setup reduction presentation

					               Demand Chain Solutions

                         Set-Up Reduction

                             Jason Fretz
                            Brian Grannan
                            Aaron Lininger
                             Jeff Lovell


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                  Set-Up Reduction-
           Seminar Expectations & Outcomes
Part I
 What Set-up Reduction is and why it is important to achieving
  Lean processes and World-Class Performance results.
Part II
 Factors that Influence Lead Times and Set-up Operations.
 The basic concepts and steps required to effectively implement a
  Set-up Reduction Program.
Part III
 How to Properly Analyze any set-up operation through a proven,
  step-by-step process using low-cost solutions and techniques.
 How to develop effective performance measures to insure you
  are obtaining the results necessary from the program.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
                            Part I

 Define Set-up.
      - In your own words write a definition of set-up.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
Definition we will use in this training session to
 define set-up

      - The elapsed time from when the last part of the current run
   is completed until the work center starts running the first good
   piece of the next run.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Steps in the Set-Up Process-
        (1) Preparation Step. Work that is done to
   prepare for set-up or changeover- i.e.: finding
   materials, jigs, gauges, etc.

        Makes up approximately 30% of the set-up process time.




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                         Set-Up Reduction

 Steps in the Set-Up Process- (continued)-

        (2) Mounting and Dismounting Step.
    This involves work for taking cutter heads, blades,
   and other similar tooling off the equipment and
   putting on the new required tooling.

          Makes up approximately 5% of the set-up process time.
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                         Set-Up Reduction

 Steps in the Set-Up Process- (Continued)-

    (3) Centering, dimensioning and setting step.
  Involves fine-tuning the tooling and equipment to run
  the next part.

          Takes approximately 15% of the set-up process time.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Steps in the Set-Up Process- (Continued)-
   (4) Trial Runs and Adjustments.
  Involves the frequent trial-and-error approach to set
  up the tooling and equipment to run the parts
  according to specifications.

   - Makes up the largest single time element in most set-up-
   approximately 50% of the set-up process time.

  - This is where initial efforts can reap large benefits in reducing
  set-up times.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 What is Set-up Reduction?
         - A process through which the total time required to
   changeover or set-up equipment or a work center is
   dramatically reduced through a systematic, problem-solving,
   waste-eliminating approach to support the movement toward
   small lot size runs. This will reduce inventory and increase
   productive run time to achieve increase in throughput,
   minimizing lot sizes, and reducing total costs.



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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Traditionally, we have left set-up operations to the workers.
  Even when employees are conscientious, they often lack the
  resources and authority to make significant improvements to
  the set-up process.

 Outdated accounting practices still “drive” many organization’s
  thoughts regarding set-up. That is- large lot size runs in order
  to spread the cost of timely and costly set-up operations across
  many pieces, thereby reducing set-up cost per piece.

 What this model of thinking results in is lengthy set-up
  operations that take hours or days, instead of minutes. Most
  set-ups can be reduced by 50-90% with a focused approach,
  using low-cost, no cost techniques.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 The potential that reducing set-up has is difficult for most
  people to envision as a reality, because “that is the way we
  have always done it”, blinds us to the possibilities.

 In order to achieve small lot production and thereby achieve
  significant reductions in inventory and WIP, set-up reductions
  must be done first.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Most Set-Up Reduction programs are a variation on the SMED
  program – Single Minute Exchange of Dies, developed by
  Shingo,as part of the Toyota Production System (TPS).

 People believe SMED means all set-ups can be done in one
  minute or less. SMED is really a misnomer. SMED simply
  states that all set-ups can be reduced significantly (50-90%)
  through a focused, problem-solving, low-cost, no cost
  approach.

 This training session uses Set-Up Reduction based upon SMED
  and the second definition.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 What Set-up Reduction is not
   - A program to eliminate set-up people.

   - A panacea to overcome poor management or poor process
   layouts.

