport of reproductive cells
FUNCTIONS: Production of reproductive cells
i.e. Sperm/Ova, storage & transport of those.
• Spaces within the body that contains
internal organs & fluid are known as
THORACIC PELVIC CAVITY 19
(RIGHT - LEFT)
LUMBAR REGION UMBILLICAL REGION
(RIGHT - LEFT)
ILLIAC REGION HYPOGASTRIUM
(RIGHT - LEFT)
DEFINITION: the branch of biology dealing with
the functions and vital processes of living
organisms or their parts and organs
DEFINITION: a basic, living,
structural & functional unit of the body.
1. Cell (Plasma) Membrane,
PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE
Exceedingly small structure that separates
internal components of cell from external
environment and external material.
CHEMISTRY & STRUCTURE:
- Phospholipids, chemicals & proteins.
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER: is a dynamic, self
healing, fluid & flexible basic frame work of
plasma membrane. It is a parallel rows where
head facing outer side which contains
phosphate & is hydrophilic, while tails facing
inward, contains fatty acids & is hydrophobic.
Plasma Membrane Proteins (PMPs) : two
categories – integral & peripheral.
1.Integral Proteins: embedded in phospholipid
bilayer among fatty acids, i.e. tails.
Function: Some of the subunits forms channels
for the purpose of transport of material in &
Others are bound to branching chains of
oligosaccharides to provide receptor sites.
2. Peripheral Proteins: are loosely bound to the
membrane surface & are easily separated from it.
Function: exactly yet not known. Though some are
known to work as a catalyzer to certain enzymes,
while some are changing membrane shape during
cell division, locomotion & ingestion.
FUNCTIONS OF PMPS:
1. Flexible boundary.
2. Facilitates contacts .
3. Provides receptors.
4. Mediates entrance & exit by way of
selective permeability: depending
upon size, solubility, ions &
presence of career molecules.
MOVEMENTS ACROSS PLASMA MEMBRANE:
1. PASSIVE PROCESS.
2. ACTIVE PROCESS.
1. PASSIVE PROCESSES
ISOTONIC, HYPOTONIC & HYPERTONIC
2. ACTIVE PROCESSES
Cytoskeleton: a network of protein fibres in
the cytoplasm that gives shape to a cell, holds
and moves organelles, and is typically involved
in cell movement.
The cytoskeleton maintains the cell
shape. When you think of the cytoskeleton,
think of pillars of a building.
Eukaryotic cells are given shape and organized
by the cytoskeleton, which consists of three
types of proteins: microtubules, intermediate
filaments, and microfilaments.
Microfilaments are twisted double strands consisting
of a string of proteins, from 7 nm to several cm
long. The protein is actin. Its function helps muscle
contraction, cell shape, and movement in cytoplasm.
Intermediate filaments are made of eight subunits in
rope-strands. The proteins structure varies with
different tissue types. This component helps maintain
shape, support nerve cell extensions, and attach cells
Microtubules are tubes made up of spiraling, two-part
subunits. It is made of tubulin. It aids in
chromosome movement, movement of organelles, and
the movement of cilia and flagella.
MICROTUBULES ARE SHOWN IN
GREEN, ACTIN IS SHOWN IN RED
& DNA IN BLUE
Before cell division, the DNA in our
chromosomes replicates so each daughter
cell has an identical set of
chromosome. In addition, the DNA is
responsible for coding for all
proteins. Each amino acid is designated
by one or more set of triplet nucleotides.
The code is produced from one strand of
the DNA by a process called
This produces mRNA which then is sent out of
the nucleus where the message is translated
into proteins. This can be done in the
cytoplasm on clusters of ribosomes, called
"polyribosomes". Or it can be done on the
membranes of the rough endoplasmic
The code is actually translated on structures
that are also made in the nucleus, called
Ribosomes. These ribosomes provide the
structural site where the mRNA sits. The amino
acids for the proteins are carried to the site by
The tRNA carries the amino acid at its opposite
end. One can trace and detect binding of a
particular tRNA-amino acid complex to the
mRNA by labelling that amino acid. It will bind
to its tRNA.
In the cartoon to the left, these are shown as
blue molecules. Each transfer RNA (tRNA) has a
nucleotide triplet which binds to the
complementary sequence on the mRNA
The left hand view of this figure shows the
free polyribosomes connected by the mRNA.
