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A proposal for the release of rice variety Barkhe 3004 by gdf57j

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									     A proposal for the release of rice variety Barkhe 3004
(A rice variety developed using client-oriented breeding (COB) approaches)

                            Jointly Submitted by

 Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD)

 CAZS-Natural Resources (CAZS-NR), University of Wales, Bangor, UK

National Rice Research Programme (NRRP), Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal

                     Jaskelo Youth Club (JYC), Chitwan




                               Adnoddau Naturiol
             CAZS              Natural Resources




 S. Gyawali§, J. R. Witcombe†, K. D. Joshi†, K. P. Devkota§, M. P. Tripathi§, M.
   Subedi§, S. Sunuwar§, B. N. Chaudhary‡, D. Chaudhary‡, N.P. Adhikari‡, T.
     Akhtar‡, R. B. Yadav‡, S. P. Khatiwada‡, D. Subedi¶ and H.D. Mishra¶


 §
  Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD)
       †
        CAZS-Natural Resources, University of Wales, Bangor, UK
‡
 National Rice Research Programme (NRRP), Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal
                     ¶
                       Jaskelo Youth Club (JYC), Chitwan




                                   June 2006
    Application to be made for approval and release of crop varieties

                           Government of Nepal
                  Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
                            National Seed Board
      Format for submission of proposal for the release of a crop variety

The Variety Approval, Release and Registration Sub-committee (VARRC)
National Seed Board Secretariat
Seed Quality Control Centre
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur
Tel. 5521359

Sub: Application for the release of a rice variety Barkhe 3004

As, we have selected new variety described below; we hereby make this application for
the approval/release/registration of the seeds of rice variety as follows.

Original entry name    Suggested name
LD (LIRI-M-11)         Barkhe 3004

1. Background information

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important commodity in Nepalese agriculture and its
economy as it is grown in about 1.55 m ha (50% of the total cultivated area during the
spring and summer) producing 4.3 m tons of rough rice with an average productivity of
2.77 t ha-1. Share of rice is 20% to the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and it
contributes nearly 50% to the total calorie requirement of Nepalese people. Nepal, a net
exporter of rice until 1980 imported over 19,000 tons of milled rice in 2003 (IRRI, 2005),
which indicates the slow pace of rice growth in the country. Rice straw is the main source
of animal feed during the dry season as it meets about 32-37% of total digestible nutrients
required for 8.6 million livestock (NRRP, 1997). It is estimated that 73% of the rice area
in terai, 24% of the area is in the hills and just 3% in the high hills (>1,500 m) (NRRP,
1997). Of this, about 7% is under double rice crop and 9% grown as broadcast sown rice
in unbunded field locally known as Ghaiya. Of the total rice area, more than 70% (1.1 m
ha) rice is grown under rainfed condition that suffers from drought and flooding stresses
each year (CBS, 2003).

Client-oriented breeding (COB)-previously known as participatory plant breeding (PPB)
was implemented by LI-BIRD with technical support form CAZS Natural Resources
(CAZS-NR), University of Wales, UK and in collaboration with National Rice Research
Programme (NRRP), NARC, Jaskelo Yuba Club, Chitwan, District Agricultural
Development Offices (DADOs) and the farming community of Chitwan and many other




                                            2
districts in Nepal. Department for International Development (DFID) Plant Sciences
Research Programme (PSP) provided the financial support for COB.

Several professionals representing many organizations and farmers contributed in the
development of Barkhe 3004 (Annexure 1). The breeding strategy adopted was
advancing two generations per year as far as feasible, one during the main season and
second during the Chaite or winter season providing opportunity of screening rice
varieties under varying input levels, biotic and abiotic conditions, focusing on large
population size, screening under farmers’ customary management and input levels and
with active involvement of farmers for the selection of rice lines from the early
generations bulks to develop farmer preferred rice varieties that are widely adopted under
diverse agro-ecological and socioeconomic conditions.

A comprehensive participatory evaluation for quality traits was done before advancing
rice lines from these crosses to any on-station or on-farm evaluation. This included
assessment for physical qualities, e.g. qualities of milled rice, cooking and eating tests.
The disease screening and yield testing of the rice lines was done by NRRP under a LoA
between LI-BIRD and NARC.

Promising rice lines were evaluated in a Mother and Baby trial systems. The names
‘Mother’ and ‘Baby’ trials follow the nomenclature of Snapp (1999). The ‘Mother’ trials
comprised all of the test entries and checks and each trial was a single replicate of
randomized entries with the replication across farmers’ fields (multilocations). Farmers
level of inputs and management was used both in Mother and Baby trials. Mother trials
were conducted in Chitwan and Nawalparasi by LI-BIRD while LI-BIRD, Community
Development and Research Centre (CDRC) Morang, and SUPPORT Foundation,
Kanchanpur across terai covering many districts from the east to west, conducted Baby
trials (one variety against a local check in several locations).

Promising rice varieties were also included in the on-station trial by NRRP at Hardinath
and were also evaluated at other NARC Stations, particularly at Parwanipur and Jute
Research Centre, Itahari as these are considered as the appropriate Stations for screening
of rice varieties for rainfed low land or intermediate land. District Agricultural
Development Offices (DADOs) from several districts conducted Baby trials and informal
research and development (IRD) and also facilitated seed production and distribution.

Quantitative data were recorded from NARC on-station trials (Annexure 2-5), Mother
trials (Annexure 7-10), Baby trials and crop cut surveys conducted in few selected
districts. Farmers’ preference ranking for physical qualities and other traits were also
organized. In addition, fertility trials were also done (Annexure 11-12).

This proposal summarises the performance of Barkhe 3004 from a number of studies
carried out in stress prone as well as high potential production areas.




                                            3
2. General Information

2.1.    Common name: Rice
2.2.    Botanical name: Oryza sativa L.
2.3.    Original designation/Symbolic name used in testing: LD (LIRI-M-11): Barkhe 3004
2.4.    Pedigree/selection history: The breeding history of Barkhe 3004 is described
        below.

Summary of procedures in the Kalinga III/IR64 cross to produce and test Barkhe 3004,
1996-2005
Generation    Year and season                                    Procedure
Parental      1996              Parents crossed (at IRRI at request of CAZS-NR).
    F1        1997              At IRRI.
    F2        1997 Main         10,000 F2 plants grown by Gramin Vikas Trust (GVT), Birsa Agricultural
                                University (BAU) and CAZS-NR collaborative programme for rice
                                breeding.
    F3       1998 Chaite        Mass selection on the basis of maturity/height to produce bulks†
    F4       1999 Main          Mass selection in Late Dwarf (LD) bulk produced from the late- maturing
                                dwarf height plants in the F4†.
    F5       2000 Main          Mass selection in the LD bulk†.
    F6       2001 Main          Single plant selection from the LD bulk†.
    F7       2002 Winter        Progeny rows. Organoleptic assessment on harvested seed from progeny
                                rows†.
    F8       2002 Main          Tested in disease screening nurseries (NRRP), Mother Baby trials (LI-
                                BIRD) and seed increase.
    F9       2003 Winter        Seed increase (LI-BIRD).
    F10      2003 Main          CVT and disease screening nurseries (NRRP), Mother Baby trials (NGOs
                                and DADOs), seed production (LI-BIRD).
    F11      2004 Main          CVT and disease screening nurseries (NRRP), Mother Baby trials (NGOs
                                and DADOs), seed production (LI-BIRD and CBOs), fertilizer trial and
                                agromorphological trait assessment (LI-BIRD). Molecular analysis (CAZS-
                                NR).
    F12      2005 Main          CVT and disease and insect screening nurseries (NRRP), Mother Baby
                                trials (NGOs and DADOs), seed production (CBOs and LI-BIRD), fertilizer
                                trial (LI-BIRD).
†LI-BIRD in collaboration with CAZS-NR.

2.5.    Cross (parents)1: Kalinga III/IR64 (Cross made at IRRI for CAZS-Natural
        Resources)
2.6.    Country of Origin: Nepal
2.7.    Source of material (Name of the institution, farmer/farming community,
        experiment and the year in which it was first introduced, etc): F3 generation
        introduced from breeding programme of Gramin Vikas Trust and Birsa
        Agricultural University (BAU), Jharkhand, India to the breeding nursery of LI-
        BIRD and CAZS-NR in 1998 in Chitwan




1
 Cross (parents) may not be applicable to landraces while for the hybrids, the proposing Company may or
may not disclose the parentage


                                                   4
2.8.    Years and location of testing of the varieties in Nepal

    Year       Experiment                                          Location                         Source/
                                                                                                    References2
2003           Coordinated Varietal Trial Rainfed lowland          NRRP, Hardinath, RARS            Annexure 2
               Medium (CVTRLM), 2003                               Parwanipur
2004           §
                 Coordinated varietal trial rainfed lowland        NRRP, Hardinath, RARS            Annexure 3
               medium (CVT RLM), 2004 (N =4 )                      Parwanipur
2005           Coordinated Varietal Trial Rainfed lowland          NRRP, Hardinath, RARS            Annexure 4
               Medium (CVTRLM), 2005                               Parwanipur, Jute Research
                                                                   Centre, Itahari
              Combined analysis for the grain yield of various     NRRP, Hardinath, RARS             Annexure 5
              rice varieties evaluated in Coordinated Varietal     Parwanipur, Jute Research
              Trial (CVT) Rainfed lowland Medium                   Centre, Itahari
              (CVTRLM), 2003 to 2005
2005          Performance of various rice varieties in (Initial    NRRP, Hardinath                   Annexure 6
              Evaluation Trial), Hardinath, main season 2005
2003          Varietal characteristics of Barkhe 3004 in six       LI-BIRD, Chitwan and              Annexure 7
              entry trial compared to check variety Masuli in      Nawalparasi
              five Mother trials in rainfed intermediate lowland,
              main season 2003.
2004          Varietal characteristics of Barkhe 3004 in six LI-BIRD, Chitwan and                    Annexure 8
              entry trial compared to check variety Masuli in Nawalparasi
              five Mother trial in rainfed intermediate lowland,
              main season 2004.
2005          Varietal characteristics of Barkhe 3004 in seven     NR LI-BIRD, Chitwan and           Annexure 9
              entry trial compared to check variety Masuli in      Nawalparasi
              eight Mother trials in rainfed intermediate
              lowland, main season in 2005.
              Combined analysis for grain yield (t ha-1) of NR LI-BIRD, Chitwan and                  Annexure 10
              different varieties of rice in rainfed lowland Nawalparasi
              environment tested in Mother Trial in Chitwan
              and Nawalparasi districts of Nepal from 2002-
              2005
2004    and Response of Barkhe 3004 to different doses of          LI-BIRD, Chitwan                  Annexure 11
2005          fertilizer in trial conducted in main season 2004
              and 2005 in Chitwan district.
2005          Cost benefit ratio of Barkhe 3004 across different LI-BIRD, Chitwan                    Annexure 11.1
              dosages of fertilizers
2005          Cost of cultivation for Barkhe 3004 (on a per        LI-BIRD Chitwan                   Annexure 12
              hectare basis)
2005          Cost-benefit analysis of Barkhe 3004 and Masuli      LI-BIRD Chitwan                   Annexure 12.1
              based on yield trials
2002-2005     Disease data from National Bacterial Leaf Blight     NRRP, Hardinath, LI-BIRD          Annexure 13-
              Screening Nursery and National Blast Screening       Chitwan and Nawalparasi,          20
              Nurseries                                            IAAS, Rampur
‡
 N= number of replications, § CVT were conducted at two locations in 2003 and three locations each in 2004 and 2005.