   - Requirement to spend large capital investment to attain
   significant benefits.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 What Set-Up Reduction Is-
    - Is one tool of many in the drive to make processes lean
    through elimination of waste and excessive time.
    - A cost-reduction tool.
    - A low-cost method to achieve increased capacity from
    existing equipment.
    - Way to reduce lot sizes significantly and improve versatility
    of product mix through a work center to enhance customer
    service.
    - Means to have people who perform the work take
    “ownership” for the process and be involved in implementing
    solutions in their work area.
    - A cross-functional team approach to problem-solving.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Why Is It Important to Reduce Set-up Times?
            - Reduce total process time.
            - Reduce lot sizes to minimal levels to achieve flow.
            - Reduce Queue time.
            - Reduce Inventory/WIP
            - Improve Product Mix/Flexibility
            - Reduce costs
            - Increase capacity
            - Improve Quality
            - To reduce technical or special training to perform set-up.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 The Goals of Set-Up Reduction Are:
        (1) Eliminate set-up/changeover time entirely is the
         optimum goal.

        (2) Reduce Lot Sizes

        (3) Reduce Lead time.

        (4) Reduce Inventory Costs.

        (5) Increase Flexibility through simplicity.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
          (6) Improve tool and product design.

          (7) Improve Idle Asset usage.

          (8) Increased Capacity/Productivity.

          (9) Reduce Scrap

        (10) Improve Maintenance Costs.

         (11) Happier Customers.

         (12) Improved Material Flow and Usage.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
Elimination of Set-up or Changeover.

 Goal should always be to completely eliminate any set-up or
  changeover time, through product redesign, machine and
  tooling modifications.
 As a minimum, you should always use the 50% rule: If you
  can’t reduce set-up or changeover to zero, then through simple
  techniques, strive to reduce the set-up or changeover time by
  50%.
 When you achieve the first 50% reduction, then strive for
  another 50%, etc, etc.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
Reduce Lot Sizes

   - Should reduce lot sizes only after you have successfully
   reduced set-up time.

   - If you reduce lot size before reducing set-up process time, it is
   guaranteed that you will see an increase in costs per unit and
   erode any credibility to your lot size reduction strategy.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Reduce Lead Times
  - With increased frequency of product runs and mix, with
  reduction in set-up or changeover times, you will see the
  amount of material in queue be greatly reduced.

  - Queue is the single largest element in overall lead time, and its
  elimination is critical for successful drive toward lean.

  - Adjustment time is the single largest element within a set-up
  or changeover situation (about 50%). Reducing adjustment time
  will result in increased run times, thereby, reducing lead times.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Reduced Inventory Costs
  - Achieving significant reductions in set-up time will
  concurrently reduce the need for large amount of material and
  WIP.

   - Reduced Inventory costs are achieved through a reduction in
  required safety stocks; less scrap and rework, and smaller lot
  sizes. When combined, you will see how much waste you have
  had in the pipeline in order to handle inefficiencies and waste.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Increased Flexibility through Simplicity
   - Achieving set-up reductions will increase your flexibility to
   manufacture products to customer demands because of
   increased run times and reduced “waste” time.

   - It will require less time to change from one production
   product to another, thereby, increasing your productive run
   time, and reducing costs.

   - Eliminates the need for complex, specialized skills to set-up
   equipment and tooling so anyone can set-up/changeover.



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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Improved Tool and Product Design.
  -With a focus on reducing set-up and change over times, you
  will be forced to look at your tooling and product designs,
  finding ways to simplify and eliminate variations that do not
  add value to the product. Standardization in product design and
  tooling is key.

   - Tool and Product Redesign is usually done through a
   Concurrent Engineering team working in conjunction with Set-
   up Reduction teams.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Improve Idle Asset Usage.
    - When you successfully reduce set-up and changeover times,
    it is possible to expand machine utilization times that didn’t
    exist before.

    - This leads to increased production/product throughput,
    based upon actual customer demand, not inaccurate forecasts.

    - Machines are often idle more, but running more product in
    less time, because of increased efficiencies.

    - Often can negate need to buy additional equipment by
    utilizing current equipment more efficiently.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Increased Capacity/Productivity
  - With a focus on producing parts “right the first time” increase
  capacity/productivity is achieved.

