Quality by yaofenjin

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 71

									Introduction to Integrated
    Quality Assurance

  A foundational look at Fermilab’s
          view of Quality



                                      1
  At the end of this session you will be able
          to answer these questions
             (training objectives):
• What is Quality, and an
  Integrated Quality Assurance System?
• Why is it important?
• How will we do it?
• What is a graded approach to Quality?
• What does this mean to ME?

                                            2
First things first.


                      3
        What is Quality?
  We all have some hazy idea about
general “goodness” but it’s a surprisingly
         slippery term to define.




                                             4
                          Quality
• Physics: The quality of a fluid is the percentage of mass
  that is vapor

• Benjamin Franklin: The bitterness of poor quality remains
  long after the sweetness of low price is forgotten

• Bill Gates on Quality Software: If you can’t make it good,
  make it look good.

• Unknown: When in a hole of your own digging, it is best to
  inspect the quality of your work

                                                               5
 How about if we list things that
DON’T necessarily mean “quality?”



                                6
              NOT Quality

• Expensive is NOT Quality
• Inexpensive is NOT Quality
• Inspection or sorting is NOT Quality




                                         7
NOT Quality

     • Late is NOT Quality
     • Early is NOT Quality.
     • But wait a minute,
       ON TIME IS Quality!
       We’ve found
       something!



                               8
               However …
• If I get something when I wanted it,
  I’m happy and whoever shipped it to me
  gave me good quality.

• Here’s another “wait a minute”:
  I received it when I wanted it. Me.
   I defined when I wanted it.

 Here we have it then:

                                           9
                   Quality IS
• The quality of a thing
  (product, service, whatever) is defined by
  customer specifications or requirements.
• The customer assigns values to the features,
  traits, or characteristics of this thing.
• These values are used to MEASURE “good” or
  “bad” quality, like the desired length of a wire is
  between 9-10 inches.
• Quality affects everyone every day as an integral
  part of living.
                                                        10
         True or False?
The quality of something is defined by
      parameters & requirements
       provided by the customer




                                         11
                                    True or False?
The quality of something is defined by parameters and requirements provided by the
                          customer. You answered “False.




    The customer DOES tell us what
    he/she wants, and that defines the
   quality of that “thing” he/she wants.




                                                                                 12
                                    True or False?
The quality of something is defined by parameters and requirements provided by the
                          customer. You answered “True.”




                         Correct!



                                                                                 13
     True or False?
       Quality is an idea
               and
can’t be measured with numbers.




                                  14
                      True or False?
Quality is an idea and can’t be measured with numbers.
                  You answered “ True.”


The quality of something CAN have
   numbers assigned to it, like:
                  • size,
                  • weight, and
                  • time delivered.




                                                         15
                      True or False?
Quality is an idea and can’t be measured with numbers.
                  You answered “False.”




           Correct!


                                                         16
      So what’s the hassle then?
• If I define quality, whoever is supplying me
  with something has the job to meet MY
  requirements!




                                                 17
                However …
That’s not what my wife thought a while ago.

Here’s what happened to me recently, for
 example:

I asked her to stop by the hardware store & buy
   a broom.


                                                  18
She said “OK” & came back later with this


                                            19
“That’s not what I wanted” I said, “I wanted this”

           You gave me bad quality.”
     You can imagine how THAT went over.
                                                     20
              Her reply was “No, you said ‘broom.’
          I made a choice based on what you told me.
YOU didn’t SUPPLY the correct information and I had this choice.”




My wife showed me that quality actually DOES affect my everyday life!
                                                                    21
            Aspects of Quality
• We’ve just stumbled over another aspect of
  Quality.
• In order for me, as a customer, to get quality,
  I have to SUPPLY necessary information for
  others to do the job correctly.
• The quality of work we give our customers
  depends on our customers letting us know
  exactly what they want.

                                                    22
              The Customer?
• In a research facility like Fermilab, who is our
  customer?
• Well, the general public at large & the
  Department of Energy (DOE) specifically.
  What do they want from us?
• Accurate science based on truthful data
  without squandering money.


                                                     23
                   How?
• All, right, how are we going to do this?
• By building an integrated SYSTEM that makes
  sure “quality” (satisfying customer
  requirements) happens.
• An integrated quality system does this by
  applying controls & rules to our everyday
  activities, similar to Integrated Safety
  Management.

                                                24
Here’s Pier Oddone’s thoughts on that:
                     •   IQA: Foundational Principle
Click to start:
                     •   QA is integrated into our everyday
                         work and is both a personal
                         responsibility as well as a
                         collective one. It is modeled after
                         the successful Integrated Safety
                         Management or ISM.
                         What it is NOT: a layer of
                         processes imposed externally.

                     •   Implementation of IQA is a line
                         management responsibility:
                         line organizations have the
                         authority, responsibility, and are
                         accountable for integrating QA
                         into all work.


                                                              25
         What does this mean?
• This means finding out who is the customer of
  each activity, be it:
  – writing a purchase order
  – designing a magnet
  – or planning an experiment.

• Each of those activities are made up of multiple
  events that need to take place. A series of
  activities that need to take place is called a
  “process.”