Performance in Coordinated Varietal trials: Barkhe 3004 was evaluated in Coordinated
Varietal Trials (CVT) of NARC (28 replications) for 2003, 2004 and 2005 (Annexure 2-

2
 Details of experimental results have been presented at the end of the report and only Annexure numbers
have been referred here.



                                                   5
5). Masuli was used as a Standard check while Jaswa, Rambilas (Radha 11), Kanchhi
Masuli and Nenki were used as the local check varieties. Performance of Barkhe 3004
was superior to Masuli across rainfed lowland environment in all of three years of testing.

A homogeneity test was done to before a combined analysis for analysis. CVT data from
Parwanipur, Hardinath and Itahari 2003 to 2005 have been used in the analysis. However,
CVT data from Jute Research Station for 2004 were detected as the outliers by
homogeneity test and hence excluded from the analysis. The mean grain yields of Barkhe
3004 and Masuli were significantly different (as tested by a paired t test). The regression
coefficient of Barkhe 3004 was significantly higher than Masuli showing that Barkhe
3004 was more responsive to better environments (Figure 1, Table 1). This was in
accordance with the later maturity of Barkhe 3004 and its superior lodging resistance. On
average Barkhe 3004 produced 3.85 t ha-1 of grain while Masuli gave 3.13 t ha-1. The
overall mean grain yield of Barkhe 3004 was 23% higher than Masuli (Figure 1).

                                                    8.00   Barkhe 3004 = 1.21x - 0.28; R2 = 0.81
                                                           Masuli = 0.68x + 0.81; R2 = 0.59
                                                    7.00

                                                    6.00
                       Variety grain yield (t/ha)




                                                    5.00
                                                                                                     Barkhe 3004

                                                    4.00                                             Masuli


                                                    3.00

                                                    2.00

                                                    1.00

                                                    0.00
                                                        0.00        2.00          4.00        6.00
                                                                 Trial me an yie ld (t/ha)




Figure 1. Stability of Barkhe 3004 over standard check variety Masuli in CVT (n=28), mother
          trials (n=18) and baby trials (n=23) data. Linear regression trend lines are shown.

Table 1. Regression parameters for Barkhe 3004 and Masuli in rainfed lowland (RLM and RLI
          domains) trials where variety mean grain yield was regressed on trial mean yield of the
          test entry and Masuli and the local check

Variety         N§         Mean grain yield (t/ha) R2 (%)              b           SE of b
Barkhe 3004 69             3.85±0.14                    81             1.21*** 0.07
Masuli          69         3.13±0.09                    59             0.68*** 0.07
§
  Indicates number of trial for individual variety, ‡ figures in the parenthesis represent degree of
freedom, ***= P highly significant




                                                                                6
The standard errors (SE) of b indicate the extent of the goodness of fit of the regression
line and are another measure of the stability of a variety. There was no difference
between Barkhe 3004 and Masuli for this statistic (Table 1).

Mother trials: A total of 18 Mother trials were conducted in Chitwan and Nawalparasi in
2003, 2004 and 2005. Mother trials sample more diverse growing environments as these
are dispersed across a number of farmers in a testing site. Mother trials are done under
farmers’ level of inputs and management. This meant that these are actual yield levels
attainable by the farmers without any possibility for further error caused by G x E.

Rice varieties evaluated in Mother trials did not differ for grain yield in 2003, while the
results of 2004 and 2005 were statistically significant. In 2004, Barkhe 3004 was at par
with Masuli while significantly superior to local varieties; while in 2005 Barkhe 3004
was significantly superior to Masuli. On average Barkhe 3004 gave >13% higher yield
over Masuli over three seasons. It is noteworthy that results from the Mother trials and
the CVT were in agreement about the extent of the yield advantage of Barkhe 3004 over
Masuli.

2.9. Farmers Field Trials (FFTs), participatory trials data/information and stakeholders’1
preferences and major traits2 of stakeholders’ interest

S.      Year   Experiments/trials               Location                                                          Source
no.                                                                                                              References
  1     2003   Paired comparison of rice        Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Shirha, Dhanusha,                Table 4
               genotypes in Baby trials         Mahottari, Sarlahi, Rautahat, Bara, Parsa, Makwanpur,
                                                Chitwan, Nawalparasi and Kapilvastu
    2   2004   Paired comparison of rice        Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Dhanusha, Rautahat,              Table 4
               genotypes in Baby trials         Bara, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Dang, Banke,
                                                Barediya, Kailali and Kanchanpur
    3   2005   Paired comparison of rice        Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Shirha, Dhanusha,                Table 4
               genotypes in Baby trials         Mahottari, Sarlahi, Rautahat, Bara, Parsa, Makawanpur,
                                                Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi, Kapilvastu, Dang,
                                                Banke, Bardiya, Kailali and Kanchanpur
    4   2003   Participatory rice quality       Chitwan                                                           Table 8
               assessment (physical
               qualities)
    5   2004   Participatory rice quality       Chitwan                                                           Table 9
               assessment (physical
               qualities)
    6   2003   Participatory rice quality       Chitwan                                                           Table 10
               assessment           (cooking
               qualities and taste)
    7   2004   Participatory rice quality       Chitwan                                                           Table 11
               assessment           (cooking
               qualities and taste)



3
  Stakeholders refer to farmers, consumers, processing industry, merchants, and seed companies/Agrovets.
4
 Major traits of stakeholders' interest include (1) agronomic data (2) Stress tolerance (3) quality traits (4)
Economic value (5) Others specify if any. Please attach the details of experimental results at the end and
refer only Annexure numbers here.


                                                       7
Performance in Baby trials: Performance of any variety in Baby trials is a real test for its
adaptation and stability as it is conducted under most diverse growing conditions under
farmers’ level of inputs and management. The general performance for grain yield in
these trials would be the real reflection of the final yield because these trials are the best
representation of the farmers growing conditions.

Over 300 Baby trials have been conducted on Barkhe 3004 in several of the terai districts
from the east to far west, of which perception data were collected from 262 of them. In
2005, a crop cut survey was done on randomly selected 85 Baby trials in seven districts
from east to west to understand the performance of this variety under farmers’ actual
growing condition. In all cases, the researchers measured area of the trial plot. In Chitwan
and Nawalparasi, the researchers measured the yield directly in metric system and in the
eastern terai districts; the yield was first measured in volumes by the farmers, which were
later converted in to metric system, while in Kailali and Kanchanpur the yield was
measured by the farmers in the metric system.

The range of yield in the Baby trials is much wider compared to CVTs. This was because
Baby trials were also done in some of the most productive rice areas in the country, e.g.
Bara and Morang. On average it gave nearly 19% more yield over all the currently grown
varieties by the sampled farmers and this was statistically significant in four out of seven
districts where the trials were conducted.

Table 2.Grain yield of Barkhe 3004 from crop cut survey from Baby trials, 2005

District           N     Farmers’ variety                    Grain yield t ha-1        Yield advantage        t-at
                                                        Farmers’      Barkhe 3004      over farmers’          p =0.05
                                                        variety                        variety (%)
1. Morang          9    Masuli                          3.6±0.23        5.2±0.37       45                     ***
2. Siraha          11   Jhapali Masuli,                 2.5.34          3.3±0.48       34                     *
                        Rambilash, Mala, Masuli,
                        Sona Masuli
3. Bara            22   Sona Masuli                     4.2±0.29         4.4±0.26      5                      ns
4. Chitwan         11   Masuli, Sabitri                 3.5±0.22         4.5±032       27                     *
5. Nawalparasi     9    Masuli, Mala, Sabitri,          3.80.37          4.8±0.53      28                     *
                        Swarna
6. Kailali         16   Sarjoo 52, Radha, Masuli,       3.1±0.16         3.3±0.29      5                      ns
7. Kanchanpur      7    Sarjoo 52, Jhapali Masuli,      3.2±0.33         3.9±0.25      21                     ns
                        Pusa 44
Overall            85   Various farmers’ varieties      3.5±0.12         4.2±0.14      19                      ***
                        reported above§
†
 Mean ± SEM, § Number of farmers growing various varieties as check in Baby trials were: Masuli (23), Sona Masuli (23),
Sarjoo 52 (18), Mala (5), Sabitri (4), Rambilash or Radha 11 (4), Jhapali Masuli (3), Swarna (2), Pusa 44 (1) and Radha 4 (1)


Of the 85 baby trials, 23 had Masuli as the local check. When only these trials were
considered then Barkhe 3004 yielded 44% more than Masuli (mean of 4.8 t ha -1 for
Barkhe 3004 and 3.3 t ha-1 for Masuli). These baby trials were almost entirely in the
lowland irrigated domain where the yield potential of Barkhe 3004 was better expressed.




                                                        8
In addition to higher yield, this variety is characterized by a number of desirable traits
such as resistance to blast and field tolerance to bacterial leaf blight (BLB) and other
diseases and insect pests. Number of fertile panicles per unit area and number of grains
per panicle for this variety are comparable or higher than the Standard Checks (Annexure
2-6), which also support its high, yield potential. Short (84-90 cm), sturdy and non-
lodging plants with very good response to applied inputs and considering its maturity
period (157 days), which is similar to the popular variety Masuli, it is suitable for rainfed
medium to lowlands and higher fertility and long-standing water conditions. Moreover, it
has good post harvest qualities, e.g. high milling recovery and good taste. The test weight
of Barkhe 3004 (rough rice) was on average 23.4 g per 1000 grains. Therefore this
variety is in the same class as Sabitri, i.e. medium coarse.

Farmers’ perceptions and preferences: Farmers’ responses on various traits of Barkhe
3004 were collected using household level questionnaires (HLQs) at the end of each
season after allowing enough time to compare Barkhe 3004 for its post harvest qualities
including market potential with the most popular variety. Farmer’s perceptions were
collected for 11 different traits of Barkhe 3004 over three years from several terai
districts. For the purpose of comparison a χ2 test was done between the frequencies of
Barkhe 3004 preferred and the check variety preferred ignoring the frequency for equally
preferred. The 262 participating farmers in the Baby trials, preferred Barkhe 3004 in all
the three years although the number of Baby trials in 2004 were fewer than rest of the
years and hence most of the traits in 2004 showed non-significant difference between the
varieties (Table 4). There were significant preferences for many of the traits measured
and importantly a majority of the farmers (>60% in 2003 and 2005) expressed their
willingness to grow Barkhe 3004 again. If the data for 2004 are not considered, Barkhe
3004 was preferred for better tillering, non-lodging, better disease tolerance, easy
threshing and better eating quality. The traits that varied between the years were market
price, straw yield and grain yield. For example in 2003, over 50% of the farmers that
tried this variety thought it would fetch higher price in the market but only 20% did so in
2005, although the later figure was statistically non-significant. Consistently nearly 50%
farmers found that Barkhe 3004 gave higher grain yield over the farmers’ existing
varieties conversely the perceptions for straw yield were just reverse (Table 4).

In case of market price farmers initially thought that it would fetch a higher price but by
2005 only 20% found that it would fetch a market price superior or at least at par with the
check variety. However, market price is tricky thing and only when the variety is
produced on a sufficient scale will millers be prepared to pay an appropriate price for a
rice variety.

Reasons for this overall preference were related to many traits including sturdy and non-
lodging plants, easy threshing and responsive to applied inputs. From the interviews it
was found that farmers particularly liked milling recovery and eating quality of this
variety over other high yielding varieties that are spreading through farmer-to-farmer
networks, e.g. Sona Masuli, Kanchhi Masuli and Swarna. More than 65% farmers who
grew this variety saved seeds to scale up the area under this variety in 2006.