  - More machine “up-time”.

  - Better equipment preventive maintenance results in better
  quality, process reliability, requiring less rework.

 - Tap into the “hidden capacity” in your processes.
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                          Set-Up Reduction
 Reduced Scrap.
  - Reduction in scrap through set-up reduction efforts is achieved by
 bringing quality problems to the surface sooner.

 - Less WIP means it is easier to identify quality problems sooner.

 - Set-up reduction is often done in conjunction with 5S and
 Mistake-Proofing tools.

 - Material and labor costs go down with less rework and scrap

 - Eliminates the need for 2-5% scrap in the set-up process.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Improved Maintenance Costs.
 - Less run time on machines allows for more preventive
 maintenance to be perform, thereby, reducing machine
 breakdowns.

 - As machines and tooling are taken care of better, replacement
 costs will go down.

  - Operators will perform routine preventive maintenance
  during times when equipment is not running.

 - Maintenance problems are identified sooner when combined
 with a 5S program to maintaining an orderly, clean work
 station.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Happier Customers
 - Set-up reduction, when combined with reduced lot sizes; less
 scrap; and more machine up-time, it is possible to ship 100%
 on time to customers, based upon actual orders.

 - Increased Customer Satisfaction leads to increased future
 business.

 - More time to attend to Customer Issues and resolve them
 permanently.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Increased Material Flow and Usage.
   - Through reduced lot sizes, less inventory is required, thereby,
   reducing material costs.

   - Less scrap and rework requires less material.

   - Producing to actual customer orders reduces the need for
   safety stock and inventory carrying costs.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Summary to Part I-           Benefits to Implementing Set-Up
      Reduction:
(1) Become more profitable.
(2) Become more competitive.
(3) Experience fewer shortages and stock-outs.
(4) Improve cash flow.
(5) Improve Inventory Turns.
(6) Reduce indirect costs.
(7) Improve Customer Service.
(8) Reduce Queue Times.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Summary to Part I- Continued
(9) Increase Equipment Uptime.

(10) Improve Machine Efficiency and Level out Production.

(11) Utilize Labor more effectively.

(12) Reduce overall Cost-of-Quality.

(13) Increase Manufacturing Process Flexibility and Capacity.

(14) Improve overall Management and Supervisory Effectiveness.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part I:

   - In your own words, write a definition of set-up.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part I:
          - List the four steps in the set-up process:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part I:

   - List the step in the set-up process that usually
   consumes the most time and offers the greatest initial
   opportunity for improvement.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part I:

   - In your own words, define Set-Up Reduction.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part I:
         - What are five goals of an effective Set-up
           Reduction Program?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Key Points of Part I:

   - With what you know now about set-up list some
   areas within your organization where set-up reduction
   could prove effective and why.




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                         Set-Up Reduction

What You will Learn in Part II:

 Learn What Lead Time is and what are the critical
  elements that make up lead time.

 The basic concepts and steps required to effectively
  implement a Set-up Reduction Program.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time

   What is your definition of Lead Time?




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                         Set-Up Reduction
The definition of Lead Time is:

“ The time that is required to process an customer
  order from order entry through shipping the
  product to the customer”.


    In this training session we will focus on the parts of
   lead time that influence set-up and changeovers as
   part of the overall processing operation.
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                          Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time is made up of the following elements:
         - Queue.
         - Transportation.
         - Inspection
         - Unnecessary Motion
         - Wait Time.
         - Rework/Scrap.
         - Overproduction.
         - Excess inventory and WIP.
         - Run Time.
         - Inefficient plant layout

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time elements
Queue/Wait times-
     - These two elements make up the two largest “waste” times for a product
     or item that is going through processing.

     - Most parts are worked on 5-10% of the time while in process. The rest of
     the time is “waste”, and it is the elimination of this “waste time” that causes
     significant reductions in overall lead times and costs.

     - Flow-charting and value-steam mapping a process as currently performed
     will clearly show where “wait” and “waste” times are in the process.