They are arranged in rosettes and these can
be seen in the cytoplasm in conventional
electron micrographs. The right hand view
shows the arrangement of polyribosomes on
the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Note that
the growing polypeptide chain (which projects
down from the large subunit) is inserted
through the membrane and into the cisterna
of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
This figure shows the binding site on the rough
endoplasmic reticulum. The membrane of the
rough endoplasmic has a receptor that binds
the larger subunit of the ribosome. Next to the
receptor is a pore that allows newly synthesized
proteins to enter and be stored initially in the
rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterna or lumen.
Note that the ribosomes are still connected to
one another outside the rough endoplasmic
reticulum by the mRNA which runs between the
large and small subunits.
Tier I shows budding from ER that is arranged
facing a central zone at one end of the Golgi
complex. These buds become vesicles and are
coated with COPII protein coats.
Tier II The ER faces a central zone called a
vesicular-tubular cluster (VTC). After they lose
their COPII coat, they merge with the VTC's
carrying the soluble and membrane proteins to
the Golgi complex.
Tier III illustrates the entire complex which is
unique in the cytoplasm. It is termed the
'export complex' and contains unique proteins
that suggest it is specialized for information
flow to and from ER and the Golgi complex.
The above drawing shows an actual interface between
the ER and the Golgi complex. The "Export complex"
is seen at the top of the drawing. Note that the
vesicle are moving to contribute to the cis-Golgi
network of vesicles and cisternae.
The movement of these special transport vesicles is an
energy requiring process. If one blocks production of
ATP, the transport will not happen. This drawing
shows how the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms
vesicles (without ribosomes attached) that carry the
newly synthesized proteins to the Golgi complex.
The inside of the vesicle becomes continuous with the
inside of the Golgi cisternae, so that protein groups
pointing towards the inside, could eventually be
directed to face the outside of the cell.
Carbohydrate groups are attached and any
subunits may be joined in these cisternae. The
protein is then passed to the final region of the
Golgi called the "trans face". There it is placed
in vacuoles that bud from this region of the
Golgi complex. These may be a certain size or
density, characteristic of the cell itself. The
vacuoles continue to condense the proteins and
the final mature secretory granule is then
moved to the membrane for secretion.
Transport of material in and out of the Golgi
complex involves budding and fusion of
vesicles. This cartoon shows that the
membranes of each join and align themselves
during the process so that the inside face
remains in the lumen and the outside face
remains towards the cytoplasm.
The Golgi complex controls trafficking of different
types of proteins. Some are destined for secretion.
Others are destined for the extra cellular matrix.
Finally, other proteins, such as lysosomal enzymes,
may need to be sorted and sequestered from the
remaining constituents because of their potential
destructive effects. This figure shows the two types of
secretory pathways. The regulated secretory pathway,
as its name implies, is a pathway for proteins that
requires a stimulus or trigger to elicit secretion. Some
stimuli regulate synthesis of the protein as well as its
release. The constitutive pathway allows for secretion
of proteins that are needed outside the cell, like in the
extra cellular matrix. It does not require stimuli,
although growth factors may enhance the process.
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CILIA AND FLAGELLA
Cilia and flagella are projections from the
cell. They are made up of microtubules ,
as shown in this cartoon. They are motile
and designed either to move the cell itself
or to move substances over or around the
cell. The primary purpose of cilia in
mammalian cells is to move fluid, mucous,
or cells over their surface. Cilia and
flagella have the same internal structure.
The major difference is in their length.
This figure shows a cross section of a cilium next to
a longitudinal section.
Cilia and flagella move because of the
interactions of a set of microtubules inside.
Collectively, these are called an "axoneme",
This figure shows a microtubule (top panel) in
surface view and in cross section (lower left
hand panel). Two of these microtubules join to
form one doublet in the cilia or flagella This is
shown in the middle panel. Note that one of
the tubules is incomplete. Furthermore, there
are important microtubule associated proteins
(MAPs) projecting from one of the microtubule
8/1/2009 A cross section of a cilium 71
Note that there is a circle of nine doublets,
each of which have one complete (A Tubule)
and one incomplete (B Tubule) microtubules.
The Core doublets are both complete.
Extending from the doublets are sets of arms
that join neighboring doublets. These are
composed of the protein "dynein". It is spaced
at 24 nm intervals. Nexin links are spaced along
the microtubules to hold them together.