                                             9
Table 4. Farmers’ perceptions on 10 traits for Barkhe 3004 in 111 Baby trials in 2003, 27 baby
         trials in 2004 and 124 baby trials in 2005 and their intentions for growing the variety in
         the following year in Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Siraha, Bara,
         Makawanpur and Saptari districts of Nepal.

Trait                 Year             Number of farmers                              Probability†
                                B 3004     Equally       Check      Preference for
                               preferred  preferred    preferred     B 3004 (%)
Maturity             2003          13            19           78           12              ***
                     2004           6             3           18           22                *
                     2005          30            41           45           26               ns
                    Overall        49            63          141           19              ***
Lodging              2003          45            59            7           41              ***
                     2004          14             5            7           54               ns
                     2005         107             0            3           97              ***
                    Overall       166            64           17           66              ***
Disease              2003          53            48            5           50              ***
                     2004          15             3            7           60               ns
                     2005          61            31           28           50              ***
                    Overall       129            82           40           51              ***
Threshing            2003          69            31            9           63              ***
                     2004          18             5            3           69               **
                     2005          61            41           18           51              ***
                    Overall       148           77            30           58              ***
Milling recovery     2003          77           28             3           71              ***
                     2004           7           12             3           32               ns
                     2005          38           67            10           33              ***
                    Overall       122          107            16           48              ***
Market price         2003          45           19            20           54               **
                     2005          23           70            21           20               ns
                    Overall        68           89            41           27               ns
Straw yield          2003          53           38            20           48              ***
                     2004           8            8             9           32               ns
                     2005          24           42            55           20              ***
                    Overall        85           88            84           34               ns
Grain yield          2003          52           36            22           48              ***
                     2004          14            8             5           52                *
                     2005          58           41            22           48              ***
                    Overall       124           85             49          49              ***
Will grow again?      2003         71                          38          65               **
                      2004         13                          11          54               ns
                      2005         81                          36          69              ***
                    Overall       165             -            85          65              ***
†
 ‘Barkhe 3004 preferred’ versus ‘Check preferred’ using χ2 test.




                                                      10
2.10. Stakeholders overall preference: Perceptions of farmers, rice millers and Merchants
      were collected from Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Siraha, Saptari, Bara, Makawanpur
      Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Kailali and Kanchanpur. The findings reveal that the variety
      has majority of the traits that are preferred by the stakeholders as mentioned below

Preferred traits                                                     Non-preferred traits
   High yielding; high tillering,                                       Gundhi bug problem
   Long panicle, higher number of filled grain per panicle              Stem borer problem
   High disease resistance                                              Not suitable for upland
   Non lodging; suitable for high fertility conditions (fertilizer      domain, e.g. Radha 4
   responsive) and long standing water conditions where other
                                                                        domain
   varieties perform poorly
   Soft straw is preferred by cattle
   Easy threshing
   Good market price
   High milling recovery
   Good taste
   Less problem in storage

In addition to on station trials of NRRP, Mother trials and Baby trials, Barkhe 3004 was
evaluated extensively with DADO offices, NGO and through informal research and
development (IRD). Over 5000 sets of IRD were conducted across terai and low hill
ecosystems of the country. Various stakeholders such as innovative farmers, farmers’
groups, community-based seed producing groups, DADOs, Agrovets and Seed
Companies were involved at various stages of variety testing, seed production and
dissemination process.

The main conclusion from monitoring tours, interactions with farmers, seed entrepreneurs
and consumers was that all the stakeholders have preferred Barkhe 3004. The evidences
for their preference is that majority of the farmers who got chance to test this variety
saved seeds and decided to grow the crop for increasing area under this variety and for
seed multiplication next year cropping season to generate more income.

3.         Summary of Varietal Characteristics

3.1.       Agronomic3

Agronomic data are the averages from three years’ of CVT trials except for 3.1.4 which
is the mean of all the trials in which yield was measured (CVT, Mother trials and crop cut
of Baby trials),




3
    These traits may vary depending up on the crop species



                                                     11
    S. No.       Characteristics‡                         Barkhe 3004†        Masuli†
    3.1.1        Plant height (cm)                              97±6               118±2
    3.1.2        Days to 50% flowering from seeding           121±6              121±3
    3.1.3        Days to maturity from seeding                157±7              147±3
    3.1.4        Yield (t ha-1) (n = 123)                     3.85±0.14        3.13±0.09
                                                                (Range 1.8-
                                                                7.7 t ha-1)
    3.1.5        Yield components
    3.1.5.1      Panicle m 2 (Number)                         264±10            236±40
    3.1.5.2      Panicle length (cm)                           27±2             23±1
    3.1.5.3      1000 rough rice grain weight (g)              23.5             17.6
    3.1.5.4      1000 milled rice grain weight (g)             16.5
†
    data from CVT combined mean from 2003 to 2005

Nutrient responsiveness: Response of Barkhe 3004 to chemical fertilizer was studied in a
replicated trial (Annexure 11-12). The highest grain yield was recorded in 120:30:30 kg
NPK with 18 kg Zn So4 ha -1 fertilizer application which was over 60% higher than the
control (no application of fertilizer). However, a benefit cost (B: C) study of the
application of chemical fertilizers on this variety revealed that 50:50:0 kg NPK actually
gave the highest B:C ratio of 1.33, which was 8% higher than the highest level of
fertilizer application. Increase in grain yield by the addition of another 50 units of
nitrogen was too small to compensate for the increase in the use of inputs.

It was also observed that Zinc had least effect on grain yield of Barkhe 3004. This was
verified from the fact that Zinc deficiency in this variety has never been reported from the
field observations from several hundred baby trials done on this variety. It performed
well under moderate fertility in the farmers filed in Mother and Baby trials. This shows
that the variety has an elasticity of performance in wide range of nutrient regimes but
does well under higher side of the inputs. Therefore to get maximum return from this
variety a fertilizer level of 50:30:0 NPK ha-1 fertilizers can be recommended, this is
particularly appropriate for the farmers who can not afford to go for higher level of
nutrient application.

3.2.          Response to stresses:

              3.2.1 Biotic stresses
                  (a) Diseases: Barkhe 3004 was evaluated in National Blast Nursery and
                      National Bacterial Leaf Blight Nursery by NRRP from 2002, to 2005. It
                      has multiple disease resistance. This is resistant to blast (Annexure 13-19)
                      and less affected by bacterial leaf blight (BLB) in on station trials of
                      NRRP and farmers field.




                                                     12
Table 5. Summary of disease scores from 2002 to 2005

    Genotype                 Disease            Disease scores (0-9)          Maximum Score (0-9)
                                           2002     2003    2004       2005   In those set of trials
 Barkhe 3004               Blast           1        0       3          1            3
                           BLB             3        5       3          5            5
 R. Check (Laxmi)          Blast           1                           0            1
 R. Check (Janaki)         BLB             3                           3            3
 S. Check (Shankharikha)   Blast           9                           8            9
 S. Check (TN1)            BLB             9                           9            9
 Maximum score recorded Blast (0-9)        9        4       9          8            9
 Maximum score recorded BLB (0-9)          9        7       7          9            9
Source: NRRP unpublished data 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005

        (b) Insects: The incidence and severity of insect pest was assessed in Mother trials
            in 2003 and 2004. None of the specific insect pest problems was associated with
            Barkhe 3004. In mother trials, this variety was less affected by Borer and leaf
            folder. The variety was also assessed for its reaction to brown plant hopper
            (BPH) and stem borer at NRRP and was found with acceptable scores (Table 6).

    Table 6. Summary of insect scores for Barkhe 3004 at NRRP in 2005

       Varieties                        Brown plant hopper Stem borer Stem borer (white
                                        (BPH)              (dead heart head)
       Barkhe 3004                            MS†                R           MR
       TN 1 (susceptible check)                HS               MS           MS
       Sabitri (Resistant check)              MR                 R           R
†
 MS = moderately susceptible, HS= highly susceptible, MR=moderately resistant, R= resistant
Source: P. Thakur, NRRP; unpublished data 2005

         (c) Weeds: None of the specific weed problems were associated with this variety.

         3.2.2     Abiotic stresses

         In 2004, Nepal experienced extreme drought in many districts, however, Barkhe
         3004 expressed tolerance to drought conditions. In Bara, Simraungarh, farmers
         reported significant yield loss in Sona Masuli whereas Barkhe 3004 was least
         affected by drought. Kalinga III (which is a drought tolerant upland rice variety
         widely grown in India, is one of the parents of this variety), might have
         contributed to the drought tolerance to this variety. In Chitwan, farmers found
         drought tolerance in Barkhe 3004 with less effect on grain yield.




                                                  13
3.3 Quality of economically important parts of the crop

3.3.1 Nutritional quality:

Table 7. Nutritional quality of various rice varieties:

Variety                      Protein      Carbohydrate        Energy              Zinc
                               %            %                 K cal/100 g         ppm
Barkhe 3004                    10.9         69.7               342.6                18.3
Masuli                         10.1         72.2               350.1                22.3
Sabitri                         9.7         72.4               350.8                15.2
Radha 4                         8.4         75.7               357.1                16.9
OR367 (Ram)                     9.7         69.6               340.0                18.9
BPI 3-2 (Mithila)               9.4         70.1               336.9                13.0

3.3.2 Processing quality:

The visual assessment of rough and milled rice and cooking and taste test was organized
by Jaskelo Youth Club in collaboration with LI-BIRD and NRRP in 2003 and 2004.
Representatives from DADO Chitwan, Rice Millers, rice traders and men and women
farmers and general consumers e.g. school teachers also participated in the assessment
process. In 2003, 58 people participated in the process, which was also conducted as a
part of methodology refining process while in 2004, the number of people conducting this
exercise was 25.

Milled and unmilled samples of rice were displayed and participants were asked to
provide their ranking on the various physical quality parameters. Farmers and rice
Merchants consider Masuli and Sabitri as reference varieties for the traits e.g. rice
recovery, grain type, colour. Barkhe 3004 was rated as a preferred variety for rice grain
colour, texture and for other quality traits including its suitability for steamed rice (Table
8). Similar exercise done in 2004 confirmed that it is one of the preferred varieties for all
the traits evaluated by the taste panel (Table 9).

Table 8. Participatory visual assessment of grain quality of new and popular rice varieties
         of Nepal Chitwan in 2003.

Variety          Rice Colour             Grain type              White         Rice        Decision Remarks
                                  Bold/fine   Long/short         Belly %       grade
Sabitri          Ghee             Bold        Long                 10            2         S elected
Masuli           White-ghee       Medium      Medium                5            1         S elected Less broken
Barkhe 3004      White-ghee       Medium      Long                 10            2         S elected Less broken
Swarna           White-ghee       Medium      Medium                2            1         S elected
Overall Grading of rice- 1=Excellent and highly preferred for steamed rice (bhat), 2= Good and preferred for steamed
rice (bhat), 3=Rejected for cooking and eating quality




                                                         14
Table 9. Participatory visual assessment of grain quality of new and popular rice varieties
           of Nepal Chitwan, 2004.

