2008 Manhole Supplement - TrenchlessOnline

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2008 Manhole Supplement - TrenchlessOnline Powered By Docstoc
					Reader Service Number 50
Editor’s Message

The Vital Link                                                                                              Publisher
                                                                                                         Bernard P. Krzys
                                                                                                    Associate Publisher
   We’ve all heard the expression that a chain is only as strong                                         Robert D. Krzys
as its weakest link. If we view a sewer system as a chain, then                                                Editor
                                                                                                          James W. Rush
the links are the manholes. Any attempts to strengthen the
                                                                                                      Managing Editor
system (i.e., reduce the migration of extraneous water into the                                         Sharon M. Bueno
system by sealing the mainlines) can only be truly successful
                                                                                                      Assistant Editors
with an accompanying effort to fix the “weak links.”                                           Pam Stask • Greg Thompson
   Manholes, like their pipe brethren, comprise a range of materials, sizes, shapes            Contributing Staff Editors
and ages. From brick sewers built by artisans in the pre-Civil War era to precast           Keith Gribbins • Bradley Kramer
structures installed today, each has unique attributes and idiosyncrasies that                        Jason Morgan
require special consideration for maintenance and rehabilitation. Not surprisingly,                   Creative Director
there are a multitude of rehabilitation methods and products when it comes to                              W. M. Conley
manholes.                                                                                       Senior Graphic Designer
   In this special supplement to Trenchless Technology, we take a close look at the                     Edward A. Haney
manhole, the often-overlooked segment of the collection system. We examine the                      Graphic Designers
problems that affect manholes (including freeze/thaw cycles and traffic loading,                 Sarah Hayes • Chris Slogar
                                                                                                      Elizabeth C. Stull
which often do not affect the mainlines), as well as the available solutions.
                                                                                                   Marketing Manager
   There are currently about 20 million manholes in the United States, and accord-                         Kelly Dadich
ing to reports, more than half of them were installed before 1960 and are nearing                Regional Sales Manager
or have exceeded their design life. That means plenty of opportunity for those                               Dan Sisko
involved in manhole repair and replacement.                                                        Circulation Manager
   But just how many manholes are being addressed? The consensus seems to be                             Alexis R. Tarbet
that manholes are increasingly being considered as part of a city’s rehabilitation           Web & Interactive Manager
program, but still not to the extent that they should be. According to figures from                       Mark Gorman
Wade & Associates cited in this issue, expenditures for manhole rehab in 2003
were approximately $100 million.And while that figure was expected to increase                    Editorial Advisory Board
to $500 million over the next several years, it still represents a small fraction of                         Chairman
the overall sewage/waste disposal construction spending, which is estimated at                         Dr. Tom Iseley, P.E.
                                                                                                 Professor/Director at CEMT at IUPUI
$25 billion for 2008.                                                                                    Indianapolis, Indiana
   In this issue you will find an overview of the history and components of man-                           Alex Buehler
                                                                                          Insituform Technologies Inc., Chesterfield, Missouri
holes, as well as the available methods of rehab (although new technologies are
constantly under development). There is also a directory of product manufactur-                      Dr. Samuel Ariaratnam
                                                                                               Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona
ers and suppliers in addition to a sampling of their latest wares.                                   Dr. David Bennett, P.E.
   Another important area when discussing manholes is condition assessment                 Bennett Trenchless Engineers, Folsom, California

now that cities are taking a more businesslike approach to their sewer system                        Steven R. Kramer, P.E.
                                                                                                       Parsons, Washington, D.C.
maintenance and repair. NASSCO has recently developed its Manhole Assessment
                                                                                                     Joseph Loiacono, ing.
and Certification Program (MACP), an extension of the popular Pipeline                                Sanexen, Montreal, Quebec
Assessment and Certification Program (PACP) that has helped standardize main-                      Ronald T. Thompson, P.E.
line defect coding throughout the United States. Applying standardized defect                  Malcolm Pirnie Inc., Jackson, Mississippi

coding to manholes helps assure the integrity of the data, as well as assist in the                  Irene McSweeney, P.E.
                                                                                                 Boston Water and Sewer Commission
evaluation of deterioration patterns for risk assessment and renewal planning.                          Boston, Massachusetts
   While the trenchless industry developed as a segment of the pipelines market               Editorial & Advertising Offices
                                                                                                  1770 Main St., P.O. Box 190
— in fact the term “trenchless” doesn’t relate to manholes — it is apparent that the               Peninsula, OH 44264 USA
two are inextricably linked. No doubt, as we continue to address our aging sewer             (330) 467-7588 • Fax: (330) 468-2289
systems across the country, more and more attention — and work — will be                          www.trenchlessonline.com
                                                                                               e-mail: info@benjaminmedia.com
devoted to manholes.
                                         Regards,                                                         Wright Reprints
                                                                                                         Ph: 877-652-5295
                                                                                                         Fax: 281-419-5712

                                         Jim Rush
                                         Editor, Trenchless Technology

www.trenchlessonline.com                                                   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                  M-3
                                                                          24 Manholes: An Overview of Associations and Guidelines
Table of Contents                                                             Tracking the recent developments in standardized inspection
                                                                              guidelines and condition assessment.
On the Cover: A Collection of Manholes                                        By Greg Thompson

6     Manholes: Looking at their Past to Address their Future             26 Sewer Manhole Renewal
      Looking back on the history of manholes throughout the years.           A selection from the book, Trenchless Technology: Pipeline and
      By Sharon M. Bueno                                                      Utility Design, Construction and Renewal.
                                                                              By Mohammad Najafi, Ph.D., P      .E.
12 Manhole Snapshots: How Owners from Around the
   United States Address Rehab                                            29 Piecing Together the Puzzle
      Explore the ways different cities across the United States manage       Manhole rehabilitation proves important in infrastructure
      their infrastructure.                                                   management.
      By James W. Rush                                                        By Pam Stask

15 Key Components of the Manhole                                          32 Managing Manhole Rehabilitation Projects
      Understanding manhole renewal from the bottom up.                       From pre-planning and design, to construction and its final results, a
      By William Shook                                                        look in how to manage a manhole rehab project.
                                                                              By David Jurgens, P and Joanne B. Hughes
18 Manholes: A Major Component of the Total System
   Solution for Collection System Renewal                                 36 Selecting a Polyurethane Chemical Grout
      Renewal technologies and methods used in manhole rehabilitation.       to Seal Leaking Structures
      By Gerhard P Muenchmeyer, P
                   .                .E.                                       What to look for when choosing the right polyurethane chemical
                                                                              grout for your manhole project.
20 Manhole Inspection Software                                                By Ed Paradis
      New software solutions focus on manhole condition assessment.
      By Joe Purtell                                                      DEPARTMENTS

                                                                          38 Product Showcase
                                                                          42 Manhole Manufacturers and Suppliers Directory

                                                                                                                       Reader Service Number 77
M-4    TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                          www.trenchlessonline.com
Reader Service Number 51

                                                                                 By Sharon M. Bueno

Looking at their Past to Address
their Future
         anholes have been a part of our wastewater col-       “Some of the original manholes are in excellent con-

M        lection systems for more than three centuries.
         When thinking about those early manholes that
were built some 200 years ago, descriptions of the ma-
                                                             dition, amazingly,” comments Cretex Specialty Products
                                                             northeast regional manager Lee Haessig, who has been
                                                             in the industry 16 years. “I think a lot of that has to do
sons who constructed them brick by brick, layer by layer     with the quality of the workmanship and the craftsman-
could include artists and craftsmen.                         ship of these guys who constructed these manholes 100
   What else could you call someone whose work is still in   years ago, even 75 to 50 years ago. Some of these guys
operation today? Their work is a testament to their abili-   really were artists and craftsmen. They knew what they
ties to create something that has withstood time, their      were doing.”
environment and technological advancements. Sure,              “It’s amazing to me. You will see very, very old man-
they are experiencing problems associated with their age     holes with very little mortar in between the bricks and
but many, many of these access ways to the underground       you wonder how they can stand up. But the bricks them-
sewer tunnels are still in operation today. Even those in    selves look like the day they were put in the ground,”
the manhole rehabilitation industry talk in amazement        adds Joe Talley, market manager of pipes and wastewater
and respect for the work done by their predecessors,         with Kerneos. “And with brick, you had the luxury of do-
which was done without the use of the technologies we        ing any configuration you wanted because the work was
enjoy today, such as robotics, epoxies and coatings and      being hand laid.”
even the pre-cast concrete manholes that are installed.        A majority of the early manholes were constructed with
   Brick manholes, as well as stone manholes, have played    mortar and brick but stone, such as cobblestone, was also
a key role in the development of our country’s waste-        common. Because they were made from scratch, their de-
water collection systems. Manholes were constructed to       signs, while mostly circular, were left to the hands of the
provide an entry way to the underground sewer tunnels,       masons. Karl Sauereisen, vice president with Sauereisen
requiring they be safe from collapse as the workers made     Inc., remembers over the years seeing 100-year-old man-
their way below to inspect, clean and repair sewer pipe.     holes with square bottoms. The oddest shaped manhole
The brick or stone construction was a perfect design for     cover that Haessig recalls was a triangular one in New
this purpose, as the masonry material provided a strong      Hampshire that even pointed the way to where the flow
and sturdy foundation.                                       was heading.

M-6   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                     www.trenchlessonline.com
Reader Service Number 52
  “I did see an old manhole that was in New England                        the thousands upon thousands of cars and trucks that
that was actually lined with wood. That particular struc-                  pass over a brick manhole on a daily bases — something
ture dated back to the late 1700s or early 1800s,” relates                 designers couldn’t fathom 100 years ago when designing
Sprayroq president Jerry Gordon. “That was just a freak                    manholes and roadways. Up until 20 years ago or so, a
of nature. What we’ll find in many situations is that a ma-                 majority of U.S. manholes went virtually untreated and
jority of manholes are forgotten about and in time are                     maintained — allowing 80 years of neglect take their toll.
paved over with asphalt or buildings are constructed over                    There are an estimated 20 million manholes throughout
them. Somehow or another the manholes get lost in the                      the United States today. Of those, the U.S. EPA estimates
system due to time and urban sprawl.”                                      that 4 million are at least 50 years old and another 5 mil-
                                                                                                lion are 30 to 50 years old. The EPA
                                                                                                further estimates that 3.5 million man-
                                                                                                holes are suffering from serious struc-
                                                                                                tural decay and are in need of immedi-
                                                                                                ate rehabilitation or replacement.
                                                                                                   In the case of the brick manholes,
                                                                                                joint deterioration results in a few
                                                                                                scenarios that catch the attention of
                                                                                                municipalities. Inflow and infiltration
                                                                                                (I/I) is a common result of years of cor-
                                                                                                rosion inside them. Collapse through
                                                                                                the loss of bricks due to mortar degra-
                                                                                                dation is also a possibility, but is con-
                                                                                                sidered an extreme or drastic result.
                                                                                                   “What you usually end up seeing are
                                                                                                leaks coming in from between these
                                                                                                joints,” Talley explains. “Infiltration
                                                                                                is a big topic right now and has been
                                                                                                for the last decade. The problem with
                                                                                                manholes made of brick is that it’s not
                                                                                                very easy to stop the leaks without se-
    This photo from Sauereisen shows the square bottom of an old manhole. The inset view        riously putting some sort of coating
 shows gives some perspective of the artistry required to lay up a brick cone section above the or lining in there. If you stop the leak
             bottom section of a manhole. Note the meticulous placement of brick.               right here on this little spot you are
                                                                                                staring at, it’s just going to find its way
   It wasn’t until the late 1950s and 1960s that a switch to the next spot. You just chase leaks through however
from brick-made manholes to pre-cast concrete was many square inches of mortar joints there are between
made, with the cost to make being a primary factor — for the brick. If you stop it there, it may come out behind
materials and labor.                                                       you. And that’s an area where there is groundwater and
   Even as industry experts talk in reverence to some hydrostatic head pressure.”
degree of the construction of the older manholes, they                       Sauereisen notes that another problem that manholes
express concern for their condition, as well as of those encounter is degradation due to the freeze-thaw cycles
which came after — those being of the modern-day, pre- and shifting ground, particularly in the northern to north-
cast concrete variety, which fall prey to the exposure of east sections of the country. The tops of manholes are
sewer gas. While the brick itself in most of these manholes subjected to freeze-thaw so the concrete, not necessarily
has held up, the mortar that is holding them together is the brick but its mortar, expands and contracts when it
another story. Time, corrosion and detrimental sewer gas gets hot and cold. “That repeated growing and shrinking
over the last 50 to 100 years, in many cases, has slowly and growing and shrinking weakens its strength and it
eaten away at the mortar joints, leaving municipalities no starts to breakdown over time,” he explains.
choice but either rehab or replace the manholes.
   “The brick has held up pretty good, as they are made Future Trends
of clay and clay does not corrode like concrete does                         Taking stock of the condition of the country’s water and
with sewer gas,” explains Sims Rhyne, president of Spec- wastewater infrastructure came into vogue in the 1970s
traShield. “The problem with the brick is that the mortar with the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, forcing
joints are made of cement and the sewer gas corrodes cities to evaluate the state of their pipes, manholes and
cement. So through the natural course of time, the gas, lift and pump stations. While pipe relining has become a
as well as the environment the manholes exist in, begins staple of the trenchless marketplace, manholes just don’t
to cause cracking in the joints and later bricks begin to seem to get the same level of respect even though aging,
fall out.”                                                                 deteriorating manholes are just as attributable to I/I as
   Also contributing to some of the mortar joint cracking aging, deteriorating pipelines.
problems is the constant pounding the joints take from                       “Even though manholes have been shown time and
M-8   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                    www.trenchlessonline.com
The Warren structural epoxy manhole liner system delivers a stand-alone, self-supporting structure when applied at 250 mils to
badly deteriorated structures. At 100 mils the system will protect new concrete from H2S attack and seal out infiltration, enhance
the flow and reduce buildup in the structure. The hard, ceramic-like plastic shell has proven to reduce odors coming from manholes
and pump stations. With over 10,000 structures in place, the Warren system has passed the test of time.
Approved applicators of the Warren Environmental System Master Applicator – A&W Maintenance, Inc. (888)-5WARREN
Approved Applicators:
Bradbury Industries, TX (830)624-5823; Wildcat Construction, CO (303)646-1200; Utility Maintenance, KS (316)945-8833;
Suncoast Infrastructure, TN (601)420-9682; Superior Pro Coat, CA (323)877-4861; Pipeliners of Puerto Rico, PR (787)300-6679;
W.L. Hailey Corporation, AL (615)255-3161; IVS Group, VA (304)768-4307; T Gray Utility & Rehab Co, TX (713)681-0500;
CWE Technologies, LLC, MI (734)657-2421; Drilline, Australia (888)-5WARREN; Lanes for Drains, UK (888)-5WARREN;
Ferro-Monk Construction, UK (888)-5WARREN

                                        P.O. Box 1206, Carver, MA 02330
                           Ph: 508-947-8539 Fax: 508-947-3220 www.warrenenviro.com
Reader Service Number 53
time again to be a large, if not the
largest contributor of wet weather is-
sues, such as I/I, and it’s been demon-
strated that they are a very cost-effec-
tive option to repair, cities will spend
millions of dollars on mainline lining
projects and they might not put a big
emphasis on the manholes that are
within that particular lining projects,”
Haessig notes. “I think there should
be more of a focus on manholes.
Obviously I’m a little bias because
of our product, but I really believe
that manholes are kind of neglected.
And I don’t know why that is. A lot
of people think they don’t have prob-
lems but yet they are not willing to go
down there and inspect the manholes
and go out there in a rain storm and
see if the manholes are leaking.”
   Sauereisen says several states in
the warmer climates that have to deal An unusual old manhole that Cretex worked on in Nashua, N.H. The manhole cover has since
with higher corrosion rates in their                        been changed to the traditional circular style.
manholes are now requiring that new
                                                            or the increased chance of biogenic corrosion. These
construction manholes be lined with a protective lining
                                                            states include Florida and Arizona, with Texas following
— either some sort of epoxy or polymer lining in advance
                                                            suit, among others.
of being put in the ground due to grade conditions and/
                                                                                   Gordon adds that more and more
                                                                                cities are looking for longer term solu-
                                                                                tions for the rehabilitation of their en-
                                                                                tire infrastructure. “Not just manholes
                                                                                but pipelines,” he says. “There are cer-
                                                                                tain technologies used today that offer a
                                                                                two- or five-year fix for manhole rehabil-
                                                                                itation and are perceived to be not more
                                                                                than patch jobs or short-term solutins. I
                                                                                think people are looking for a better re-
                                                                                turn on their investment if they are go-
                                                                                ing to spend taxpayers’ dollars. So tech-
                                                                                nologies that can provide greater than
                                                                                10, 15 or 20 years of continued service
                                                                                after rehabilitation are the ones that are
                                                                                really going to have more prominence
                                                                                in the marketplace.”
                                                                                   Haessig and those we spoke with be-
                                                                                lieve that the attention to the manholes
                                                                                will continue to rise. “It’s got to go up,”
                                                                                Haessig says. “They’ve either got to re-
                                                                                habilitate or replace them because there
                                                                                are manholes that are 100 years old or
                                                                                older and they have outlived their de-
                                                                                sign life. A typical design of a pre-cast
                                                                                manhole is about 50 years. That means
                                                                                that those that were put in the ground
                                                                                in the late 1950s, need to be rehabbed
                                                                                or replaced now or should at the very
                                                                                least be looked at.”

