Chapter 1

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					                                                             Chapter 1

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Laura is now 83 years old. Much of her future development will focus on _______ and _______.
           A.      growth/maintenance
           B.     maintenance/regulation
           C.     regulation/change
           D.      growth/regulation
2. Wayne is 75 years old. Life-span developmental psychologists would characterize him as: ________.
           A.      young old.
           B.     old-old.
           C.     oldest-old.
           D.      elderly.
3. The traditional and life-span perspectives are contrasting views of developmental change. According to the
   life-span perspective, when do developmental changes occur?
           A.      during infancy and early childhood
           B.     during adolescence and early adulthood
           C.     during middle and late adulthood
           D.      throughout the entire life cycle
4. Culture is based on the: ________.
           A.      nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language of a people.
           B.     practices of a large number of people living in the same geographic area.
           C.     exchange of ideas between groups of people who live in the same location.
           D.      behaviors, beliefs, and products of a particular group of people.
5. Dr. Vunesky is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American
   children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth-graders. One of his groups is from Japan
   and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Vunesky is conducting a: ________ study.
           A.      longitudinal
           B.     correlational
           C.     cross-cultural
           D.      sequential
6. Ben spends all of his free time doing homework and studying so that he will get good grades and his parents
   will be proud of his achievements. Ben is most likely in the period of development called: _________.
           A.     early childhood.
           B.     middle childhood.
           C.     adolescence.
           D.     early adulthood.
7. John has two children. He provides many rules for his children and does not allow them to choose their own
   activities. He monitors them closely and punishes them harshly for misbehavior. John believes it is
   important to punish bad behavior and teach children behave properly. John is apparently a believer in which
   philosophical view of child development?
           A.     tabula rasa
           B.     innate goodness
           C.     original sin
              D.      genetic determinism
8.    The term "tabula rasa" refers to the belief that children are born: ___________.
              A.      basically evil, needing to be shown the road to salvation.
              B.      basically good, requiring little parental support or monitoring.
              C.      basically neutral, ready to be shaped by their experiences.
              D.      basically predestined, solely a product of their genetics.
9.    Tommy is 2 years old. His mother took him to the doctor and discovered that he had gained 5 pounds and
      had grown 2 inches since his last physical exam. This is an example of the role of __________ processes in
      development.
              A.      cognitive
              B.      biological
              C.      socioemotional
              D.      physical
10.   Mary is a 75-year-old widow. She loves to garden, read, and walk her dog. She has a few close friends and a
      supportive family. Research on age and happiness suggests that Mary is: _________.
              A.      less happy than children.
              B.      happier than adolescents.
              C.      just as happy as those in middle age.
              D.      just as happy as any other age group.
11.   Maltreated children are more likely to be: _________.
              A.      liked by their peers.
              B.      rejected by their peers.
              C.      bullied by their peers.
              D.      ignored by their peers.
12.   John is 63 years old and just became a father. Rebecca is 72 years old and has just gone back to college.
      Juan is 27 and has just been elected mayor of his town. These are examples of what Bernice Neugarten
      believes indicate: ________.
              A.      an age-irrelevant society.
              B.      a societal shift.
              C.      a developmental change.
              D.      stereotyping.
13.   Peter has finally received a promotion that allows him to spend much more time with his family and less
      time at work. He wanted this so that he could raise his children to become mature, competent individuals.
      He is satisfied with his career and home life. Peter's situation is most representative of which period of life?
              A.      early adulthood
              B.      middle adulthood
              C.      late adulthood
              D.      retirement
14.   People today are waiting longer to marry and raise children. In the 1950s it was more common for people to
      marry and start a family before they were 20 years old. This difference is an example of a: __________.
              A.      normative age-graded influence on development.
              B.      normative history-graded influence on development.
              C.      multidimensional change in the context of development.
              D.      nonnormative life event that has changed across development.
15.   By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change
      is a good example of a: __________.
              A.      nonnormative life event.
              B.      multidirectional influence on development.
              C.      normative age-graded influence on development.
              D.      nonnormative age-graded influence on development.
16.   Approximately how many children today can expect to spend at least 5 years in a single-parent home?
              A.      20 to 30 percent
              B.      40 to 50 percent
              C.      60 to 70 percent
              D.      80 to 90 percent
17.   Paul Baltes (2000) claimed that nonnormative life events can provide an important context for life-span
      development. With this concept, the term "nonnormative" refers to an event that: ________.
              A.      is not likely to happen to very many people.
              B.      happens to younger children but not to older adults.
              C.      used to happen to everyone but no longer occurs very much today.
              D.      happens to almost everyone regardless of when or where they live.
18.   The expectations society has that a person will act his or her age refers to _________ age.
              A.      biological
              B.      social
              C.      psychological
              D.      historical
19.   Lynn Hasher and colleagues (2001) found that age-related memory differences declined when ________
      and ________ were taken into consideration.
              A.      time of day/relevance of material
              B.      education level/socioeconomic status
              C.      motivation/personality traits
              D.      IQ/gender
20.   Anna is 4 years old. She lives in a tiny apartment with her mother and three older siblings. Anna's mother
      works as a waitress and barely makes enough money to pay their rent each month. The family's
      neighborhood is poor and unsafe. According to research Anna is at risk for: _________.
              A.      dropping out of school.
              B.      becoming addicted to drugs.
              C.      engaging in violence.
              D.      committing suicide.
21.   Jose was abused as a young boy but did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling
      family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?
              A.      change
              B.      stability
              C.      maturation
              D.      continuity
22.   A life-span theorist believes that: _________.
              A.      developmental changes occur in the child and adolescent years of life.
              B.      the most important developmental changes occur during the first 10 years of life.
              C.      developmental changes occur in the early, middle, and late years of life.
              D.      the most important developmental changes occur in the middle of life.
23.   The passing of beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes from one generation to the next is the defining characteristic
      of: _________.
              A.      race.
              B.      culture.
              C.      ethnicity.
              D.      ethnic identity.
24.   Susan was in New York on the day the World Trade Center was destroyed by terrorists. She is now afraid to
      fly. This is an example of how a __________ event can influence a person's development.
              A.      normative history-graded
              B.      normative age-graded
              C.      normative life
              D.      nonnormative stressful
25.   In high-income countries, women are __________ times more likely to have depression than are men.
              A.      two
            B.      three
            C.      four
            D.      five
26. List five of the seven characteristics of the life-span perspective discussed by Paul Baltes.




27. Identify and briefly describe the four ways age has been conceptualized.




28. List and briefly define two of the three different philosophical views that have been held historically about
    the nature of children.




29. List and define the three sources of contextual influence on development. Give one example of each type of
    influence.




30. Describe how the traditional approach to development differs from the life-span approach.
                                                             Chapter 2

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. The ________ method of research combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods.
           A.      case study
           B.      experimental design
           C.      sequential
           D.      observational
2. The information-processing approach to development is concerned mainly with: ________.
           A.      the influence of culture on development.
           B.      the manipulation, monitoring, and strategizing of information.
           C.      the influence of age on learning.
           D.      the influence of biology and evolution on an individual's development.
3. Which of the following of Erikson's stages would most accurately describe the developmental phase of a
   preschooler?
           A.      trust versus mistrust
           B.      initiative versus guilt
           C.      industry versus inferiority
           D.      identity versus identity confusion
4. Hal is very good at simple addition and subtraction, but he has a hard time understanding the math problems
   that his high school sister does. Hal is currently in which of Piaget's stages of development?
           A.      preoperational
           B.      concrete operational
           C.      formal operational
           D.      conceptual operational
5. Philippe is curious about the tipping behavior of patrons at a local restaurant. Occasionally he sits in the
   restaurant and watches some of the people around him. He is not able to observe all of the tables in the
   place, so he formulates his opinions about tipping behavior by the few patrons he can see. What is wrong
   with Philippe's research?
           A.      It is not random.
           B.      It is not correlative.
           C.      It is not systematic.
           D.      It is not ethical.
6. Dr. Dickson recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be
   as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the
   APA, all information that is collected is: ________.
           A.      public record.
           B.      confidential.
           C.      paid for.
           D.      socially biased.
7. Jasmine sees a student in her class raise his hand to ask a question. The teacher sharply criticizes him for
   asking such a "ridiculous" question. Jasmine will most likely respond to this event by: ________.
           A.      continuing to ask questions in class.
           B.      not asking questions even if she wants to.
             C.       ridiculing the teacher.
             D.       ignoring the criticized student.
8.    According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that is commonly referred to as the
      conscience is the: ________.
             A.       id.
             B.       superego.
             C.       conscious.
             D.       ego.
9.    Ahkilia is bitter and resentful. She looks back on her life and realizes that she has made many mistakes and
      was too fearful to reach her goals. At 82 years old, she knows it is too late to make any significant changes.
      Ahkilia is living in: ________.
             A.       inferiority.
             B.       shame.
             C.       despair.
             D.       guilt.
10.   One implication of Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory is that to understand development, one must:
      ________.
             A.       focus on the biological factors involved.
             B.       separate the individual from his or her context.
             C.       focus exclusively on the cultural settings in which the individual actively participates.
             D.       consider the individual and the different levels of sociocultural contexts with which he or she
                      interacts.
11.   When a person incorporates new information into his or her existing knowledge bank, Piaget would say that
      the person is going through the cognitive process of: ________.
             A.       accommodation.
             B.       assimilation.
             C.       adaptation.
             D.       alteration.
12.   One of the differences between Freud and Erikson is that: ________.
             A.       Erikson saw that development occurred throughout the life span.
             B.       Erikson believed that development lasted only until the age of 10.
             C.       Erikson built his theory from his own philosophy and not from case studies.
             D.       Erikson said that sexuality played a key role in the life-span development of the individual.
13.   The major conflict that must be resolved in the latency period, according to Freud, is: ________.
             A.       to overcome the feelings of inferiority that have arisen because of the resolution of the
                      Oedipus complex.
             B.       for the child to become socially adept in order to find a future mate.
             C.       strengthening of the ego in order to further repress the impulses of the id.
             D.       nonexistent, because of the repression of sexual impulses.
14.   A set of ideas that helps us to explain our data and make further predictions is known as a(n): ________.
             A.       idea.
             B.       scientific method.
             C.       theory.
             D.       hypothesis.
15.   Professor Allen wants to assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal
      chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is: ________.
             A.       subjectively.
             B.       randomly.
             C.       systematically.
             D.       independently.
16.   This method of research often involves the combination of a person's education, work, family, and
      residence.
              A.       cultural history
              B.      life history
              C.      social history
              D.       psychological history
17.   This is the first of Bronfenbrenner's environmental systems.
              A.       microsystem
              B.      mesosytem
              C.      chronosystem
              D.       macrosystem
18.   The American Psychological Association (APA) has developed a code of ethics governing research
      procedures. The guidelines address all of the following issues EXCEPT:
              A.       debriefing.
              B.      manipulation.
              C.      informed consent.
              D.       confidentiality.
19.   It has been found that as compared with American youths, Asian youths are reared with: ________.
              A.       a stronger sense of family.
              B.      higher standards of education.
              C.      more severe punishments.
              D.       greater self-discipline.
20.   Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. Skinner would say that the BEST way
      to solve this problem is to: ________.
              A.       explore experiences from Nellie's early childhood and see how they have affected her current
                       behavior.
              B.      interview Nellie to determine her current level of cognitive functioning.
              C.      determine how Nellie's expectations about success have led her to develop this behavior.
              D.       reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head banging behavior.
21.   Which of the following research methods looks at one person in-depth and generally over a long period of
      time?
              A.       interview
              B.      survey
              C.      case study
              D.       experiment
22.   Professor Horowitz wants to observe three different age groups over a period of 10 years to see how they
      improve on motor development skills. What kind of research is this?
              A.       observational
              B.      longitudinal
              C.      cross-sectional
              D.       sequential
23.   Amy will be having her first child soon. To ensure bonding, she insists that she be the first to see and hold
      her baby after delivery. Her belief that behavior is characterized by a critical period is associated with which
      theory?
              A.       biological
              B.      ecological
              C.      ethological
              D.       life-course
24.   A researcher is interested in the effect of exercise on stamina in elderly patients. The patients are randomly
      assigned to be in a high-exercise or low-exercise training program for 8 weeks. At the end of the program,
      their stamina is measured by seeing how long they can walk comfortably on a treadmill. In this study, the
      dependent variable is: ________.
              A.       number of minutes on the treadmill.
              B.      the exercise program (high versus low).
            C.      heart rate during the exercise program.
            D.      the 8-week duration of the exercise program.
25. In the ethological theory, the term ________ is defined as innate learning within a short period of time that
    involves a newborn's becoming attached to the first moving thing the newborn sees.
            A.      impressing
            B.      imprinting
            C.      imparting
            D.      immobilizing
26. List three of the five systems in Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and give a brief definition of each.