                                                             Grain Grading White
Variety           Length Width               Colour        Breakage     rice       belly Decision      Remarks
Barkhe 3004       Long       Medium          Ghee white        2         2          1     Selected
Masuli            Medium Medium fine Ghee                      1         1          1     Selected
Sabitri           Medium Medium fine Ghee                      1         1          1     Selected
Radha 4           Short      Bold            White             2         3          3     Rejected
Sugandha 2002 Long           Medium fine Ghee                  2         1          1     Selected       Aroma
CNTLR             Long       Medium fine Ghee                  1         1          1     Selected Special aroma
BPI 3-2           Medium Medium fine Ghee white                1         2          2     Selected
Grain breakage- 1=Grain not broken, 2=Grain slightly broken, 3= grains highly broken; Overall Grading of rice-
1=Excellent and highly preferred for steamed rice (bhat), 2= Good and preferred for steamed rice (bhat), 3=Rejected
for cooking and eating quality; White belly- 1=translucent, 2= <10% area of rice, 3= 11-20% of the area of rice.

3.3.3 Organoleptic test (cooking quality, taste, aroma/flavour, etc):

The same panel that assessed the physical grain qualities also assessed taste parameters of
various rice varieties. Name of the rice varieties were not disclosed and check varieties
e.g. Masuli, Sabitri, Swarna, Jhapali Masuli, Pusa Basmati 1 and Sarwati were included
in a regular interval along with new varieties. The rice samples were cooked by
knowledgeable women farmers using local utensils and local method. The participants
were provided with a small quantity of steamed rice and asked to give their opinion about
parameters of steamed rice as shown in Table 10. Barkhe 3004 was rated as having good
taste, high water absorption and non-sticky and was selected unanimously by the
participants as one of good rice in an assessment where quality rice varieties, e.g. Pusa
Basmati 1, Sarwati and Masuli were included as checks.

Table 10. Organoleptic assessment of cooked rice of new rice and popular rice varieties
        of Nepal Chitwan, 2003.

      Variety        Softness      Flakiness      Taste     Water              Inner
                                                            Absorption        Hardiness
Barkhe 3004          Medium      Good          Tasty        High               Present
Masuli               Soft        Good          Tasty        Medium             Absent
Sabitri              Medium      Good          Low          High               Present
Jhapali Masuli       Medium      Medium        Medium       High               Present
Swarna               Medium      Medium        Medium       Low                Absent

The result from the organoleptic assessment was confirmed by farmers’ preferences in
the baby trials (Table 11). More than half the farmers preferred Barkhe 3004 over their
local checks (the varieties that they are most accustomed to eating and might be expected
to prefer).




                                                   15
Table 11. Farmers’ perceptions on eating quality for Barkhe 3004 in 111 Baby trials in 2003, 27
         baby trials in 2004 and 124 baby trials in 2005 in Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Jhapa,
         Morang, Sunsari, Siraha, Bara, Makawanpur and Saptari districts of Nepal.

Trait                 Year             Number of farmers                            Probability†
                               B 3004      Equally       Check     Preference for
                               preferred  preferred    preferred    B 3004 (%)
Eating quality        2003        75         16           17             69             ***
                     2004          5           6             13         21               ns
                     2005         59           38            16         52              ***
                    Overall       139          60            46         67              ***
†
 ‘Barkhe 3004 preferred’ versus ‘Check preferred’ using χ2 test.


3.4. Other characteristics (threshing, storability, market potential etc.):

Barkhe 3004 was similar to Masuli for complete threshing (4-5 beats). This is much
easier than Sabitri which requires 6-7 beats to achieve same amount of threshing.
Threshing is an important post harvest trait because varieties hard to thresh would cost
more for manual threshing.

Over 90% farmers who had compared Barkhe 3004 with Masuli found that it is highly
lodging tolerant whereas 18% farmers growing Sabitri reported that it is less prone to
lodging.

It is too early to have definite idea about the market price of Barkhe 3004 as the volume
of rice available for sale in the market is still not sufficient for it to be rated with other
established varieties. However, it has all the parameters to fetch a good market price due
to its high head rice recovery, good cooking and eating qualities compared to other
varieties of similar grade, e.g. Sona Masuli, Kanchhi Masuli and Swarna. Farmers told to
the researchers that this variety is very likely to get the similar price to that of Sabitri
once this variety gets popular among the farmers, rice traders and millers.

3.5 Economic returns:
Analysis of cost and benefits to Barkhe 3004 and Masuli revealed that economic return to
Barkhe 3004 is higher (1.28) compared to Masuli (1.09), even though it fetches a lower
price in the market compared to Masuli and yields less straw than Masuli. The reason for
higher returns to Barkhe 3004 is mainly because of higher grain yield (Annexure 12.1).




                                                    16
4. Morphological characteristics (size, shape, colour, etc):

Traits were measured in 2004 in Gitanagar, Chitwan from a lowland irrigated
environment

Characteristics                     Value            Characteristics                     Value
4.1. Leaf characteristics                            4.4 Panicle characteristics
         Length (cm)                21.8                    Length (cm)                  21.6
         Width (cm)                 1.0                     Type                         Intermediate
         Blade Pubescence           Intermediate            Secondary branching          Heavy
         Blade colour               Dark green              Exertion                     Well exerted
         Basal leaf sheath colour   Green                   Axis                         Droopy
         Angle                      Erect                   Shattering                   Very low (<1%)
         Flag leaf angle            Erect                   Threshability                Easy
         Leaf senescence            Late and slow    4.5. Grain characteristics
4.2. Ligule Characters                                      Awning                       Awnless (but very
                                                                                         short awn just on the
                                                                                         terminal grain of the
                                                                                         panicle)
         Length (cm)                2.2                     Apiculus colour              Straw
         Colour                     White                   Stigma colour                White
         Shape                      Cleft                   Lemma and palea colour       Straw
         Collar colour              Pale green              Lemma        and     palea   Hairy on upper portion
                                                            pubescence
        Auricle colour              Pale green              Sterile lemma colour         Straw
4.3. Culm characteristics                                   Sterile lemma length         0.5
                                                            (mm)
         Length (cm)                78.5                    Spikelet sterility (%)       10-15
         Number per plant           11.0                    Length (mm)                  9.23
         Angle                      Erect                   Width (mm)                   2.53
         Culm diameter (cm)         0.55                    Seed coat (bran) colour      Brown
         Internode colour           Green                   Endosperm type               Non-glutinous
         Culm strength              Strong (non-            Aroma                        Non-aromatic
                                    lodging)

4.1 Major identifying characteristics of a crop variety for its authenticity (distinctness)

Mostly awnless but very small awn just on the terminal grain of the panicle.
"stay green" traits of leaves (plants remain green even after plant reaches physiological
maturity.

4.2. Molecular characteristics:

At 75 alleles at 27 SSR loci Barkhe 3004 shows 80 % similarity with reference IR64
genotype and 33% similarity with a reference Kalinga III genotype. Hence, it has
inherited more of IR64 due to selection for adaptation to the lowland environment (data
from Dr Katherine Steele et al., CAZS-NR).




                                                    17
                                                                               Kalinga III




                                                                               Ashoka 200F




                                                                               Ashoka 228

       Bharke3004

                                                                               Bharke 3004




                                                                               Super 3004




                                                                               IR64



                    0.40     0.55             0.70                 0.85      1.00
                                           Jaccard’s Coefficient


 Figure 3. Dendrogram using Ward’s method of unweighted pair group method, arithmetic
           average, from Jaccard’s similarity coefficients from 75 alleles at 27 SSR loci that
           were all polymorphic between Kalinga III and IR64.

5. Recommendation domain:

5.1 Agro-ecological zone: Terai and inner terai.

The variety does very well in terai (east to west) and inner terai. Although it has not been
formally evaluated in the low hill areas (although farmers from the low hills have already
successfully grown this variety), the environment of the river basins and low hills up to
500 m is same as that of inner terai. The variety could also be recommended for the foot
hills up to 500 m of Nepal.

Cropping patterns:

This variety can be grown in a number of rice-based cropping patterns as follows:

       •     Rice-wheat-fallow
       •     Rice-winter vegetables-mungbean
       •     Rice-lentil-mungbean
       •     Rice-fallow-spring maize
       •     Rice-fallow-rice
       •     Rice-fallow-mungbean

Moisture regime: rainfed medium land to low land and irrigated conditions




                                              18
Production and management aspect (please add detailed information on package of
practices of this variety that may differ from those recommended for the crop): The
package of practices of the variety has been described on pages 21 to 22


6. Reasons for release:

   •   Barkhe 3004 has a good combination of high yield along with other agronomic
       traits, e.g. non-lodging, short and sturdy plants and inputs responsiveness.
   •   It is resistant to blast (leaf and neck), tolerant to sheath blight and field tolerance
       to bacterial leaf blight (BLB).
   •   Preferred by farmers for its ease of threshing
   •   Preferred and selected by farmers for its good post harvest qualities e.g. high head
       rice recovery, good cooking and eating qualities than varieties popular with
       farmers, Ram Bilas (Radha 11), Kanchhi Masuli, Sona Masuli and Swarna.
   •   It has "stay green" character (leaves remain green even after plants reach
       physiological maturity). This trait helps farmers to harvest quality fodder to feed
       their farm animals.

7. Recommendation by VARRC members:

Near the maturity period of rice crop, a monitoring visit of the members of VARRC was
organized in the third week of October 2005 for them to see the field performance of
Barkhe 3004 and other potential varieties under farmers’ management and interact with
the farming communities to have first hand information regarding the performance and
preference of Barkhe 3004 by the farmers. The team also visited the plots of some of the
rice varieties proposed by NRRP for release. The team visited several Mother, Baby
trials, seed production plots and farmers’ seed and grain production plots and held
discussion with several farmers groups and individual farmers in east and west Chitwan
and Nawalparasi. At the end of the visit a summing up meeting was organized with the
team. The team recommended to submit variety release proposals for three rice varieties
developed by LI-BIRD-CAZS-NR and NRRP collaboration, e.g. Barkhe 2014, Barkhe
3004 and Sugandha 2002. The team members were very positive about the performance
of proposed rice varieties.

8. Adoption by the farmers:

Adoption and uptake of this variety was assessed through household level questionnaires,
in depth interviews and also monitored during crop monitoring studies. Acceptance and
uptake of this variety is increasing in rainfed lowland and medium land. Interestingly,
farmers preferred this variety in irrigated condition as well because of its higher grain
yield, less diseases and insect pest incidence, non-lodging, good milling recovery and
higher market price. It is mostly replacing Masuli in majority of cases but there are
instances where Barkhe 3004 also replaced Sabitri. In last four years over 42 tonnes of
seeds of this variety have been produced and distributed among farmers in several
districts (see seed supply situation below ). This amount is adequate to cover 700 ha of


                                             19
land. This is ignoring the farmer-to-farmer spread of seeds which is a minimum of 1:3,
i.e. one farmer giving out seeds to at least three farmers. This indicates the variety has
already covered considerable area in the terai.