                                                                                     Sharon M. Bueno is managing editor of
                                                                                     Trenchless Technology.
                                                          Reader Service Number 54
M-10   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                          www.trenchlessonline.com
Reader Service Number 55

Manhole                                                                                                       By James W. Rush

How Owners from Around the
       United States Address Rehab
   he whole trenchless industry grew                And manhole problems are not             tem operators: Paul Arnone, sewer
T  up around the installation or re-
pair of pipe. Techniques such as auger
                                                 unique to specific areas of the United
                                                 States. Cities large and small and old
                                                                                             collections supervisor, Carmel, Ind.;
                                                                                             Bill Clendening, manager-preventa-
boring, horizontal directional drilling,         and new deal with inflow and infiltra-        tive maintenance, JEA (Jacksonville,
cured-in-place pipe and other close-             tion (I/I) through the manhole. Ac-         Fla.); Ron Moore, materials engineer,
fit liners have been researched and               cording to the U.S. Environmental           St. Louis Metropolitan Sewerage Dis-
reviewed many times over. But one                Protection Agency (EPA), there are          trict; and Kevin Eby, director, Licking
area that sometimes gets overlooked              more than 20 million manholes in            County (Ohio) Water and Wastewater
— despite being the most visible — is            the United States. Of those, 4 mil-         Department.
the manhole.                                     lion are 50 years old or older, while
                                                                                             St. Louis
                                                                                                Serving a population base of 1.5 mil-
                                                                                             lion residents and covering an area of
                                                                                             525 sq miles, the St. Louis Metropoli-
                                                                                             tan Sewer District (MSD) is the fourth
                                                                                             largest in the United States. The dis-
                                                                                             trict also has some of the oldest sew-
                                                                                             erage infrastructure in the country,
                                                                                             with some portions dating back to
                                                                                             before the Civil War, according to Ron
                                                                                             Moore, materials engineer for MSD.
       Cities across the United States are addressing the deterioration of their manholes,
                                                                                             Not surprisingly, the district has an
                                         such as these.                                      ongoing program to identify and re-
                                                                                             pair aging and damaged manholes.
   Manholes are necessary compo-                 another 5 million are between 30 to            According to Moore, the impor-
nents of any sewer system, providing             50 years old. An estimated 3.5 million      tance of addressing manholes is two-
access for inspection, maintenance               are suffering from serious structural       fold. “Cracking in the manholes leads
and repair. In a trenchless setting,             decay and are in immediate need of          to water intrusion, which in turn can
manholes perform the function of                 replacement.                                lead to voids in the street,” he said.
a launch or egress shaft for materi-                Manholes are susceptible to the rig-     “So by fixing the manholes, you pre-
als, liners or other equipment. But              ors of traffic loading and freeze-thaw       vent damage to the street at the same
more and more, manholes are being                cycles in addition to the harsh condi-      time. And it can be very expensive
looked at for what they are — a vital            tions that affect sewer pipes, namely       when you have to block traffic and re-
link in the collection system chain.             hydrogen sulfide gas. There are a vari-      pave the road.”
In fact, studies have indicated that             ety of rehabilitation options available,       In addition to using in-house
between 25 and 75 percent of all                 and choosing the right one depends          crews, the district commissioned an
groundwater and surface water that               on the unique conditions of each            outside consultant to identify prob-
enters the sewer systems does so                 sewer system.                               lem manholes as part of a system-
through the manholes. Fixing pipe                   To gain an understanding of the          wide cleaning and TV program. Man-
segments can become a fruitless ex-              challenges related to maintaining           holes are either repaired in-house, as
ercise if those leaky manholes aren’t            manholes, Trenchless Technology in-         part of mainline rehab work or bid as
addressed as well.                               terviewed four different sewer sys-
M-12   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                www.trenchlessonline.com
a separate contract.                      About 90 percent of the manholes are      400 and 500 manholes since the pro-
   MSD has used a variety of repair       concrete, with some brick manholes        gram began.
methods including cementitious mor-       in the older part of the city.              In one apartment complex, the ef-
tar, polyurea coatings, epoxy coatings,      Paul Arnone, sewer collections su-     fectiveness of the manhole lining
CIPP chimney liners and chimney           pervisor, notes that his department       program was evident. “We lined ev-
seals. Moore says common problems         began a manhole lining program            ery manhole in the area of a master-
related to manholes are cracking in       about eight years ago and since that      metered complex where there was
the top 2 to 3 ft, related to freeze-     time, they have noticed a decrease        more water coming out through the
thaw cycles and degradation related       in complaints of sanitary sewer over-     sewer system than there was going in
to hydrogen sulfide gas exposure.          flows (SSOs). As part of routine sewer     through the drinking water system,”
   MSD has implemented the NASSCO         line cleaning, crews inspect manholes     Arnone said. “Once we lined the
Manhole Assessment and Certification       and note those in need of repair. Field   manholes, we noticed a significant
Program (MACP) to standardize its         reports are handed into supervisors,      decrease in flow, and the complex ac-
condition assessment data. As man-        where those to be fully repaired are      tually had to amend its drainage sys-
holes are repaired, they are entered      entered in the department’s GIS.          tem because it was no longer flowing
into the district’s geographic informa-      If repairs are minor, Arnone says      through our sanitary sewer pipes.”
tion system (GIS) to assist with future   spot repairs are typically done in-
planning.                                 house. Otherwise, the manholes are        Jacksonville, Fla.
                                          fully lined. “We go ahead and cover         JEA, formerly known as the Jack-
Carmel, Ind.                              100 percent of the manhole while          sonville Electric Authority, provides
  Located about 25 miles northeast        we’re there,” he said. “That way we       sewer service to roughly 200,000
of Indianapolis, Carmel is one of the     know that the manhole will be good        sewer customers in the greater Jack-
fastest-growing communities in In-        for a long time.”                         sonville area. JEA has undertaken an
diana. The City of Carmel owns and           The manholes that are identified        aggressive approach that includes the
operates its own collection system        for full-length lining are prioritized    replacement of about 300 miles of
and treatment plant and has about         and contracted out. Spectra Tech, a       gravity sewer between 1997 and the
10,000 manholes in its service area.      licensee of the SpectraShield brand       present.
                                          of polymer liner, has relined between

Reader Service Number 56
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                    TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT   M-13
  JEA currently has two three-year
contracts underway to rehabilitate
                                          which then became the first areas to
                                          be examined.
                                                                                    Licking County, Ohio
manholes, one with Concrete Con-            Once manholes are identified as             The Buckeye Lake Sewer System
servation Inc. for full-length coatings   in need of repair, officials determine     in Licking County in central Ohio is
and the other with J&H Waterstop for      whether a full structural rehab is        more than 50 years old and the man-
structural fiberglass inserts.             needed or if a coating will be suffi-      holes are all brick. Through the years,
  JEA is in the process of developing     cient.                                    numerous manhole castings had to
a CMOM (capacity assurance, man-            “The intention of the program is        be raised to give access.
agement, operations and mainte-           to reduce sanitary sewer events, so if       Recently, all manholes were sur-
nance) program that has an emphasis       we see something that is in imminent      veyed and evaluated for structural de-
on preventative maintenance. As part      danger, we’ll address it immediately,”    ficiencies and inflow and infiltration
of the program, JEA has implemented       Clendening said. “Otherwise, the          (I/I). Manholes then were prioritized
a “pop top” program to inspect its        manholes will be prioritized based on     in accordance with these two factors.
52,000 manholes. “On a weekly basis       condition, as well as other factors and   After the evaluation, manholes that
we have crews going out popping the       handed off to the contractor.”            were identified as a source of I/I and/
tops and inspecting the manholes,”          Clendening adds that JEA requires       or had structural deficiencies where
said Bill Clendening, JEA’s manager of    a 10-year manufacturer’s warranty for     spray lined. To date, the county has
preventative maintenance. “Naturally      the products it uses. He says that to     rehabbed about 25 of its 300 man-
we don’t spend as much time on the        date, the manhole program is paying       holes, according to Kevin C. Eby, di-
newer developments as we do in the        dividends. “The reportable rates of       rector of the Licking County Water
older sections or areas that we know      sanitary sewer events are down about      and Wastewater Department.
has a history of problems.”               half over a year ago,” he said. “Some        Spray lining was the method of choice
  Under the systematic ‘pop top’          of it could be weather-related, but we    due to manholes being in the middle
program, crews are given maps of          feel that the manhole program has         of roads and the corrosivity of the sys-
the manholes to be inspected along        played a role.”                           tem. The county has used both Spectra
with a standardized sheet to charac-        To date, JEA has lined about 7,000      Shield and SprayRoq for relining.
terize the condition of the structures.   manholes using the SpectraShield
The first step was identifying areas       product.                                  James W. Rush is editor of Trenchless
hardest hit by sanitary sewer events,                                               Technology.

                                                                                                     Reader Service Number 74
M-14   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                       www.trenchlessonline.com

 Key Components of the Manhole
 Understanding Manhole Renewal from the Bottom Up                                                          By William Shook

    here are more than 20 million manholes in the Unit-           Since manholes represent a large and critically impor-
 T  ed States and more than half were installed prior to
 1960. In addition, governmental studies over the years
                                                                tant segment of every sewer system, it is important to
                                                                understand their parts and problems from the bottom
 show that commonly more than half of all inflow and             up. So we will examine each part and their correspond-
 infiltration (I/I) enters sewer systems through manholes.       ing problems and solutions in that order.
 Furthermore, cities and engineers are concluding that
 since manholes are the easiest segment to inspect and          BENCH AND CHANNEL: The bottom is the flow area,
 the least expensive to fix, their budgets can be stretched      which is a natural extension of the pipe inlets. It is most
 to get a lot more correction for a lot less money. Is it any   commonly referred to as the channel, and sometimes as
 wonder then that manholes are receiving the attention          the invert since it is the lowest point of the sewer line.
 they desperately need?                                         Pipe inlets may enter at different elevations (drop in-
   Manholes are underground chambers built to provide           lets). If there are to be any changes in direction, they are
 man-entry access for inspection and maintenance. They          made at the channel. The gently sloped concrete floor
 are subject to erosion from groundwater intrusion, cor-        between the wall of the barrel and the channel is the
 rosion from liquids and gases, wear from dynamic traffic        bench and it provides a foothold so workers are above
 loads and general deterioration from age. Out of sight,        active flows. Benches deteriorate from abrasion and cor-
 their degradation is not easily monitored. Unfortunately,      rosion and the channels are prone to leak. Cementitious
 when they are neglected and complete collapse is likely        or polymer overlays are available, which arrest the leaks
 since, unlike pipe, manholes are in direct contact with        and reshape the bench to keep flows fully within their
 the surface.                                                   channels.

Reader Service Number 57                                          Reader Service Number 58
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                       TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT   M-15
 WALL OR BARREL: This section of the manhole is typi-           CONE: This section tapers from the top opening to the
 cally 4 ft in diameter because it was originally designed      full lower dimension or barrel section. It may taper con-
 to provide enough space for a worker to inspect and            centrically, like a triangle with equal legs, or eccentrical-
 clean the pipe. While this dimension has remained stan-        ly, like a right angle triangle. Sometimes large diameter
 dard, there is little need any longer for maintenance          manholes have no cones at all and, instead, they have a
 workers to enter this hazardous confined space since            flat concrete slab set flush with the pavement. In brick
 inspection, cleaning pipe lining and even manhole lin-         manholes, the tapering is as unique as the original brick-
 ing can be conducted without entry. This section may           layer who built it without uniform tapering or standard
 be precast concrete, masonry (brick and mortar), block         heights. The cone and barrel sections have identical
 or any combination thereof. Masonry and block man-             problems and are included in the previous discussion.
 holes have problems caused by erosion from ground-
 water (infilrosion is erosion caused by infiltration), age           GRADE ADJUSTING RINGS: The frame rests on concrete or
 (hey, everything wears out) and corrosion of the mortar            polymer rings that are used to set the frame at the prop-
 joints, which individually or in concert causes structur-          er grade with the pavement. The maximum adjustment
 al damage.                                                         allowed by most cities is 16 in. Since rain water tracks
                                                                                       above and below the roadway pave-
                                                                                       ment, these rings are highly suscepti-
                                                                                       ble to movement from traffic loading
                                                                                       and freeze/thaw movement, which
                                                                                       create large amounts of inflow and
                                                                                       infiltration. This problem is solved
                                                                                       with external or internal seals. Exter-
                                                                                       nal sleeves may be fitted over the en-
                                                                                       tire adjustment section from frame to
                                                                                       cone before backfilling. Such sleeves
                                                                                       may be banded, shrink wrapped or
                                                                                       hand applied. Plastic chimneys can
                                                                                       be set directly on the cone with ad-
                                                                                       justment rings stacked around it.
                                                                                       Plastic chimneys prevent any water
                                                                                       migration between the rings, frame
                                                                                       or cone. When excavation must be
                                                                                       avoided, internal sleeves are an op-
                                                                                       tion. Internal sleeves are available
                                                                                       as rubber sleeves held in place with
            Image from ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 92         stainless steel bands, hand or spray
                                                                                       applied flexible coatings and cured-
    Voids need to be filled and structural liners can be             in-place liners. The lifetime benefit cost, each products
 placed that reinforce and seal the old wall to a better proven performance and their corresponding ease of in-
 than original condition. The structural strength de- stallation are deciding factors in selection.
 pends on the thickness and strength of the lining mate-
 rial. The liner choices are: cementitious, polymers and FRAME AND COVER: To most citizens this is the manhole
 composites. Composites are typically a combination of since it is all they see. Historically, it is made of cast iron
 cementitious plus polymers or fiberglass plus polymers. that easily withstands the rigors of traffic loads though
 While most polymers are used only as a corrosion coat- some are now made of polymers or ductile iron for ease
 ing, some can be applied at sufficient thickness to add of handling and corrosion considerations. Vent holes in
 structural strength. A design guide is available from Iowa the cover and the gap around the cover are entry points
 State University for determining the correct thickness for for surface water. Plugging vent holes, placing gaskets
 the depth, diameter, groundwater pressure, traffic load- under the cover and inflow dishes just below the cover
 ing and condition. When no structural benefit from the are typically the best solutions to this problem.
 original wall remains, then complete replacement is nec-              Manholes are complicated and critical segments of ev-
 essary. It may be accomplished by pouring a new man-               ery sewer system but they are the easiest to inspect and
 hole within the old one with removable interior forms, the least expensive to renew. Thorough evaluation and
 slipping a rigid sleeve into the barrel and grouting the careful selection of renewal methods produce improve-
 annulus after excavating and removing the cone or by ments which dollar-for-dollar earns the best return for
 a complete dig and replace. Time, disruption and costs city budgets.
 are critical to this decision. The corrosion common to
 municipal sewers is microbiologically induced corrosion
 (MIC). Protection is available by using the anti-bacterial William Shook is president of AP/M Permaform, which is
 additive to Portland-based cements, calcium aluminate based in Johnston, Iowa.
 cements, polymer coatings or embedded plastic liners.

