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STUDY GUIDE UNIT 3

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					                              STUDY GUIDE UNIT 3
        SHEEP BRAIN STRUCTURES

HALF SHEEP BRAIN                     HALF SHEEP BRAIN                WHOLE SHEEP BRAIN
Dura mater                           Thalamus                        Dura mater
Arachnoid mater                      Hypothalamus                    Arachnoid mater
Cerebrum                             Midbrain                        Cerebrum
Longitudinal fissure                 Pons                            Longitudinal fissure
Cerebellum                           Medulla oblongata               Cerebellum
Arbor vitae                          Lateral ventricle               Pons
Corpus callosum                      Third ventricle                 Optic chiasma
Fornix                               Fourth ventricle                Cranial nerve I (Olfactory bulb)
Optic chiasma                        Cerebral aqueduct               Cranial nerve II (optic)
Pituitary gland                      Pineal gland                    Cranial nerve V
Corpora quadrigemina

                                       HUMAN BRAIN MODEL

               Frontal lobe                                        Corpus callosum
               Occipital lobe                                      Fornix
               Longitudinal fissure                                Pituitary gland
               Cerebrum                                            Thalamus
               Cerebellum                                          Pons
               Arbor vitae                                         Midbrain
               Cranial nerve I (Olfactory bulb)                    Medulla oblongata
               Cranial nerve II (optic)                            Optic chiasma
               Cranial nerve V                                     Lateral ventricle



        DRY LAB QUESTIONS FOR BRAIN
        What is the most external and toughest of the meninges? Dura mater
        What is the web-like middle layer of the three meninges? Arachnoid mater
        What area of the brain controls logical thought and conscious awareness of the environment? Cerebrum
        What fissure separates the right and left halves of the cerebrum? Longitudinal fissure
        What area of the brain interconnects the right and left cerebral hemispheres? Corpus callosum
        What area of the brain controls balance and muscle coordination? Cerebellum
        What is the white tree structure in the cerebellum called? Arbor vitae
        What is the largest cavity in the brain? Lateral ventricles
        What structure connects the third and fourth ventricle? Cerebral aqueduct
        What structure is most closely associated with the cerebellum? 4th ventricle
        What area of the brain controls visual and auditory reflexes? Corpora quadrigemina
        What area of the brain processes sensory information according to importance? Thalamus
        What area of the brain controls hunger/thirst body temperature? Hypothalamus
        What area of the brain controls automatic behaviors (fight or flight)? Midbrain
        What area of the brain relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum? Pons
        What area of the brain controls breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure? Medulla oblongata
        What lobe processes signals for vision? Occipital lobe
        What area of the brain is an endocrine gland that secretes melatonin? Pineal gland


                                                                                                  1
SPINAL CORD MODEL AND PHOTO

White matter (contains myelinated nerve axons)   Anterior median fissure
Grey matter (contains nerve cell bodies)         Posterior median sulcus
Ventral horn                                     Central canal
Dorsal horn                                      Dura mater (model only)
Ventral root                                     Sympathetic trunk ganglion (model only)
Dorsal root
Dorsal root ganglion



  NERVE HISTOLOGY (WE WILL GO OVER THIS IN UNIT 4)
  Neuron




                  STRUCTURES TO KNOW ON THE SHEEP HEART

TISSUE LAYERS OF THE HEART
      A. myocardium
      B. endocardium
      C. visceral pericardium

STRUCTURES
1. Apex
2. Interventricular septum (IV septum)
3. Left ventricle
4. Right ventricle
5. Right atrium
6. Left atrium
7. Papillary muscles
8. Chordae tendinae
9. Tricuspid valve
10. Mitral valve (bicuspid valve)
11. Trabeculae carni
12. Aortic semilunar valve




                                                                                           2
    STRUCTURES ON THE PLASTIC AND PLASTER HUMAN HEART MODELS

                            TISSUE LAYERS OF THE HEART
                                  A. myocardium
                                  B. endocardium
                                  C. visceral pericardium



PLASTIC HEART VESSELS                       PLASTIC HEART STRUCTURES
A. pulmonary trunk                          1. Apex
B. pulmonary veins (there are four)         2. Interventricular septum (IV septum)
C. pulmonary arteries                       3. Left ventricle
D. right coronary artery                    4. Right ventricle
E. left coronary artery                     5. Right atrium
F. Circumflex artery                        6. Left atrium
G. Coronary sinus                           7. Atrial septum
H. posterior interventricular artery        8. Chordae tendinae
I. anterior interventricular artery         9. Trabeculae carni
J. Right Brachiocephalic                    10. Mitral valve (bicuspid valve)
K. Right subclavian                         11. Tricuspid valve
L. Right common carotid                     12. Pulmonary semilunar valve
M. Left common carotid                      13. Aortic semilunar valve
N. Left subclavian                          14. Auricle
O. aorta
P. superior vena cava
Q. inferior vena cava


      PLASTER HEART                                       PLASTIC HEART




 PLASTER HEART STRUCTURES
       Right atrium
       Apex                                Note: These are the only
       Auricle                             structures you need to know
       Pulmonary artery                    on the plaster heart.
       Pulmonary semilunar valve
       Aortic semilunar valve
       Coronary sinus
                                                                                     3
EYE MODELS
                       PLASTIC EYE
PLASTIC EYE            Posterior cavity (do not call this the posterior chamber)
Sclera                 Anterior cavity (do not call this the anterior chamber)
Cornea                 Fovea centralis (area of the retina where light focuses)
Pupil
Lens
Iris                   PLASTER EYE                  COW EYE
Retina                 Lens                         Cornea
Choroid layer          Posterior cavity             Sclera
Optic disc             Ora serrata                  Lens
Ora serrata            Cilliary body                Retina
Cilliary body                                       Choroid layer
                       .