9.       Seed supply situation:



S. No.   Seed category         2002   2003   2004      2005   Total   Institution        Person
   1     Breeder               0.2    0.4    0.5       0.5    1.6     LI-BIRD,           Mahendra Tripathi/
                                                                      Chitwan            Krishna Devkota
     2   Truthfully labelled   -      7      8         16     31      LI-BIRD,           Krishna P Devkota/
                                                                      Chitwan            Mahendra P Tripathi
     3   Truthfully labelled                 2         1      3       DUAC, Chitwan      Mr. Dev Raj Sapkota
                                                                                         Mr. Krishna P Chapagain
 4       Truthfully labelled                 2                2       USPG, Chitwan      Mr. Prakash Poudel
 5       Truthfully labelled                 4         2      6       SRSPG, Chitwan     Mr. Chiranjibi Pokhrel
Total    Truthfully labelled   -      7      16        19     42      LI-BIRD and
                                                                      other seed
                                                                      producers groups




                                                  20
                                         Proposed by




Signature:                                         Signature:



Name: S Gyawali                                    Name: Prof J R Witcombe
Main proposing Organisation:                       Collaborating organization:
Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and   CAZS-Natural Resources, University of Wales
Development (LI-BIRD)
Designation: Plant Breeder                         Designation: Professorial Fellow
Corresponding address:                             Corresponding address:
P.O. Box 324, Pokhara, Nepal                       CAZS-Natural Resources, University of Wales, Bangor,
                                                   Gwynedd LL 57, 2UW, UK
Tel. 061 526834/532912/535357                      Tel. +44 1248 382116
Fax:    061 539956                                 Fax: +44 1248 371533
Email: info@libird.org                             Email: j.r.witcombe@bangor.ac.uk
Website if applicable: www.libird.org              Website if applicable: www.dfid-psp.org




Signature:                                         Signature:


Name: Dr N P Adhikari                              Name: H D Mishra
Collaborating organization:                        Collaborating organization:
National Rice Research program (NRRP)              Jaskelo Youth Club, Chitwan
Designation: Plant Breeder                         Designation: Collaborator farmer
Corresponding address:                             Corresponding address:
Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal                         Ujwalnagar, Chitwan, Nepal
Tel. 041 523000                                    Tel.
Fax: 041                                           Fax:
Email:                                             Email:
Website if applicable:                             Website if applicable:




                                               21
10. Package of practices

10.1. Moisture regime: The variety is basically bred for medium to semi-deep rainfed and
irrigated lowland production environment as classified by IRRI. It is best suited for rainfed
intermediate lowland and long standing water conditions (low lying area with poor drainage
conditions). Barkhe 3004 is well adapted in irrigated and high input conditions.

10.2. Climatic conditions: Barkhe 3004 is bred for main season rice Ashadh-Mansir (July to
November) in Nepal therefore has been recommended for the same season.

10.3. Socioeconomic conditions:

10.4. Land Preparation: This variety does not need any special attention for land preparation.
Since the variety was bred using farmers’ level of inputs and management, farmers practice of
land preparation is appropriate for this variety.

10.5. Seed rate: Seed rate depends on germination percentage.
In case of quality seed (with >85% germination) 50 kg ha-1 is sufficient, however farmers
generally use 60 kg ha-1.

10.5. Sowing methods: Transplanting of young seedlings preferably less than 20 days is
desirable for transplanting. The transplanting depth can be used as per farmers practice.

10.6. Fertilizer application: This variety is quite responsive to added fertilizers. This variety
gave best return with the application of 50:30:30 kg NPK ha-1. Of this, 25 kg N and entire
quantity of P and K should be given basal dose. Applying 25 kg of N as top dressing at booting
(panicle initiation) and 25 kg at flowering stages is beneficial. However, the application of
fertilizer depends on availability of fertilizer, purchasing power of the farmers and soil fertility
status. If access to fertilizer is limited, then applying it at booting (panicle initiation) stage would
be most beneficial.

10.7. Spacing: Spacing for manual transplanting would best be to adopt as per the farmers
practice as maintaining perfect row-to-row and plant-to-plant spacing is practically difficult to
achieve by hand. However, maintaining a minimum of 25 hills per m2 is essential to get good
harvest.

10.8. Irrigation: Barkhe 3004 has Kalinga III, which is drought tolerant is one of the parents of
this variety, and since this variety is bred for rainfed intermediate lowland therefore it has some
extent of tolerance to moisture stress. This variety is suited for poorly drained rice fields.
However, irrigating the crop at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering stages would be
essential to get good yield. If only a single irrigation is available, then the crop of Barkhe 3004
should be irrigated during panicle initiation (50-60 days after transplanting).

10.9. Disease: This variety is resistant to leaf and neck blast, has field tolerance to bacterial leaf
blight and Sheath blight (Annexure 13-19). In addition to NRRP Hardinath, its disease reactions
were also assessed in the Mother and Baby trials in Chitwan and Nawalparasi and disease survey
and surveillance was done in other terai districts during monitoring visits. Field tolerance to
bacterial leaf blight (BLB) makes this variety suitable in lowland and poorly drained soils in
Nepal where the blast and are the major problems.




                                                  22
10.10. Insect: There is no specific insect problem associated to this variety. Furadan 3% granule
@30-45 kg ha-1 should be applied in case of stem borer damage above economic threshold level.

10.11. Intercultural operation: Two weeding are recommended. The first weeding should be
preferably done at 20-30 days after transplanting whereas the second weeding at 60 days after
transplanting.

10.12. Harvesting: Since, it is non-shattering, manual or mechanical harvesting could be done.
Farmers practice of harvesting, drying and threshing such as sun drying for 2 days in the field and
then manual threshing or by mechanical threshing can be followed.

10.13. Storage: Sun drying of harvested grain for several days is a common practice in Nepal
which could be followed for Barkhe 3004 too. The grain should be sufficiently dried in sun to
bring grain moisture at 12% before grain is stored in Jute sacks under cool and dry storage.

Acknowledgements

This document is an output from projects R6748, R 7412 and R 8071 funded by Plant Sciences
Research Programme of the UK Department for International Development for the benefit of
developing countries. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the DFID. Farmers of
Chitwan, Nawalparasi and all the other districts of Nepal who directly participated in various
activities of COB, Mother, Baby trials, IRD and community-based seed production and
distribution and dissemination activities have been duly acknowledged. Special thanks go to
District Agriculture Development Offices of all the terai and selected hill districts for
collaboration in field research. Staff of LI-BIRD and NRRP and members of Jaskelo Youth Club,
who conducted these research activities over a long period are highly appreciated. We thank Drs
D. S. Virk, K.A. Steele and D. Harris of CAZS NR for their help in analysis and interpretation.

References

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                                                23
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Annexure 1. Professionals and farmers involved in the development of Barkhe 3004
Institutions            Professionals and farmers                                 Designation
LI-BIRD                 Mr. S Gyawali, Mr. KP Devkota, Mr. MP Tripathi, Mr.       Plant Breeder, Asst. Plant
                        M Subedi, Ms S Sunwar, Mr. M Chaudhary, Mr. M             Breeder, Project
                        Gurung, Mr. Hari Poudel, Mr. K Rawal, Mr. Dev R           Coordinator, Community
                        Karki, Mr. D Poudel, Mr. P Shrestha, Mr. KB Limbu,        Organizers, Field
                        Mrs R. Kadariya, Mr. N. Chaudhary                         Motivators
                        Ms Durga Pandit, Ms. Parbati Neupane, Mr. Bhim
                        Thanet, Mr. Hari Ghimire, Mr. S Khanal, Mr. B Gadal,
                        Dr. A Subedi and Dr. PK Shrestha,
CAZS Natural            Prof. John R Witcombe, Dr. Krishna D Joshi; Prof. Dr.     Plant Breeder,
Resources,              Daljit Singh Virk, Dr. Katherine Steele                   Biometrical Geneticist,
University of Wales                                                               Molecular Biologist
Bangor, UK
NRRP/NARC               Mr. B Chaudhary, Mr. D Chaudhary, Mr. T Akhtar, Dr.       Plant Pathologists, Plant
                        N Adhikari, Dr SP Khatiwada, Mr. RB Yadav                 Breeders, Agronomists,
                                                                                  Plant Breeders, Scientists
DADO, Chitwan           Mr. Chandra K Devkota, Mr. Mahesh Regmi                   Extension Specialists
IAAS, Rampur            Mr. Deepak Sharma Poudel                                  Lecturer and Plant
                                                                                  Pathologist
DADOs of terai and      Nawalparasi, Bara, Rautahat, Kailali, Kanchanpur,         Agronomists, Extension
inner terai districts   Dang, Saptari, Dhanusha, Mahottari, Jhapa, Morang,        Officers, JT and JTAs
                        Sunsari, Siraha, Sarlahi, Parsa, Makwanpur, Kapilbastu,
                        Banke and Bardiya.
Chitwan                 Mr. Dev R Sapkota, Mr. Krishna Chapagain, Mr. Megh        Leader farmers
                        Prasad Devkota, Mr. Chirinjibi Pokhrel, Mr. Prakash
                        Poudel, Mr. Ganga Neuapne.
Chitwan                 Mr. Deepak Subedi and Mr. Hari Datta Mishra,              Jaskelo Youth Club




                                                   24
Annexure 2. Coordinated Varietal Trial Rainfed lowland Medium (CVTRLM), 2003

                                                                                                                                       Grain                                        1000     L/B
                                                                 Plant                        Loc.                                     yield                       Grains           Grain    ratio
SN    Varieties                                                                                                                        (Kg ha-1)                                    wt.      (mm)
                                Days to                           height                      Mean    Panicle                                                      Pani
                                maturity                  Loc.   (cm)                                 m-2                       Loc.                        Loc.   cle-1             (gm)
                                                          Mean                                                                  Mean                        Mean




                                  NRRP/H




                                                                      NRRP/H




                                                                                                        NRRP/H




                                                                                                                                       NRRP/H




                                                                                                                                                                           NRRP/H

                                                                                                                                                                                    NRRP/H



                                                                                                                                                                                             NRRP/H
                                                 RARS/P




                                                                                     RARS/P




                                                                                                                       RARS/P




                                                                                                                                                   RARS/P
1      NR 1736-4-6-2-1          148        153            151    121.9         117            119.4   235        231            233    4325        4412     4368   193              23.6     2.4
2      BR 268-4-6-1-4-3-3-5     142        151            147    139.4         120            129.7   202        236            219    4288        4622     4455   234              19.4     2
3      NR 1190-24-4-2-2-2-2-3   136        144            140    124.9         126            125.4   217        225            221    4741        4443     4592   199              23.3     2.38
4      IR 9925                  142        154            148    83.3          89             86.1    241        208            225    3268        3844     3556   136              28.8     2.57
5      PSBRC 68                 142        155            149    101.5         109            105.2   214        234            224    3815        4436     4125   138              29.5     3.05
6      PSBRC 70                 146        159            153    98.3          101            99.6    257        233            245    3994        3741     3843   122              31.7     3.15
7      Barkhe 2001              121        137            129    98.5          108            103.2   234        294            264    2729        3689     3209   113              20.8     3.13
8      Barkhe 3004              143        153            148    56            93             89.5    257        271            264    3616        4177     3896   113              23.9     2.99
9      NR 1748-12-1-1-4-3       150        163            157    128.6         121            124.8   227        246            265    2817        2122     2470   210              21       2.66
10     NR 1893-17-2-3           141        155            148    86.2          88             87.1    239        252            246    4113        4322     4227   182              21.7     2.48
11     NR 1894-10-3-2-3         149        158            154    108.9         105            106.9   250        263            257    4313        4439     4376   154              27.9     2.42
12     NR 1887-8-1-1-1-3-3      125        137            131    85            91             88      265        324            299    3168        3651     3410   139              18.7     2.79
13     NR 1769-34-2-1-3-1-2     132        150            141    86.2          98             92.1    255        241            248    2301        3232     2767   106              24.1     3.1
14     Masuli (St. check)       136        151            144    126           115            120     271        272            272    3798        3468     3633   203              17.7     2.41
15     Mak-1 (St check)         150        160            155    89.1          93             91.1    279        263            271    3314        4169     3742   123              26.7     2.24
16     Local check              153        159            156    134           126            130     320        279            310    2188        3172     2680   115              18.2     2.96
F test                          **         **                    **            **                     **         *                     **          **              ns               **       **
Grand Mean                      141        152                   106           107                    247        254                   3350        3871            154.8            23.5     2.6
LSD at p=0.05                   4.2        2.8                   8.4           6.7                    52         48                    838         699             39               2.1      0.2
NOTE: Local check- In NRRP/Hardinath = Ram Bilash; In RARS/Parwanipur = Radha 11, Source: Chaudhary et al., 2004.