M-16   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                          www.trenchlessonline.com

Reader Service Number 59

A Major Component
of the Total System
Solution for Collection
System Renewal
By Gerhard P Muenchmeyer, P.E.

   n a collection system, which in-

I  cludes the mainline pipe and the
   service connection to the house,
the manhole serves as the only access
for maintenance and periodic inspec-
tion. Some early sanitary sewer sys-
tems did not provide for manholes          of many different materials that have    ceptible to surface water inflow that
at pipe junctions, grade changes or        different structural and renewal char-   tends to be of short duration at high
direction changes. Lack of manholes        acteristics.                             flow rates. Poor access to manholes
soon proved to be a serious design            The cover must provide easy entry     can greatly impair the ability to main-
flaw and consequently manholes are          into a manhole yet provide a water-      tain the entire collection system.
now essential to the proper design of      tight seal after it is replaced. The        The different conditions of a man-
a collection system.                       manhole frame must have adequate         hole can generally be described as
   According to Wade & Associates, in      structural strength in order to be       follows:
2003 there were more than 20 mil-          able to resist damage from mowing           Condition I: The manhole is con-
lion existing manholes in the United       equipment, traffic, soil movement,        sidered structurally sound with little
States, of which 4 million were more       erosion and frost. The walls must be     indication of settlement, cracking or
than 50 years old and more than 5 mil-     structurally capable of withstanding     other signs of structural fatigue in-
lion were 30 to 50 years old. With new     traffic from cars, trains or planes de-   cluding minor corrosion, infiltration
construction since 2003 and further        pending on their location.               or exfiltration through precast joints,
deterioration of the existing manhole         The manhole must provide access       mortar joints or around the pipe con-
infrastructure, these estimates have       to pipe connections for inspection,      nection.
probably risen significantly.               sufficient space for cleaning and reha-      Condition II: The manhole is ex-
   Also according to Wade & Associates:    bilitation from ground level. It must    hibiting early signs of structural fa-
Expenditures in 2003 were near $100        not allow extraneous water from sur-     tigue evident by minor cracks, loss
million and projected annual expen-        face runoff (inflow) or groundwater       of mortar or brick, corrosion (less
ditures for manhole renewal would          (infiltration) to enter and surcharge     than 0.5 in. in depth), or minor cross
exceed $500 million in the foresee-        the sewer system. It must be resistant   sectional distortion (less than 10 per-
able future. Some of the key issues that   to hydrogen sulfide corrosion or ero-     cent); however, the existing structure
need to be addressed for manhole re-       sion from wastewater flow.                is currently supporting the soil and
newal include reduction of infiltration        The invert should provide correct     live load.
and inflow (I/I), corrosion protection,     hydraulic configuration that directs         Condition III: The manhole is ex-
rebuilding of structural integrity and     flow from incoming pipes though           hibiting severe structural fatigue
public safety issues.                      the manhole and into outgoing pipes      and collapse is eminent. Conditions
                                           without deposition of sediment, ac-      indicating this degree of deteriora-
Purpose                                    cumulation of rags or backing up the     tion would be distortion beyond 10
  The manhole is one of three ma-          system.                                  percent, severe corrosion (exposed
jor components of a sewerage sys-             Manholes are at high risk of damage   reinforcing) or large sections of the
tem. Manholes, however, continue           from normal wear and tear, third par-    existing structure are missing.
to be a potentially weak link in the       ty actions, corrosion, soil movement
sewer system. They are constructed         and traffic loads. They are highly sus-
M-18   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                       www.trenchlessonline.com
Renewal Technologies                      during a rain event.                       and is typically used for a Condition
  There are numerous renewal tech-           A number of technologies are            I manhole. When a manhole has
nologies available in the industry        available to seal or encapsulate this      reached Condition II, besides grout-
and new ones are being developed          area of the manhole — both from the        ing, a protective coating is normally
on a regular basis to meet the needs      interior and the exterior — and are        required. Coatings can vary from
of the market.                            categorized as chimney seals. The          Portland cement to high-strength
  Starting from the top of the man-       manufactured type seal typically in-       and greater corrosion-resistant ce-
hole structure — the cover. Covers        cludes a circular rubber sealing gas-      ments such as calcium aluminate
are typically replaced rather than re-    ket that is installed and held in place    based products.
newed. Covers are available in stan-      with stainless steel expansion rings.         For higher corrosion resistance
dard sizes or can be manufactured to      Polymer chimney seals are specially        and increased strengths, polymer
custom specific requirements               designed using a highly elastic poly-      materials are used to coat and re-
  If the manhole casting is defective,    mer which is applied over the chim-        surface the manhole wall and cone.
replacement, rather than renewal, is      ney area and allowed to cure. Once         These products include sprayed on
usually the approach. Conventional        cured, the polymer material can sus-       epoxy, urethane and urea.
excavation or cutting and extracting      tain some minor movement of the               Specific product selection can vary
can be used to effectively remove and     casting during its service life without    based on climatic conditions and the
replace the casting. A cutter/extractor   cracking or failing. The stretchable       amount of moisture influencing the
is a tool that cuts a circular groove     cured-in-place liner is similar to a       manhole to be renewed. The appli-
around a manhole frame much like          cured-in-place pipe liner but is de-       cation of coatings and lining will en-
a saw would cut a hole in a piece of      signed specifically to seal the chim-       sure long-term renewal against all the
wood. The frame and the road over-        ney area of the manhole. The resin         major deterioration mechanisms.
cut is removed in a five- to 10-minute     impregnated material is set in place          When a manhole has reached Condi-
procedure. A new casting can then be      along the length of the chimney area,      tion III, it typically requires total recon-
placed on the manhole chimney and         then using an inflatable bladder, it        struction using structural cast-in-place
a protective concrete ring poured         is pressed tightly against the chim-       concrete lining systems, cured-in-place
around the new casting to protect it      ney until the liner is ambient cured.      lining systems, panel liners and thicker
against road impact loads.                Formed and cured-in-place chimney          wall coating systems.
  An inflow dish then can be installed     seals are usually hand applied with           The manhole bench and flow chan-
to catch inflow leakage, through the       a base trowel application of epoxy         nel are typically considered non-
manhole vent holes, during rain           resin, followed by applying a layer        structural and can be renewed using
events. Inflow dishes are available        of fiberglass fabric and finally apply-      a variety of cementitious and polymer
in a variety of materials and come        ing another hand troweled layer of         coating products. In most cases, the
equipped with or without drain            epoxy. This is then allowed to cure        same coating that is applied to the
holes. The chimney area of the man-       and form a reinforced composite            wall and cone of the manhole is also
hole is usually constructed of three      manhole chimney seal. The purpose          applied to the bench and channel. As
or more courses of brick. This allows     of each of these technologies is to        an alternative to applying a coating,
for future adjustment if the road         stop further deterioration and leak-       precast plastic manhole inserts can be
pavement or surrounding soil area         age from the chimney area of the           installed as channel replacements.
are either raised or lowered. This is     manhole.
also an area of the manhole that is          The manhole cone and walls require      Summary
susceptible to leakage from inflow         structural strength and the ability to       There is a technology available to
                                          withstand groundwater leakage from         renew virtually every defect found in
                                          infiltration. As concrete corrodes and      deteriorated manholes. This article
 Manhole Rehab                            the mortar in brick manholes begins
                                          to disintegrate, the manhole needs to
                                                                                     summarizes but a few of those avail-
                                                                                     able in the renewal market. Technolo-
 Techniques                               be considered for renewal. The exist-
                                          ing manhole structure acts as the base
                                                                                     gies have been developed to provide
                                                                                     long-term solutions to renewing one
 •    Pre-formed Manhole Units            structure to allow for the effective ap-   or more of the major components of
 •    Concrete Liners: Poured-in-         plication of renewal materials. Once       a leaking, corroded or structurally
      Place                               the structure of the manhole is seri-      deteriorated manhole.
                                          ously affected, the number of renewal        The use and application of these
 •    Liners: Cured-in-Place              technologies that can be applied to        manhole technologies, however, re-
 •    Cementitious Coatings/Grouts        properly restore it become limited.        quires, in all cases, well trained and
      — Sprayed/Pumped/Troweled           Renewal for manhole cones and walls        experienced applicators. As good as
                                          typically encompasses three deterio-       these products are, if not applied cor-
 •    Polymer Coatings/Grout —                                                       rectly, the results will leave the custom-
                                          ration mechanisms or conditions —
      Sprayed/Pumped/Troweled                                                        er disappointed and looking for alter-
                                          infiltration, corrosion and structural
 •    Mechanical Seals/Inserts            deterioration.                             native solutions for the next project.
 •    Protective Systems for New             Grouting of a manhole is an effec-
                                                                                                .              .E.,
                                                                                     Gerhard P Muenchmeyer, P is the
      Manholes                            tive means of stopping infiltration
                                                                                     technical director of NASSCO.
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                     TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT       M-19

Manhole Inspection
                                                                                         New Software
                                                                                         Solutions Focus on
                                                                                         Manhole Condition
                                                                                         By Joe Purtell

                                                                                         paper-based methods of performing
                                                                                         manhole inspections to software-based
                                                                                         methods: GPS and condition assess-
                                                                                         ment standards.

                                                                                            The availability of GPS-based satel-
                                                                                         lite data and geographic information
                                                                                         system (GIS) maps have enabled much
                                                                                         greater precision as to how we locate,
                                                                                         identify and network together our
                                                                                         pipelines, manholes, laterals, lift sta-
                                                                                         tions, etc.
                                                                                            GIS mapping allows us to see the
                                                                                         interconnection of all of the compo-
                                                                                         nents of the collection system and,
                                                                                         consequently, make better decisions
            estimated 20 million man-
W ith an in “windows” to the condi-
holes are the
               the United States, man-
                                           save approximately $1.2 million.
                                              In addition to these costs, maintain-
                                           ing the structural integrity of manholes
                                                                                         about managing it. When considering
                                                                                         a comprehensive manhole assessment
                                                                                         strategy, it is important to leverage both
tion of America’s pipelines and also       is a significant cost and priority. Proac-     GIS and GPS technologies for precision
a critical access point for storm water    tive manhole assessment is a key com-         and efficiency. For larger cities with an
runoff and pollutants.                     ponent of any collection system asset         existing GIS, deploying a manhole as-
   As populations grow, the ever-          management program.                           sessment strategy using precise maps
growing burden on our wastewater              Because of the sheer quantity, per-        makes the job much easier for the field
treatment systems only increases. By       forming manhole inspection and re-            crews and the supervisors. Knowing
aggressively finding and fixing inflow-       habilitation are daunting tasks. Many         whether a found manhole belongs to
infiltration (I/I) sources, utilities can   utilities currently use a manhole sur-        the sewer department or the storm de-
essentially add capacity. As an example,   vey form, which inspectors use on a           partment or another entity altogether
if just 100,000 gallons per day (gpd) of   clipboard to collect the data. Unfor-         will save time and labor costs.
unnecessary flow were eliminated, the       tunately, aggregating and searching              Once captured, the data will exist for
annual savings at the treatment plant      through hundreds or thousands of              future reference, making it easier to
would be approximately $50,000. And        forms to prioritize rehabilitation is inef-   find specific assets that may have been
the value of avoiding that same 100,000    ficient. There are two main innovations        paved over or buried by debris. GPS co-
gpd in treatment plant expansion could     that are driving utilities to change from     ordinates are unique for each manhole
M-20   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                             www.trenchlessonline.com
asset and therefore a precise way to determine location and
ownership. Furthermore, field crews can validate GPS coordi-
nates for manholes from the field, which may be more precise
than those previously estimated by GIS. Each week, as more
and more data is accepted and inserted into the relevant GIS
map layer, the quality of the community’s maps is improved,
allowing for this data to be shared among other departments
and agencies as appropriate.

Manhole Condition Assessment Standards
  Engineers have various methodologies and defect codes
that have evolved over time to give them the best understand-
ing of the condition of their manholes. They depend on the
data that their manhole inspectors collect to determine the
probable causes of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs), surcharg-
ing or specific structural classifications such as “imminent

   C    UES has deployed its Granite XP Manhole In-
        spection Module solution at a major U.S. city,
   with the objective of inspecting its 33,000 manholes
   within the next 24 months. Approximately 40 inspec-
   tion units are in use to meet this aggressive regula-
   tory deadline. Cleaning crews and CCTV crews from
   the city, as well as its contractors, perform “quick”
   manhole inspections to triage good, fair or bad man-
   holes during the course of their daily CMOM inspec-
   tion tasks.

      At the end of each day or week, the data is trans-
   ferred wirelessly, or via wired connection or by re-
   movable media (thumb drive) back to the Enterprise
   Edition of Granite XP in the city’s central office, where
   the data is aggregated and checked for any data col-
   lisions. Granite XP has sophisticated data validation
   technology to efficiently manage thousands of the
   city’s manhole inspections performed each week on
   specific manhole asset IDs. Once in the office, the
   media and data is moved to a centralized Oracle or
   SQL Server database to retain the inspection history
   for each asset. GIS maps can be linked to the inspec-
   tion data to allow users to “click on the map” and pull
   up the images and data about any inspected man-
   hole asset through Granite XP    .
                                                                Reader Service Number 60
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                     TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT   M-21
failure likely to happen” within the                                                      softwareshouldhavetheabilitytoflexibly
manhole.                                                                                  incorporate the specific defect codes and
   Like detectives, inspectors should                                                     mandatory fields that engineers require
perform each inspection in the same,                                                      from their manhole inspections. If the
consistent manner, collecting data and                                                    softwarecan’tforcetheinspectortoinput
images, including both still digital pic-                                                 a required value, then data accuracy will
tures and video. As long as a suitable                                                    be lost.
defect coding scheme is used with                                                            Also, good software should be able
consistent classification of the sever-                                                    to synchronize between GIS systems
ity of the defects done by the inspec-                                                    to present to the user the most cur-
tor, the “home grown” standard can be                                                     rent view of the network of pipelines,
sufficient.                                         Paper-based methods of manhole         manholes, laterals, etc., so that the po-
   For those utilities that wish to adopt          assessment are a thing of the past.    tential for associating a particular man-
a defined proprietary standard, NASS-                                                      hole inspection to the incorrect man-
CO has released the Manhole Assess-           Manhole Inspection Software                 hole is virtually eliminated. Software
ment Certification Program (MACP).               To leverage the advances in GPS tech-     that has no knowledge of the network
This program defines the codes and             nology and standardization, several ven-    of wastewater assets around it will cre-
required data entry for an inspector to       dors have designed software to facilitate   ate separate “silos” of information in
use during a manhole inspection.              the process. Well known CCTV software       stand-alone databases which will in-
   Additionally, several consulting engi-     vendors such as Wincan, flexidata, Pi-       crease the probability of data collisions
neering firms have created proprietary         peTech,POSMandCUESprovidesoftware           and corruption.
standards as well. CH2M HILL offers its       withtheabilitytocollectmanhole-specific
SCREAM methodology for manhole as-            condition assessment data. Some are, or     Joe Purtell is director of the CUES
sessment, which adds the ability to ana-      willbe,MACP-certifiedbyNASSCO.Other
lyze specific components of the man-                                                       Software Division, which is headquar-
                                              software vendors such as Hansen, RJN,
hole structure to obtain greater insight      GBA Master Series and CH2M HILL also        tered in Orlando, Fla.
as to the likely I&I, structural issues and   offermanholeinspectionsoftware.Good
costs associated with rehabilitation.