27. Discuss four ethical guidelines the APA has developed for researchers.




28. List and briefly explain the descriptive research methods.




29. Briefly explain what a theory and a hypothesis are.




30. List and describe the sections of a scientific journal.
                                                             Chapter 3

       Student: ________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Attachments between parents and an adopted infant can be compromised by all of the following EXCEPT:
           A.      unresolved fertility issues
           B.     parental education
           C.     lack of support
           D.      failed expectations
2. Around what age do children begin to ask about where they came from?
           A.      5 to 7 years old
           B.     6 to 8 years old
           C.     4 to 6 years old
           D.      7 to 9 years old
3. In a study by Witkin in 1976, it was found that males with XYY syndrome were: ________.
           A.      just as likely to commit crimes as XY males.
           B.     more likely to commit crimes than XY males.
           C.     less likely to commit crimes than XY males.
           D.      more likely to commit crimes than females with Turner syndrome.
4. ________ is the social and legal process by which a parent-child relationship is established between persons
   unrelated at birth.
           A.      Adaptation
           B.     Rebirthing
           C.     Guardianship
           D.      Adoption
5. Melinda and Joseph both have brown eyes. If their child has blue eyes, we know that: ________.
           A.      both Melinda and Joseph must be carrying a recessive gene for blue eyes.
           B.     either Melinda or Joseph must be carrying a recessive gene for blue eyes.
           C.     both Melinda and Joseph must be carrying a dominant gene for blue eyes.
           D.      either Melinda or Joseph must be carrying a dominant gene for blue eyes.
6. Klinefelter syndrome occurs in approximately ________ live births.
           A.      1 in 900
           B.     1 in 1,000
           C.     1 in 800
           D.      1 in 700
7. Andy and Carl are a gay couple who wish to adopt. Together they make an annual household salary of
   $30,000. Recent changes in adoption regulations would mean that: ________.
           A.      they would be considered as candidates for adopting a child.
           B.     they would need to bring their income up by $15,000 before they would be considered as
                  candidates for adopting a child.
           C.     their income is fine; however, the fact that they are homosexual may cause problems.
           D.      they would not be considered as candidates for adopting a child.
8. Turner syndrome occurs in approximately ________ live births.
           A.      1 in 3,000
           B.     1 in 2,500
             C.      1 in 2,000
             D.      1 in 1,500
9.    The process of cell division in which there is a resulting copy of the original cell is known as: ________.
             A.      meiosis.
             B.      memosis.
             C.      maptosis.
             D.      mitosis.
10.   David and Kelly are seeking help for infertility problems. Under their physician's guidance, they decide to
      undergo a procedure in which one of Kelly's eggs is combined in a laboratory dish with her husband's
      sperm. What procedure is this?
             A.      gamete transfer
             B.      intracytoplasmic sperm injection
             C.      zygote intrafallopian transfer
             D.      in vitro fertilization
11.   When it comes to the inheritance of an X-linked disease, who has the best chance for inheritance?
             A.      females
             B.      males
             C.      both females and males equally
             D.      none of these
12.   Which of the following is NOT a treatment for infertility?
             A.      in vitro fertilization
             B.      intrauterine insemination
             C.      gamete intrafallopian transfer
             D.      zygote intrafallopian transfer
13.   Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for infertility in a woman?
             A.      abnormal ova
             B.      blocked fallopian tubes
             C.      stress
             D.      disease
14.   PKU stands for: ________.
             A.      preklinefelteruria
             B.      phenylketonuria
             C.      Parkisonuria
             D.      postketonuria
15.   According to evolutionary theory, there is a specific reason that certain animals live in the regions that they
      do. Polar bears, for instance, are found only in the Arctic regions of the world. An evolutionary theorist
      would say that the polar bear was best adapted for this type of environment, unlike a grizzly bear, who
      would freeze to death. In this case, the polar bear is a good example of: ________.
             A.      how to keep warm.
             B.      adaptive coloration.
             C.      natural selection.
             D.      the idea that all creatures have their own niche.
16.   The study of human evolution was put forth by: ________
             A.      Sigmund Freud.
             B.      Charles Darwin.
             C.      Stephen Hawking.
             D.      Wilhelm Wundt.
17.   Both of Brian's parents are farsighted, but Brian wears glasses for nearsightedness. Which genetic principle
      can explain this difference?
             A.      polygenic inheritance
             B.      dominant-recessive genes
             C.      reaction range
              D.      sex-linked genes
18.   This concept states that people inherit the environment that is related to their genetic predispositions.
              A.      heredity–environment correlation
              B.      nature–nurture theory
              C.      maturation–social attribute hypothesis
              D.      genetic–psychological theory
19.   In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a broad
      range of ________ possibilities.
              A.      human
              B.      creative
              C.      many
              D.      cultural
20.   Our DNA is contained within our: ________.
              A.      RNA.
              B.      chromosomes.
              C.      genes.
              D.      brain.
21.   In which pair of chromosomes lies the difference between male and female?
              A.      23rd
              B.      20th
              C.      24th
              D.      19th
22.   Pat is an infant and has a physical disability. With new changes in adoption policies, what are Pat's chances
      of being adopted today compared with his chances several years ago?
              A.      Pat is more likely to be adopted today.
              B.      Pat is less likely to be adopted today.
              C.      Pat is equally likely to be adopted today.
              D.      Pat probably will not be adopted.
23.   Howard is 75 years old and is showing the signs of Alzheimer's disease. A developmental Psychologist
      would say that Howard is experiencing a loss of: ________.
              A.      sense of self.
              B.      evolutionary fitness.
              C.      conscious thought.
              D.      moral standing.
24.   Phenylketonuria is a disorder that results in the inability to metabolize ________, which is an amino acid.
              A.      ketonuria
              B.      phenylalanine
              C.      phenamoxide
              D.      ketonalanine
25.   Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for infertility in men?
              A.      motility
              B.      impotence
              C.      low sperm count
              D.      abnormal sperm
26.   List the problems that adoptive parents and children face at the different point in the children's lives.




27. Briefly describe why males are more likely to show the signs of an X-linked disorder, and name one.
28. Define shared and nonshared environmental influences, and give an example of each.




29. List the three ways in which behavior geneticists believe heredity and environment interact, and describe
    when these interactions occur.




30. Briefly explain natural selection and adaptive behavior.
                                                             Chapter 4