Projecting inward are radial spokes that
connect with a sheath enclosing the doublets.
Cell division is the process by which a cell, called the
parent cell, divides into two cells, called daughter
cells. Cell division is usually a small segment of a
larger cell cycle. In meiosis however, a cell is
permanently transformed and cannot divide again.
Cell division is the biological basis of life. For simple
unicellular organisms such as the Amoeba, one cell
division reproduces an entire organism. On a larger
scale, cell division can create progeny from
multicellular organisms, such as plants that grow from
cuttings. But most importantly, cell division enables
sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the
one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by cell
division from gametes. And after growth, cell division
allows for continual renewal and repair of the
The primary concern of cell division is the
maintenance of the original cell's genome.
Before division can occur, the genomic
information which is stored in chromosomes
must be replicated, and the duplicated genome
separated cleanly between cells. A great deal of
cellular infrastructure is involved in keeping
genomic information consistent between
Cells are classified into two categories: simple,
non-nucleated prokaryotic cells, and complex,
nucleated eukaryotic cells. By virtue of their
structural differences, eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells do not divide in the same
Furthermore, the pattern of cell division that
transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes
(sperm in males or ova in females) is different
from that of eukaryotic somatic (non-germ)
Prokaryotic cells are simpler in structure when
compared to eukaryotic cells. They contain
non-membranous organelles, lack a cell
nucleus, and have a simplistic genome: only
one circular chromosome of limited size.
Therefore, prokaryotic cell division, a process
known as binary fission, is fast.
The chromosome is duplicated prior to division.
The two copies of the chromosome attach to
opposing sides of the cellular membrane.
Cytokinesis, the physical separation of the cell,
Somatic eukaryotic cells
Mitosis: The division of the nucleus, separating the
duplicated genome into two sets identical to the
Cytokinesis: The division of the cytoplasm,
separating the organelles and other cellular
Despite differences between prokaryotes and
eukaryotes, there are several common features in
their cell division processes. Replication of the DNA
must occur. Segregation of the "original" and its
"replica" follow. Cytokinesis ends the cell division
process. Whether the cell was eukaryotic or
prokaryotic, these basic events must occur.
Eukaryotic Cell Division
Due to their increased numbers of
chromosomes, organelles and complexity,
eukaryote cell division is more complicated,
although the same processes of replication,
segregation, and cytokinesis still occur.
Mitosis is the process of forming (generally)
identical daughter cells by replicating and
dividing the original chromosomes, in effect
making a cellular Xerox. Commonly the two
processes of cell division are confused. Mitosis
deals only with the segregation of the
chromosomes and organelles into daughter
Structure of a eukaryotic
Eukaryotic chromosomes occur in the cell in
greater numbers than prokaryotic
chromosomes. The condensed replicated
chromosomes have several points of interest.
The kinetochore is the point where
microtubules of the spindle apparatus attach.
Replicated chromosomes consist of two
molecules of DNA (along with their associated
histone proteins) known as chromatids. The
area where both chromatids are in contact with
each other is known as the centromere the
kinetochores are on the outer sides of the
centromere. Remember that chromosomes are
condensed chromatin (DNA plus histone
It is the first stage of mitosis proper. Chromatin
condenses (remember that chromatin/DNA
replicate during Interphase), the nuclear
envelope dissolves, centrioles (if present) divide
and migrate, kinetochores and kinetochore
fibers form, and the spindle forms.
follows Prophase. The
chromosomes (which at this
point consist of chromatids held
together by a centromere)
migrate to the equator of the
spindle, where the spindles
attach to the kinetochore fibers.
It begins with the separation
of the centromeres, and the
pulling of chromosomes (we
call them chromosomes after
the centromeres are
separated) to opposite poles of
It is when the chromosomes reach the poles of
their respective spindles, the nuclear envelope
reforms, chromosomes uncoil into chromatin
form, and the nucleolus (which had
disappeared during Prophase) reform. Where
there was one cell there are now two smaller
cells each with exactly the same genetic
information. These cells may then develop into
different adult forms via the processes of
Cytokinesis is the process of splitting
the daughter cells apart. Whereas
mitosis is the division of the nucleus,
cytokinesis is the splitting of the
cytoplasm and allocation of the golgi,
plastids and cytoplasm into each new