                                        Reader Service Number 61                                            Reader Service Number 62
M-22   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                              www.trenchlessonline.com

 New Product Released to fill gap in
 Underground Structure Rehabilitation
   Protective Liner Systems has expanded its product line with        its inability to completely bond to the host structure and
a new product called KevLiner™. KevLiner™ is intended to fill          the technical problems that can occur during installation.
the gap between traditional coating systems and cured-in-             PerpetuWall™ completely replaced the bag system because
place fiberglass liners. It is intended for use in structures and      of its superior strength, bonding capabilities and ease of
large diameter pipe. Like the products in the Perpetu™ Series,        installation.
KevLiner™ is able to cure in the presence of water and has an            Today Protective Liner Systems operates out of the Atlanta
exceptional ability to bond to most materials. KevLiner™ is           area where it manufactures and develops all of its products
similar to a traditional coating on the surface but within are        in house. This creates a distinct advantage over many of
Kevlar fibers.                                                         its competitors that rely on a third party for R&D and/or
   Adding fibers to an epoxy is nothing new, but using Kevlar          manufacturing. Protective Liner Systems continues to develop
is. Kevlar strands are much stronger and exhibits properties          new products and looks for ways to refine existing ones and
that are far more preferable than fiberglass strands. Properly         simplify installation techniques. In addition to producing
sized and at the correct quality for a given volume, Kevlar           superior products, Protective Liner Systems maintains an
strands will create a small matrix similar to fiberglass cloth.        exclusive Certified Applicator program to ensure the best
This matrix is not as strong or durable as fiberglass cloth            customer service and product installation.
found in cured-in-place fiberglass liners but it does add
strength and minimizes brittleness of the epoxy. The added
strength reduces and distributes the pressures and loading
from ground movement, traffic loading, and hydrostatic                    Products:
pressure. Minimizing the brittleness eliminates the biggest              PerpetuCoat™ - Underwater Curing Epoxy Mastic
problem with using an epoxy on its own. When an epoxy                    Uses: Coating Cement and Steel structures to prevent
coating is compromised it will separate from the wall of the             corrosion and minor infiltration
host structure and then break apart. The Kevlar in KevLiner™
supports the epoxy, if it separates from the wall, and keeps             PerpetuCoat LT™ - Underwater Curing Epoxy Coating
the liner intact.                                                        Uses: Coating Cement and Steel structures to prevent
   KevLiner™ is not intended to replace any existing Protective          corrosion and minor infiltration
Liner Systems product, but to supplement the available
products to the customer and engineer. Protective Liner                  PerpetuSeal™ - CIP Fiberglass Structural Chimney Seal
Systems operates on the idea that each situation requires                Uses: Line Chimneys of Manholes to prevent Infiltration
the correct solution and refuses to accept the idea that one             and Corrosion. Also restores or enhances structural
product is suitable for every situation. PerpetuWall™ is still           performance
the toughest and most respected liner in the infrastructure
rehabilitation industry for underground structures. When it              PerpetuWall™ - CIP Fiberglass Structural Liner
does not fit in to the budget of a project or it is overkill for the      Uses: Prevent all Corrosion, Infiltration and Exfiltration
situation, KevLiner™ offers a step down in performance at s              throughout structure. Also restores or enhances
cost comparable to traditional epoxy coatings.                           structural performance.
Brief History & Background of Protective Liner Systems.
  Protective Liner Systems was founded in 1984 with a focus              PerpetuFastSet - Underwater Curing Epoxy Resin
on producing products specifically for underground structure              Uses: Underwater curing epoxy resin designed to be
rehabilitation. Originally founded as Waste Engineering of               used with fiberglass, kevlar and carbon fiber for point
Florida, the founders combined their talent and experiences              repair.
and started using moisture intolerant 100% solids epoxy and
fiberglass cloth materials to form a manhole liner. The liner             Protective OverCoat™ - Acid Resistant Polymer Cement
became a bag that was inflated by a bladder and cured-in-                 Uses: Line existing and new concrete structures to
place. This bag system, is still used today by some companies.           prevent corrosion from H2S
In situations that a bag could not be used a hand layup
system was developed and is now known as PerpetuWall™.                   KevLiner™ - Underwater Curing Epoxy Mastic with Kevlar™
The epoxies and resins were refined and are now known                     Uses: Coating Cement and Steel structures to prevent
as PerpetuCoat™, PerpetuCoat LT™, and PerpetuFastSet™.                   corrosion and infiltration
In the mid 1990’s the bag system was re[laced because of

Reader Service Number 63

  Manholes: An Overview of
  Associations and Guidelines
                                                      By Greg Thompson

         more than
W ithinmillionUnited
               man-                                                                                               Released
                                                                                                               2005, Sewer Con-

States, condition assess-                                                                                     dition Risk Evalua-
ment presents obvious                                                                                        tion Algorithm Model
challenges. The push for                                                                                    (SCREAM) is a tool de-
standardized      inspection                                                                              veloped by CH2M Hill
guidelines and condition as-                                                                           and built into the InfoNet
sessment has grown over the                                                                          asset management system.
years and recent developments                                                                      Conforming to U.S. guidelines,
have been encouraging, with NASS-                                                             SCREAM is one of InfoNet’s stan-
CO’s Manhole Assessment Certification                                                      dard settings available for manhole con-
Program (MACP) and new software developed                                            dition grading.
for monitoring and rehab-method selection.                               By using SCREAM in a manhole, defects are identified
ASCE Guidelines                                                    and assigned according to level (upper and lower in the
   The granddaddy of them all, The American Society of Civil       manhole) and component. SCREAM scores the upper and
Engineer’s (ASCE) guidelines represent the earliest attempt        lower levels individually and then the overall manhole. Addi-
to standardize manhole construction, inspection and reha-          tionally, SCREAM includes codes for specific coatings and lin-
bilitation methods.                                                ings, as well as materials codes in order to accurately address
   The first publication of such guidelines, ASCE Manuals and       differing degradation properties among different materials.
Reports on Engineering Practice No. 37, Design and Con-               Similar to other coding practices, SCREAM aims to reduce
struction of Sanitary and Storm Sewers, was in 1960 and has        inspector subjectivity. The inspection focuses on three areas
since undergone four revisions.                                    when coding a defect — the category of the defective ma-
   The current guidelines were established with the 2007           terial, type of defect and severity of defect. The latter two
publication of Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construc-         are more subjective than objective, but SCREAM’s coding
tion, Second Edition (ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engi-            system seeks to address this concern by offering numerous,
neering Practice No. 60 / WEF Manual of Practice No. FD-           specific codes.
5). This edition represents a thorough revision of the first           All SCREAM codes and scores are on a scale of 1 to 100,
edition of Gravity Sanitary Sewer Design and Construction,         which allows a more thorough understanding of relative
which was published in 1982.                                       defect scores among assets in a system. It should be noted,
   These guidelines were prepared in cooperation with the          though, that SCREAM assigns the number values based on
Water Environment Federation (WEF) to provide theoreti-            the input of the inspector. In this way, the inspector main-
cal and practical guidelines for the design and construction       tains focus on assessing conditions rather than prioritizing
of gravity sanitary sewers. The administrative and organiza-       rehabilitation needs.
tional phases of sanitary sewer projects are presented with        MACP
parameters necessary to establish design criteria, complete a         Since its debut in 2006, NASSCO’s MACP program has
design and award a contract. The manual offers discussion of       trained more than 2,000 professionals in standardized inspec-
trenchless and conventional construction methods.                                          tion and evaluation of manholes
   In addition to these general guidelines, other ASCE publi-                              and other sewer system structures.
cations are updated with more frequency and provide up-to-                                 NASSCO had preciously developed
date standard practice information. For example, the ASCE                                  the Pipeline Assessment and Certi-
Manual of Practice 92 is dedicated to manhole rehabilitation                               fication Program (PACP), which has
and has been updated in 2008.                                                              since become the recognized stan-
   Finally, it bears mentioning that ASCE is contributing to the                           dard in North American pipeline
Guidelines for the Physical Security of Wastewater/Stormwa-                                condition assessment.
ter Utilities along with the American Water Works Association                                                         ,
                                                                                              When developing MACP NASSCO
(AWWA) and WEF. These guidelines are in trial and revision                                 sought to incorporate ASCE in the
phase, but address security issues throughout wastewater                                                              .
                                                                                           successful format of PACP Employ-
systems, with sections detailing standards for protection of                                            ,
                                                                   ing a similar coding system to PACP MACP allows a series
manholes.                                                          of common codes to be employed industry-wide to clearly
M-24   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                             www.trenchlessonline.com
indicate manhole defects. These defects can be monitored        noted that the engineer needs to marry design and the spe-
over time and used to identify deterioration patterns, which    cific requirements of the project. NASSCO is confident that
can then be used to plan renewal schedules.                     TAG-R improves the likelihood that the best rehab method
  Using MACP coding, inspectors record key attributes and       will be fitted to a project as its recommendations are based
construction features of each manhole, including: material,     on hard data.
dimension and type; key data for estimating I/I; and struc-        TAG-R is a Windows-based software designed for use by
tural or O&M defects. Inspectors start at the manhole cover,    city professionals, engineers and contractors and is available
work to the frame on which it sits and then to the chimney.     as a standalone product and as part of the Inspector Training
Armed with this data, effective selection of rehabilitation     and Certification Programs.
method is possible.
  MACP training can be provided as a supplement to NASS-
                                                                  As important as assessing the condition of manholes is at
CO PACP training at no additional charge. Additionally, NASS-
                                                                least as important is a standardized method for reporting
CO provides free MACP training at three major trade shows
                                                                the said conditions. ASCE’s written standard have provided
— WEFTEC, UCT and No-Dig — each year.
                                                                a framework for manhole construction and rehabilitation
TAG-R                                                           the other inspection protocols/standards have incorporated
   Earlier this year, Trenchless Assessment Guide for Reha-     ASCE guidelines into their framework. For a professional us-
bilitation (TAG-R) software became available. Developed by      ing InfoNet, the SCREAM tool provides detailed condition
NASSCO with the Trenchless Technology Center (TTC), TAG-        reports that can be prioritized automatically. NASSCO’s tools
R is the first interactive software designed to evaluate sewer   (MACP and TAG-R) seek to address the industry as a whole
rehabilitation methods. TTC had previously developed the        with broad-based standardized condition assessment scoring
Trenchless Assessment Guide (TAG) software with the Na-         and practice.
tional Association of Utility Contractors (NUCA).                 Whatever the selected method for assessing manhole con-
                                                                dition and choosing a rehabilitation method, one thing is
                                                                clear — what had been oft-overlooked weak spots in sewer
                                                                systems have become a focal point for rehabilitation.

                                                                Greg Thompson is assistant editor of Trenchless Technology.

   Optimized for ease of use, TAG-R evaluates performance
data of a number of rehabilitation and repair technologies
with project parameters provided by the engineer. TAG-R is
extremely easy to use. Engineers simply enter the parameters
of a rehabilitation project. More than 60 technologies are
evaluated by TAG-R, including access-point-to-access-point
pipe renewal, spot repair methods and manhole rehabilita-
tion methods commonly used for renewal projects. To evalu-
ate and project performance of a given technology, NASSCO
compiled data from product suppliers through their engi-
neering and operations teams. To ensure accuracy, all data
was peer-reviewed.
   TAG-R estimates a given renewal method’s perceived risk
by taking project environment, the method’s track record
and overall project risk among other factors. From there,
TAG-R recommends a renewal method, though it should be

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Reader Service Number 64                                          Reader Service Number 65
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                       TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT   M-25

 Sewer Manhole Renewal
 (Editor’s note: This is a selection from the book,                Irrespective of the age, the location of a manhole within
 Trenchless Technology: Pipeline and Utility Design,            a system often dictates the type of problems manholes will
 Construction and Renewal, by Mohammad Najafi,                   develop. These problems include erosion, corrosion and
 Ph.D., P.E.)                                                   wear from dynamic traffic loads, any of which will create
                                                                structural fatigue and/or serious I/I. Other influences that
           anholes are windows to the sewer system, as          can contribute to the structural decline of a manhole in-

 M         they are the most visible point in identifying the
           condition of the underground sewer infrastruc-
 ture. Without a complete manhole renewal plan, corro-
                                                                clude soil movement and water table fluctuation (hydro-
                                                                static loading). Soil movement can be because of natural
                                                                occurring events such as
 sion and infiltration and inflow (I/I) problems will not         earthquakes or freeze/thaw
 be solved in these crucial structures.                         cycles or induced by nearby
    Although manholes are easily accessible, they offer a va-   construction activities.
 riety of challenging problems that are frequently misun-          Old concrete is relatively
 derstood and overlooked. Like pipelines, manholes come         porous and very rigid. Once
 in a variety of materials and sizes. They are commonly         a rigid structure has experi-
 made of brick-mortar, precast concrete, concrete block         enced movement, there is a
 and cast-in-place concrete. At each major change of direc-     good possibility of founda-
 tion or grade in the sewer system, a manhole is usually        tion damage. A fracture in
 constructed to facilitate flow, cleaning and inspection.        the wall of a manhole can
 Open-curved channels in the base of the manhole allow          also open up the possibility
 sewage to change direction with a minimum amount of            for erosion. Approximately
 friction from one pipe segment into another.                   half of the manholes that
    There are currently more than 20 million manholes in        have been installed in the
 the United States with over half installed prior to 1960.      United States were never
 As we drive through communities, one can often deter-          pressure tested to ensure
 mine the age of a system by looking at the manhole lid.        water or air tightness. This
 In the older systems, the lids may be 18 in. in diameter       constant water intrusion
 and have numerous vent holes. The manhole chamber              takes a wearing toll on the
 below the lid of older systems is generally constructed        porous concrete over time. For the case of a brick man-
 of brick and mortar. Newer systems will generally have         hole, water movement alone can remove mortar between
 a lid of 24 to 30 in. with only one or two pick holes and      bricks and aid in the loss of bricks, causing the potential
 is constructed of precast concrete. These early observa-       for failure of the structure over time. If we add the corro-
 tions tell us little about the potential problems we may       sive nature of modern sewers and its no wonder concrete
 encounter as old manholes suffer from a variety of seri-       fails, often very quickly.
 ous problems. They are subject to erosion from surface
 runoff and groundwater intrusion, corrosion from liq-          Trenchless Technology: Pipeline and Utility Design,
 uids and gases, wearing from dynamic traffic loads and          Construction and Renewal, as well as other publica-
 general deterioration from age. Out of sight, their deg-       tions, can be purchased through the Benjamin Media
 radation is not easily monitored. When neglected, their        Inc. Resource Center. For more information call (330)
 complete collapse is likely to result.                         467-7588 or e-mail jkrill@benjaminmedia.com.