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. The outermost layer of the embryo, which becomes the nervous system, sensory receptors, and skin, is
   called the: ________.
            A.      mesoderm.
            B.      cytoderm.
            C.      endoderm.
            D.      ectoderm.
2. Yolanda's doctor tells her that her baby will have problems with its respiratory and digestive systems. The
   doctor explains that the problems originated when the zygote divided into the three major cell layers.
   Evidently, in Yolanda's case, there was a problem in the formation of the: ________.
            A.      endoderm.
            B.      ectoderm.
            C.      mesoderm.
            D.      blastocyst.
3. The third stage of childbirth consists of: _______.
            A.      expulsion of the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes.
            B.      introduction of the child to the mother.
            C.      complete delivery of the child.
            D.      cutting of the umbilical cord.
4. Tyler was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered: _______.
            A.      preterm.
            B.      premature.
            C.      low birthweight.
            D.      small for date.
5. Marlene, who just found out she is pregnant, has very poor eating habits. She eats few total calories, very
   little protein, and unbalanced amounts of vitamins and minerals. If she continues her present habits, which
   of the following is MOST likely to occur?
            A.      The baby will not be affected.
            B.      The baby will develop Down syndrome.
            C.      The baby will have low birthweight and low vitality.
            D.      The baby might be affected during the early, but not the later, months of gestation.
6. There is an increase in the risks for spontaneous abortion and low infant birthweight for mothers who drink
   300 milligrams of caffeine per day. That is approximately the equivalent of: ________.
            A.      two to three cups of coffee.
            B.      two to three cups of tea.
            C.      two to three cups of cocoa.
            D.      two to three cups of chocolate milk.
7. As opposed to physicians, midwives tend to: _______.
            A.      spend more time with patients and give more emotional support.
            B.      spend less time with patients but give more emotional support.
            C.      give less emotional support but spend more time with patients.
            D.      spend most of their time in an educational role, giving some emotional support.
8. Some of the most important developments occur within the first ________ weeks after conception, many
    times before the woman knows that she is pregnant.
            A.      7
            B.      8
            C.      10
            D.      9
9. Alice eats a lot of fish from Lake Michigan and has accumulated high levels of PCBs. Recent research
    indicates her baby will be at a greater risk for: ________.
            A.      blindness.
            B.      heart defects.
            C.      facial and limb deformities.
            D.      poor visual discrimination skills.
10. A pediatrician is testing baby Rosaria. The doctor rates Rosaria in 27 categories, including response to a
    pinprick, cuddliness, and self-quieting activity. Rosaria's pediatrician is using a(n)/the: _______.
            A.      Apgar Scale.
            B.      infant IQ test.
            C.      Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.
            D.      preterm stimulation assessment.
11. Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 to 34 years old?
            A.      Bell's palsy
            B.      Down syndrome
            C.      Klinefelter syndrome
            D.      Turner syndrome
12. When a blood test is performed on Cindy's fetus, the doctors find some of Cindy's red blood cells in the
    fetus's circulatory system. We know that this: ________.
            A.      is normal because the mother's red blood cells are shared with the fetus.
            B.      indicates a problem with the blastocyst, which should not contain red blood cells.
            C.      indicates a problem with the placenta, which should block the mother's red blood cells.
            D.      indicates a problem with the amnion, which should eliminate the mother's red blood cells.
13. Natural childbirth consists of all of the following EXCEPT:
            A.      education
            B.      breathing
            C.      relaxation
            D.      medication
14. When baby Juan was born, he had problems with his sensory systems. There were noticeable defects in his
    eyes, ears, and nose. Most likely, Juan's problems came from defects in the formation of the: ________.
            A.      ectoderm.
            B.      endoderm.
            C.      mesoderm.
            D.      trophoblast.
15. In 1961 a rash of deformed babies was born because of the use of a popular tranquilizer called: ________.
            A.      thorazine.
            B.      thiamine.
            C.      thalidomide.
            D.      toridol.
16. Juanita is having a normal pregnancy and everything is developing well. She has, however, recently picked
    up an infection, and bacteria have accumulated in her bloodstream. We know that most likely: ________.
            A.      many of these bacteria will be passed to her fetus.
            B.      the bacteria will be eliminated by the fetus's amnion.
            C.      the bacteria will latch on to the ectoderm in the fetus.
            D.      the bacteria will be filtered out by the placenta and will not reach the fetus.
17. Physicians suggest that women wait approximately _______ weeks after the birth of their baby before
      resuming sexual activity.
              A.      2
              B.      6
              C.      4
              D.      8
18.   When compared with preterm infants who do not receive massage, preterm infants who receive massage:
      _______.
              A.      have better overall health.
              B.      have the same health.
              C.      have worse overall health.
              D.      have a varying degree of health problems.
19.   Research on postpartum depression has shown a link between the mother's mental state and: _______.
              A.      the infant's sleeping pattern.
              B.      the infant's weight gain.
              C.      the infant's bonding pattern.
              D.      the infant's attachment.
20.   Megan is 9 months pregnant and has been engaging in low-impact conditioning exercises throughout her
      pregnancy. With the approval of her health-care provider, how soon after delivery may she resume some of
      her exercises?
              A.      1 hour after delivery
              B.      3 hours after delivery
              C.      1 day after delivery
              D.      3 days after delivery
21.   John and Jess are having their first child and have told their physician they would like a rooming-in
      arrangement. This means that: _______.
              A.      John can stay overnight in Jess's room.
              B.      Jess's hospital room will be more like a nursery.
              C.      Jess's baby will stay in her room.
              D.      Jess will have an area in her room where relatives can stay and visit.
22.   Janice recently went in for an ultrasound. Janice noticed that she could see her baby's toenails and
      fingernails on the ultrasound monitor. It is most likely that she is in her ________ month of pregnancy.
              A.      fourth
              B.      fifth
              C.      seventh
              D.      sixth
23.   Syphilis is different from rubella in that syphilis: _______.
              A.      attacks only the nervous system.
              B.      does not affect organogenesis.
              C.      mainly scars the circulatory system.
              D.      affects organogenesis.
24.   One of the paternal risks associated with birth defects and cancer is how much _______ the father takes
      before conception.
              A.      vitamin C
              B.      vitamin D
              C.      vitamin A
              D.      vitamin E
25.   The Apgar Scale uses which of the following measures?
              A.      newborn's response to a pinprick
              B.      newborn's response to the examiner's voice
              C.      newborn's response to being cuddled
              D.      newborn's heart rate
26.   List four of the five health signs evaluated by the Apgar Scale.
27. List at least three environmental hazards that can endanger the fetus.




28. Describe the three stages of the birthing process.




29. List three sexually transmitted diseases that can adversely affect a newborn.




30. List at least three signs that indicate a woman in the postpartum stage of pregnancy may need professional
    counseling.
                                                              Chapter 5

        Student: _________________________________________________________

        Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
        question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
        Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
        question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
        choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
        State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1.   The _______ lobe is to thinking as the_______ lobe is to hearing.
              A.     frontal/temporal
              B.     occipital/frontal
              C.     parietal/temporal
              D.     occipital/parietal
2.   It is thought that from birth, infants have in place the neural pathways for walking; however, it generally
     takes them _______ to learn how to coordinate their movements.
              A.     10 months
              B.     1 year
              C.     18 months
              D.     2 years
3.   Melissa is 3 weeks old. She sleeps about 16 hours a day but normally not more than 5 hours at one time.
     Melissa: _______.
              A.     sleeps longer than most 3-week-old babies.
              B.     is not sleeping as much as most babies her age.
              C.     is typical of 3-week-old babies in her sleep pattern.
              D.     has more numerous but shorter sleep sessions than most babies her age.
4.   Marty is developing rapidly in her size and abilities to sit and stand. Many of the reflexes with which she
     was born are fading, but she is not yet able to climb or ride on riding toys. Marty is probably in the _______
     of life.
              A.     first year
              B.     second year
              C.     proximodistal period
              D.     reflexive development phase
5.   Molly is born prematurely and is of low birthweight. She experiences some respiratory problems while still
     in the hospital. Given her background, Molly should: _______.
              A.     be considered at low risk for SIDS.
              B.     be monitored carefully to prevent SIDS.
              C.     not be at risk for SIDS until after 15 months of age.
              D.     be below average in the length of her sleep–wake cycle.
6.   What belief did doctors once hold that gave them reason to perform surgeries on infants who had not been
     given anesthesia?
              A.     If infants do not experience, pain their brains will not develop properly.
              B.     Infants cannot experience pain.
              C.     Infants' perception of pain is underdeveloped.
              D.     Infants are not small adults; therefore, they cannot be given adult medicine.
7.   This pattern of development is described as occurring from the inside out.
              A.     proximodistal
              B.     cephalocaudal
              C.     proximocaudal
              D.     cephalodistal
8. Kayla is concerned because her 2½-year-old son is not yet completely toilet trained. A developmental
    psychologist would probably advise: _______.
            A.     gently encouraging the boy but not pushing the issue.
            B.     strongly insisting that the boy use the toilet consistently.
            C.     beginning a motivational encouragement program immediately.
            D.     having a physical examination to make sure there are no physical problems.
9. The _______ method of studying whether an infant can distinguish between two objects is done by
    measuring the length of time the infant looks at an object.
            A.     visual cue
            B.     visual preference
            C.     visual availability
            D.     visual timing
10. What is the name of the nerve cell that transmits information at the cellular level?
            A.     glial cell
            B.     neurotransmitter
            C.     oligodendrocyte
            D.     neuron
11. The case of Michael Rehbein showed that the brain: _______.
            A.     is very adaptive.
            B.     is fixed and unchanging.
            C.     adapts for certain functions only.
            D.     can adapt and function only when whole.
12. If a surgeon were to remove the occipital lobes from a person's brain, what function would the person lose?
            A.     hearing
            B.     taste
            C.     vision
            D.     smell
13. Infants should consume approximately _______ calories per day for each pound they weigh.
            A.     30
            B.     40
            C.     50
            D.     60
14. Recent research on the lateralization of function in the brain suggests that the two hemispheres of the brain
    work: _______.
            A.     independently.
            B.     together.
            C.     separate but equally.
            D.     dependently on each other.
15. What is thought to influence the overproduction and pruning of synapses in the brain?
            A.     heredity and environment
            B.     environment and education
            C.     education and activity
            D.     activity and experience
16. Which of the following describes the cephalocaudal pattern of development?
            A.     development of the brain, followed by the spinal cord and then leg nerves
            B.     development of the heart and lungs, followed by the brain and spinal cord
            C.     development of the brain, followed by the heart and lungs and then eyes
            D.     development of the spinal cord, followed by the brain and then heart and lungs
17. Research has shown that infants do form preferences for: _______.
            A.     taste and touch.
            B.     touch and movement.
            C.     movement and smell.
              D.      smell and taste.
18.   You are visiting Chile on your vacation. While you are there, you see a child on the side of the street
      begging for money and holding a sign that reads "Need money for food—malnourished." You look at the
      child and think that he looks normal; then you suddenly remember what you learned in a life-span
      development class and conclude that the child must have: _______.
              A.      kwashiorkor.
              B.      marasmus.
              C.      Binswanger's disorder.
              D.      Malenthorpe's disorder.
19.   Dr. Thái wants to assess whether newborns can remember simple stimuli for short periods. Which of the
      following infant research methods would be MOST suitable for answering this research question?
              A.      Sound out a list of stimuli the infant heard several hours before and observe the infant's
                      visual fixations.
              B.      Coax the infant to crawl over a visual cliff toward a previously presented stimulus on the
                      deep side.
              C.      Show the baby previously presented stimuli and record the infant's visual fixations to the
                      different objects.
              D.      Interview the parents and ask them whether the infant seems to recognize toys from the
                      baby's nursery at home.
20.   By what age do infants learn to perceive gravity?
              A.      5 to 6 months
              B.      4 to 9 months
              C.      6 to 8 months
              D.      3 to 7 months
21.   Hermes was born in Jamaica. Robert was born in the United States. Research in cultural diversity and
      developmental milestones would suggest that: _______.
              A.      Hermes will walk sooner.
              B.      Robert will walk sooner.
              C.      They will both walk about the same time.
              D.      Robert will crawl sooner, but they will both walk at the same time.
22.   Gross motor is to _______ as fine motor is to _______.
              A.      incoordination/balance
              B.      balance/big movements
              C.      big movements/small movements
              D.      small movements/coordination
23.   When you integrate information from two of more sensory modes, you experience: _______.
              A.      extramodal perception.
              B.      intermodal perception.
              C.      bimodal perception.
              D.      multimodal perception.
24.   Dr. Francini would like to know whether children born prematurely can tell the difference between a face
      and a spiral. What method would best suit this experiment?
              A.      visual preference method
              B.      visual cuing method
              C.      visual availability method
              D.      visual timing method
25.   Built-in reactions to stimuli that are out of an infant's control are known as: _______.
              A.      responses
              B.      reflexes
              C.      impulses
              D.      urges
26.   Discuss the ecological view of perceptual development.
27. Briefly describe three of the benefits of breast-feeding.




28. List the four lobes of the brain and explain their functions.




29. List five of the eight basic infant reflexes discussed in the text, and briefly describe the infant's response to
    stimuli associated with each.