  EAR MODEL
  External acoustic meatus (Auditory canal)
  Pinna
  Tympanum (tympanic membrane)
  Eustachian tube (function is to equalize pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane)
  Semi-circular canal (function is for balance)
  Cochlea (function is for hearing)
  Vestibulocochlear nerve


                                                   BLOOD VESSELS
                                                   (EXTRA CREDIT PHOTOS)
   BLOOD CELLS
                                                   Artery
   (MICROSCOPE)
                                                   Vein
   Neutrophil
                                                   Arteriole
   Lymphocyte
                                                   Venuole
   Monocyte
                                                   Capillary

 DRY LAB QUESTIONS
 Which fetal heart CHAMBER is where blood is most highly oxygenated? Right atrium
 Which fetal VESSEL is where blood is most highly oxygenated? Umbilical vein
 Which fetal vessel carries oxygenated blood from the placenta? Umbilical vein
 What is the hole between the fetal atria? Foramen ovale
 What is the foramen ovale called in adults? Fossa ovalis
 What is the connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta? Ductus arteriosus
 What is the name for the venous vessel leading to the liver? Hepatic portal vein
 A portal system is a ________ system within the ________system Capillary/venous
 What does the term “common” mean in the circulatory system? That a vessel will branch into
 two other vessels with the same name.



                                                                                         4
                         VEINS IN THE CAT AND HUMAN MODELS

        NOTE: There are three types of jugular veins and three types of iliac veins in the cat.
                        Do not just write “jugular” or “iliac” on the test!

               NOTE: There are three types of carotid arteries and three types of iliac
                   arteries. Do not just write “carotid” or “iliac” on the test!


VEINS TO KNOW ON THE CAT                              ARTERIES TO KNOW ON THE CAT

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA                                       BRACHIOCEPHALIC
INFERIOR VENA CAVA                                       SUBCLAVIAN
BRACHIOCEPHALIC                                          AXILLARY
SUBCLAVIAN                                               BRACHIAL
AXILLARY                                                 COMMON CAROTID
BRACHIAL                                                 EXTERNAL CAROTID
EXTERNAL JUGULAR                                         MAXILLARY
INTERNAL JUGULAR                                         FACIAL
TRANSVERSE JUGULAR                                       INTERNAL THORACIC (mammary)
MAXILLARY                                                SUPRASCAPULAR
FACIAL                                                   SUBSCAPULAR
SUPRASCAPULAR                                            VERTEBRAL
SUBSCAPULAR                                              THORACIC AORTA
VERTEBRAL                                                POSTERIOR INTERCOSTALS
INTERNAL THORACIC (mammary)                              ABDOMINAL AORTA
AZYGOUS                                                  CELIAC TRUNK
SUPRARENAL                                               SUPERIOR MESENTERIC
RENAL                                                    INFERIOR MESENTERIC
GONADAL                                                  SUPRARENAL
LUMBAR                                                   RENAL
EXTERNAL ILIAC                                           GONADAL
INTERNAL ILIAC                                           LUMBAR
MIDDLE SACRAL                                            EXTERNAL ILIAC
FEMORAL                                                  INTERNAL ILIAC
DEEP FEMORAL                                             MEDIAN SACRAL
GREAT SAPHENOUS                                          FEMORAL
POPLITEAL                                                DEEP FEMORAL
                                                         SAPHENOUS
                                                         POPLITEAL




                                                                                                  5
 FLAT MAN VESSELS              TORSO MODELS


Aortic Arch                  Aortic Arch
Brachiocephalic Vein         Brachiocephalic Vein
Subclavian A/V               Subclavian Vein
Axillary A/V                 Common Carotid
Brachial A/V                 External Jugular Vein
Common Carotid               Posterior Intercostal A/V
External Jugular Vein        Abdominal Aorta
Abdominal Aorta              Celiac Trunk
Hepatic Artery               Superior Mesenteric
Splenic Artery               Inferior Mesenteric
Superior Mesenteric          Suprarenal Vein
Inferior Mesenteric          Renal Artery
Renal A/V                    Renal Vein
Common Iliac Artery          Common Iliac Artery
External Iliac Artery        Common Iliac Vein
Internal Iliac Artery        External Iliac Artery
Femoral Artery               Internal Iliac Artery
Femoral Vein                 Internal Iliac Vein
Saphenous Artery             Femoral A/V
Greater Saphenous Vein
Popliteal Artery




                               HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN
      SKULL MODEL ARTERIES     (Don’t ID, just know this is the
                               major vein leading into the liver
    Common Carotid
    External Carotid
    Internal Carotid
    Maxillary
    Facial
    Vertebral
    Circle Of Willis




                                                                   6
THESE ARE THE HUMAN MODELS YOU NEED TO KNOW VESSELS ON


  FLAT MAN                        SKULL




     TORSO-1                        TORSO-2




                                                         7

				
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