                      Comprehensive list of DVDs, CDs & Books Online
                                                                                                      Reader Service Number 80

M-26   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                        www.trenchlessonline.com
Reader Service Number 66
Reader Service Number 67

  Piecing Together
  the Puzzle

  Manhole Rehabilitation Proves Important in
  Infrastructure Management                                                                                       By Pam Stask

      hen on the brink of finishing a puzzle, there is that ex-        projects of just a few at a time while pipe lining received the
W     citement of inserting the last piece to finally see the pic-
ture in its entirety. The time comes to complete the master-
                                                                      lion’s share of attention,” says William E. Shook, president
                                                                      and founder of AP/M Permaform. “When cities realized that
piece when the last piece has gone astray and the excitement          the groundwater they hoped to eliminate by lining the pipe
is put on hold. You flip over the puzzle’s box and examine             moved downstream to the next weakest point, which were
the floor, glide your hands under the sofa, but to no avail            the manholes, then manholes began to be included on every
the piece is gone and the puzzle goes incomplete. But, you            major pipe lining project. Cities soon discovered that man-
can’t help but wonder — what happened to that one, all-               holes are the easiest and least expensive part of any piping
important piece?                                                      system to correct.”
   For sewer projects, manhole rehabilitation has become the             With the realization that manholes required attention, com-
missing piece of the puzzle so many cities hope to complete.          panies such as AP/M Permaform and Strong Systems began to
Besides rehabbing miles of pipe interlocking and stretching           offer cementitious manhole rehabilitation systems to address
under cityscapes, cities must also look at the condition of           the manhole issues at hand. Over time, this gave way to other
their sewer’s manholes in order to protect the infrastructure         products and applications being used such as chimney seals,
as a whole.                                                           in-flow dishes, semi-structural cementitious liners, fiberglass
   “Manholes are the primary source of access to collection           inserts and so forth. As more and more sewer departments
systems for its inspection and repair,” says Joanne B. Hughes,        recognized the need for correcting their deficient piping
vice president of Cohesant Inc. (previously president of Ra-          systems, the more that companies in the manhole market
ven Lining Systems). “Maintaining the integrity of these struc-       concentrated on finding better and less expensive solutions,
tures is critical for modern society. Manholes must be built or       explains Shook. With new products and technologies evolv-
rebuilt to withstand the ever-changing environment to allow           ing, manhole rehab work became an important part of the
safe and continued access. Additionally, with manholes being          trenchless industry.
one of the three primary components of a wastewater collec-              “In the late 1980s and early 1990s, manhole rehab became
tion system, they can significantly contribute to system [in-          a part of the trenchless sector since it is far less expensive
flow and infiltration (I/I)] when maintenance is neglected.”            and more effective to rehab the manholes and underground
   However in the past, the sewer system puzzle went unfin-            structures in place vs. replacement by dig-and-replace meth-
ished and manholes did not take much precedence in a project          ods,” says Joseph Trevino, vice president of Protective Liner
as a whole. It wasn’t until the late 1980s, early 1990s, that these   Systems.
structures began to be addressed and rehabbed. As cities be-             Today, the increased emphasis on manhole rehab has
gan to notice increasing I/I problems, they began to give atten-      forced cities to look at these structures with a closer eye and
tion to the manholes and not just the pipes underground.              an open pocketbook. Instead of just focusing on the pipes
   “In the early years, manholes were done in very small              underground, the manholes are now becoming a part of

www.trenchlessonline.com                                                            TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT    M-29
sewer rehab projects.                                                 necessary to renew their manholes because of age and wear,”
   “The manhole rehab market has grown at a rapid pace,”              explains Shook. “Newer cities in the South and West must renew
says Danny R. Warren, president of A&W Maintenance Co.                their manholes because of corrosion. No areas are exempt from
and on behalf of Warren Environmental and its applicators.            the attention needed to correct this long ignored area of defi-
“If cities rehabbed four or five manholes a year, it was consid-       ciencies.”
ered a lot. Now, it’s not uncommon for some cities to want
to rehab 500 to 1,000 manholes a year.”                               Changes over Time
   And the need for manhole rehab isn’t just felt in one particular    Ever since manhole rehab became a vital part in the trench-
area of the country — it’s a problem all cities must deal with when  less industry, professionals in the manhole business have
maintaining their vital infrastructure.                              been hard at work developing new products and perfecting
   “Well established older cities in the East and Midwest find it     those already around to create a solid solution for munici-
                                                                                       palities in need. Besides creating a product
                                                                                       that simply solved the problem at hand,
                                                                                       trenchless professionals have demanded a
                                                                                       product that could stand the test of time in-
                                                                                       cluding environmental changes that occur
                                                                                       over the years.
                                                                                         “Over time, new and safer products have
                                                                                       become available and products that are
                                                                                       much easier to deal with from every as-
                                                                                       pect,” says Warren. “Instead of using a prod-
                                                                                       uct that might last four or five years, there
                                                                                       are products out now that can last 40 to
                                                                                       50 years. These products can shift with the
                                                                                       movement of the earth, as well as withstand
                                                                                       the freeze and thaw cycles of the earth.”
                                                                                         As the manhole rehabilitation market
                                                                                       continues to grow and demands for prod-
                                                                                       ucts increase, new technologies have be-
                                                                                       come available to satisfy the needs of cities
                                                                                       looking to rehab their infrastructure. This
                                                                                       surge for products has resulted in compa-
                                                                                       nies releasing technologies and solutions
                                                                                       to fit the bill for manhole rehab issues.
                                                                                         “Technology marches forward accord-
                                                                                       ing to the size of the market,” says Shook.
                                                                                       “Engineers drive technology providers to
                                                                                       continually improve while cities pressure
                                                                                       installation costs downward. This com-
                                                                                       bination of forces drives the providers of
                                                                                       manhole renewal technology to offer bet-
                                                                                       ter products for less money. In our own
                                                                                       case, AP/M has introduced at least one
                                                                                       new product or method each year since
                                                                                         With time, manhole rehab technologies
                                                                                       and products are becoming better and saf-
                                                                                       er. For example, there has been an increase
                                                                                       in safety awareness when entering a sewer
                                                                                       system, new higher capacity epoxy pumps
                                                                                       have entered the market and the Clean Wa-
                                                                                       ter Act and other regulatory acts have influ-
                                                                                       enced the industry, notes Trevino.
                                                                                         With industry professionals perfect-
                                                                                       ing their trade and cities continuing to
                                                                                       research and understand the importance
                                                                                       of manhole rehab, the products are ever-
                                                                                       evolving to withstand 40 to 50 years of
                                                                                       use. Now, manhole rehab contractors
                                                                                       have the confidence to stand behind their
                                                                                       products for decades to come — a confi-
                                                              Reader Service Number 68 dence that took many years to achieve.
M-30   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                               www.trenchlessonline.com
  “Three years ago if you would’ve asked me for a five-year     vulnerable to wide economic swings,” says Shook. “We
warranty, I probably would’ve said no,” explains Warren.       are in an industry that is not limited by the size of the
“Three years ago if I would’ve asked a bond company to bond    volume of need but rather we are in an industry that is
a manhole project for five years they would’ve laughed at       restricted only by the investment committed to restor-
me. But today they’ll do it because the industry has changed   ing our buried infrastructure. I predict that you will see
that much. We’ve gotten that much better at our craft. As an   more cities raising rates to fund repairs for their long
industry, we’ve all stepped up to the plate.”                  neglected systems. Whether they’re spending willingly
                                                               or unwillingly, the investment must be made.”
The Next Step
   It’s been nearly two decades since manhole rehabilita- Pam Stask is an assistant editor of Trenchless Technology.
tion came to the forefront of trenchless projects. With the
ever-increasing need to upkeep sewer in-
frastructure, the need (and demand) for
rehab methods and technologies is con-
tinuously present, and projects are aplen-
ty for professionals eager to work.
   “Manhole renewal technology and con-
tracting services are definitely on an up-
ward course,” says Shook. “We see the
expansion curve that began in the 1980s
growing steeper every year because the
volume of manholes needing renewal is
growing more rapidly than those receiv-
ing attention. For example, a city with
25,000 manholes must renew at least 500
structures each and every year just to get
through their system once in 50 years. Not
many cities are dedicated to this rate so
they continue to fall further and further
   Since infrastructure in North America
and across the globe will always call for re-
pairs and maintenance, the manhole rehab
industry can expect to be in demand from
cities looking to keep their systems up and
running. As long as manhole profession-
als continue to research and develop their
latest offerings, the potential for further
growth is evident.
   “Manhole rehab will continue on a
steady path, however, growth opportuni-
ties exist for contractors and suppliers de-
livering innovative solutions that provide
greater opportunity for 1) ease of instal-
lation, 2) consistency of quality, 3) cost
controlled and 4) properties exceeding
today’s requirements for corrosion pro-
tection and strength,” says Hughes.
   Although manhole rehab is on the rise
and has the potential to continue to grow
as an industry, one main challenge stands
in the way of cities utilizing rehab tech-
nologies and addressing their infrastruc-
ture — funding. Despite the potential of
an economic downturn in the United
States, the manhole rehab industry will
continue to see business from clients
even though budgets are increasingly
   “My experience of 32 years in the mu-
nicipal market convinces me that we are
blessed to be in an industry that is not Reader Service Number 69
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                     TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT   M-31

Managing Manhole
Rehabilitation Projects
By David Jurgens, P and Joanne B. Hughes
                   .E.,                                             the role of each of these team members changes through the
                                                                    course of the project.
      anholes — an intentional, organized hole in the ground           Approaching project management from an owner’s per-
M     that allows access to the utility line underneath, with a spective, this article offers insight into the challenges utilities
lid on top. It would seem that a structure this simple would be encounter in assessing, designing and managing manhole re-
easy to fix. Unfortunately, it isn’t.                                habilitation projects.
   Fundamentally, sewer manholes exist to give safe access to          The project leader must first identify the project objectives.
the sewer pipe, allow main-                                                                           As manholes exist to provide
tenance crews to perform as                                                                           access for the inspection, main-
much work as possible without                                                                         tenance and repair of the pipes
entering the pipeline, to not al-                                                                     that carry the sewage, they are
low infiltration and inflow (I/I)                                                                       also identified as a break in
into the system, restrict flow or                                                                      the pipe that presents an easy
allow solids to collect and to                                                                        place for I/I to enter the system.
remain as invisible as possible.                                                                      As such, their maintenance is
They also meet the needs of the                                                                       crucial to system operation and
aboveground conditions, to not                                                                        many times overlooked or over-
overflow, to store wastewater in                                                                       simplified, which can create an
high flow circumstances, allow                                                                         imbalance in overall system
flow monitoring or other tools                                                                         operation. Therefore, adopting
to be installed in the manhole                                                                        basic objectives for a manhole
and to last for 200 years.                                                                            project should provide the re-
                                              Manhole rehab starts with a thorough SSES.
   This is a pretty long list for                                                                     quired focus, such as:
such a simple structure.                                            • Minimize the overall cost to the community of creating, main-
   Any field investigation and construction project takes a lot         taining and replacing manholes
of work, starting with the budgeting and funding and ending • Build as few manholes as possible
with final close-out of the project. Between these come the • Site manholes to meet operations and maintenance needs
planning, organizing and decision-making. Manhole projects • Keep all manholes accessible
                                                                    • Achieve intergeneration equity through a planned approach
are no different. And as every manhole is a unique structure,
                                                                       to maintain and increase the longevity of each structure until
each and every manhole requires a number of decisions.                 eventual replacement is required
Getting Started                                                        In addition, preparing tools that can prove useful to manage-
   Assuming the funding is in place, the first decision is where       ment throughout project and operational cycles may include:
to start. And most rehabilitation projects start with the sanitary    • Inspection and grading protocol that can provide logical follow-
sewer evaluation study (SSES). The next decision is: Which              up steps to maintain and improve manholes
should be the first to rehab?                                          • Decision matrix that can be used when choosing materials and
   Manholes seem to be the perfect choice. They’re simple, rel-         methods for manhole rehabilitation
atively low cost, designs ought to be straightforward and they        • Current information of available materials and technologies
                                                                      • Inspection and quality control mechanisms for project
often provide a high payback for the investment. Manholes
are so simple it seems that anyone should be able to evalu-
                                                                        There are several resources that can assist managers with
ate them, so why hire a consultant? Field maintenance crews
                                                                      managing a manhole project, including consultants specializ-
should be able to look at a manhole and identify what needs
                                                                      ing in collection system inspection and rehabilitation, and the
to be done, right? Fayetteville, Ark., tried this in the late 1980s
                                                                      soon to be released 2008 update to ASCE Manual 92: Man-
and failed miserably. The lesson learned was that SSES work,
                                                                      hole Inspection and Rehabilitation, which includes the above
including the manhole inspection portion, truly is a combina-
tion of science and art. The blending of these two is where the
project management team comes into play.                              SSES
   Throughout the life of a project, many specialists are re-           The physical work of almost every sewer rehabilitation
quired to provide their unique perspective, knowledge and             project starts with the SSES. Once a utility has identified the
expertise. These include the utility operators, engineers, sur-       basin(s) that have the most significant problems, a qualified in-
veyors, manufacturers, contractors, accounting and budget             house team or consultant should be engaged to perform SSES
personnel, safety personnel, traffic controllers, city planners,       field testing and investigation. Study results should identify
the public and the governing body of the utility. It takes skill-     the path of the project and many times are based on mainline
ful management to understand how the different parts of the           needs for repair and replacement. Inspection of the manholes
process fit together to merge this diverse group of specialists        on these lines and other high risk areas provides necessary in-
into a cohesive team. This is made more complicated in that           formation to properly begin design. The goal during the as-
M-32   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                  www.trenchlessonline.com
sessment phase is to evaluate the structural and flow condi-         utilities with in-house capabilities to perform inspections. Re-
tions of the manholes and identify defects and factors that may     habilitation can also be phased, allowing for easier funding of
contribute to changes in the service environment or impact          annual costs. Effectively, the phased approach treats manhole
the long-term viability of the manhole.                             rehabilitation as a continuous maintenance activity rather than
                                                                    a major construction project type action.
  Objectives of Field Investigations:                                  A comprehensive short-term approach allows for faster re-
• Recognize and document specific defects and conditions in each     sponse to system needs or regulatory demands. It also mini-
  manhole                                                           mizes mobilization and management costs, as well as provid-
• Generate sufficient quality data to enable repair selection and    ing the opportunity to receive quantity discounts for materials
  specification by designers                                         and services not realized in a phased approach. The short-term
• Quantify the I/I rates allowed into the system in the manhole’s   approach is more appropriate when the manhole rehabilita-
  existing condition
                                                                    tion is executed in a capital construction project and is not
• Identify other related issues
                                                                    part of the utility’s normal maintenance activity.
                                                                       Regardless of the approach taken, assessment should be
   To accomplish these objectives, investigators must be
                                                                    used to establish baselines for future studies and maintenance
knowledgeable of defects and rehabilitation options to associ-
                                                                    activities, updating (or creating) maps, numbering systems and
ate product alternatives and installation constraints. Manholes
                                                                    GIS input. As mentioned earlier, data management, both of
generally account for up to half of the I/I that enters a collec-
                                                                    quality and quantity, is essential for proper design and future
tion system from utility-owned components of the system. To
                                                                    O&M. Further, the use of the inspection and grading protocol
eliminate these sources, a manhole must be thoroughly inves-
                                                                    tool will provide more consistent information and the detail
tigated. Identifying the pipe conditions at the exterior man-
                                                                    necessary for selection of materials and project management.
hole wall also provides key information, as the pipe condition
                                                                    The field investigation data is the basis for design.
in the proximity of the manhole may significantly impact the
repair methods chosen.                                              Design
   A utility may choose to approach assessment in a continuous        Design work for manhole rehab requires combining field
phased approach or even be required to address issues with a        knowledge, the SSES data and the engineer’s design elements
comprehensive short-term approach. A phased approach pres-          to produce the best quality results.
ents the opportunity for an orderly inspection with a few key         Team members responsible for designing and writing the
inspectors with specialized training. This approach also allows     specifications are equally influential on the quality of the