30. What is a neuron? How many neurons are babies born with?
                                                             Chapter 6

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter /t/ makes. This sound is
   called a: _______.
           A.     morpheme.
           B.     phoneme.
           C.     grapheme.
           D.     syntax.
2. Kyle has just turned 2 years old. About how many words can he use?
           A.     12
           B.     100
           C.     200
           D.     400
3. Louis says, "Ball fall." His father replies, "Yes, the ball fell down the stairs." This is an example of:
   _______.
           A.     recasting.
           B.     expanding.
           C.     labeling.
           D.     child-directed speech.
4. Mandy watches as another little girl in the grocery store throws a screaming tantrum to get a toy. The next
   week at the mall, Mandy begins screaming and crying to get some candy. Mandy is showing: _______.
           A.     imitation.
           B.     habituation.
           C.     object permanence.
           D.     deferred imitation.
5. Maria is a deaf infant. Her parents use sign language to communicate with her. Maria is likely to develop
   manual language: _______.
           A.     in a different sequence as hearing infants develop vocal language.
           B.     in a similar sequence as hearing infants develop vocal language.
           C.     according to cephalocaudal growth patterns.
           D.     according to proximodistal growth patterns.
6. Jamal is 3 years old. He is now able to sort his blocks by their color. Jamal has developed: _______.
           A.     a new behavioral scheme.
           B.     a new mental scheme.
           C.     object permanence.
           D.     the ability to assimilate.
7. Infants begin to say their first words between the ages of _______ and _______ months.
           A.     8/13
           B.     10/15
           C.     12/17
           D.     14/19
8. The most important early contributor to the developmental testing of infants was: _______.
           A.     Jean Piaget
              B.      Sigmund Freud
              C.      Arnold Gesell
              D.      Alfred Binet
9.    _______ refers to the meaning of words and sentences.
              A.      Grammar
              B.      Syntax
              C.      Morphology
              D.      Semantics
10.   Piaget's sensorimotor stage is subdivided into six substages. In which substage does the infant learn to
      coordinate sensation and types of schemes?
              A.      simple reflexes
              B.      first habits and primary circular reactions
              C.      secondary circular reactions
              D.      tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity
11.   The _______ substage of sensorimotor development occurs between birth and 1 month of age.
              A.      first habits and primary circular reactions
              B.      simple reflexes
              C.      secondary circular reactions
              D.      internalization of schemes
12.   Infants can _______ language before they can _______ language.
              A.      speak/understand
              B.      interpret/repeat
              C.      comprehend/produce
              D.      understand/speak
13.   What is the correct sequence of language development?
              A.      crying, gestures, babbling, cooing
              B.      crying, cooing, babbling, gestures
              C.      babbling, crying, gestures, cooing
              D.      cooing, crying, gestures, babbling
14.   Juno is riding a bike. Riding a bike requires Juno to use her _______ memory.
              A.      explicit
              B.      implicit
              C.      semantic
              D.      episodic
15.   Adjusting to new environmental demands is called: _______.
              A.      accommodating.
              B.      assimilating.
              C.      adaptation.
              D.      organization.
16.   Three-year-old Jose used to call all moving vehicles "car." He now accurately categorizes moving vehicles
      into trucks, cars, motorcycles, and buses. Jose has _______ to fit new information into his existing scheme.
              A.      accommodated
              B.      assimilated
              C.      adapted
              D.      applied
17.   Classifying flowers into groups according to their color is an example of a: _______.
              A.      mental scheme.
              B.      mental adaptation.
              C.      behavioral adaptation.
              D.      behavioral scheme.
18.   A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called: _______.
              A.      proprioception.
             B.      aphasia.
             C.      dysnomia.
             D.       mutism.
19.   Two-month-old Antonio is listening to his mother sing him a lullaby. He is making a gurgling sound and
      seems very happy. Antonio is: _______.
             A.       babbling.
             B.      gesturing.
             C.      cooing.
             D.       imitating.
20.   Cases like the Wild Boy of Aveyron and Genie cause us to wonder whether language is: _______.
             A.       infinitely generative.
             B.      due more to heredity or to environment.
             C.      based on abstract or concrete symbols.
             D.       more a question of phonology or syntax.
21.   In which sensorimotor substages is the infant's own body the center of attention?
             A.       secondary circular reactions and coordination of secondary circular reactions
             B.      simple reflexes and secondary circular reactions
             C.      simple reflexes and primary circular reactions
             D.       coordination of secondary circular reactions and primary circular reactions
22.   The Gesell test, used to assess normal and abnormal infants, has four categories of behavior: _______.
             A.       motor, verbal, language, and adaptive.
             B.      adaptive, language, verbal, personal-social.
             C.      language, adaptive, personal-social, motor.
             D.       verbal, personal-social, motor, adaptive.
23.   Abraham describes to his friend what he did last summer on vacation; he is relying on his _______
      memory.
             A.       implicit
             B.      explicit
             C.      procedural
             D.       semantic
24.   In which sensorimotor substage does an infant develop the ability to use primitive symbols?
             A.       simple reflexes
             B.      first habits and primary circular reactions
             C.      secondary circular reactions
             D.       internalization of schemes
25.   In Piaget's theory, _______ shape(s) the child's cognitive development.
             A.       maturation
             B.      biology
             C.      experience and biology
             D.       parenting
26.   Describe object permanence.




27. Briefly explain the difference between habituation and dishabituation.
28. What is telegraphic speech?




29. What is infantile amnesia? What explanation is given for this?




30. What is a scheme?
                                                             Chapter 8

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Gross motor skills are to fine motor skills as ________ is to ________.
           A.      jumping/running
           B.      running/jumping
           C.      hopping/writing
           D.      writing/hopping
2. Josh, who is in elementary school, is a much better problem-solver than his younger sister Madison. This is
   because Josh: ________.
           A.      has more neural connections.
           B.      uses more systematic strategies.
           C.      pays more attention to salient rather than relevant features.
           D.      shifts his attention more quickly than his sister shifts hers.
3. Hallie is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She is not afraid of doing what her parents consider
   to be hair-raising stunts. She also loves to run and believes she is faster than her parents. This type of
   activity level and confidence is MOST characteristic of the: ________.
           A.      2-year-old.
           B.      3-year-old.
           C.      4-year-old.
           D.      5-year-old.
4. Only ________ percent of a child's diet should contain fat.
           A.      10
           B.      15
           C.      25
           D.      35
5. Vanessa leads the typical American life. Her parents are very busy with work and getting everything done at
   home. They often eat at fast-food restaurants, and even when they make dinner at home, they tend to eat a
   lot of pizza, hamburgers, and other foods that are quick to fix. With this lifestyle, developmentalists would
   be especially concerned that Vanessa is consuming too much: ________.
           A.      fat.
           B.      salt.
           C.      protein.
           D.      food with empty calories.
6. Research conducted by Chen and Siegler (2000) suggest that 2-year-old children: ________.
           A.      can learn problem-solving strategies only through modeling.
           B.      can learn problem-solving strategies only through direct hints.
           C.      learn strategies that they can later transfer to new problems.
           D.      cannot learn problem-solving strategies yet.
7. Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can
   understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed: ________.
           A.      artistic ability.
           B.      fine motor skills.
           C.      gross motor skills.
              D.     sense of what others appreciate.
8.    When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
      ________.
              A.     modeling.
              B.     assimilating.
              C.     scaffolding.
              D.     ZPD.
9.    Intuitive thought is to _______ as symbolic function is to _______.
              A.     creativity/reason
              B.     egocentrism/centration
              C.     reasoning/creativity
              D.     reasoning/mental representation
10.   The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that
      represent people, houses, cars, dogs, and so on. Which Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is
      Sally in?
              A.     symbolic function substage
              B.     intuitive thought substage
              C.     operational stage
              D.     sensorimotor stage
11.   Between ages 3 and 6 years, which part of the brain grows the fastest?
              A.     the temporal lobe
              B.     the parietal lobe
              C.     the frontal lobe
              D.     the occipital lobe
12.   Six-year-old Tracy was a witness to a robbery and has been asked to testify at trial. The defense will argue
      that her testimony is invalid because: ________.
              A.     at her age, she has inaccurate long-term memories.
              B.     her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
              C.     she is more likely to embellish her memories.
              D.     she will not be able to recall details of an event that happened so long ago.
13.   Why do left-handers excel at architectural abilities?
              A.     They have superior spatial abilities.
              B.     They have superior drawing skills.
              C.     They work well with abstract ideas.
              D.     They are attentive to small details.
14.   What is morphology?
              A.     the meaningfulness of words
              B.     the meaningfulness of phrases
              C.     the understanding of two-word utterances
              D.     the rules of conversation
15.   A major difference between Japanese and American preschools is the: ________.
              A.     number of hours per day that children spend in preschool.
              B.     the teacher-to-child ratio.
              C.     the emphasis on academic success.
              D.     the importance of peer relationships.
16.   Why does memory improve as children get older?
              A.     They develop better strategies.
              B.     They are given more accurate cues.
              C.     They are less reliant on rehearsal.
              D.     They are more motivated to remember.
17.   The prefrontal cortex is involved in tasks of: ________.
              A.     spatial abilities and mathematics.
               B.     motor coordination.
               C.     attention and memory.
               D.     verbal skills and impulse control.
18.   Dishabituation is defined as the: ________.
               A.     interruption of attention.
               B.     realization of attention.
               C.     limitation of attention.
               D.     recovery of attention.
19.   Which of the following describes what Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
               A.     Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.
               B.     Thought depends on language, so they are merged throughout all of development.
               C.     Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
               D.     Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout
                      development.
20.   A diet that lacks sufficient quality meat and green leafy vegetables can result in a condition known as:
      ________.
               A.     growth hormone deficiency.
               B.     dwarfism.
               C.     iron deficiency anemia.
               D.     malnutrition.
21.   Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought,
      so named because he believed that: ________.
               A.     children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.
               B.     children's ability to think with concepts is not yet operational at this age.
               C.     children's ability to use symbols in thinking is not yet operational at this age.
               D.     children at this age do not yet understand the basic concept of object permanence.
22.   If a mother wants to reduce the risk that her child will develop asthma, pneumonia, or bronchitis, she
      should: ________.
               A.     eat nutritiously while pregnant.
               B.     stop smoking.
               C.     be younger than 35 years when she becomes pregnant.
               D.     feed them a low-fat diet.
23.   Brett saw the same safety presentation at school that Laura did. Later, Brett tells his parents all about the
      safety rules the officer discussed. Brett obviously paid attention to what was: ________.
               A.     salient.
               B.     relevant.
               C.     habituated.
               D.     dishabituated.
24.   Kethura has been found to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The most likely explanation for this
      is that: ________.
               A.     her mother smokes.
               B.     she was malnourished in childhood.
               C.     she was overexposed to lead.
               D.     she was not properly immunized.
25.   In short-term memory, individuals retain information for: ________.
               A.     15 to 30 seconds.
               B.     1 to 2 minutes.
               C.     2 to 3 weeks.
               D.     1 to 2 months.
26.   Briefly describe the characteristics of the Montessori and child-centered kindergarten approaches to early
      childhood education.
27. What did Vygotsky believe was true concerning language and thought development in children?




28. What is the ZPD, what are its lower and upper limits, and who is the theorist who developed it?




29. The United Nations report of 2002, "The State of the World's Children," reports an increase in the deaths of
    young children from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
    Discuss why these rates are higher in countries with high rates of poverty.




