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Ellsworth TPACK Lesson 2

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Ellsworth TPACK Lesson 2 Powered By Docstoc
					Creating a Pedigree to Understand Heredity
Steven’s Family Tree

II. Lesson Outline #2
    a. Lesson Title
       Steven’s Family Tree Pedigree
    b. Lesson Author
       Justin Ellsworth
    c. Grade Level / Subject Area
       This lesson is part of an underclass, high school Biology course.
    d. Time Allotted for Lesson
       The lesson requires approximately three hours of contact time.
    e. Short Description of Lesson
       Students discuss the story of Steven’s family and a rare trait (two thumbs) evident
       in his family, record data from the story and discussion, and create a visual
       representation of Steven’s family tree.
    f. Classroom Layout and Grouping of Students
       The discussion will take place in an open group at tables and the creation of a
       visual will take place in a computer lab.
    g. Grade Level Content Expectations
       The following standards are based on the Michigan High School Content
Expectations (HSCEs).
       B1 Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications
               B1.1 Scientific Inquiry
                       B1.1D Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical
               models.
                       B1.1E Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence
                       from an investigation.
       B4 Genetics
               B4.1 Genetics and Inherited Traits
                       B4.1c Differentiate between dominant, recessive, co-dominant,
                       polygenic, and sex-linked traits.
                       B4.1d Explain the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation
                       and independent assortment.
                       B4.1e Determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid
                       crosses using a Punnett Square.
               B4.4x Genetic Variation
                       B4.4c Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may
                       be silent or result in phenotypic change in an organism and in its
                       offspring.
    h. NETS•S (2007) Performance Indicators for the Grade Level
       The following standards are based on the International Society for Technology in
       Education/National Technology Standards (ISTE/NETS) for all grade levels.
           1. Standard 1 - Creativity and Innovation
                       a. Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or
                       processes.
           2. Standard 3 - Research and Information Fluency
                       c. Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based
                       on the appropriateness to specific tasks.
                       d. Process data and report results.
           3. Standard 4 - Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
                          c. Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make
                                  informed decisions.
   i.   Instructional Objectives
        Upon completion of the Steven’s Family Tree Pedigree lesson, students will be
        able to
            1. Recognize patterns and variations in data after an investigation to make
                 inferences of the causes of these patterns and variations,
            2. Create a visual exhibit to present data and demonstrate the reasons for
                 patterns and variations, and
            3. Explain the effects of genetic variations within a family.
   j.   Materials, Resources, and Technology
            1. One copy per student of the story about Steven’s Family.
            2. A concept-mapping tool, such as Inspiration or Microsoft Word.
            3. A classroom set of computers to run this necessary software.
   k.   Students’ Present Level of Performance and Skills
        Prior to the lesson, the students will have completed the aforementioned Fruit Fly
        experiment and should have a working knowledge of how traits are passed on
        from one organism to another organism.
   l.   Instructional Procedures
        To engage students, the concept of mutations is extended to those found in
        humans. A discussion then centers on a fictitious family and the appearance of a
        mutation in various family members. At first, a pattern is not obvious as some
        exhibit the trait but others do not. Before the students begin to create a family
        tree of traits, the concept of pedigrees is modeled and practiced with several other
        species. The students then take the knowledge of pedigrees and apply it to their
        family trees to reveal the genes underlying the apparent traits. The students create
        their pedigrees using the aforementioned concept-mapping software, Inspiration,
        to later discuss with peers. The assessment comes in the process of students
        creating pedigrees.
   m.   Supplemental Activities: Extensions and Remediation
        Practice exercises with the class or on paper usually remedy this need, if
        necessary.
   n.   Adaptations for Special Learners
        Students with special needs may participate in the discussion of Steven’s Family
        Tree. Special care must be taken to discuss the social importance of diversity in
        humans. Students needing assistance using the Inspiration software may pair up
        with another student. The relatively difficult part of this lesson is creating a
        pedigree.
   o.   Assessment
        Formative assessments involve the accuracy pf practice pedigrees as a group or on
        paper. Students’ digital pedigrees will be assessed for accuracy and creativity in
        exhibiting understanding.
   p.   Student products
        Here is an example of a student’s pedigree created using Microsoft Word.

III. TPACK Analysis of Lesson #2
    a. TPACK Components
       1. Content (C)
              The principles of dominant, recessive, co-dominant, polygenic, and
                sex-linked traits.
              The genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent
               assortment.
            Determining genotypes and phenotypes of monohybrid crosses using a
               Punnett Square.
            Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may be silent
               or result in phenotypic change in an organism and in its offspring.
   2.   Pedagogy (P)
            Modeling and Answer Questions - The teacher performs the steps in
               creating a pedigree. Then, students practice answering questions and
               creating pedigrees.
            Group Discussion - The teacher engages learners and gauges their
               preconceived notions by prompting a discussion on mutations in a
               fictitious family.
            Create a Concept Map – The teacher facilitates the students to create a
               pedigree using concept-mapping software.
   3.   Technology (T)
           Students utilize Inspiration concept-mapping software to create a pedigree
           of Steven’s family tree.
   4.   Content Knowledge (CK)
           Having a major in Biology and teaching genetics for several years, I am
           confident in presenting the concepts and lessons.
   5.   Pedagogy Knowledge (PK)
           Most Biology concepts, including genetics, are initially abstract and
           difficult to understand. Beginning a lesson with a motivating discussion
           and modeling of a concept, students can create their own pedigree. The
           learning from these exercises becomes concrete when a tangible pedigree
           is produced via Inspiration. The highly visual representation of the
           pedigree stimulates sharing of knowledge.
   6.   Technology Knowledge (TK)
           In this particular lesson, Inspiration is being used but any concept-
           mapping tool may work. I am more familiar with using Microsoft Office
           applications for this task. Using Inspiration will be a learning experience
           for myself, as well as for many students.

b. Complex Interplay Between PCK, TCK, TPK, and TPACK
   7. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
         The complexity of extracting relationships from reading and discussing
         the apparent genetic traits of a family requires the use of discussion-based
         pedagogical strategies for students to construct knowledge. Through this
         group discussion, students can note key facts to later aide in creating a
         concept map to include the less obvious, underlying genetic factors.
   8. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
         The Steven’s Family Tree lesson requires the creation of a visual
         representation of understanding (i.e. a concept map). Instead of drawing a
         concept map, students can harness the power of software to create visually
         appealing maps that may be distributed easily online.
   9. Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
         Using concept-mapping software relies on an appropriate approach to
         teaching pedigrees. In this case, the discussion, modeling, and practice of
         creating pedigrees prepare students for using Inspiration to demonstrate
       understanding. Without a foundational knowledge, the use of the software
       is futile.
10. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
       Group discussion and rigor create a pathway for students to construct the
       complex pedigree representing Steven’s family. Concept mapping
       engages students to create an exhibit of understanding to display to others.
       The choice to use a technological concept-mapping tool for students to
       demonstrate learning is also an effective mode of assessment. Concept
       mapping helps educators understand what students know by the process of
       externalizing this knowledge; it provides an observable and assessable
       record of the student’s conceptual schemata and starting knowledge points
       (Angelo and Cross, 1993).

				
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