 Reader Service Number 70
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                          TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT     M-33
installation. Poor specifications and/or poor material selection pected occurs — as is almost always the case in rehabilitation
will fail. Therefore, it is important that those managing design- — approach the problem as a team. Rather than just being
ers possess expertise in system operation, impact of popula- a contractor problem or a utility problem, make it a project
tion change, wastewater corrosion and available rehabilitation problem. After all, both parties are striving to meet the same
methods. The design team should verify the technical aspects objective: a quality project in which the utility gets the work
of processes selected and require substantiation of product done to meet its rehabilitation objectives and the contractor
performance claims with independent testing and actual in- is fairly compensated for his efforts.
stalled history. Further, as the success of many of the methods            The best project management teams understand that the
selected are dependent upon the contractor performing the contractor earns what he is paid, as long as he meets the con-
install, identification of available qualified contractors within struction requirements. As with on-time payments, if a con-
the region should be made during the design phase.                      tractor knows that the inspector and the owner’s project team
   Typically, rehabilitation projects                                                                will deal fairly with him when issues
include addressing one, several or                                                                   come up, he will provide a better
all of the manhole components and                                                                    bid. That reduces the uncertainty.
may include lid replacement, grade                                                                   Change orders are a way of life in
adjustments, frame and chimney re-                                                                   rehabilitation, for the underground
pair, grouting, bench and invert res-                                                                environment is never exactly what
toration and protective or structural                                                                we thought. When faced with solv-
coating and lining. Selection criteria                                                               ing anomalous circumstances, a
includes evaluating accessibility of                                                                 combined team-based decision-
the manhole, downtime available                                                                      making process increases efficien-
for the rehabilitation process, exist-                                                               cies and produces the best solutions
ing structural deterioration and the                                                                 for everyone.
relative risk of future major failure,                                                                 The key to success is partnership
I/I, surface conditions near the man- Manholes generally account for up to half of the I/I that in fairness. The contractor has to
hole and existing and future condi-                      enters a collection system.                 meet the specifications. By the same
tions related to corrosion. The designer is also required to token, the utility must pay the contractor what he deserves.
evaluate the cost-effectiveness of repair to savings of flow re- Inspection assures honesty. Fairness in unforeseen circum-
moved from repair and the unit price cost work.                         stances generates a healthy business relationship between all
                                                                        members of the team.
Construction                                                               Through all of this, we have not discussed perhaps the most
   The workload requirements for the project management
                                                                        important person of all: the customer. A manhole rehabilita-
team change once again when the construction begins. Most
                                                                        tion project to a utility is the least invasive of all construction
construction contractor and utility relationships are, by the
                                                                        work it performs. However, to the customer whose yard is be-
basics of a low bid environment, inherently adversarial. The
                                                                        ing invaded, it’s huge. Communication with customers is im-
contractor bids the job competing with other contractors for
                                                                        perative. With good communication, the customer can trans-
the lowest price and the utility wants to get the best possible
                                                                        form from the complaining resident to an ally.
product for the least cost. The engineer is caught between the
two, being the honest broker to ensure the contractor does Summary
the work within the specifications but also not allowing the                The entire project team, including the leader, engineer, con-
utility to change the scope of work during the course of the tractor, field investigator, O&M crew, accountant, inspector,
project. It is in this area that a true team effort pays the biggest office staff, customer and utility board all want the same result
dividends.                                                              — a successful rehabilitation project that extends the life of the
   At a minimum, the execution of a typical manhole rehabili- utility for a reasonable cost.
tation project requires management of process and contrac-                 Every team member plays an important role — from the
tor scheduling, flow management when diversion or bypass is leader providing the vision, the guidance and making the deci-
necessary, traffic, inspection, completion reports and payment sions that guide the team to the field investigator gathering the
authorization. The accounting staff becomes more critical as data identifying the defects that impact the decisions made by
payments are submitted and processed. And while it is easy the designers in prioritizing and choosing the solutions. The
for a utility to be lax in contractor payments, contractors know engineer must write a tight specification, providing clear direc-
well which utilities and project managers within utilities, pay tion for the contractor who must properly apply the products
well. And those project management teams that pay well will and construction techniques. The inspector must employ his
get lower bids.                                                         expertise to ensure the work is performed properly and han-
   Inspection and quality control also move to the forefront. dle field questions fairly and promptly. The accountant must
Inspection is critical, as those items that are not adequately scrutinize every payment and process them quickly. And, the
tested and inspected can not be verified as properly installed. O&M staff must provide input throughout the process so the
But the testing is not conducted to find areas in which the con- best information is included in the SSES, and the rehabilitation
tractor tried to get by the specifications but to identify those effort is maintained to maximize its life.
weaknesses that can be addressed during construction avoid-                Through excellent team-based project management, these
ing future failure.                                                     are all possible.
   Additionally, the utility should institute systematic checks
in the manufacturing and construction environment that David Jurgens, P is water and wastewater director for the City of Fayette-
provide for a defect-free finished product. Test in the begin- ville, Ark. Joanne B. Hughes is vice president of Cohesant Inc.
ning, in the middle and the end. And when something unex-
M-34   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                    www.trenchlessonline.com

Reduce I/I…Check Your Chimneys
        enewal of the aging sewer infrastructure is an expensive

R       challenge that municipalities face on a daily basis. Most
        of North America’s underground infrastructure was
developed in the early part of the 20th century. Municipalities’
work hard to maintain these systems but the task is daunting.
   Inflow-and-infiltration (I/I) is a major concern for sewer
operators trying to keep their treatment facilities at or below
the design capacity. With treatment cost approaching $3 per
1,000 gallons, groundwater entering the collection system can
quickly send treatment costs skyrocketing.
   Treatment cost escalation is just the tip of the iceberg. The
strict operational standards imposed by the EPA are forcing
many municipalities to look at more sophisticated methods of
rehabilitation. Many sewer collections managers realize one
of the most critical areas of leakage is the sewer manhole.
It is estimated that 50 percent of all sewer infiltration enters
through the manhole structure. It is estimated that 50 percent of
manhole leakage comes in at the manhole chimney section.
   The manhole chimney section has been an area of concern             Designers are now offering technologies to quickly remove
for years and has inspired numerous products that attempt           and rebuild the manhole chimney section. One Ohio-based
to reduce I/I. Many topical coatings have been introduced           design team (Mr. Manhole) has perfected a way to quickly cut
with varying levels of success. Flexible chimney seals have         and remove a manhole frame and lid down to the cone level
enjoyed widespread use. While these products have their             and rebuild it level with the height and slope of the road. The
merits, the larger issue is the poor design of the original         repair is guaranteed not to leak and has a 20-year design life.
manhole chimney structure. Manhole chimney structures are           The system works on a skid steer and uses a plastic stay-in-
typically constructed of bricks and mortar or concrete rings        place form to prevent water and gas from deteriorating the cast
and mortar. Many horizontal joints creating planes of weakness      in place, epoxy coated re-rod reinforced concrete collar. The
characterize this type of construction. Impact loading from         repair features a triple seal against leakage and has the added
traffic and the effects of frost heave combine to cause frequent     benefit of being attractive and bump free. The Mr. Manhole
structural failure.                                                 System can be seen online at www.mrmanhole.com.
     Engineers are now looking for ways of successfully                 If your collection system is in need of a major tune-up and
rebuilding the manhole chimney section in ways that ensure          you have limited funds, consider rebuilding your manhole
structural durability and stop leakage. Engineers are aware that    chimneys for a permanent solution to structural failure and
although the manhole chimney accounts for only 10 percent           leakage. The treatment cost-savings could pay for the repair
of the manhole structure, it is responsible for 50 percent of       over time and the public will be thankful for the smooth result.
the leakage. This fact makes rebuilding the manhole chimney            New methods and tools are on the way, so be sure to consider
a great value.                                                      all your options when planning infrastructure repairs.

     Reader Service Number 71

  Selecting a                      Polyurethane
                                    Chemical Grout
       to Seal Leaking Structures                                                                         By Ed Paradis

      hemical grouts of various types have been success-       selecting materials for freeze/thaw and moving load con-

C     fully utilized in infrastructure repairs for more than
      40 years. Although the chemistry of various chemi-
cal grouts may differ, the basic principle is the same. The
                                                               ditions.” These considerations have made polyurethanes
                                                               the product family of choice for most specifiers and mu-
                                                               nicipalities when repairing leaking manholes and below
grout is injected under pressure in a liquid state into the    grade structures.
leaking area of a structure or through the structure into
the surrounding soil and then solidifies by means of a          Polyurethane Grouts
chemical reaction into various forms. These grout forms           The polyurethane family of grouts covers a wide range
can be solid, foams or gels, depending on the formula-         of products with vastly different characteristics. In their
tion. When properly installed, chemical grout creates a        liquid form, polyurethanes can range in viscosity from
permanent leak repair that extends to the positive side        under a 100 cps to over 1,000 (cps is a measure of vis-
of the structure and is capable of lasting the full life of    cosity or flowability of liquids. Water = 1 cps). In their
the structure.                                                 reacted state, different polyurethanes may form a solid,
                                                               a flexible or rigid foam or a gel. Foams are created by the
History                                                        release and entrapment of CO2 gas during the polyure-
   One of the oldest chemical grout product families is        thane’s reaction. The trapped gas in the grout thus pro-
the acrylamides. Although many areas have begun to use         duces an expansion of the product as it cures. Depending
the less toxic acrylates or acrylics, these types of grouts    on the particular polyurethane used, this expansion can
are still used for repairing leaks in mainline sewers. Due     be as moderate as one to two times, or as high as 30 times
to their high water content, they have low viscosity, al-      its original volume.
lowing them to be injected through remote controlled              There is no one “perfect” polyurethane for all manhole
packers into joints or cracks in sewer pipes, creating a       repair applications. Each type of grout has pros and cons
seal in the soil surrounding the pipe. Unfortunately, the      that should be considered, depending on the type of repair
high water content of these products can be problematic        being considered. To help with this process, polyurethane
if they are allowed to dry out, which will result in high      chemical grouts can be roughly divided into three catego-
shrinkage and loss of flexibility in the gel. In addition,      ries: hydrophobic, hydrophilic and multi component. The
these grouts are designed to have low tensile strength,        following are general guidelines as to the properties of
which allows the remote grouting packer to be easily           each type of grout. Hydrophobic polyurethanes use a small
moved inline. That characteristic, however, makes these        amount of water in their reaction, usually less than 10 per-
products prone to fracture if placed in compression. This      cent. They require the addition of a separate accelerator that
makes them a poor choice for cracks or joints in concrete      allows for adjustment of the reaction time. They may have a
structures. ASTM F 2414-04 Standard Practice for Seal-         moderate (three to five times) to high (more than 20 times)
ing Manholes Using Chemical Grouting states the follow-        expansion rate. The high expansion formulations generally
ing: “Sealing material shall not be rigid or brittle when      cure to a rigid or semi-rigid foam, and the moderate expan-
subjected to a dry atmosphere. Use consideration when          sion rate products cure to a flexible foam.
M-36   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                        www.trenchlessonline.com
  The hydrophobics are the most versatile and chemical-         with temporary measures. Lift holes and pipe penetrations
resistant products in the polyurethane family, capable of       that have been surface sealed with an hydraulic cement are
the widest range of applications. The hydrophilic poly-         likely to have large voids behind the patch. In order to cre-
urethanes use significantly more water in their reaction.        ate a permanent seal, a high expansion rigid or semi rigid
This is often up to 50 percent water or 1-to-1 by volume        polyurethane is best to fill and seal large voids.
for the foaming formulations having moderate expansion          • Can the leaking areas be sufficiently identified to allow
rates generally between three to seven times. The hydro-        for crack or point injection? This is a huge concern with
philic gels do not expand, but may use up to 90 percent         brick manholes. If there is not a clearly definable crack or
water or 10-to-1 in their reaction. They rarely use a sepa-     void that can be injected, injection into the soil outside the
rate accelerator, so their reaction time is more depen-         structure should be considered. Injection of grout into the
dent on field conditions such as temperature and water           surrounding ground actually fills the small voids in between
volume. Because these products continue to seek out ad-         the particles of soil to create a waterproof barrier or curtain.
ditional water during their reaction phase, they achieve
excellent bond to wet substrates. Their higher water con-       Injection Techniques
tents do make them vulnerable to shrinkage, but they are           An entire article could be devoted to the subtleties of
also capable of rehydrating when water is reintroduced          different installation techniques of polyurethane grouts.
to cured grout resulting in a “post reaction” swelling.         What follows is only a brief summary of the available tech-
  Finally, the multi-component polyurethanes use no ex-         niques. The key to successful polyurethane grouting is: 1)
ternal water in their reaction. They have an “A” and “B”        Get the appropriate grout into the desired location and
component that are mixed to form the reaction. They are         2) hold it in place long enough for it to react. The sim-
factory-formulated with fixed set times and generally cure       plest method to accomplish this is the soak-and-place or
to a rigid foam. They can be formulated for specialty ap-       “oakum soak-um” method. A porous material such as un-
plications such as high strength, high expansion rate or        oiled oakum, open cell backer rod or even a cotton rag is
very fast reaction times. Since they use no external mois-      dampened and then used to soak up some polyurethane
ture, they produce a consistent result and are not subject      grout from a pail. It is then inserted into a joint, crack or
to dilution. As we will see, each type of polyurethane has      void and held in place until the polyurethane grout reacts.
advantages in different manhole sealing applications.           This method is often used to stop flowing water leaks or to
                                                                create a dam in front of a void, joint or wide crack to allow
Choosing a Polyurethane                                         for injection behind the dam. The most common method
  The approach to grouting below grade structures varies        of polyurethane grout installation is crack injection. Al-
greatly, depending on the type of structure and the site        though referred to as “crack” injection it actually refers to
conditions. For example, in pre-cast manholes, points           the pumping of grout into any crack, joint or void. An en-
of infiltration are usually readily evident with staining        try point is created, usually by drilling a hole to intersect
or flowing water pointing directly to the point of entry.        the area to be grouted and a small one-way valve, referred
Brick manholes, on the other hand, are likely to show           to in the industry as a packer, is installed in the hole. The
entire sections of damp wall without any clear sign of          grout is then pressurized and pumped through the packer
entry point. The different conditions require a different       into the desired area. The final method is called barrier
approach and often a different product choice.                  grouting or curtain grouting. This method entails creating
  A checklist like the following is helpful to determine        a grout wall in the soils surrounding the structure, either
the best course of action:                                      by drilling holes from inside the structure or by driving
• Is there flowing water evident? Flowing water, particu-        pipes from ground level outside the structure to the de-
larly a high flow of water, is best addressed with hydropho-     sired depth and pumping pressurized grout into the soil.
bic polyurethanes. This is not to say it cannot be stopped
with a hydrophilic, but consider the advantage of the hy-       Summary
drophobic. The contractor can add accelerator to the grout         Unlike contractors of years gone by who only had one or
to speed up the set time. There is less chance of the grout     two products to use for every application, today’s grouter
being diluted by running water. A high expansion grout can      has the benefit of many chemistries to meet the various site
develop the force necessary to overcome the water pressure      conditions. As the situation requires, he can: choose a high
and “cut off ” the flowing water.                                expansion hydrophobic to stop fast and high water flows
• Will there be movement in the repaired area? In gen-          or fill voids; a moderate expansion hydrophilic to seal flex-
eral manholes are not prone to large amounts of movement;       ible joints; a flexible hydrophobic for freeze/thaw or wet/dry
however, movement conditions do exist. Each vertical riser      cycling areas; a polyurethane gel for curtain grouting into
must transfer the force of the street traffic from the frame     soils, or a low viscosity hydrophobic for curtain grouting in
and cover to the ground under the base. This creates a flex      freeze/thaw or wet/dry cycling areas or a multi-component
movement at each riser joint and requires a flexible repair      grout to overcome special problems. As the range of prod-
material to move as well.                                       ucts grows, so does the need for a strong partnership be-
• Are there leaks near the top of the manhole? The closer       tween the specifier, chemical manufacturer and contractor
to the street or ground level, the greater the chance of wet/   to support this ever expanding and improving industry.
dry cycle or freeze/thaw cycles. High water content grouts
are not as good a choice in such areas.                         Ed Paradis is regional sales manager with De Neef Construction Chemicals,
• Are there likely to be voids associated with the repair?      which is headquartered in Houston.
Many manholes have been installed or previously repaired
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                        TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT            M-37
                                                                                                  cone. Cretex’s state-of-the-art technol-