     - Queue/Wait time exists in most set-up processes as parts wait to be
     worked on during lengthy set-ups or changeovers.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time elements-
 Transportation

   - Transport Time consists of the time when parts and tooling are required to
   be moved from a work station to another area in order to continue the
   processing steps
   - Inefficient plant layouts are a major cause for transportation of parts.
   - Layout equipment and processes so parts do not require transporting
   between work stations by forklifts or similar means. Look to have single
   piece flow or small lot flow between work stations that are tied together.
   - Transportation time exists in set-up operations where tooling is moved
   between the work station and storage areas and also in move material in and
   out of the work station area.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time elements-
  Inspection

   - Inspection time consists of time taken to inspect parts and/or tooling to
   insure the tooling and parts meet specifications.

   - Inspection time is necessary because processes are not in control and allow
   too much variation to occur.

   - Inspection time in the set-up process occurs when the operator is required
   to take time to check out tooling and equipment to insure that the tooling is
   sharpened; correctly aligned, and is the right tooling.



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                          Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time elements-
  Unnecessary Motion
  - Unnecessary motion is the result of operators having to perform repetitive
  movements while performing the operation that are required because of the
  inefficient layout of the work station, equipment and work area.
  - Unnecessary motions occur in set-up operations when operators are required
  to repeat motions to insure accuracy of tooling, machine set-up and quality of
  parts.
  - If the set-up process is re-engineered to reduce this repeated motion for
  checking accuracy or many fine-tuning adjustments, this “waste time” can be
  significantly reduced from the set-up process.
  - Conducting a 5S program in conjunction with a Set-Up Reduction Program,
  will help eliminate wasted motions through improved work station
  organization.
  - Performing Job Safety Analysis of each work station will also identify ways
  to ergonomically re-engineer the work station.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time elements-
  Rework/Scrap
   - Rework/scrap is the result of a process that is not reliable or consistently
   operating within controlled parameters.
   - Rework/Scrap results from trying to inspect quality in versus building
   quality in as an inherent part of the process.
   - Rework/Scrap in set-up operations results from having to perform repeated
   fine-tunings and adjustments to tooling, materials or equipment.
   - This causes production planning to add “extra parts” to complete an order
   to replace the parts that are consumed in the set-up operation and are
   scrapped.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time Elements-
  Overproduction
   - Overproduction results from trying to “plan” around the inherent and
   inconsistent variations in a process.
   - This “planning” results in not having any consistent output from running a
   part from one lot to the next. Sometimes you end up with too many parts
   and have inventory. Then the next time you run short of parts due to
   problems and need to enter replacement orders to complete a job.
   - Overproduction results in set-up operations by virtue of production
   planning an acceptable “loss” throughout the process to cover set-up pieces
   that are “scrapped”.
   - Overproduction in the set-up process can be overcome by eliminating the
   need to have planned scrap and making set-ups quick, simple and
   significantly reduce repeated fine-tunings and adjustments.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time Elements-
  Excess Inventory and WIP
   - Excess Inventory levels are created as a conditioned response to process
   variations and inefficiencies within the manufacturing process. Safety
   stocks and large batch runs are used to try to correct for these inefficiencies
   and variations, but usually are ineffective.

   - Excess inventory and WIP can only be successfully reduced in conjunction
   with a Set-Up Reduction Program that allows for rapid set-ups and
   changeovers and increases flexibility to run small lots to realize significant
   JIT benefits.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time elements-
  Run Time
   - The only real value-added time in a process is the time when a part or item
   is having value added to it (work). Unfortunately, in most processes
   (manufacturing and non-manufacturing) run time is only 5-10% of the total
   process time. The remainder is “waste” or non-value added.

   - Lengthy set-up times contribute to the long lead times and as set-up times
   are significantly reduced, lead times can concurrently be reduced, with
   positive effects of improved quality and on-time shipments.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Lead Time Elements
  Inefficient Plant Layout.
   - Plant layouts are often the result of unplanned and disjointed placement of
   equipment and related processes.
   - With the emphasis of reducing set-up costs by running EOQ’s and large
   batch runs, individual work station efficiencies become more important that
   the overall process effectiveness.
   - Set-up Reduction, when done as part of a total process improvement
   program, will demand revamping current plant layout to emphasis overall
   “flow” by tying processes together and introducing set-up times that make
   set-up a non-issue.