30. Explain what Project Head Start is and discuss the advantages of early intervention education programs.
                                                            Chapter 10

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Piaget's theory of cognitive development has been criticized in four areas. Which of the following is NOT a
   criticism of Piaget's theory?
           A.      Several concrete operational concepts do not appear in synchrony.
           B.     Some cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought.
           C.     Children who are at one cognitive stage can be trained to reason at a higher cognitive stage.
           D.      Culture and education exert less influence on children's development than Piaget believed.
2. The _______ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child's natural language learning.
           A.      assisted-language
           B.     remedial-language
           C.     complex-language
           D.      whole-language
3. Cecilia begins teaching children to read by having them learn to make sounds that go with each letter of the
   alphabet. Cecilia appears to be taking an approach called the _______ approach.
           A.      whole-language
           B.     basic-skills-and-phonetics
           C.     information-processing
           D.      analytic
4. The concept of intelligence has proven to be so difficult to define because it is: _______.
           A.      such a concrete concept.
           B.     difficult to identify examples of intelligence.
           C.     a complex concept that includes many different aspects.
           D.      difficult to identify consistent differences between individuals in intelligence.
5. Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?
           A.      an engineer
           B.     a theologian
           C.     a botanist
           D.      an architect
6. Children with learning disabilities are likely to have problems with all of the following EXCEPT:
           A.      thinking
           B.     concentrating
           C.     moving
           D.      listening
7. Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 are classified as _______ mentally retarded.
           A.      mildly
           B.     moderately
           C.     severely
           D.      profoundly
8. Although Casey has scored poorly on standardized intelligence tests, he has street smarts. According to
   Sternberg, he has _______ intelligence.
           A.      spatial
           B.     practical
              C.      analytical
              D.      interpersonal
9.    According to Piaget, an important part of education involves helping children: _______.
              A.      become motivated to learn.
              B.      memorize basic facts about the world.
              C.      actively seek out solutions for themselves.
              D.      learn to accommodate more efficiently than they assimilate.
10.   To understand how a family tree showing relationships among relatives works, children must be able to use
      the skill of: _______.
              A.      seriation.
              B.      centration.
              C.      classification.
              D.      mental reversibility.
11.   Cancer is the _______ leading cause of death in children.
              A.      first
              B.      second
              C.      fourth
              D.      sixth
12.   In contrast to the study of information processing, the study of intelligence is more likely to involve the
      concept of: _______.
              A.      language.
              B.      individual differences.
              C.      problem-solving skills.
              D.      cognitive processes.
13.   Which of the following is an example of bilingual education in a U.S. school?
              A.      Ron's first language is English, and now he is taking a Spanish course in middle school.
              B.      Maria's first language is Spanish, so she has a teacher who speaks Spanish during some of her
                      classes until Maria can learn more English.
              C.      Lynn's first language is English, and one of her teachers is speaking in Spanish sometimes
                      during class so the children can learn a little Spanish.
              D.      Anibal's first language is Spanish, so he is taking a Spanish literature class taught in Spanish
                      that follows his regular classes that are taught in English.
14.   A cognitive process that does not occur automatically but takes work and effort is called a: _______.
              A.      schema.
              B.      mental operation.
              C.      metacognition.
              D.      control process.
15.   Jacob is a third-grader and has a disability that had caused him to be separated from his peers during the
      school day. Just recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. What is this change
      called?
              A.      transforming
              B.      transitioning
              C.      incorporation
              D.      inclusion
16.   Which of the following is the MOST appropriate use of intelligence test results?
              A.      They should be considered one aspect of a person's whole range of talents.
              B.      They should be used primarily to direct students to appropriate career choices.
              C.      They should be the major tool for determining school placement but nothing more.
              D.      They should be eliminated as an assessment tool because of their cultural bias and frequent
                      misinterpretation.
17.   Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children?
              A.      leukemia
             B.       lung
             C.       pancreas
             D.       colon
18.   What is the most common cause of death for the child in middle childhood?
             A.       motor vehicle accident
             B.       drowning
             C.       disease
             D.       child abuse
19.   Which of the following is NOT a way to get children to be more creative?
             A.       encourage internal motivation
             B.       control a child's ideas
             C.       provide a stimulating environment
             D.       introduce them to creative people
20.   Recent research has revealed which of the following eating pattern(s) as contributing to an increase in
      obesity from age 2 through adulthood?
             A.       the increase in the consumption of soft drinks
             B.       an increase in hours of watching television
             C.       an increase intake of salty snacks and pizza
             D.       All of these are correct.
21.   Which public service announcement would be most beneficial in preventing cultural-familial retardation?
             A.       Protect your children from lead exposure.
             B.       Provide an enriching home environment for your children.
             C.       Make nutrition your number one priority.
             D.       Do not have children after the age of 40.
22.   Lewis Terman's (1925) study of approximately 1,500 children with high IQs shows that: _______.
             A.       IQ is too variable to be a reliable predictor of success.
             B.       high IQ in childhood does not predict academic success in adolescence and adulthood.
             C.       high IQ in childhood is a good predictor of academic success in adolescence and adulthood.
             D.       high IQ in childhood predicts academic success from kindergarten through grade 12, but not
                      after grade 12.
23.   Less than 1 percent of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be: _______.
             A.       mildly retarded.
             B.       moderately retarded.
             C.       severely retarded.
             D.       profoundly retarded.
24.   Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of concrete operational thought?
             A.       the ability to mentally reverse action
             B.       logical reasoning
             C.       classification skills
             D.       the ability to think abstractly
25.   Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence includes all of the following EXCEPT:
             A.       creative intelligence
             B.       practical intelligence
             C.       analytical intelligence
             D.       verbal intelligence
26.   Discuss height and weight changes that take place during middle and late childhood.
27. Contrast convergent thinking with divergent thinking.




28. What is giftedness? Name three characteristics of the gifted child.




29. How is IQ measured?




30. List the three components of intelligence according to the author of your text.
                                                            Chapter 12

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Onset of puberty is negatively correlated with: ________.
           A.     weight.
           B.     age.
           C.     drug use.
           D.     genetics.
2. Which theorist believed that adolescence is a time of "storm and stress"?
           A.     Anna Freud
           B.     Jean Piaget
           C.     G. Stanley Hall
           D.     Daniel Offer
3. Development in adolescence is continuous with earlier development in that like younger children,
   adolescents: ________.
           A.     think abstractly.
           B.     face new developmental tasks.
           C.     interact in many different social contexts.
           D.     are influenced by their inherited characteristics.
4. Sandra and her class spend a part of their week at the local food bank to feed the homeless. A part of her
   education is to learn about this population and resources in the community to help. This academic approach
   is called _______ learning.
           A.     community-based
           B.     service
           C.     applied
           D.     resource-oriented
5. The personal fable involves an adolescent's sense of: ________.
           A.     uniqueness.
           B.     creativity.
           C.     oppression.
           D.     submission.
6. Piaget believed that ________ governs formal thought during early adolescence, whereas ________ governs
   thought during later adolescence.
           A.     inductive reasoning/deductive reasoning
           B.     concrete thinking/idealistic thinking
           C.     assimilation/accommodation
           D.     personal fables/imaginary audiences
7. Tasha is having difficulty getting along with her best friend. She decides to think through the problem,
   writing down all the difficulties and trying to generate possible reasons for them. She then considers what
   she can do to deal with the problems, weighing the pros and cons of each possibility. She is using which of
   the following to solve her problem?
           A.     idealistic-scenario reasoning
           B.     concrete-operational reasoning
           C.     adolescent-egocentric reasoning
              D.      hypothetical-deductive reasoning
8.    Recent research indicates that formal operational thinking during adolescence: ________.
              A.      rarely occurs.
              B.      develops universally across cultures.
              C.      is influenced by culture and experience.
              D.      develops at younger ages than Piaget proposed.
9.    Junior high schools should NOT use senior high schools as their model for curriculum and schedules,
      because: ________.
              A.      junior high students can develop unrealistic expectations about high school.
              B.      it places too much stress on junior high students to live up to the expectations of adults and
                      others.
              C.      junior high students show more individual differences in level of maturity than do high
                      school students.
              D.      junior high students do not have the perspective-taking ability necessary to thrive in a high
                      school environment.
10.   The fact that a fashion of thinness is often proposed as the cause of both anorexia and bulimia indicates that
      the mechanism of these disorders would be: ________.
              A.      sexual repression.
              B.      imitation.
              C.      information processing.
              D.      classical conditioning.
11.   ________ percent of teenage motor vehicle fatalities are attributed to alcohol.
              A.      Sixteen
              B.      Twenty-eight
              C.      Fifty
              D.      Sixty-one
12.   Mandy, who does not get along well with her parents, has become sexually active with her boyfriend
      although she is only 14 years old. Compared with her friends, Mandy is more likely to be: ________.
              A.      dieting.
              B.      truant from school.
              C.      using drugs.
              D.      physically abused by her partner.
13.   If you traveled to several different countries, where would you see the highest rates of illegal drug use by
      teenagers?
              A.      in England
              B.      in Germany
              C.      in Denmark
              D.      in the United States
14.   Why did junior high schools emerge in the 1920s and 1930s?
              A.      Recognition of the secular trend for physical development in height and weight forced
                      educators to create a new type of school.
              B.      Educators realized that it was possible to begin high school–type teaching at an earlier age.
              C.      Junior high schools were created to deal with the top-dog phenomenon.
              D.      An increasing population of students created a demand for more schools.
15.   Jackie's doctor is concerned that Jackie is losing too much weight. However, Jackie, who is 16, thinks her
      legs are "too fat" and continues dieting. Jackie is at risk for developing which type of eating disorder?
              A.      bulimia nervosa
              B.      gluttony
              C.      gross overeating
              D.      anorexia nervosa
16.   Which of the following is true about most adolescents today?
              A.      They have a positive self-image and outlook.
              B.     They have a more cynical view of themselves and others.
              C.     They are at significant risk for juvenile delinquency.
              D.     They experience greater family stability than in past decades.
17.   Candace is having unprotected sex with several male partners. She is putting herself at MOST risk for:
      ________.
              A.     chlamydia.
              B.     gonorrhea.
              C.     human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
              D.     herpes.
18.   Trisha engaged in sexual intercourse at the age of 13. Research indicates Trisha is likely to: ________.
              A.     develop a positive sexual identity.
              B.     engage in drinking, drug use, and delinquency.
              C.     marry early.
              D.     abstain from sex later in adolescence.
19.   Thirteen-year-old Grace's blood tests indicate that her levels of testosterone are about twice as high as they
      were a year ago, and that her estradiol levels are about eight times higher than last year's. Grace is most
      likely experiencing: ________.
              A.     normal changes as a result of having entered puberty.
              B.     difficulties due to significant imbalances in hormonal levels.
              C.     abnormal levels of development of male physical characteristics.
              D.     abnormal levels of development of female physical characteristics.
20.   You are trying to make competent decision makers of your adolescents. What technique should you use?
              A.     Allow them to participate in practical decisions they have control over.
              B.     Ask them to develop both positive and negative outcomes for decisions they make.
              C.     Give them a series of abstract problems to solve.
              D.     Allow them to show poor judgment and then talk with them about why their decisions were
                     wrong.
21.   Which of the following distinguishes high schools in the United States from secondary schools in the rest of
      the world?
              A.     sports programs
              B.     language training
              C.     tracking
              D.     vocational training
22.   When compared with females of the 1960s, girls today are: ________.
              A.     thinner.
              B.     more muscular.
              C.     shorter.
              D.     heavier.
23.   Recent research about hormones and behavior have found the relationship to be: ________.
              A.     unidirectional.
              B.     bidirectional.
              C.     correlative.
              D.     not statistically significant.
24.   What do people in preoperational thought and formal operational thought share?
              A.     They are both egocentric.
              B.     They both rely primarily on deductive reasoning.
              C.     They both operationalize concepts.
              D.     They both depend on scripts and schemes.
25.   Testosterone is associated with: ________.
              A.     height increase.
              B.     chest development.
              C.     changes in vision.
           D.     muscle growth.
26. Discuss two aspects of adolescent egocentrism.