Product Showcase                                                                                  ogy combines all of the advantages of a
                                                                                                  mechanical seal with the assurance of a
                                                                                                  pliable gasket in a product that’s cost-
        AP/M Permaform                                     CCI Spectrum                           effective and easy to use where manhole
                                                                                                  excavation is required. There are no
                                                                                                  messy primers, torches or special tools
                                                                                                  needed to install the seal. The seal is
                                                                                                  available in 7-, 11-, 16- and 20-in. widths
                                                                                                  and can easily accommodate offsets and
                                                                                                  diameter differentials. The high-quality
                                                                                                  EPDM rubber also allows for either above
                                                                                                  or below grade applications. Visit www.
                                                   Patented SpectraShield liner is a spray-       cretexseals.com for more information.
   Manholes have been neglected for             applied, silicone-modified polyurea sys-
years and are now suffering from differ-        tem that is used to rehabilitate and protect          Containment Solutions
ent levels of disrepair. Today’s manhole        wastewater structures such as manholes,
specialists need lots of options. For 25        wet wells or wastewater treatment plant fa-
years, AP/M has helped them select the          cilities. There are many advantages of Spec-
right tool to match each critical problem       traShield: It stops groundwater infiltration
whether it needs cement liners, coatings,       and prevents corrosion; it imparts struc-
structural polymers, chimney seals, chan-       tural strength with its stress skin panel ef-
nel liners, internal corrosion protection       fect; its fast curing means a typical 7-ft deep
with ConmicShield or complete no-dig            manhole can be completed in less than one
replacement with Permaform.                     hour; it is cost competitive with all other
   Making the best choice from minor re-        coatings and liners; and it comes with a 10-
pairs to major replacement helps stretch        year warranty. For more information, visit
city budgets so they can get more done          www.spectrashield.com.
for less. The next time you think about
manhole renewal, think about AP/M’s                  Clean Water Resources                           Containment Solutions Inc. (CSI) man-
Tool Box. What’s in your tool box? Visit                                                          holes carry a 20-year structural and cor-
AP/M Permaform at www.permaform.net                                                               rosion warranty. Containment Solutons’
or call (800) 662-6465.                                                                           fiberglass manholes also resist structural
                                                                                                  fatigue better than either concrete or
       Avanti International                                                                       brick manholes, which can be seriously
                                                                                                  weakened due to movement caused by
                                                                                                  traffic, shifting soil, temperature changes
                                                                                                  and cyclic groundwater loading. As a re-
                                                                                                  sult, FRP manholes will not crack, crum-
                                                   Clean Water Resources now offers the           ble or leak during their normal design life.
                                                Lifespan System for manholes, catch ba-           That’s why so many people say fiberglass
                                                sins and vaults and Duracoat concrete             manholes are the permanent solution to
                                                liner. When used together, they provide a         your manhole problems. Containment
                                                fully-integrated, leak-free, non-corrosive        Soultions offers standard size manholes
                                                approach against stormwater infiltration.          for new construction and smaller retro fit
                                                Pair the Lifespan frame, tapered adjust-          manholes for rehabilitation projects.
                                                ment risers, cast-iron or composite cover
   Avanti’s AV-330 Safeguard now comes          with the most durable sprayable concrete               De Neef Construction
in a dual cartridge. This durable MDI-          liner and stop system failure. Field tested
based hydrophilic expansive grout reacts        in some of the most demanding utilities                     Chemicals
rapidly with water to quickly and safely        in the country, CWR’s total package is best
seal leaks. Designed and engineered for         in class. These green products help clean
today’s environmentally conscious work-         water and reduce climate change impact
force, it is a non-flammable, non-toxic and      by reducing greenhouse gas.
non-hazardous product used to stop wa-
ter infiltration in below grade structures                         Cretex
and an excellent tool for confined space
entry projects. Avanti’s AV-330 Safeguard
is easy to use and effective. Visit Avanti at
www.avantigrout.com.                                                                                 Hydro Active Cut is a hydrophobic
                                                                                                  polyurethane, with the addition of two
                                                                                                  new accelerators De Neef Construction
                                                                                                  Chemicals now manufactures (Cut Cat
                                                                                                  Fast and Cut Cat Extra Fast). This mate-
                                                                                                  rial has the ability of stopping even the
                                                  Cretex External X-Lite Seal is a high-          highest volume leaks. When in contact
                                                performance, watertight seal between              with water, the grout expands and quick-
                                                the manhole frame casting and concrete            ly cures to form a tough, rigid, closed-cell
M-38   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                       www.trenchlessonline.com
polyurethane foam that is essentially un-
affected by corrosive environments. This
                                                                       It is also safe (no VOCs or solvents) and
                                                                       easy-to-apply — simply mix and trowel.
                                                                                                                                                                                Parsons Environmental
material is widely used to stop leaks in                               Visit Epoxytec at www.epoxytec.com.
below grade structures such as manholes,
storm drains, box culverts and tunnels                                               Epoxytec Uroflex
and is approved by UL for NSF 61 (po-
table water). Call De Neef Construction
Chemicals at (800) 732-0166.

               Epoxytec CPP
                                                                                                                                                                             Parson’s turnkey manhole rehabilita-
                                                                                                                                                                          tion system allows contractors to load up
                                                                                                                                                                          product in the morning and not have to
                                                                                                                                                                          return to the shop until the end of the
                                                                          Epoxytec Uroflex is the ultimate and                                                             day, thereby saving valuable time. The 20-
                                                                       safe, 100 percent solids (no VOCs), for-                                                           ft trailer comes equipped with a 99-hp,
                                                                       giving and easy-to-apply coating for man-                                                          John Deere diesel that drives the entire
                                                                       hole protection. Uroflex is an excellent                                                            hydraulic system, which includes a 100-
                                                                       “do-it-yourself ” coating for sanitary sewer                                                       cfm air compressor, 15-kW generator,
   Epoxytec CPP is a manufactured “do-                                 manholes (protecting against high-level                                                            4,000-psi pressure washer, mortar mixer
it-yourself ” solution for manhole rehab                               H2S, and its sulfuric byproduct). Uroflex                                                           and pump. A 300-gal water tank can pro-
that also requires sealed protection. The                              is designed as a top coat to extend the life                                                       vide enough water for the day. A pneu-
material is a trowel-applied epoxy that                                expectancy of sewer infrastructure. It can                                                         matic spincaster and electric grout pump
can repair concrete and/or line the entire                             be easily applied by roller, brush or spray                                                        are also part of the package. The design is
manhole structure. When used as a liner,                               (also by disposable cartridge spraying)                                                            such that a two-person crew can perform
the material may be used to resurface,                                 for a total of 40 to 60 mil thickness.                                                             all of the work required to rehabilitate
protect and seal — all-in-one-shot. Ep-                                                                                                                                   manholes, from cleaning to leak stopping
oxytec CPP is surface and moisture toler-                                                                                                                                 to lining and coating.
ant, often requiring just water blast prep.

                                                                         Fax to: 330.657.2855
                                                                          Reader Service & Subscription Card
               How would you describe your primary trenchless activity?                                                       Fax to 330.657.2855                                      MGTT0808 Expires 11/2008
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www.trenchlessonline.com                                                                                                                                     TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                        M-39
  Pipeline Seal & Insulator                   structures. It reacts with water to form
                                              either a watertight foam or impermeable
                                                                                             manhole wall with stainless expansion
                                                                                             bolts. In stock in several sizes and config-
                                              gel depending on the water to Hydro Gel        urations, Force line hoods are also avail-
                                              SX mix ratio. This product is ideal for        able. Visit www.reliner.com.
                                              stopping leaks in manholes, sewer pipes
                                              and utility vaults. Prime-Flex Hydro Gel                     Sauereisen
                                              SX is U.L. certified to conform to ANSI /
                                              NSF Standard 61 Drinking Water Systems
   The Riser-Wrap seal is a two-layer sys-    Components — Health Effects.
tem designed for corrosion and sealing
protection on encapsulating manholes,           Protective Liner Systems
vaults and pipelines. Seal joints against
groundwater infiltration, tolerant to soil
stress, UV and freeze-thaw conditions.
The first layer is a rugged sealant encap-
sulated by a heat shrink sleeve. Applica-                                                       Sauereisen SewerGard No. 210RS is a
tions are for manholes (pre-cast base,                                                       rotary spray-applied material specifically
cone, risers, cast iron frame), concrete                                                     designed to protect underground infra-
vaults boxes, septic tank joints, repair         PerpetuWall is a fiberglass and epoxy        structure from chemical attack and physi-
and step-down joints. For rehab where         structural composite liner that is installed   cal abuse. No. 210RS permits economical
grout has failed and new construction.        by hand. Hand installation produces a          protection of either new or resurfaced
Size your application at www.riserwrap.       higher level of quality than bag liners at     substrates, providing an impermeable,
com.                                          a lower cost. PerpetuWall doesn’t require      high-strength, corrosion-resistant lining
                                              any special or heavy equipment, giving         for manholes. The spincast installation
            Poly-Triplex                      it the ability to be installed anywhere
                                              without disturbing the surrounding area.
                                                                                             methods allow manhole restoration proj-
                                                                                             ects to proceed safely and easily from
                                              PerpetuWall has the lowest failure or de-      ground level. Visit Sauereisen at www.
                                              fect rate of any manhole or structure re-      saueresien.com.
                                              habilitation liner over its 20-plus years of
                                              installations.                                       Sealing Systems Inc.
                                                 PerpetuSeal is a fiberglass and epoxy
                                              structural composite chimney seal that
                                              is installed by hand. PerpetuSeal is based
   Poly-Triplex Liner System has a track      on the same technology as PerpetuWall
record of success in wastewater environ-      and can be upgraded to a full depth Per-
ments with more than 11,000 structures        petuWall liner at a later date. PerpetuSeal
lined to date. The impermeable mem-           can be installed in any manhole and can
brane encapsulated between structural         survive harsh freeze and thaw cycles and
layers of fiberglass and polyester elimi-      dynamic traffic loading. PerpetuSeal of-
nates pinholes, gas penetration and in-       fers the best performance to cost ratio of        Flex-Seal Utility Sealant is a state-of-the-
filtration. The liner is saturated with        any chimney seal. Visit www.Protective-        art plural component aromatic urethane
epoxy resins and cured-in-place with          LinerSystems.com.                              with an incredible 800 percent elonga-
air pressure and steam heat forming a                                                        tion and a tensile strength of 3,200 psi.
monolithic composite, bonded to the                  Reliner/Duran Inc.                      Flex-Seal is designed to prevent inflow/
host structure. Other features are: stops                                                    infiltration and to provide corrosion pro-
chemical corrosion; stops infiltration; re-                                                   tection at the grade adjustment ring sec-
stores structural integrity; up to 20-year                                                   tion or joint section. Flex-Seal Utility Seal-
warranty; and 100-year engineered life                                                       ant provides an excellent seal and it will
service. Poly-Triplex liners are designed                                                    pass a vacuum test according to ASTM
for permanent rehabilitation of man-                                                         standards. The internal seal is manually
holes, pump stations and culverts. Visit at                                                  applied using a paint brush and the kit
www.poly-triplex.com.                                                                        is designed to cover 12 vertical in. on a
                                                                                             27-in. diameter manhole. Visit www.seal-
           Prime Resins                          The Drop Bowl and Pipe Support sys-
                                              tems by Reliner/Duran Inc. eliminate

                                              troublesome outside drops in manholes,
                                              clean up failed inside drops and are ex-
                                              cellent as stormwater drops. When used
                                              in wet wells, they can help prevent pump
                                              cavitation. Compact, low-profile Drop
                                              Bowls and Stainless Pipe Supports are
  Prime-Flex Hydro Gel SX is a moisture-      simple and cost-effective, reduce mainte-
curing, hydrophilic polyurethane resin        nance and simplify cleaning and inspec-
designed to stop leaks in below-grade         tion while providing full access to areas
                                              below. The bowls attach quickly to the

M-40   TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                   www.trenchlessonline.com
                Sprayroq                               Strong Seal Systems                              Terre Hill Composites

                                                     Strong Seal Sealant is a 100 percent          Terre Hill Composites (THC) offers the
   Sprayroq, an industry leader in the devel-     solids, zero VOC polyurea material spe-       cutting edge in manhole rehabilitation.
opment of spray-applied polyurethane solu-        cifically formulated to prevent infiltration    This cured-in-place system uses PVC as
tions for infrastructure rehabilitation, corro-   between the manhole cover frame and           the first line of defense against acids typi-
sion management and infiltration control,          manhole chimney. Strong Seal Sealant’s        cal to the sewer environment. Modified
is pleased to offer a green product line for      unique spray cartridge application sys-       solids novolac resins and hardeners are
corrosion coatings in wastewater collection       tem requires simple surface preparation,      used to bond the tailor-made composite
and treatment systems. Sprayshield Green          no primer, no mixing and no wasted ma-        liner to the host structure. Since pressure
replaces 35 percent of its petroleum-based        terial. Strong Seal Sealant remains flex-      is used during the installation process,
components with a unique, environmen-             ible after set to withstand traffic loading,   the epoxies are forced deep into the sub-
tally friendly renewable source material.         ground shift and thermal stresses, has        strate creating a bond unmatched by any
This flexible, 100 percent solids polyure-         a temperature service range of -20 F to       other technology. THC is the only manu-
thane coating provides chemical resistance        250 F and is impervious to commonly           facturer that uses fused-seam technology
for concrete, steel, masonry, fiberglass and       encountered chemicals. Contact Strong         for this unparalleled PVCP-F lining sys-
other surfaces in municipal, industrial agri-     Seal Systems for additional information       tem. Its industry-leading non-prorated
cultural and maritime applications. Its quick     or a field demonstration. Visit www.           10-year warranty guarantees the elimina-
curing time allows the newly protected            strongseal.com.                               tion of infiltration and corrosion.
structure to be returned to service immedi-
ately. Visit www.sprayroq.com