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                          Set-Up Reduction
 All these lead time factors influence Set-Up
  Times and provide focus on what to reduce or
  eliminate as part of the Set-Up Reduction
  Program----

                         Waste Elimination.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 In an effective Set-up Reduction program you will
  look at eliminating/significantly reducing:
             -Wait Times.
             - Queue.
             - Transportation.
             - Inspection.
             - Unnecessary Motions.
             - Overproduction.
             - Excess inventories.
             - Adjustments.
             - Rework and Scrap.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 For Set-up Reduction efforts to be successful, you must
  incorporate ALL of the following actions into your program:
        - Simple Job Changes.
        - Focus on Equipment Up-Time.
        - Small lot size production.
        - Training for operators and team.
        - Increase flexibility in equipment, processes and people.
        - Team work.
        - Operators/Set-up People are the owners of the process and its
           results.
        - Videotaping of the entire process.
        - Flow Charting current process and proposed process.
        - Elimination of Waste
        - 5S and Visual Control programs.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Successful Set-up Reduction can best be
  accomplished by developing/forming a cross-
  functional team:
                - Supervisor
                - Engineer
                - Set-up Person
                - Maintenance
                - Quality
                - Facilitator/Trainer (Team Coach)
                - Team Sponsor (Senior Manager)

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                          Set-Up Reduction
 Considerations in Set-Up Reduction Team
  Selection:
 - 6-8 persons on the team.
 - Select a “Pilot Project” that has the greatest chance of succeeding and have
 a positive impact that will build support.
 - Choose volunteers when possible.
 - Leaders from the shop floor, should be included on the team to increase
 “buy-in”.
 - Team Facilitator/Trainer can be either internal champion or external
 consultant.
 - Team Sponsor should be a Senior Manager who can provide resources and
 assistance to team in overcoming obstacles and actively supports Set-Up
 Reduction and Process Improvement.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 First Line Supervisor
   - First line Supervisor represents the “critical link” between management
   and shop floor. Do not “under-estimate” the importance of their support or
   actions and their impact on success of the project.
   - Supervisor will often feel threatened because he/she will think it is a drive
   to replace him/her. Training and involvement must be done from the very
   start of the project.
   - Will be the front-line communicator and enthusiasm leader.
   - Assist in the measurements/baseline to determine success.
   - May or may not be the Team Facilitator/Leader.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 13 Step Set-Up Process Improvement Program
       (1) Select Set-up Team (cross-functional)

       (2) Select a Team Leader, Recorder.

       (3) Assemble Team Members and conduct training class in:
                - Why Change?
                - Concepts of Waste
                - Flow-Charting/Value Stream Analysis
                - Problem-Solving Techniques
                - Set-Up Reduction Principles.

       (4 ) Select a Pilot Project.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 13 Step Set-Up Improvement Process (continued)
      (5) Flow Chart Current Set-up Process and determine a videotape
             schedule of the Pilot Project. Discuss videotaping project with work
             Center Supervisor and Employees to gain their understanding and
             support for the project.

      (6) Videotape the set-up process as currently performed.

      (7) As you videotape the set-up operation, have 1-3 team members
             complete a Set-Up Worksheet that documents the elements and
             indicate if external or internal element.

      (8) When completed with Step #6 & #7, Team meets and goes through
            thorough analysis of the videotape and worksheet and determines
            areas for improvement. Develops a new process.
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                         Set-Up Reduction
 13 Step Set-Up Improvement Process (continued)
      (9) Record new process on worksheet. Implement changes.

      (10) Videotape the new process.

      (11) Review videotape of new process and analysis for additional
           changes/improvements that can be made.

      (12) Monitor set-up operation. Take corrective action if
           not getting the desired results or if process “backslid”.