27. Identify three of the physical changes that take place during puberty with girls and three of the physical
    changes that take place with boys.




28. List three of the four cognitive changes that take place during adolescence that allow for improved critical
    thinking skills.




29. List three of the changes that individuals often face during the transition from elementary school to middle
    school or junior high school.




30. List four negative consequences of teen pregnancy.
                                                            Chapter 14

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Abraham is conducting a survey to determine which country has the highest rate of college attendance. He
   will find that _________ has the largest percentage of college students.
           A.      the United States
           B.      Canada
           C.      Ireland
           D.      France
2. Which theorist believed that it is important for a person to find an occupation that matches his or her own
   style of personality?
           A.      Eli Ginzberg
           B.      John Holland
           C.      Donald Super
           D.      K. Warner Schaie
3. Researchers today believe that rape is common in American culture mostly because of: _________.
           A.      the passivity of women.
           B.      the way men are socialized to be sexually aggressive.
           C.      hormonal imbalances that increase aggression in men.
           D.      biological and genetic factors that predispose men to commit violent crimes.
4. Which of the following athletes would be MOST likely to show peak performance at an early point in his or
   her career?
           A.      golfer
           B.      swimmer
           C.      sprinter
           D.      baseball player
5. One major criticism of dieting is that: _________.
           A.      college women diet even though they are not overweight.
           B.      it causes health problems in the dieter.
           C.      weight is lost, but basal metabolism rate does not change.
           D.      it causes liver damage.
6. Lauren was recently a victim of rape and is receiving counseling. Knowing the effects of rape, her counselor
   can predict that there is a 1 in _________ chance that Lauren will suffer some type of sexual dysfunction or
   reduced sexual desire if she does not receive effective counseling.
           A.      2
           B.      5
           C.      10
           D.      20
7. Barbara wants to engage in aerobic exercise that will burn fat and change her metabolism. Which of the
   following is the BEST activity for her to engage in?
           A.      weight lifting
           B.      stretching
           C.      jogging
           D.      walking
8. In 2003, the results of a longitudinal study of young adults in the United States documented that:
    _________.
            A.     very few are financially independent of their family of origin.
            B.     half of the sample were financially independent of their family of origin.
            C.     all are financially independent of their family of origin.
            D.     all are ashamed of needing financial help.
9. The increase in number of fat cells associated with gaining weight may lead to a problem with losing weight
    because the increase may alter an individual's: _________.
            A.     basal metabolism.
            B.     heredity.
            C.     eating patterns.
            D.     set point.
10. Which statement below summarizes what William Perry (1970) believes about the cognitive level displayed
    by the typical adolescent?
            A.     "What's right is right, and what's wrong is wrong."
            B.     "There are usually three sides to every issue: black, white, and gray."
            C.     "We have to look for the underlying principle of truth in every situation."
            D.     "To find truth we need to look at the full context and what people know and understand from
                   their own perspectives."
11. Cambie has drunk coffee every day for years but suddenly quits cold turkey. She now experiences
    headaches, fatigue, and irritability. Collectively, these symptoms are known as: _________.
            A.     withdrawal.
            B.     tolerance.
            C.     addiction.
            D.     cravings.
12. What percentage of college men admit to forcing a woman into a sexual act?
            A.     25
            B.     33
            C.     50
            D.     75
13. When Bette Midler said, "After 30, the body has a mind of its own," what did she mean?
            A.     Mental attitude significantly affects physical health.
            B.     After age 30, physical improvements occur with very little effort.
            C.     Decline in many aspects of physical functioning begins at about age 30.
            D.     After age 30, good health habits are irrelevant because genetics control physical fitness.
14. Although cigarette smoking is on the decline, _______ is on the increase.
            A.     alcohol usage
            B.     cigar smoking
            C.     marijuana smoking
            D.     pipe smoking
15. According to Holland, an individual with a realistic career-related personality type is most likely to be in
    which of the following occupational fields?
            A.     teaching
            B.     politics
            C.     farming
            D.     clerical work
16. A major criticism of Holland's personality type theory is that it: _________.
            A.     has too many personality types.
            B.     has too few personality types.
            C.     does not explain how people end up with the different personality types.
            D.     does not adequately reflect the fact that most people are a mix of the different types.
17. Which of the following statements about creativity is most accurate?
              A.      Creativity declines with age.
              B.     Older people are more creative than younger people.
              C.     The peak of creativity is reached by the twenties.
              D.      With regard to age, creativity is based on the domain.
18.   David notices he has sores around his genital area, just days after having intercourse. David MOST likely
      has: _________.
              A.      gonorrhea.
              B.     genital herpes.
              C.     syphilis.
              D.      HIV.
19.   Recent research emphasizes the significant role of _________ in obesity.
              A.      nutrition
              B.     exercise
              C.     heredity
              D.      motivation
20.   In the survey done by Cochran and Mays (1990), what percentage of the 422 people surveyed said that they
      had lied about their sexual behavior to have sex with their current partner?
              A.      34 percent of the men and 10 percent of the women
              B.     10 percent of the men and 34 percent of the women
              C.     47 percent of the men and 60 percent of the women
              D.      50 percent of the men and 25 percent of the women
21.   William Perry offers a perspective on the ways young adults' thinking differs from adolescents' thinking. In
      his view, adult thinking is more: _________.
              A.      dualistic.
              B.     polar.
              C.     reflective.
              D.      absolute.
22.   In a natural survey of drinking patterns on college campuses, which was NOT a problem reported by binge
      drinkers?
              A.      having unprotected sex
              B.     using illicit drugs
              C.     missing classes
              D.      physical injuries
23.   The educational and prestige levels of the _________ type are the highest of Holland's six basic career-
      related personality types.
              A.      realistic
              B.     investigative
              C.     social
              D.      enterprising
24.   When you look at the creative achievements of famous inventors, writers, and scientists, it is clear that
      creativity: _________.
              A.      peaks when adults are in their sixties and declines thereafter.
              B.     peaks when adults are in their thirties and steadily declines thereafter.
              C.     steadily increases throughout the life span and does not peak until retirement.
              D.      takes a developmental course that varies depending on the person's type of work and
                      individual situation.
25.   When it comes to HIV, the ONLY safe sex is: _________.
              A.      no sex.
              B.     protected sex.
              C.     sex between married partners.
              D.      sex between consenting adults.
26.   Characterize the three recent changes in dual-career families.
27. List three of the five environmental influences that are related to obesity.




28. Explain set point.




29. Identify Holland's six basic career-related personality types.




30. Discuss the two models of addiction.
                                                            Chapter 16

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Rick is a very successful businessman who likes a challenge. He works long, hard hours and looks forward
   to the important board meetings where major changes and decisions can occur. For the most part, he
   believes that he can help the company succeed. Rick's personality type is: __________.
           A.     hardy.
           B.     Type A.
           C.     Type C.
           D.     that of a hot reactor.
2. Although heart disease may be linked to Type A behavior, it seems that the underlying association is due to:
   __________.
           A.     attitude.
           B.     depression.
           C.     activity level.
           D.     anger control.
3. Laura is in her forties. Which of the following of her abilities will decline in the next 10 years?
           A.     inductive reasoning
           B.     numerical abilities
           C.     spatial orientation
           D.     verbal abilities
4. Which of the following statements accurately represents what we know about the relationship between
   happiness and religion?
           A.     Involvement in religion leads to greater happiness.
           B.     Being happy brings people to deeper religious conviction.
           C.     People who are involved in religion tend to be happy.
           D.     People become more involved in religion during periods of unhappiness.
5. Which of the following strategies would be MOST helpful in improving memory in middle age?
           A.     Avoid using vivid imagery to keep from becoming distracted.
           B.     Use a recall rather than recognition strategy whenever possible.
           C.     Use an organizational strategy to categorize information to be remembered.
           D.     Avoid using the information to be remembered so that it does not become confused with
                  other information.
6. The average adult in middle adulthood __________ height and __________ weight.
           A.     loses/loses
           B.     loses/gains
           C.     gains/gains
           D.     gains/loses
7. Which of the following is true about trends in job satisfaction?
           A.     Job satisfaction remains stable across the work life.
           B.     Job satisfaction increases across the work life for men but not for women.
           C.     Job satisfaction increases steadily across the work life for both men and women.
           D.     Job satisfaction increases across the work life for college-educated people but not for people
                  without a college degree.
8. Which of the following is the most common chronic disorder for men during middle age?
           A.      hypertension
           B.      arthritis
           C.      hearing impairments
           D.      sinus problems
9. People who exhibit Type A behavior are more likely to die from: __________ than from other causes.
           A.      cancer.
           B.      smoking.
           C.      alcoholism.
           D.      heart disease.
10. Compared with men's involvement in religion, women are more likely to: __________.
           A.      have less faith in the mainstream religious institutions.
           B.      believe in a higher power.
           C.      change churches when they are dissatisfied.
           D.      experiment with alternative religious practices.
11. What is the leading chronic disorder for women during middle age?
           A.      arthritis
           B.      hypertension
           C.      sinus problems
           D.      hearing impairment
12. Bob is 50 years old. If he is typical for his age, what is one of his major health concerns at this stage of life?
           A.      weight
           B.      complexion
           C.      liver disease
           D.      optimal exercise
13. What percentage of the U.S. population is older than 65 years?
           A.      2
           B.      12
           C.      22
           D.      23
14. Diabetes is to Latinos as __________ is to African Americans.
           A.      stroke
           B.      lung cancer
           C.      heart disease
           D.      high blood pressure
15. Which group has a stronger interest in religion?
           A.      men
           B.      women
           C.      Americans
           D.      Catholics
16. In general, why are 40-year-olds better problem-solvers than 20-year-olds?
           A.      They have better methods to improve their memory.
           B.      They have more experience.
           C.      They are more patient.
           D.      They have better insight.
17. Good health is positively correlated with: __________.
           A.      social relationships.
           B.      eating a high-fat diet.
           C.      decreased exercise.
           D.      age.
18. During middle age, the ability to hear __________ sounds declines first.
           A.      lower-pitched
             B.      higher-volume
             C.      higher-pitched
             D.      midrange-pitched
19.   Which of the following is NOT a reason that leisure may be an especially important aspect of middle
      adulthood?
             A.      inevitability of death
             B.      life change
             C.      opportunity
             D.      availability of money
20.   Which of the following skills is NOT adaptive in middle age?
             A.      maintaining a healthy lifestyle
             B.      coping effectively with stress
             C.      keeping anger toned down
             D.      using leisure sparingly
21.   When we see studies that report that women do experience psychological and physical difficulty because of
      menopause, we should keep in mind that most of these studies have been conducted with women:
      __________.
             A.      over the age of 60.
             B.      who are receiving hormone replacement therapy.
             C.      who entered menopause at an unusually early age.
             D.      who are seeking help from physicians and other professionals.
22.   Larry is a normal 45-year-old male. Which of the following is Larry most likely to be experiencing?
             A.      decreased sexual drive
             B.      divorce
             C.      loss in sight and hearing
             D.      increased metabolic rate
23.   As we age, our level of spirituality: __________.
             A.      increases.
             B.      decreases.
             C.      remains the same.
             D.      increases, but only in those who have chronic health concerns.
24.   __________ is a personality style characterized by a sense of commitment, control, and a perception of
      problems as challenges rather than threats.
             A.      Resilience
             B.      Hardiness
             C.      Omnipotence
             D.      Expedience
25.   Which country has the highest rate of citizens who believe in God?
             A.      the United States
             B.      India
             C.      Italy
             D.      Scandinavia
26.   Distinguish between crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence, and explain how they change in middle
      adulthood.