                                                     26
             True or False?
If I want something, I need to supply accurate
          information as to what I want.




                                                 27
  If I want something, I need to supply accurate information as to what I want.
                              You answered “False”



• The correct answer is “True.”
• If you want something, you DO need to tell
  others what you want, otherwise they will
  guess – and they may guess wrong.




                                                                                  28
                                True or False?
If I want something, I need to supply accurate information as to what I want.
                            (You answered True…)




                     Correct!


                                                                                29
            True or False?
Fermilab’s intent is to integrate quality into
              everything we do.




                                                 30
                                 True or False?
       Fermilab’s intent is to integrate quality into everything we do.
                             You answered False…


• The correct answer is “True.”

  Fermilab’s goal is to make quality practices a
  part of all activities we do, similar to
  Integrated Safety Management




                                                                          31
                          True or False?
Fermilab’s intent is to integrate quality into everything we do.
                     You answered “True”…




              Correct!


                                                                   32
              True or False?
A quality system is a series of opinions that may
              or may not be followed.




                                                33
                                  True or False?
   A quality system is a series of opinions that may or may not be followed.
                              You answered “True.”


                 The answer is “False.”
A quality system is a collection of practices
    to prevent mistakes that have been
               found to work.




                                                                               34
                               True or False?
A quality system is a series of opinions that may or may not be followed.
                           You answered “False.”




                   Correct!


                                                                            35
       Who is YOUR customer?
• Well, immediately, your Supervisor is your
  customer. You sell your time, experience, &
  ability to the DOE through him/her.

• Your Supervisor is also your supplier.
  You can’t do your job right unless you’re told
  what is needed.


                                                   36
             Quality Systems
• A quality system improves quality &
  communication of needs by lumping together
  a bunch of practices and documentation.

• These practices have been proven to work
  over the decades in many industries & over
  different conditions.


                                               37
                      IQA
• The Fermilab Quality System is called
  Integrated Quality Assurance, or IQA. It is
  divided into 11 chapters.




                                                38
               IQA Chapters
• The IQA provides guides to answer the following
  questions in each chapter.
  These chapters are:

  1. Program: Why is Fermilab here & how will we
  manage what we do?

  2. Personnel Training & Qualification: How do
  we make sure (control) that the people know
  how to do their jobs?

                                                    39
          IQA Chapters 3-5
3. Quality Improvement: How do we improve
what we do & not repeat mistakes?

4. Documents & Records: How do we remember
what we did before & tell others what we did?

5. Work Processes: How do we keep track of
things & activities when we do them?


                                                40
          IQA Chapters 6-8
6. Design: How do we make sure we design
things properly?

7. Procurement: How do we buy things the most
economically?

8. Inspection & Acceptance Testing: How do we
make sure we supply what was asked of us & get
want we wanted?

                                                 41
          IQA Chapters 9-11
9. Assessments: How do we take a look at what
we’re doing to improve ourselves?

10. Suspect/Counterfeit items: How do we spot
& handle stuff that was made illegally & may be
unsafe?

11. Scientific Research: What do scientists need
to do to make sure they do solid science?

                                                   42
        Consider this Example:
• In order to complete an experiment, you need
  to design a magnet. In order to make the
  magnet, you need to purchase things.

• Each of those processes described have a
  customer & a supplier
  – writing a purchase order
  – designing a magnet
  – planning an experiment

                                             43
  Why is this important?
Let’s let Pier Oddone tell us
why he thinks it’s important:

                 •   Integrated Quality Assurance

                 •   Our program is called Integrated Quality
                     Assurance or IQA – because it really
                     must be a state of mind.

                 •   Do we need it?

                 •   The consequences of faulty assurance
                     processes can be severe: many
                     examples
                 •   It is one of the foundations of
                     continuous improvement
                 •   It is also a requirement of our contract to
                     have a quality assurance program that
                     meets expectations: we must be smart
                     on how we accomplish this




                                                             44
                Key points:
• Pier dispelled an important myth:
  “We can’t be perfect because what we do
  here is complicated.”
• If you look at complex events as a series of
  simple steps, each with a customer and a
  supplier, the complicated becomes achievable.
• Let’s look at a typical complex job:


                                              45
               Complex Job
• A scientist planning an experiment needs a
  magnet designed, but needs to supply
  experiment requirements to a magnet
  designer.
• A magnet designer needs parts, but needs to
  supply part requirements to a buyer.
• A buyer needs to get parts, but needs to make
  sure the supplier knows the requirements.

                                              46
• Most (but not all) of what a quality system does is to make
  sure the right people have & understand the information they
  need to do their jobs correctly. For instance, some people
  can, & some people can’t read these instructions. Would
  these instructions be adequate for you?




                                                             47
            True or False?
A quality system is not important, as people
          generally know what to do.




                                               48
                                 True or False?
    A quality system is not important, as people generally know what to do.
                              You answered “True.”


• A quality system IS important to make sure
  customer requirements are known. Assuming
  you know requirements can lead to a mistake.




                                                                              49
                              True or False?
A quality system is not important, as people generally know what to do.
                          You answered “False.”