      (13) Reward Success.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Establishing The Foundation-
   - Seek simplicity in solutions, tooling, fixtures and equipment.
   - Search for low-cost, no-cost solutions.
   - Avoid studying a set-up reduction project to “death”.
   - Strive for continuous improvement, versus an all-or-nothing approach
   - Document the current process first “as is”. Videotaping is preferred.
   - Increase “buy-in” throughout the entire organization by conducting
   periodic communication and training sessions. These meetings should
   consist of Senior Managers and Team Members.



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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points of Part II-

  Write a definition of lead time as it pertains and impacts Set-Up
  Operations.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points of Part II-

List at least 5 elements that impact overall lead time and describe
   how each one impacts set-up process.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part II-
- What two elements make up the largest components of overall
  lead time and how do they impact lead and set-up times?

(1)




(2)

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points of Part II-

   - Describe how Inspection influences set-up and lead times?




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part II-

- What is the only true value-added element of lead and set-up
   times?




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part II-
List 8 of the 13 steps of establishing an effective
Set-up Reduction Program.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points of Part II-
  Write a brief narrative of how set-up reduction can be
  implemented within your organization using the key points
  outlined in Parts I & II.




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                         Set-Up Reduction
 In Part III you will learn:

 How to Properly Analyze any set-up operation through a
  proven, step-by-step process using low-cost solutions and
  techniques.

 How to develop effective performance measures to insure
  you are obtaining the results necessary from the program.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Process Times-
The two basic elements of Set-Up Time:

     (1) Internal Set-up- Defined as the elements or work that
   must be carried out while the machine or equipment is shut
   down or idle.

       - Example of Internal Set-up Elements-
           - Removal and attachment of dies.
           - Tooling adjustments when tooling is on the machine.

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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Process Times-
   (2) External Set-up- Defined as set-up elements which can
   take place while the machine is in operation or after the
   operation is completed.

              - Example of External Set-Up Elements:
              (1) Return of dies to storage
              (2) Transporting of new dies to machine.


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                         Set-Up Reduction
 Conceptual Stages of Set-up Reduction Improvement

   -In most set-up operations, the Internal Elements are
   not distinguished from the External. This results in
   the increasing total time it takes to perform set-up
   operations.

    (1) Separate Internal from External elements.
    (2) Shift Internal Elements to External Elements.
       - Represents the area of greatest improvement.
    (3) Improve all elemental operational steps.

Demand Chain Solutions                                     71
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Process Times


     Internal and               Step 1-            Step 2-         Step 3-
    External Set-up        Separate Internal    Shift Internal   Improve All
     Elements Not         And External Set-Up    To External     Operational
     Differentiated            Elements            Set-up         Elements




Demand Chain Solutions                                                         72
                          Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Process Steps
             Preparation Step-
                30% of the
                  Set-up
                   Time
                                   Mounting and
                                 Dismounting Time
                                    5% of the
                                   Set-Up Time       Centering ,
                                                    Dimensioning-
                                                     15% of the
                                                       Set-up
                                                                    Adjustments and
                                                        Time
                                                                      Trial Runs-
                                                                      50% of the
                                                                        Set-Up
                                                                         Time

Demand Chain Solutions                                                           73
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction techniques-

   - One Touch Changeover-

  Using this technique means looking for ways to use:
        (1) Pre-set pins.
        (2) Auto Dial-In Settings.
        (3) Quarter Turn Fasteners (instead of multi-turn)
        (4) Single Thread Bolts (versus multiple thread)

Demand Chain Solutions                                       74
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction Techniques-
  External Exchange Method

   - By segregating the essential portions of the set-up, you will
   maximize the external set-up steps while the machine is in
   operation.

    - The more elements that are shifted to external, the greater
   the time/process savings will be.

Demand Chain Solutions                                               75
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction Techniques-
   Internal Exchange Methods-

   - Minimize the portions which must be carried out while the
   machine is not in operation.

   - This represents where the “real” unproductive non-value-
   added time within the set-up process lies.


Demand Chain Solutions                                           76
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction Techniques

    Removable and Mounting Techniques-

  Use simple methods to simplify this part of the set-up operation
  by using multiple dies-sets; beds to make removing and
  mounting be done in minimal time.