                                                                                                       25
Annexure 3. Coordinated varietal trial rainfed lowland medium (CVT RLM), 2004

                               Days to       LOC             Plant               LOC       Panicle/ M2     LOC             Grain        LOC     1000
                               maturity      Mean            height              Mean                      Mean            Yield        Mean   grains
                                                              (cm)                                                         t ha-1                wt
                                                                                                                                                (gm)
SN   VAREITIES




                                                                                                  NMRP/P




                                                                                                                               NMRP/P
                           NRRP/H




                                                    NRRP/H




                                                                                         NRRP/H




                                                                                                                  NRRP/H




                                                                                                                                               NRRP/H
                                    RARS/P




                                                                  RARS/P
1    SUGANDHA 2002         151       153     152      106             97         101.2    294      274     284    2.6            2.7    2.7     20.0

2    NR 268-4-6-1-4        146       148     147      129          123           125.7    246      214     230    3.2            3.2    3.2     17.9

3    NR 1190-24-4          142       141     142      125          116           120.5    279      241     260    3.4            3.2    3.3     24.1

4    BARKHE 2001           134       134     134      104          108           106      261      301     281    2.9            2.9    2.9     21.2

5    PSBRC 70              158       158     158     90.5             89         89.7     265      228     246    2.1            2.0    2.1     27.9

6    BARKHE 3004           148       154     151     88.7             79         83.8     316      301     308    3.5            2.9    3.2     22.9

7    NR 1893-17-2-3        148       151     150     91.7             83         87.3     302      285     293    3.1            3.1    3.1     21.5

8    NR 1894-10-3-2-3      158       159     159      104             94         98.8     329      257     293    3.2            3.1    3.2     26.5

9    BARKHE 2045           136       135     136      136          104           119.7    275      138     206    1.8            1.9    1.5        19

10   NR 1892-20-21-1-1-2   148       151     150     89.4             84         86.7     306      276     291    2.6            3.2    2.9     21.4

11   NR 1887-4-3-1-1-2     143       141     142      149          136           142.5    235      185     210    2.6            1.5    2.0     19.2

12   IR 62558 – SRN-17-2   149       146     148      104             94         98.8     287      288     287    2.5            3.1    2.8     25.7

13   NR 1887-8-1-1-2-2-2   141       146     144      103             97         99.7     273      345     309    3.0            2.9    3.0     18.7

14   MASULI (St. Check)    147       146     147      117          116           116.5    321      251     286    3.2            2.5    2.8     16.9

15   MAKAWANPUR –          159       160     160        86            85         85.5     297      273     285    3.8            3.4    3.6     25.1
     1 (St. Check)
                      ‡
16   LOCAL CHECK           160       144     152      108          109           108.5    365      271     318    2.9            2.5    2.7        20

     F test                 **       **                 **            **                    **       **            **             **               **

     CV %                  112       0.9               4.6            5.9                   14       10           17.8          13.8            6.16

     GRAND MEAN            119       147              109          102                    290      265            2.9          2705             21.7

     FLSD 0.05              2.3      1.9               7.1            8.3                   57       12           0.73          531             1.89

‡
Local check- In NRRP/Hardinath = Ram Bilash; In RARS/Parwanipur = Radha 11, Source: Chaudhary et al., 2005.




                                                                            26
Annexure 4. Coordinated Varietal Trial Rainfed lowland Medium (CVTRLM), 2005

                                   Days to maturity                      Grain yield (kg/ha)                    Plant height (cm)

Cultivar                  NRRP/H   JRS/I      RARS/P    Mean    NRRP/H   JRS/I        RARS/P   Mean    NRRP/H   JRS/I       RARS/P   Mean
Balam                      148.5   133.3        126.5   136.1    2.259   2.687         2.652   2.533    102.0   105.5        108.5   105.3
Barkhe 2014                156.8   145.8        132.3   144.9    2.785   2.973         2.299   2.686    108.3   106.5        118.5   111.1
Barkhe 3004                165.3   155.3        141.3   153.9    3.125   2.631         3.286   3.014    88.8    86.0          96.5   90.4
BR 6631-45-31-1            147.5   132.5        126.8   135.6    2.140   2.430         2.891   2.487    84.2    87.3          95.5   89.0
BRRI Dhan 29               148.8   131.3        127.0   135.7    1.664   3.373         3.125   2.721    87.9    93.5          94.3   91.9
Gaji                       142.3   130.8        127.3   133.4    1.087   2.734         2.677   2.166    112.0   106.8        111.5   110.1
Kanchhi Masuli                     141.3                141.3            2.828                 2.828            112.8                112.8
Masuli                     158.8   152.5        140.8   150.7    2.378   3.112         2.485   2.658    114.5   111.0        127.3   117.6
NR 1769-34-2-1-1-3-1-1     158.3   146.3        134.8   146.4    3.057   3.185         3.516   3.252    108.3   102.8        110.5   107.2
NR 1769-4-2-2              153.5   140.5        128.8   140.9    2.140   3.086         3.584   2.936    117.2   114.0        112.8   114.7
NR 1887-8-1-1-2-2          153.3   144.3        131.8   143.1    2.972   3.594         3.682   3.416    114.8   99.5         110.8   108.4
NR 1893-17-2-3             168.5   155.0        142.0   155.2    3.091   2.297         2.898   2.762    88.2    88.5          95.0   90.6
NR 1894-10-3-2-3           169.5   158.0        148.8   158.8    3.040   3.955         2.680   3.225    105.7   108.8        112.5   109.0
NR 1910-10-3-2             160.0   145.8        135.3   147.0    1.546   2.044         2.653   2.081    126.7   127.5        135.0   129.7
NR 1923-30-1-2             160.0   141.5        128.5   143.3    2.106   2.753         3.289   2.716    100.5   106.3        106.5   104.4
Radha 11                   157.5   153.0        141.5   150.7    2.599   3.370         2.207   2.725    118.2   115.8        126.3   120.1
Rambilas                   166.8                        166.8    1.647                         1.647    113.8                        113.8
Grand mean                 157.2   144.2        135.7   145.7    2.352   2.941         2.880   2.724    105.7   104.5        112.1   107.4
LSD at (P=0.05)             2.5     2.2          1.6     1.3      ns     0.606         0.773   0.395     8.2     9.1           4.9    4.9
Source: NRRP unpublished data
Annexure 4. Cont.
                                  Panicle length (cm)                    No. of tillers/m2               No. of filled grain/5 panicle            1000 gr. wt. (gm)
Cultivar                 NRRP/H    JRS/I     RARS/P     Mean   NRRP/H   JRS/I          RARS/P   Mean    NRRP/H       JRS/I      Mean     NRRP/H        JRS/I          Mean
Balam                      22.8     24.5       25.0     24.1    272.8     210.0         269.3   250.7    414.0       524.5      469.3     22.2          21.8           22.0
Barkhe 2014               21.1      21.3       23.0     21.8    275.3     251.5         249.8   258.8    480.3       585.3      532.8     22.0          21.0           21.5
Barkhe 3004               22.9      23.0       26.3     24.0    256.8     213.0         253.0   240.9    441.0       428.0      434.5     23.9          24.3           24.1
BR 6631-45-31-1           22.4      23.8       26.0     24.1    260.3     251.0         311.5   274.3    405.3       415.8      410.5     16.9          20.0           18.5
BRRI Dhan 29              21.4      24.3       25.3     23.6    261.0     214.8         267.5   247.8    338.8       461.0      399.9     20.0          20.3           20.1
Gaji                      23.2      23.0       24.8     23.6    264.3     247.3         288.3   266.6    364.0       432.5      398.3     21.9          23.3           22.6
Kanchi masuli                       21.3                21.3              306.0                 306.0                660.5      660.5                   17.3           17.3
Masuli                    22.6      21.8       25.3     23.2    266.5     258.3         269.8   264.8    663.3       816.8      740.0     19.5          16.5           18.0
NR 1769-34-2-1-1-3-1-1     23.2     22.3       22.5     22.6    272.5     266.5         269.8   269.6    406.3       599.8      503.0     21.2          18.8           20.0
NR 1769-4-2-2             22.0      22.3       22.3     22.2    267.8     240.5         287.8   265.3    373.3       595.8      500.4     21.4          20.0           20.7
NR 1887-8-1-1-2-2         21.7      22.3       22.3     22.1    260.0     277.0         298.3   278.4    426.3       472.0      449.1     21.3          18.5           19.9
NR 1893-17-2-3             21.2     23.8       25.8     23.6    286.8     228.3         238.8   251.3    459.3       682.8      587.0     22.9          21.5           22.2
NR 1894-10-3-2-3           22.7     24.0       26.3     24.3    279.0     226.0         240.5   248.5    438.0       633.0      535.5     26.8          25.5           26.1
NR 1910-10-3-2             23.4     26.0       27.3     25.6    259.3     154.0         214.8   209.3    616.3       985.8      801.0     17.5          14.3           15.9
NR 1923-30-1-2             22.1     23.5       24.8     23.5    260.8     268.3         277.0   268.7    284.9       478.5      381.7     22.2          20.8           21.5
Radha 11                  22.0      21.3       24.5     22.6    265.5     238.8         267.3   257.2    742.0       900.3      821.1     19.4          18.0           18.7
Rambilas (Local check)     21.1                         21.1    267.0                           267.0    586.0                  586.0     18.9                         18.9
Grand mean                22.2      23.0       24.7     23.3    267.2     240.7         268.5   258.8    466.5       604.5      536.6     21.1          20.1           20.6
LSD at (P=0.05)            1.6       2.2        1.4      1.1     32.5     37.6          50.8    25.1     220.0       194.4      144.0     3.2           2.0           1838.0