                   Correct!


                                                                          50
              True or False?
• Fermilab’s quality system is called the
  “Integrated Quality Assurance” system.




                                            51
  Fermilab’s quality system is called the “Integrated Quality Assurance” system.
                               You answered “False”



• The answer is “true.”

  Fermilab’s quality assurance system IS called
  the IQA or “Integrated Quality Assurance”
  system.




                                                                                   52
                                  True or False?
Fermilab’s quality system is called the “Integrated Quality Assurance” system.
                             You answered “True”




                      Correct!


                                                                                 53
             True or False?
• Fermilab’s IQA has 11 chapters answering
  some basic questions concerning how we do
  things.




                                              54
     Q: Fermilab’s IQA has 11 chapters answering some basic questions
                       concerning how we do things.
                           You answered “False.”



• Fermilab’s IQA DOES have 11 chapters that
  cover general activities that we do.




                                                                        55
Q: Fermilab’s IQA has 11 chapters answering some basic questions
                  concerning how we do things.
                      You answered “True.”




                Correct!


                                                                   56
              IQA in practice
• This information exchange is handled by
  training & documentation, as well as other
  parts of the IQA.
• Pier also said we needed to apply some
  “common sense”




                                               57
For instance I don’t think I’d need instructions
            for a walk in the park.




                                                   58
      However, if the park I was walking in looked like this,
I think I’d like some guidance & special equipment for the stroll.




                                                                 59
         IQA - Implementation
• Any quality system implemented is done
  looking at the risks involved in providing
  instructions & controls, or not providing
  instructions & controls.

• This is called a graded approach.

• The more risk involved, the greater the need
  to make sure people know what they’re doing.
                                               60
        IQA – Graded Approach
• The graded approach accounts for several
  factors:
  – What will happen if the part/process fails?
  – Will it be a safety issue?
  – How likely is it to happen?
  – How likely are we to find out it happened?
• After these and other questions are answered,
  we then decide what to do about it.

                                                  61
        YOUR graded approach
• Ask yourself:
  – Is what I’m doing dangerous?
  – Do I know how to do the job?
  – If I make a mistake, how will it affect me
    or my customer?
  – How likely am I to make a mistake?
    Would special tooling help prevent a mistake?
  – How likely am I to find the mistake after it’s made?


                                                      62
                  Caution!
• If I don’t know the answers to at least these
  questions, I don’t know enough to complete
  my job.




                                                  63
What does all this mean to me?
– If you’re not sure what is required, ask your
  Supervisor.
– If something looks wrong, it very likely is. Stop
  and ask your Supervisor.
– If you see a better way to do something, don’t
  “just do it,” BUT FOR SURE…..you guessed it…..ask
  your Supervisor. After all, the Supervisor IS your
  primary customer.



                                                   64
                Remember:
• Quality is supplying
  customer requirements
  without unnecessary
  “red tape,” but still
  making SURE the
  customer gets what
  he/she has asked for.




                            65
              Almost Done!
• Now the fun part! Quiz time!
• Choose the BEST answer.




                                 66
1. A quality system is a system
     A.   for ensuring perfect performance.
     B.   something extra we need to do instead of our jobs
     C.   Is part of our normal work, like Integrated Safety Management
     D.   applied the same way throughout Fermilab

2. A graded approach
     A.   measures risks and applies controls or instructions as needed
     B.   is classified by a passing grade of “C” or better
     C.   is something that doesn’t affect my everyday activities
     D.   isn’t important except in rare instances

3. Quality is
    A.    a hazy goal we have in general
    B.    for perfectionists
    C.    can’t be achieved with complicated things
    D.    is defined by the customer requirements




                                                                          67
4. Quality practices affect my life by:
     A.   Making sure my wife doesn’t get mad at me.
     B.   Requiring that everyone makes me happy.
     C.   Helping make sure there is good communication for requirements.
     D.   Making me do more work.


5. An Integrated Quality Assurance system is:
     A.   A system of integrating quality in what we do instead of something extra
     B.   A mathematical model using integral calculus as a means of verifying design calculations.
     C.   A system of achieving perfection
     D.   A stand alone program for achieving quality


6. A Quality System is important because:
     A.   DOE requires it
     B.   The extra paperwork will give us good records to satisfy DOE requirements
     C.   It will change our current practices at Fermilab & create extra layers of bureaucracy
     D.   It will help prevent costly & possibly dangerous mistakes from happening




                                                                                                      68
7. The IQA contains 11 chapters that:
    A.   Provide exact rules for all situations
    B.   Gives guidelines & rules to follow
    C.   Is comprehensive
    D.   Are for Managers only


8. The IQA chapters:
    A.   Are a group of practices that have worked before
    B.   Have no bearing on day to day life
    C.   Were made up without any feedback and are arbitrary
    D.   Exactly define customer requirements


9. I need to ask my Supervisor if:
    A.   Something doesn’t look right
    B.   I’m not sure of what needs to be done
    C.   I don’t know what is on the lunch menu.
    D.    A & B above




                                                               69
True or False?
 Generic TF Slide




                    70
  True or False?
 Generic “Correct”




Correct!



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