27. Identify three of the physical changes that take place during middle adulthood.
28. Describe the Type A and Type B behavior patterns.




29. List three reasons why religion promotes positive physical health.




30. Briefly discuss the conditions that may occur with menopause.
                                                            Chapter 18

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. If men and women engaged in exactly the same health-related behaviors, experienced the same amounts of
   stress, reacted to stress in the same ways, and had the same work habits and attitudes, which of the
   following would be expected?
            A.     Men and women would have the same life expectancies.
            B.     Women would have longer life expectancies than men.
            C.     Men would have longer life expectancies than women.
            D.     Men and women would both have shorter life expectancies.
2. What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to stress?
            A.     Older people have a reduced production of hormones that return the body to normal after
                   stress.
            B.     Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
            C.     The process of aging increases the pituitary gland's response to stress, making it work harder.
            D.     Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.
3. Deterioration of the retina is called: ________.
            A.     glaucoma.
            B.     cataracts.
            C.     macular degeneration.
            D.     retinal hardening.
4. Matty is an older adult who takes regular supplements of vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene. Is Matty's
   vitamin regimen necessary?
            A.     No, because there is no evidence that such vitamin supplements produce beneficial effects.
            B.     Yes, because there is some evidence that such vitamin supplements can add many years to
                   the life span.
            C.     Yes, because there is some evidence that such vitamin supplements are associated with
                   reduced illness and injury in later years.
            D.     No, because most supplements do not contain enough of the daily recommended dosage of
                   vitamin to be beneficial.
5. A disease that starts out slowly but lasts a long time is called: ________.
            A.     acute.
            B.     chronic.
            C.     terminal.
            D.     pervasive.
6. Millie's physician told her that she needs to reduce her stress. To do this, she should: ________.
            A.     exercise more.
            B.     take an assertiveness training course.
            C.     increase social interactions with peers.
            D.     reduce caffeine intake.
7. Which of the following is NOT a change that occurs in vision in late adulthood?
            A.     Dark adaptation is slower.
            B.     The amount of light that reaches the eye declines.
            C.     Degenerative changes in the retina occur.
              D.     The iris becomes clouded over with liquid.
8.    What is the average life expectancy for individuals born today in the United States?
              A.     69 years
              B.     72 years
              C.     75 years
              D.     77 years
9.    Harmful weight loss in older adults is the result of ________, which also reduces needed vitamin and
      mineral intake.
              A.     disease
              B.     dietary restriction
              C.     hospitalization
              D.     menu decisions by caregivers
10.   The concept of late adulthood was not used before the twentieth century because before then, ________.
              A.     most people died before age 65.
              B.     there was not much interest in the topic.
              C.     not much was understood about the psychology of elderly adults.
              D.     elderly adults were cared for within private families rather than public facilities.
11.   Your 90-year-old uncle complains that he cannot get around the way he used to. He has trouble getting up
      out of chairs and difficulty walking across the room when he does get up. Can you help him?
              A.     Yes, you could have him take estrogen to improve his bone structure.
              B.     No, this sort of physical decline is irreversible.
              C.     Yes, you could help him do leg-strength exercises to improve his balance and walking.
              D.     No, physical exercise only tends to make the physical declines of old age worse.
12.   At age 82, Mr. Wilcox still walks around the block every day and still picks up his 20-pound great-
      grandson. Mr. Wilcox is: ________.
              A.     what we would call robust.
              B.     weaker than most men his age.
              C.     unusually strong for someone his age.
              D.     about average in strength for someone his age.
13.   Which statement below summarizes brain development from age 70 to 80 years?
              A.     Both neurons and dendrites are lost, causing a deterioration in brain function.
              B.     New neurons and dendrites develop as the brain becomes the most vital organ in old age.
              C.     Neurons may atrophy, but overall function is maintained by the growth of new dendrites.
              D.     Dendrite connections are lost, but overall function is maintained by the growth of new
                     neurons.
14.   How has our knowledge about the heart's ability to pump blood as the body ages changed in recent years?
              A.     We used to think that blood capacity was maintained in old age as the heart weakened but the
                     arteries thinned.
              B.     We used to think that blood capacity was affected only by stress and diet, but now we know it
                     is affected by aging as well.
              C.     We used to think that blood capacity decreased only in adults who were unhealthy, but now
                     we know that it decreases for everyone.
              D.     We used to think that blood capacity decreased in all elderly adults, but now we know that
                     heart capacity can be maintained with healthy habits.
15.   Kenneth is an older adult who takes daily vitamin supplements. He takes 2,000 milligrams of vitamin C,
      750 international units of vitamin E, and 55 milligrams of beta-carotene. Is Kenneth taking the
      recommended dosage of vitamins?
              A.     No, he should take more vitamin C.
              B.     No, he should take lesser amounts of all three.
              C.     No, he should take greater amounts of all three.
              D.     No, he should take more vitamin C and beta-carotene.
16.   Walter is considering going to live in a nursing home. Which of the following would be of MOST concern
      to Walter?
             A.      the high number of staff members for each resident, which raises the cost of care
             B.      unnecessary restrictions on residents' freedom, thus reducing residents' control
             C.      unnecessarily strict safety requirements, resulting in raised costs for residents
             D.      policies limiting staff from interacting with residents, thus reducing the residents' social
                     contacts
17.   Which of the following best summarizes the relation between exercise and longevity?
              A.     Exercise can reverse many of the signs of aging.
              B.     Exercise can significantly increase the life span of humans.
              C.     Exercise helps improve and maintain health in older adults.
              D.     Exercise has many physical but few psychological benefits in older adults.
18.   The cellular clock and free-radical theories of aging both focus on aging as a result of: ________.
              A.     hormonal change.
              B.     decline of tissue regeneration.
              C.     cellular change.
              D.     lower resistance to disease.
19.   Mr. Martin is 84 years old and has no major health problems. Sexual function in someone as old as Mr.
      Martin is: ________.
              A.     about the same as it was when he was in his fifties.
              B.     possible but hampered by the lower blood pressure of most older adults.
              C.     possible but typically hampered by limited circulation in the sexual organs.
              D.     possible, although it may be more difficult for Mr. Martin to gain an erection and have an
                     orgasm.
20.   Calvin has just turned 90 years old. He would be considered among the: ________.
              A.     young-old.
              B.     middle-old.
              C.     old-old.
              D.     oldest-old.
21.   Which of the following is NOT included in the life expectancy test provided in Chapter 18 of your text?
              A.     how much income you earn
              B.     how much you sleep each day
              C.     family history of illnesses
              D.     how long you want to live
22.   Amelia, an older adult, says, "My granddaughter just bought me a set of hand weights, of all things! She
      says I ought to go check with my doctor, then start lifting weights! I told her she ought to start seeing a
      therapist." Amelia should: ________.
              A.     take her granddaughter's advice and see her doctor, but not start lifting weights.
              B.     not start lifting weights, because the likelihood of a bone injury is high at Amelia's age.
              C.     take her granddaughter's advice and begin weight lifting under her doctor's supervision.
              D.     explain to her granddaughter that weight lifting is not necessary to maintain muscle tone and
                     fitness in older adulthood.
23.   What percentage of 75- to 79-year-olds have hearing difficulties?
              A.     15
              B.     25
              C.     50
              D.     75
24.   Experts are recommending strength training for older adults because such training: ________.
              A.     improves physical appearance.
              B.     increases hormone production, resulting in decreased signs of aging.
              C.     increases cardiovascular fitness and reduces the likelihood of heart disease.
              D.     increases muscle mass, resulting in reductions in body fat and injury risk.
25.   Which figure is usually the largest?
           A.    life span
           B.    life expectancy
           C.    life span minus life expectancy
           D.    the average number of years adults live
26. Discuss changes in vision experienced by aging adults.




27. Discuss the cellular clock theory of aging.




28. Define chronic disorders, and list three of the four chronic conditions associated with the greatest limitation
    of work.




29. Discuss the free-radical theory of aging.




30. In which two ways do biological factors influence women's longevity over men's longevity?
                                                            Chapter 19