                                                                                  28
Annexure 5. Combined analysis for the grain yield of various rice varieties evaluated in Coordinated Varietal Trial (CVT) Rainfed lowland
          Medium (CVTRLM), 2003 to 2005
                                       2003                          2004                                   2005                   Grand
                       Hardi    Paraw         Combined   Hardi   Paraw         Combined   Hard    Itahari   Paraw    Combined      Mean
Genotype               nath     anipur          mean     nath    anipur          mean     inath             anipur     mean
Barkhe 2001             3.22     3.69           3.45     2.91    2.88            2.90                                               3.17
Barkhe 2014                                                                               2.79     2.97      2.30      2.69         2.69
Barkhe 3004             3.62     4.18           3.90     3.47    2.90            3.19     3.13     2.63      3.29      3.01         3.37
Local                   2.19     3.17           2.68     2.96    2.48            2.72     1.65     2.83      2.17      2.21         2.49
Makwanpur 1             3.30     4.17           3.74     3.85    3.43            3.64                                               3.69
Masuli                  3.80     3.47           3.63     3.19    2.48            2.83     2.38     3.11      2.49      2.66         2.99
NR 1190-24-4-2          4.76     4.44           4.60     3.36    3.17            3.26                                               3.93
NR 1769-4-2-2                                                                             2.14     3.09      3.58      2.94         2.94
NR 1887-4-3-1-1                                          2.58    1.48            2.03                                               2.03
NR 1887-8-1-1-2-2                                        3.02    2.97            3.00     2.97     3.59      3.68      3.42         3.25
NR 1892-20-21-1-1                                        2.81    3.16            2.99                                               2.99
NR 1893-17-2-3          4.12     4.32           4.22     3.09    3.13            3.11     3.09     2.30      2.90      2.76         3.28
NR 1894-10-3-2-3        4.31     4.42           4.37     3.23    3.10            3.16     3.04     3.96      2.68      3.23         3.53
NR 1910-10-3-2                                                                            1.55     2.04      2.65      2.08         2.08
NR 1923-30-1-2                                                                            2.11     2.75      3.29      2.72         2.72
NR 268-4-6-1-4-3        4.24     4.62           4.43     2.43    3.25            2.84                                               3.64
PSBRC 70                3.99     3.77           3.88     2.13    2.01            2.07                                               2.97
Radha 11                                                                                  2.60     3.37      2.21      2.73         2.73
Sugandha 2002                                            2.62    2.70            2.66                                               2.66
Grand Total             3.56     3.87           3.72     2.87    2.71            2.79     2.35     2.94      2.88      2.72         3.03
LSD at (P=0.05)          ns       ns            0.63     0.57    0.73            0.30      ns      0.61      0.77      0.40




                                                                          29
 Annexure 6 Performance of various rice varieties in (Initial Evaluation Trial), Hardinath, main
             season 2005

                     Maturity    Plant              Panicle              Yield      Effective
 Treatment           (DAS)       height (cm)        length (cm)          (t ha-1)   tiller/m2
 Barkhe 1027          123.00           86.27               24.33           1.92            286.33
 Barkhe 2044          137.00           84.67               22.67           3.00            271.67
 Barkhe 3004          150.67           89.40               23.53           3.81            289.33
 Barkhe 3018          149.33           93.07               23.73           2.85            255.33
 Barkhe 3019          149.33           92.67               23.60           3.50            288.00
 IR 74600-26-1-3-2    138.33           90.67               24.93           2.25            305.00
 Judi 582             125.33           85.20               24.33           2.63            317.33
 Namsagai 19          131.00           123.13              25.27           1.35            279.00
 Sugandha 2002        155.33           103.00              26.33           1.83            283.67
 Super 3004           149.33           90.87               22.93           3.40            295.33
 Grand mean           140.87           93.89               24.17           2.65            287.10
 LSD                   4.178           5.707               1.591          0.914            62.020

 Annexure 7. Varietal characteristics of Barkhe 3004 in six entry trial compared to check variety
              Masuli in five Mother trials in rainfed intermediate lowland, main season 2003.
  S. no. Cultivar Grain Yield t ha-1 Tiller /hills           Plant Height (cm) Rank
  1        B 3004            3.17                   8                 97.6              1
  2        B 3010            2.92                   9                103.2              3
  3        B 3012            3.06                  8.4               101.4              6
  4        B 3013            3.25                  9.2               100.2              4
  5        B 3014            3.06                  8.8               100.8              5
  6        Masuli            3.26                  7.4               128.4              2
  Grand Mean                 3.12                  8.5               105.3             3.5
  Probability                 ns                   Ns                  **
  LSD (at p=0.05)              -                    -                7.013
       Rank 1 = best, 6 =worst

  Annexure 8. Varietal characteristics of Barkhe 3004 in six entry trial compared to check variety
                 Masuli in five Mother trial in rainfed intermediate lowland, main season 2004.
S. no. Cultivar                Grain yield      Tillers/hills    Maturity        Plant Height     Rank
                               (t ha-1)                          (DAS)           (cm)
1         Barkhe 3004               2.89              8.4             157             104          4.0
2         Barkhe 3015               1.87              9.7             146             145          4.7
3         Barkhe 3017†              1.82              7.8             146             136          4.0
4         Sugandha 2002             3.04              8.2             156             121          3.7
5         Super 3004                3.66              9.3             158             112          3.7
6         Masuli                    2.71              7.3             154             135          2.7
Grand Mean                           2.76             8.5             153             126          2.8
Probability                           **               *               **              **           ns
l.s.d.                               0.94             1.6             5.1              6.7           -
  Rank 1 = Least preferred and 6= Most preferred, †Grain could not be harvested due to lodging in one
  of the Mother trials, Source: LI-BIRD’s mother trials, 2004, GY = Grain yield
Annexure 9. Varietal characteristics of Barkhe 3004 in seven entry trial compared to
            check variety Masuli in eight Mother trials in rainfed intermediate
            lowland, main season in 2005.
S. no.    Cultivar            Grain Yield        Tiller   Plant Height   Maturity   Rank
                              (t ha-1)           /hills   (cm)           (DAS)
1        Barkhe 3004                 4.2           9.8          105         153        4.1
2        Sugandha 2002               3.8           9.9          116         152       5.6
3        Barkhe 3017                 2.6           7.9          134         136        6.6
4        Barkhe 3018                 4.3           8.9          107         154        2.4
5        Barkhe 3019                 4.7           9.1          106         154        3.7
6        Super 3004                  4.2           9.9          110         153       2.9
7        Masuli                      3.3           7.7          133         151       2.9
Grand Mean                           3.9           9.0          116         151         4
Probability                       <0.001          0.074       <0.001       <0.001    <0.001
LSD at p=0.05                       0.72           1.85        6.86         3.37      1.83
Rank 1 = Most preferred and 6= Least preferred




Annexure 10. Combined analysis for grain yield (t ha-1) of different varieties of rice in
rainfed lowland environment tested in Mother Trial in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts
of Nepal from 2003-2005

                                     Grain yield t ha-1
Genotype             2003       2004      2005      Combined mean
Barkhe 3004           3.2        3.6       4.2          3.43
Barkhe 3010           2.9                               2.90
Barkhe 3012           3.1                               3.10
Barkhe 3013           3.3                               3.30
Barkhe 3014           3.1                               3.10
Barkhe 3015                      1.9                    1.90
Barkhe 3017                      1.8       2.6          2.22
Barkhe 3018                                4.3          4.30
Barkhe 3019                                4.7          4.70
Hajariya†                        2.4                    2.40
Masuli*               3.3        2.5       3.3          3.03
Radha 17†                        3.2                    3.20
Sugandha 2002                    3.0       3.8          3.44
Super 3004                       3.7       4.2          3.95
Combined mean         3.1        2.7       3.9          3.23
LSD at (P=0.05)        ns       0.94     0.7
†
  Farmers’ variety, *Standard check




                                                  31
Annexure 11. Response of Barkhe 3004 to different doses of fertilizer in trial conducted in main season 2004 and 2005 in Chitwan district.
                                               Plant height   Tillers           Filled grains             Panicle length                Yield (t/ha)
Treatment          Treatment description          2005         2005     2004        2005      Mean   2004      2005      Mean    2004     2005       Mean
0:0:0 NPK/ha       Control                         89.4         6.7     82.20      129.45 105.83     20.70     24.37     22.53   2.48      3.09      2.79
                   One time top dressing at
25:0:0 NPK/ha      booting stage only             90.8          7.4     82.25     135.80   109.03    20.49     24.90    22.69    2.45     3.41      2.93
                   1/2 N at basal and 1/2 at
50:30:0 NPK/ha     top dressing                   93.0          7.7     96.85     188.85   142.85    21.73     24.80    23.27    3.41     4.09      3.75
                   50 kg N top dress two
100:30:30 NPK/ha   times                          98.7          8.8     92.68     137.75   115.21    22.15     25.40    23.78    3.81     4.19      4.00
                   80 kg N top dresses at 2
120:30:30 NPK/ha   times + Zinc                   102           8.0     88.05     154.00   121.03    21.38     26.09    23.73    3.83     4.97      4.40
Grand Mean                                        94.7         7.7      88.41     149.17   118.79    21.29     25.11    23.20    3.19     3.95      3.57
LSD                                                4.5         1.89     15.79      72.7    38.43     1.55       0.71    1.05     0.47     0.76      0.54
Annexure 11.1 Cost benefit ratio of Barkhe 3004 across different dosages of fertilizers

Treatment                      Yield            Income (Rs)     Total     Total     Net       B: C
kg ha-1              Grain         Straw        Grain   Straw   income    Cost       profit   ratio
                               -1
                     Yield t ha    Bhari ha-1                   (Rs)       (Rs)     (Rs)
1. 0:0:0 NPK             2.79          75       33480   9000    42480     19465.0   23015     1.18
2. 25:0:0 NPK            2.93          80       35160   9600    44760     20823.8   23936.3   1.15
3. 50:30:0 NPK           3.75          84       45000   10080   55080     23620.0   31460     1.33
4. 100:30:30 NPK         4.00          87       48000   10440   58440     27195.0   31245     1.15
5. 120:30:30 NPK         4.40          89       52800   10680   63480     28270.0   35210     1.25

Annexure 12. Cost of cultivation for Barkhe 3004 (on a per hectare basis)

SN Items                         Unit      Quantity      Rate (Rs)     Cost (Rs)
1.   Nursery seed bed            Man       4             100           400
     preparation                 days
2.   Fertilizer N, P and K for   kg        5             25            125
     nursery bed
3.   Field preparation           Hour      7             520           3640
4.   Seeds                       Kg        50            22            1100
5.   Transplanting               Man       35            100           3500
                                 days
6.   Weeding                     Man       32            100           3200
                                 days
7.   Harvesting, threshing,      Man       60            125           7500
     cleaning, packaging         days
     Total fixed cost                                                  19465.0
     Variable cost
1.   0:0:0 NPK/ha                          0             0             0
2.   25:0:0 NPK/ha               Kg        54.4 Urea     25            1358.8
3.                               Kg        83 urea &     25/kg urea    4155.0
     50:30:0 NPK/ha                        65 DAP        32/kg DAP
4.                               kg        166 Urea,     25/kg urea,   7730.0
                                           65 DAP,       32/kg DAP
     100:30:30 NPK/ha                      50 MOP        30/kg MOP
5.                               kg        209 Urea,     25/kg urea,   8805.0
                                           65 DAP,       32/kg DAP
     120:30:30 NPK/ha                      50 MOP        30/kg MOP
Annexure 12.1 Cost-benefit analysis of Barkhe 3004 and Masuli
             Based on yield trials

    Cost items                        Barkhe 3004 Masuli
    Expenditure on cultural operations (Labour cost)
    Nursery seed bed preparation           400        400
    Fertilizer N, P and K for nursery
    bed                                     125       125
    Land preparation                       3640       3640
    Fertilizer /Manure application          500       500
    Transplanting                          3000       3000
    Weeding                                3000       3000
    Insecticide/pesticide spraying          600       600
    Harvesting                             3000       3000
    Threshing                              2500       2500
    Cleaning, packaging                    1250       1250
    Subtotal                              18015      18015
    Expenditure on inputs
    Seed                                   1100       1100
    Fertilizer: DAP                        1620       1620
               UREA                        1350       1350
               M/P                          810        810
                  Fungicide                           500
                 Insecticide                500       300
    Sub-total                              5380       5680
    Total cost                            23395      23695
    Return
    Grain§                                     42350           37560
    Straw                                      10875           11875
    Total return                               53225           49435
    Net profit                                 29830           25740
    Benefit cost ratio                          1.28            1.09
§
    Average grain yield of Barkhe 3004 from 28 CVTs, 18 Mother trials and




                                                          34
Annexure 13. National Rice Disease Nursery for blast, 2002.
EN        Rice entry                                                      Leaf blast score
                                                      NRRP/H           RARS/L         NMRP/R         RARS/T
4         BG 1442                                          2               0             0              1
44        CNTLR 85085-78-1-1-1                             1               0             0              0
207       Barkhe 1027                                      0               0              -             0
217       Barkhe 3004                                      1               0              -             0
218       Barkhe 3005                                      1               2             0              1
221       Barkhe 3006                                      2               0              -             2
222       Barkhe 3007                                      1               2             0              0
223       Barkhe 3008                                      1               1             0              1
242       NR 1748-12-1-1-4-3-4-3-2-1-2-3                   2               2             0              0
244       NR 1863-63-1-1-1-1-2-1                           1               0             0              0
245       NR 1892-12-2-6-1-3-1                             1               0             0              0
246       NR 1892-12-2-1-3-2                               1               0             0              0
250       NR 1898-5-1-2-1-1-2                              2               0             0              0
255       IR 68851-27-1-B-1-2-1                            2               2             0              0
          Laxmi (Resistant Check)                          1               1             1              1
          Shankharika (Susceptible Check)                  9               9             9              9
Source: Chaudhary et al., 2003.