Reader Service Number 72                                                     Reader Service Number 73

www.trenchlessonline.com                                                                TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT       M-41
Manhole Manufacturers and Suppliers
A-Lok                               CCI Spectrum Inc.              Improved Construction           Manhole Systems                    Perma-Liner
 Water-Lok Connector (FS)            SpectraShield (PC, SRS)       Methods Inc.                     Ext. Rigs for Manholes (Other)    Industries Inc.
 697 Main St.                        9716 Florida Mining Blvd. W    Nu-Wall (SRS)                   1780B Stoney Hill Dr.              Perma-Flex (FS)
 Tullytown, PA 19007                 Jacksonville, FL 32257          .O.
                                                                    P Box 5798 1040 North           Hudson, OH 44236                   Perma-Coatings (CL)
 Ph: (800) 822-2565                  Ph: (904) 268-4951             Redmond Rd.                     Ph: (800) 433-3995                 6196 126th Ave. N
 Fax: (215) 547-5260                 Fax: (904) 268-4923            Jacksonville, AR 72078          Fax: (740) 266-5103                Largo, FL 33773
                                                                    Ph: (501) 982-7715                                                 Ph: (727) 507-9749
Ameron International                ChemRex Inc.                    Fax: (501) 982-9794            Miller Pipeline Corp.               Fax: (727) 507-9849
 Arrow-Lock (PC)                     ThoRoc SP15 (CL)                                               Encapseal Safe-T-Seal (FS)
 245 South Los Robles Ave.           Sewerguard Epoxyliner         Industrial Magnetics Inc.        8850 Crawfordsville Rd.           Perma-Tech
 Brea, CA, 92821                     HBS100 (PC)                    Manhole Cover Lift Systems      Indianapolis, IN 46234            Industrial Coatings
 Ph: (626) 683-4000                  889 Valley Park Dr.            (Other)                         Ph: (800) 428-3742                 Perma-Tech UX-Line
 Fax: (626) 683-4060                 Shakopee, MN 55379             1385 M75 S                      Fax: (317) 293-8502                Polyureau and PR 8003 P (PC)
                                     Ph: (952)-496-6000             Boyne City, MI 49712                                               23100 Miles Rd.
American                             Fax: (952)-496-6062            Ph: (888) 582-0822             Mr. Manhole                         Cleveland, OH 44128
Highway Products                                                    Fax: (231) 582-3100             Mr. Manhole System (SRS)           Ph: (888) 885-4637
 Pivoted Turnbuckle Manhole Riser   CWR Holdings LLC                                                556 Honeysuckle Bend               Fax: (440) 338-3261
 (Other)                             The Lifespan System (SRS)     Infrastructure                   Lima, Ohio 45807
 11723 Strasburg Bolivar Rd.         1615 Cross Highway            Repair Systems                   Ph: (419) 229-3015                Pipeline Seal
 NW                                  Fairfield, CT 06824             InfraPoxy (PC)                  Fax: (419) 228-7716               & Insulator Inc.
 Bolivar, OH 44612                   Ph: 203-659-1300               4301 A. 34th St. N                                                 Riser-Wrap (SR, PC, FS, SRS)
 Ph: (888) 272-2397                  Fax: (203) 286-2320            St. Petersburg, FL 33713       Multiurethanes Ltd.                 6525 Goforth St.,
 Fax: (330) 874-3800                                                Ph: (727) 327-4216              Chemical Grouts (SR)               Houston, TX 77021
                                    Containment Solutions           Fax: (727) 327-4118             6214-A Kestrel Rd.                 Ph: (800) 423-2410|
AP/M Permaform                       Flowtite Rehabilitation                                        Mississauga, Ont. L5T 1Y9          Fax: (713) 747-6029
 Permaform (SRS)                     Manhole (SRS)                 IPA Systems                      Canada
 Permacast (CL/PC)                   Route 20, Box 1380             Drycon (PC)                     Ph: (800) 663-6633                Poly-Triplex
 6250 NW Beaver Dr. #1               5150 Jefferson Chemical Rd.    2745 N. Amber St.               Fax: (905) 564-7998               Technologies
 Johnston, IA 50131                  Conroe, TX 77301               Philadelphia, PA 19134                                             Poly-Triplex Liner Sys. (SRS)
 Ph: (800) 662-6465                  Ph: (888) 409-7731             Ph: (800) 523-3834             NeoPoxy Corp.                       Union Station
 Fax: (515) 276-1274                 Fax: (800) 839-4727            Fax: (215) 425-6234             StructoLiner (SRS)                  .O.
                                                                                                                                       P Box 398
                                                                                                    ProtectoLiner (PC)                 Bonifay, FL 32425
Avanti International                Cretex                         Kerneos Inc.                     SuperFlex (FS)                     Ph: (850) 547-9999
 Avanti Chemical Grouts,            Specialty Products              SewperCoat (CL)                 27057 Industrial Blvd., Ste 208    Fax: (850) 547-9990
 Pumps (SR)                          Manhole Chimney Seal (FS)      1316 Priority Lane              Hayward, CA 94545
 822 Bay Star Blvd.                  N16 W23390 Stone Ridge Dr.     Chesapeake, VA 23324            Ph: (510) 782-1290                Press-Seal Gasket Corp.
 Webster, TX 77598                   Waukesha, WI 53189             Ph: (757) 284-3200              Fax: (510) 782-1292                EZ-Wrap (FS),
 Ph: (800) 877-2570                  Ph: (800) 345-3764             Fax: (757) 284-3300                                                EZ-Stik #3 (FS)
 Fax: (281) 486-7300                 Fax: (262) 542-0301                                           New Life Coatings                   2424 W. State Blvd.
                                                                   Ladtech                          (PC)                               Fort Wayne, IN 46808
BigsEasy Lift                       Cues Inc.                       Ladtech Advusting Rings (FS)    31004 Hwy 27, P Box 478
                                                                                                                    .O.                Ph: (800) 348-7325
 BigsEasy Lift (Other)               Urethane Mainline Sealing      6704 Meadowlark Ct.             Lake Hamilton, FL 33851            Fax: (219) 436-1908
 4242 Chowden Ave. N                 Equipment (SR)                 Lino Lakes, MN 55038            Ph: (863) 438-8660
 Robbinsdale, MN 55422               Vari-Seal Portable Sealing     Ph: (651) 415-1252              Fax: (863) 439-3755               Prime Resins Inc.
 Ph: (866) 926-5438                  Carts (SR)                     Fax: (866) 397-7571                                                Prime Flex 900LVSF (SR)
 Fax: (612) 860-7047                 3600 Rio Vista Ave.                                           NPC Inc.                            Prime Flex 920 (SR)
                                     Orlando, FL 32805             LMK Enterprises Inc.            Joint Seals (Other)                 Prime Flex Hydro Gel (SR)
Canusa-CPS                           Ph: (800) 327-7791             CIPMH Chimney (SRS)            250 Elm St.                         2291 Plunkett Rd.
 Wrapid Seal (FS)                    Fax: (407) 425-1569            1779 Chessie Lane              Milford, NH 03055                   Conyers, GA 30012
 2408 Timberloch Pl., Bldg C-8                                      Ottawa, IL 61350               Ph: (800) 626-2180                  Ph: (800) 321-7212
 The Woodlands, TX 77380            DeNeef                          Ph: (815) 433-1275             Fax: (603) 673-7271                 Fax: (770) 388-0936
 Ph: (800) 441-0862                 Construction Chemicals          Fax: (815) 433-0107
 Fax: (281) 367-4304                 Chemical Cementitious                                         Parson Environmental               Protective Liner
                                     Grouts (SR)                   Madewell                        Products Inc.                      Systems Inc.
Carylon Corp.                        5610 Brystone Dr.             Products Corp.                   MH Liner (CL)                      (SRS)
 Polyurea Spray-Seal (PC)            Houston, TX 77041              Mainstay System (SRS)           Quick Plug (SR)                    6691 Tribble St.
 2500 W. Arthington St.              Ph: (800) 732-0166             Mainstay Composite              Parsonpoxy SEL-80 (PC)             Lithonia, GA 30058
 Chicago, IL 60612                   Fax: (713) 849-3340            Liner (CL/PC)                   Parsonpoxy FP (FS)                 Ph: (877) 462-6465
 Ph: (800) 621-4342                                                 Madewell 806 Flexible            .O.
                                                                                                    P Box 4474                         Fax: (770) 484-1821
 Fax: (312) 666-5810                Epoxytec Inc.                   Epoxy (SR)                      Reading, PA 19606
                                     Epoxytec CPP (SRS, SR)         ML10 Hydraulic Cement (SR)      Ph: (800) 356-9023                Quadex Inc.
CCI Pipeline Systems                 Epoxytec Uroflex (PC)           7561A Industrial Ct.            Fax:(610) 582-6064                 QM-1s Restore (CL)
 Wrapid Seal (FS)                    P Box 3656
                                      .O.                           Alpharetta, GA 30004                                               Hydra-Plug (SR)
 26618 Prairie St.                   Hollywood, FL 33083            Ph: (770) 475-8199                                                 4801 Crystal Hill Rd.
 Spring, TX 77373                    Ph: 877-GO.EPOXY               Fax: (770) 475-8167                                                Little Rock, AR 72118
 Ph: (281) 350-2100                  Fax: 954-961-2395                                                                                 Ph: (501) 758-8628
 Fax: (281) 288-6261                                                                                                                   Fax: (501) 758-3814

M-42     TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT                                                                                       www.trenchlessonline.com
Raven Lining Systems                 Sealing Systems Inc.                  Sprayroq Inc.                   Strong Seal Systems,           Warren
 Aquatapoxy (PC/SRS)                  Infi-Shield External Sealing            SprayWall (PC)                a Division of                  Environmental Inc.
 Raven 400 Series (PC/SRS)            Product (FS),                          4707 Alton Ct.                The Strong Co. Inc.             (SRS)
 13105 E. 61st St., Suite A           Flex Seal Utility                      Birmingham, AL 35210           Strong-Seal (CL)                .O.
                                                                                                                                           P Box 1206,
 Broken Arrow, OK 74012               Sealant (FS, PC, SRS)                  Ph: (800) 634-0504             4501 Emmett Sanders Rd.        Suite 2-G Carver Sq.
 Ph: (800) 324-2810                   9350 County Rd. 19                     Fax: (205) 957-0021             .O.
                                                                                                            P Box 9209 (zip: 71611)        Carver, MA 02330
 Fax: (918) 615-0140                  Loretto, MN 55357                                                     Pine Bluff, AR 71601           Ph: (888) 592-7736
                                      Ph: (800) 478-2054                   Standard Cement                  Ph: (888) 783-7436             Fax: (508) 947-3220
Reliner/Duran                         Fax: (763) 478-8868                  Materials Inc.                   Fax: (863) 439-3755
 Reliner - invert only (SRS)                                                 Reliner MSP (CL)                                             Product Categories:
 Inside Drop Bowls (SRS)             Southwest                               Eposil Fusion Bonded          Terre Hill Composites,         (Where Applicable)
 Stainless Steel Pipe Straps (SRS)   Concrete Products                       System (CL)                   a Division of
 Inside Drop Bowl (Other)             Con-plast Plastic Liner                Standard/Mainstay                                            CL
                                                                                                           Terre Hill Concrete Products
 53 Mt. Archer Rd.                    System (PC)                            DS-4 Epoxy Coating (PC)        Multiplex Liner (SRS)         Cementitious Liners
 Lyme, CT 06371                       519 S. Benson Ave., Ontario,           5710 W. 34th St. Suite A       485 Weaverland Valley Rd      (spray and trowelled)
 Ph: (800) 508-6001                   CA 91762                               Houston, TX 77092               .O.
                                                                                                            P Box 10                      SR
 Fax: (860) 434-3195                  Ph: (909) 983-9789                     Ph: (888) 278-1337             Terre Hill, PA 17581
                                      Fax: (909) 983-4187                    Fax: (713) 680-1017            Ph: (800) 242-1509
                                                                                                                                          Spot Repairs
Sauereisen Inc.                                                                                             Fax: (717) 738-6946           (chemical grouting, plugging
 SewerGard (CL)                      Southwestern                          Stephen’s Technologies                                         & patching)
 160 Gamma Dr.                       Packing and Seals                       (SR)                          Tnemec Co. Inc.
 Pittsburgh, PA 15238                 Rainstopper (FS)                       31004 Hwy 27, P Box 478
                                                                                                            120 Vinester (PC)
 Ph: (412) 963-0303                   6905 Westport                          Lake Hamilton, FL 33851        6800 Corporate Dr.            Protective Coatings
 Fax: (412) 963-7620                  Shreveport, LA 71149-0369              Ph: (863) 438-8660             Kansas City, MO 64120-1372    FS
                                      Ph: (800) 843-4950                     Fax: (863) 439-3755            Ph: (800) 863-6321            Flexible Seals
SealGuard                             Fax: (318) 687-4337                                                   Fax: (816) 483-3969
 SealGuard (SR)                                                                                                                           SRS
 363 Mars-Valencia Rd.                                                                                                                    Structural Repair Systems
 Mars, PA 16046                                                                                                                           (monolithic formed cement,
 Ph: (866) 625-4550
                                                                                                                                          CIPP liners, structural
 Fax: (724) 625-2392
                                                                                                                                          polymer systems)

  Manhole Rehabilitation Guide
  Index of Advertisers
  Advertiser .............................................Page # ............... RS #
  Amerik Supplies ........................................M-25 .................. 64
  AP/M Permaform ......................................M-15 .................. 57
                                                                                                   View These Manhole
  Avanti International ....................................M-14 .................. 74
  Benjamin Media Resource Center ...................M-26 .................. 80
                                                                                                   Rehabilitation Webinars at
  BigsEasy Lift ...............................................M-4 .................. 77           www.trenchlessonline.com!
  Carylon Corporation ...................................M-27 .................. 66
  CCI Pipeline Systems ..................................M-41 .................. 72                Structural Rehabilitation,
  CCI Spectrum ...........................................M-15 .................. 58               Corrosion Control
  Cretex Specialty Products .............................M-31 .................. 69
  CUES.....................................................M-22 .................. 61              Sponsored by
  CWR .....................................................M-22 .................. 62
  de neef Construction Chemicals Inc. ................M-25 .................. 65
  East Jordan Iron Works................................M-33 .................. 70                 Protective Linings:
  Epoxytec ...................................................M-5 .................. 51            Specification Criteria for Manhole
  Epoxytec .................................................M-11 .................. 55             Restoration & New Construction
  Industrial Magnetics Inc. ..............................M-30 .................. 68
  Mr. Manhole ............................................M-35 .................. 71               Sponsored by
  Mr. Manhole ............................................M-44 .................. 76
  No-Dig 2009 ..........................................M-28 .................. 67
  Poly-Triplex Technologies ..............................M-17 .................. 59               Rehabilitate Your Corroded,
  Prime Resins................................................M-2 .................. 50            Leaking Manholes, Wet Wells or
  Protective Liner Systems .................................M-7 .................. 52              Treatment Plants Once and for All
  Protective Liner Systems ...............................M-23 .................. 63
  RELINER/Duran, Inc. ..................................M-41 .................. 73                 Sponsored by
  Sauereisen ................................................M-10 .................. 54
  Sealing Systems Inc. ....................................M-13 .................. 56              Go to www.trenchlessonline.com and click on
  Sprayroq .................................................M-21 .................. 60             Webinars to register for upcoming sessions and
  Trenchless Technology Webinar Archives...........M-43 .................. 75                      to view archived sessions.
  Warren Environmental, Inc. .............................M-9 .................. 53
                                                                                                Reader Service Number 75
www.trenchlessonline.com                                                                                     TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT             M-43
Reader Service Number 76

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