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Millie's physician told her that she needs to reduce her stress. To do this, she should: ________.
           A.     exercise more.
           B.     take an assertiveness training course.
           C.     increase social interactions with peers.
           D.     reduce caffeine intake.
2. Loss of bone mass is associated with: ________.
           A.     arteriosclerosis.
           B.     diabetes.
           C.     arthritis.
           D.     osteoporosis.
3. What is the main difference between the way younger people and older people respond to stress?
           A.     Older people have a reduced production of hormones that return the body to normal after
                  stress.
           B.     Younger people have better coping strategies for dealing with stress.
           C.     The process of aging increases the pituitary gland's response to stress, making it work harder.
           D.     Older people keep stress hormones in their system longer.
4. The McArthur Studies of Successful Aging have concluded that all of the following can reduce chronic
   illness EXCEPT:
           A.     exercise
           B.     emotional support.
           C.     an active sex life.
           D.     self-efficacy.
5. The hormonal stress theory DIFFERS from the cellular clock and the free-radical theories of aging in that it:
   ________.
           A.     focuses only on the processes of aging in the oldest-old.
           B.     ignores changes at the cellular level.
           C.     discounts the role of genetics in aging.
           D.     de-emphasizes external stressors as the cause of aging.
6. Longevity is positively correlated with: ________.
           A.     ability to cope.
           B.     number of stressful events.
           C.     years of marriage.
           D.     socioeconomic status.
7. Rhonda and Lewis are taking care of their elderly mother while she lives in Rhonda's home. Research on the
   care of the elderly shows that their mother will benefit the MOST if Rhonda and Lewis: ________.
           A.     take care of most things for her but give her a few areas of autonomy.
           B.     challenge her to meet her own needs before coming to her assistance.
           C.     take care of her needs but let her do what she can for herself.
           D.     come to her assistance only when she asks them for help.
8. Sex education for elderly people has been found to: ________.
           A.     increase older adults' willingness to talk about sex.
             B.       increase sexual activity among the elderly.
             C.       suppress the need for sex that older people feel.
             D.       create considerable unhappiness among people who do not have the capacity to practice what
                      they are learning.
9.    Why do we know so little about elderly people who are still strong and healthy well into their eighties?
              A.      because they make up such a small proportion of the population
              B.      because they have only recently become a sizable group
              C.      because they are reluctant to be interviewed
              D.      because we tend to focus on the disabilities and infirmities of the elderly
10.   A major factor in the decline of physical performance between 70 and 79 years of age appears to be:
      ________.
              A.      heredity.
              B.      health.
              C.      ethnicity.
              D.      specific age (e.g., number of years lived).
11.   Antioxidant vitamins are purported to be important for older adults because they: ________.
              A.      stop the production of free radicals in the body.
              B.      decrease the production of cholesterol in the body.
              C.      increase the production of free radicals in the body.
              D.      keep cell damage from becoming widespread in the body.
12.   The most influential factor in delaying brain deterioration during old age is: ________.
              A.      mental stimulation.
              B.      nutrition.
              C.      cellular garbage.
              D.      exercise.
13.   The young-old are people whose age falls in the range of: ________.
              A.      40 to 50 years old.
              B.      50 to 65 years old.
              C.      65 to 74 years old.
              D.      75 to 84 years old.
14.   Which branch of medicine deals with the health problems of the elderly?
              A.      gerontology
              B.      geriatrics
              C.      ophthalmology
              D.      etiology
15.   Kenneth is an older adult who takes daily vitamin supplements. He takes 2,000 milligrams of vitamin C,
      750 international units of vitamin E, and 55 milligrams of beta-carotene. Is Kenneth taking the
      recommended dosage of vitamins?
              A.      No, he should take more vitamin C.
              B.      No, he should take lesser amounts of all three.
              C.      No, he should take greater amounts of all three.
              D.      No, he should take more vitamin C and beta-carotene.
16.   All of the following are associated with living to be 100 EXCEPT:
              A.      coping style
              B.      genetics
              C.      lack of stress
              D.      marriage
17.   Martha is 102 years old. She is most likely: ________.
              A.      an immigrant.
              B.      single.
              C.      well off financially
              D.      stress free.
18. In the year 2000, approximately how many people were centenarians?
            A.      19,000
            B.      77,000
            C.      212,000
            D.      834,000
19. Which of the following describes a biological component to the difference in life expectancies between men
    and women?
            A.      higher versus lower rates of emphysema
            B.      existence versus absence of sleep disorders
            C.      existence versus absence of an X chromosome
            D.      existence versus absence of a reasoned, practical life view
20. Robert's condition has been diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease; Robert is 68 years old. His family suspects
    that his disease is a result of the natural loss of neurons as the brain ages. When they meet with the doctor,
    they learn that they were: ________.
            A.      wrong, because most adults gain neurons in old age but lose dendrites.
            B.      right, because patients who lose neurons usually do end up with Alzheimer's disease.
            C.      wrong, because most adults maintain normal brain function even when they lose neurons.
            D.      right, because Alzheimer's disease occurs when the brain tries to grow new neurons to
                    replace the ones that were lost.
21. The onset of physical changes in late adulthood: ________.
            A.      occurs at a similar age for most people.
            B.      varies in time from person to person.
            C.      is closely associated with changes in endocrine system function.
            D.      occurs in a regular series of stages.
22. Terrence is 67 years old and no longer able to work because of his health. Which condition would be MOST
    likely to cause a work disability in someone his age?
            A.      asthma
            B.      diabetes
            C.      arthritis
            D.      heart condition
23. An ironic fact about health care given to elderly patients is that elderly patients: ________.
            A.      try very hard to communicate with their physicians.
            B.      take a relatively passive role in their own treatment.
            C.      are very concerned about their own health.
            D.      are satisfied with the treatment they receive.
24. All but one of the following are ways to prevent or inhibit osteoporosis. Which one is the EXCEPTION?
            A.      treatment with human growth hormone
            B.      eating calcium-rich foods
            C.      avoidance of smoking
            D.      weight lifting
25. At age 72, Faye has a scan to assess the status and functioning of her brain. Her doctor also just completed a
    scan on a 50-year-old woman. As the doctor compares the two scans, it will be normal to see: ________ in
    Faye's brain.
            A.      fewer neurons but more dendrites
            B.      fewer neurons and dendrites
            C.      fewer dendrites but more neurons
            D.      more neurons and dendrites
26. List two strategies related to good health in nursing-home patients.
27. In which two ways do biological factors influence women's longevity over men's longevity?




28. List three of the strategies that are adaptive for physical development in late adulthood.




29. List three ways in which the oldest-old differ from the young-old.




30. List four of the seven leading causes of death in older adults.
                                                            Chapter 21

       Student: _________________________________________________________

       Select the best answer for each multiple-choice question (1-25). For undergraduate students, select and respond to one (1) essay
       question (26-30). For graduate credit students, please provide a comprehensive response to three (3) essay questions (26-30).
       Good Luck! Highlight or underline the correct multiple-choice response and write a narrative beneath the essay
       question(s) you select. Completed quizzes must be submitted by midnight Sunday each week (see schedule on page 5). Your
       choice of submitting materials is to email me at m-marsala@govst.edu OR send through mail to R. Schreurs/DXL, Governors
       State University, One University Parkway, University Park, IL 60466.


1. Which of the following statements about a living will is FALSE?
           A.      It is a legally binding document.
           B.      Only the terminally ill can write one.
           C.      The individual must be in a clear state of mind when writing it.
           D.      The document contains the individual's wishes regarding medical treatment.
2. In the United States today, ________ percent of all deaths occur in hospitals.
           A.      20
           B.      50
           C.      80
           D.      95
3. Esther attended her aunt's funeral, which was held in a barn. In the weeks after the funeral, Esther and other
   women go to her aunt's house to participate in quilting activities and other projects to help give the grieving
   family community support. Esther is living in which type of community?
           A.      Irish
           B.      Amish
           C.      Jewish
           D.      Hutterite
4. The more negative beliefs and self-blame a person holds regarding the death of a close family member, the
   more severe symptoms of ________ that person will have.
           A.      traumatic grief
           B.      depression
           C.      anxiety
           D.      all of these
5. Mazle has just found out that he has cancer. He has told his daughter that he knows that he has the disease
   but is not really worried about dying from it because he is convinced that his treatments will be completely
   effective. Mazle may be engaging in: ________.
           A.      denial.
           B.      bargaining.
           C.      terminal drop.
           D.      realistic acceptance.
6. For a terminally ill person, which of the following can be the most useful benefit of denying one's imminent
   death?
           A.      Denial shields the person from addressing the issue of death.
           B.      Denial helps shield family members from negative feelings.
           C.      Denial encourages the person to further develop his or her understanding of what will happen
                   after death.
           D.      Denial can lead the dying person to a perception of control over his or her circumstances.
7. An individual is MOST likely to die: ________.
           A.      at home.
           B.      in a hospice.
           C.      in a hospital.
              D.       in a car accident.
8.    "I believe there is a transition in form when you die," the girl said. "It's like your molecules get rearranged
      or something." This explanation of death would MOST likely come from a: ________.
              A.       5-year-old.
              B.      10-year-old.
              C.      15-year-old.
              D.       35-year-old.
9.    In the Jewish community, the members of a grieving family all walk together for a short distance to
      symbolize their: ________.
              A.       common loss.
              B.      unity in grief.
              C.      return to society.
              D.       community unity.
10.   The case of the elderly man in Florida who placed a pillow over his terminally ill wife and smothered her to
      end her suffering is an example of: ________.
              A.       passive euthanasia.
              B.      active euthanasia.
              C.      natural euthanasia.
              D.       acceptable euthanasia.
11.   The view that grief proceeds in stages does NOT address: ________.
              A.       the idea that grief is a unitary concept.
              B.      the invariant order in which grief proceeds.
              C.      the idea that grief gradually decreases across time.
              D.       the idea that some aspects of grief persist while others fade away.
12.   Which two factors may work together as an adaptive strategy for some older adults who face death?
              A.       perceived control and acceptance
              B.      autonomy and denial
              C.      coping skills and autonomy
              D.       denial and perceived control
13.   Two hundred years ago, what percentage of children died before their 10th birthday?
              A.       5
              B.      10
              C.      25
              D.       50
14.   If legal definitions of death are modified to mean death of the higher brain but not necessarily the lower
      brain, which of the following would become a legal practice?
              A.       assisted suicide of terminally ill patients
              B.      mercy-killing of patients in chronic and severe pain
              C.      overdoses of pain medication to comatose patients
              D.       disconnection from life-support systems of patients with no higher-level brain activity
15.   "Aninut," "avelut," and "shivah" are all parts of the grieving process for people in the ________
      community.
              A.       Amish
              B.      Jewish
              C.      Muslim
              D.       Protestant
16.   Adam has incurable cancer. However, he promises to lead a reformed life dedicated to God if God will
      spare his life. Adam is in which of Kübler-Ross' stages of dying?
              A.       denial
              B.      hope
              C.      bargaining
              D.       acceptance
17. A young woman was seriously injured in a car accident and now shows no higher cortical brain function.
    Her parents decide to take her off the life-support machines but are shocked when she continues to breathe
    on her own. Is the young woman dead?
             A.      No, because she continues to breathe on her own.
             B.      It is unclear because we do not know how long she will breathe on her own.
             C.      Yes, because she is no longer capable of thinking or showing personality characteristics.
             D.      It is unclear because death can be defined in different ways by different people.
18. "Grief is a symphony, with different instruments rising and falling at different times, becoming alternately
    loud then soft, happy then inconsolable. It quiets with time, but some of grief's sounds are there forever."
    This description of grief reflects: ________.
             A.      a dimensional view of grief.
             B.      a stage view of grief.
             C.      denial of death.
             D.      an unhealthy resolution of grief.
19. Hospices are a relatively recent approach developed to: ________.
             A.      cure illness and prolong life at all costs.
             B.      make the end of life as free from pain and anxiety as possible.
             C.      provide a place where people with no living relatives can die.
             D.      lower the cost of medical care by competing with hospitals.
20. Marie's sister died 3 years ago. Marie is consistently bothered by sleeping problems, restlessness, and
    irritability. She often finds herself weeping uncontrollably because she misses her sister so much. Which of
    the following is probably true of Marie?
             A.      She is recovering very quickly from her sister's death.
             B.      She is moving through the stages of grief and will eventually recover.
             C.      She is as recovered as one can hope to be from the death of a loved one.
             D.      She is experiencing an unusually long grief period and should seek help.
21. Allan is 8 years old. Which of the following presents the greatest risk of death for Allan?
             A.      SIDS
             B.      suicide
             C.      respiratory illness
             D.      accidents
22. What do researchers know about the cause of sudden infant death syndrome?
             A.      They do not know the cause.
             B.      It is caused by a genetic disorder.
             C.      It is caused by a metabolic imbalance.
             D.      It is caused by a nutritional deficiency.
23. Most psychologists believe that it is best for dying individuals to: ________.
             A.      be unaware of their condition.
             B.      limit their interaction with others.
             C.      know that they are dying.
             D.      distance themselves from family and friends.
24. Talking with people who interact regularly with dying people would help you to: ________.
             A.      experience the feelings of a dying person.
             B.      define death in an objective way.
             C.      be aware of the social, cultural, and historical forces that govern how we deal with death.
             D.      take the perspective of someone who must deal with death.
25. Rose's husband has just died. The odds are that in her late adulthood, Rose will experience: ________.
             A.      poverty.
             B.      a sort of emancipation as she enjoys her new freedom.
             C.      very comfortable living from insurance payments.
             D.      retirement with the next man that she marries.
26. Explain how perceived control and denial help the dying person.
27. List three reasons why widows outnumber widowers.




28. Why do some medical experts argue that the criteria for death should include only higher cortical
    functioning?




29. Define grief, and describe its course.




30. List two historical changes regarding death.

				
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