Annexure 14. National Rice Disease Nursery for bacterial leaf blight, 2002.
    EN     Rice entry                                          Bacterial leaf blight score (0-9)
                                           NRRP, Hardinath         RARS, Parwanipur            NWRP, Bhairahawa
     9    IR 55435-05                             3                         3                       3
    11    IR 70219-35-2-1-1-1-3                   3                         0                       3
    56    PSBRC 2                                 3                         0                       3
    58    RHS379-25CX-1CX-2CX-OZA                 3                         0                       3
    61    IR 6179-138-1-3-2-2                     3                         0                       3
    127   Judi 102                                3                         1                       3
    138   Judi 503                                3                         1                       3
    217   Barkhe 3004                             3                         0                       3
    218   Barkhe 3005                             3                         0                       3
    233   PSBRC 70                                3                         0                       3
    241   NR 1748-12-1-1-4-3-4-3-2-1-2-1          3                         0                       3
    247   NR 1893-17-2-3-1-1-2                    3                         0                       3
    248   NR 1894-10-3-2-3-1-1                    3                         0                       3
    249   NR 1894-10-3-2-3-1-6-3                  3                         0                       3
    250   NR 1898-5-1-2-1-1-2                     3                         0                       3
    251   NR 1855-1-1-2-1-1-1                     3                         0                       3
    253   NR 1887-8-1-2-1-1-1                     3                         0                       3
    257   NR 1891-58-3-2-2-3-1-2                  3                         0                       3
    258   NR 1891-58-3-2-2-3-1-3                  3                         0                       3
          Janaki (Resistant Check)                1                         1                       1
          TN1 (Susceptible Ckheck)                9                         9                       9




                                                      35
Annexure 15. National Rice Disease Nurseries for blast, 2003.

 EN       DESIGNATION                                     Leaf blast score (0-9)
                                             NRRP/H       NORP/N        PPD/K      RARS/T
24        CNTLR85085-78-1-1-1                    0            1           1          0
36        Rato Basmati                           0            1           2          1
129       Ghaiya 2                               0            1           2          0
155       Pant-10                                -            1           2          0
156       Judi-102                               0            1            -         0
157       Judi-565                               -            1           1          0
158       Judi-566                               -            1           2          0
166       IR 36                                  -            1           2          0
167       Judi 572                               0            2           2          0
170       BPI 3-2                                -            1           2          0
210       Barkhe-2001                            0            1           1          0
211       Barkhe-2014                            0            1           1          1
226       Barkhe-3004                            0            1           2          0
228       Barkhe-3010                            0            1           2          0
229       Barkhe-3012                            0            1           1          1
230       Barkhe-3013                            -            1           2          0
231       Barkhe-3014                            -            1           1          0
232       Sugandha-1                             0            1           1          0
233       Sugandha-2002                          -            1           2          1
262       IR57893-10                             -            2           2          0
          Laxmi (Resistant Check)                1
       Masuli (Susceptible Check)                9
Source: Chaudhary et al., 2004.

Annexure 16. Response of Barkhe 3004, Judi 572 and Barkhe 2014 to major rice
diseases in on-farm trials assesses by IAAS Plant Pathologist in 2003.

Variety                                      Varietal Response to disease
                    Leaf       Neck         Bacterial      Brown         Sheath        Glume
                   Blast       blast       Leaf blight      Spot          Blight    Discoloration
Judi 572             R           R             R              -            MR            MS
Barkhe 2014          R           R             R             R             MR             R
Barkhe 3004          R           R             R             R             MR             R
 R= Resistant, MR= Moderately Resistant, MS= Moderately Susceptible




                                                36
Annexure 17. Response of Barkhe 3004 and Masuli to rice diseases observed in mother trials in on-farm trials in
Chitwan in 2003.
Variety/Lines   Farmer' Name        Village       GS LB NB BS NBLS ShB ShR FSm GD BLB LS RSV MB Borer                                LF
Masuli          Nirmala Aryal       Ujalnagar      6 0   - 3   5    0   0   -   1  1   0  0   2  0                                    0
Barkhe 3004     Nirmala Aryal       Ujalnagar      7 0   - 1   5    0   0   -   -  0   0  1   3  0                                    0
Masuli          Hari Pandit         Champanagar    7 0   - 0   5    0   0   0   1  0   0  0   1  0                                    0
Barkhe 3004     Hari Pandit         Champanagar    8 0  0  1   5    0   0   0   3  0   0  1   1  0                                    0
Masuli          Surya Kumari Raut   Amarbasti      8 0  0  0   5    0   0   0   5  3   0  0   0  1                                    1
Barkhe3004      Sarswati Ghimire    Krishnamandir 4 0    - 0   5    0   -   -   -  5   0  0   0  0                                    0
Masuli          Sarswati Ghimire    Krishnamandir 5 0    - 0   1    0   -   -_ -_ 3    0  0   0  0                                    1
Disease was not scored, GS=Growth Stage, LB= Leaf Blast, NB= Neck Blast, BS+ Brwon Spot, NBLS=Narrow Brown leaf Spot, ShB= Sheath Blight,
ShR= Sheath Rot, FSm= False Smut, GD=Glume Discoloration, BLB= Bacterial Leaf Blight, RSV=Ragged Stunt Virus, LS=Leaf Scald, LF= Leaf folder.
Annexure 18. National Rice Disease Nurseries for blast and bacterial leaf blight, 2004.

   SN      DESIGNATION                             SOURCE           NRRP/H          NRRP/H
                                                                      Blast           BLB
    1      R. Check                                     .              3               3
    2      S. Check                                     .              7               9
    3      IAASR-16                                   CVT              0               7
    4      CNTLR85085-78-1-1-1                         ,,             NG               7
    5      RATO BASMATI                              IET-A             0               5
    6      PUSHA SUGANDHA-2                            ,,              0               9
    7      Gautam                                      ,,             PG               9
    8      Sugandha 2002                             CVT-                              3
    9      NR 268-4-6-1-4-3-3-5                        ,,               2              3
   10      NR 1910-10-3-2                             IET-             0               7
   11      NR 1916-12-1-3                              IET             0               3
   12      IR 55435-5                               CVT-UP            NG               7
   13      Vandana                                      ,,             0               5
   14      CAN 4196                                  IET-UP            0               7
   15      NR 1824-21-1-1-2-1-2                        FFT             0               5
   16      NR 1485-3-3-2-3-2-1                      FFTRLM             0               3
   17      BR 4962-12-4                             FFT RLM           NG               3
   18      BPI 3-2                                     ,,               0              5
   19      OR-367                                      ,,               1              1
   20      CNTLR 85033-9-3-1-1                       FFT-A              0              7
   21      GAN-WAN-XIAN 22                             ,,               0              3
   22      PUSA-834                                    ,,               0              3
   23      Khumal-4                                    ,,               0              3
   24      Khumal-11                                   ,,               0              1
   25      R.Check                                     ,,               0              5
   26      S.Check                                      .               9              9
   27      Barkhe 3017                              LI-BIRD             2              3
   28      Barkhe 2044                                 ,,               0              3
   29      Barkhe 2001 (Bulk)                          ,,               0              3
   30      Barkhe 2045                                 ,,               3              5
   31      Barkhe 2024                                 ,,               0              5
   32      Barkhe 3004                                  ,,              0              3
   33      Barkhe 1027                                  ,,              0              5
   34      R.Check                                     .                0               1
   35      S.Check                                     .                9               9
Source: Bedananda et al, 2005.
NRRP/H= National Rice Research Program, Hardinath; NG=Not germinated; PG=Poor germination
Annexure 19. National Rice Disease Nurseries for blast and bacterial leaf blight, 2005.
    SN            Year          DESIGNATION              BLB       Blast
     17           2005          Barkhe 2001               7          0
     18           2005          Barkhe 2024               5          0
     19           2005          Barkhe 2044               3          0
     20           2005          Barkhe 2045               5          7
     21           2005          Barkhe 3004               5          1
     22           2005          Barkhe 3013               3          1
     24           2005          Barkhe 3017               3          4
     25           2005          Barkhe 3018               5          0
     26           2005          Barkhe 3019               5          1
     30           2005          BRRI 28                   7          0
     63           2005          DR Dhan                   7          4
     150          2005          Judi 567                  5          0
     152          2005          Judi 582                  3          1
     166          2005          Masuli/MT 4#168           5          5
     168          2005          Masuli/MT 4#193           5          4
     169          2005          Masuli/MT 4#69            3          7
     170          2005          Masuli/MT 4#86            3          8
     226          2005          R.Check                   3          0
     228          2005          R.Check                   1          0
     232          2005          RC 32                     3          3
     252          2005          S.Check                   9          8
     254          2005          S.Check                   9          8
     259          2005          Sugandha 1                7          0
     260          2005          Sugandha 2002             7          0
     264          2005          Super 3004                3          0
     214          2005          R. Check                  3          1
     215          2005          R. Check                  1          1
     225          2005          R.C.                      3          1
     241          2005          S. Check                  9          8
     242          2005          S. Check                  9          8
     243          2005          S. Check                  9          8
Source: NRRP unpublished data

Annexure 20. Incidence and average blast scores in rice varieties screened in the PVS trials in
              Chitwan, 2005
Rice variety          Leaf blast score (0-9)§         Neck blast score (0-9)       Severity/incidence
                 Krishna Mandir Gitanagar             Krishna Mandir            Leaf blast Neck blast
Barkhe 1027             1                  0                 3                  No/low        moderate
Barkhe 2014             3.5                2                 †                  moderate           †
Barkhe 3004             1                  1                 †                  No/low             †
Judi 572                1                   0                2                  No/low         Low
Sugandha 2002           2                  1                 †                  No/low             †
Super 3004              1                   1         Krishnamandir             No/low             †
Masuli                  5                   6                4                   high           high
§
 Leaf and neck blast scoring was done using IRRI Standard Evaluation System (SES) for rice in 0-9 scale, mean of
three replicates. For neck blast on the basis of severity of infection on panicle, 0 = no incidence, 1= <1%, 3 = 1-5%,
5-6 =25%, 7= 26-50%, 9= 51-100%. For severity, varieties are categorised as no = zero infection, low =
predominance of 1-3 score and low severity, moderate = 4-6 and high = 7-9, †= information not available.
Source: Puri and Shrestha 2005



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