Demand Chain Solutions                                          77
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction Techniques
  Adjust and Trial Process-
    - Since this constitutes up to 50% of the average set-up time, finding ways to
   simplify and minimize/eliminate repeated and frequent adjustments, will result
   in significant time savings.
   - Use preset-positions; jibs; fixtures; markings to minimize “guess-work”.

   - Using this technique means looking for ways to use:
        (1) Pre-set pins.
        (2) Auto Dial-In Settings.
        (3) Quarter Turn Fasteners (instead of multi-turn)
        (4) Single Thread Bolts (versus multiple thread)
Demand Chain Solutions                                                        78
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction Steps-
  Separate External from Internal
-   In traditional set-up operations, internal and external set-up elements
    are confused- what could be done externally is done as internal set-up time,
    increasing the overall set-up operation time.

-   The most important step in implementing a successful set-up reduction
    program is distinguishing between internal and external set-up elements.

-   Most people agree that parts preparation and maintenance should be done
    when machines are stopped, when the work can be performed while the
    machine is running. In spite of this understanding, this is often not the case.

Demand Chain Solutions                                                          79
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Set-Up Reduction Steps-
  Separate External from Internal- Continued
-    Focused efforts to make as much of the set-up external as possible, can
     usually result in set-up reductions of 30 – 50%, with little or no cost!

-    Extremely important to step “out-of-the-box” when performing this step
     Examine each step “true” purpose and eliminate any not critical.

-    Converting Internal to External can often be done simultaneously with
     improving the overall operational process to compound savings and
     improvements


Demand Chain Solutions                                                          80
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Separate External from Internal-
In traditional set-up operations, several types of waste can occur:
    - Finished Goods are transported to storage or the next batch of raw
    materials are moved from stock into the work station when the machine is
    shut down when transporting materials.

    - Once set-up is started, blades, dies, jigs, etc are discovered to be
    defective or not ready to run the next job. This creates lost time as you tear
    down, fix tooling, and start all over again.

    - Parts that are no longer needed are transported to the tool room while the
    machine is turned off.

    - Materials have to be reworked or replaced because they do not meet
    required dimensions or quality aspects.
Demand Chain Solutions                                                           81
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Separate External From Internal- continued
- Tooling that is needed for setting up is not located within the
   work station or placed in a planned, orderly location as
   required to prevent stopping and locating tools.
- “Discretionary Time” taken by operator during internal set-up
   time (when machine is idle) to take breaks, eat, talk.
- Next job is not ready and operator has to wait for parts to come
   from the supplying work center.


Demand Chain Solutions                                           82
                         Set-Up Reduction
 List what other types of waste can occur in the
  preparation step of a set-up:

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Demand Chain Solutions                              83
                             Set-Up Reduction
 Distinguishing Internal From External Set-Up Time:
The following techniques are effective tools in helping you
insure that those elements that can be done as External
Set-Up are indeed performed while the machine is running-

-      Use a Checklist. Develop a simple checklist that has all the necessary information
       needed to verify the tooling, jigs, dies, temperature settings, pressure, etc is available
       and is checked while machine is running
-      Use a Check Table. A Check table is a table on which drawings have been made of
       all the parts and tools required for a set-up. A single glance at the table will tell the
       operator where any parts are missing (Good Visual Management tool)
-      (NOTE: It is important to develop a checklist and check table for each machine.
       Avoid Generic Checklists and Check Tables)


    Demand Chain Solutions                                                                     84
                             Set-Up Reduction
 Distinguishing Internal From External Set-Up Time:
-     Improving Transportation and removal of Dies and other Parts. Parts are taken
      from a central tool crib or location and returned after the run is completed. Do as an
      External Elements and not when the machine is idle.
       * Die storage should have a clearly marked and specific location, not simply a
      general shop area. Dies need to always be returned to the same location, in
      “production ready” condition.
      * Wherever possible, dies should be stored at or near the point of production
      use. Segregation by cell, product line or family are also possible location schemes.
-     Eliminate Small losses:
      * Determine what preparations have to be made in advance.
      * Determine what tools need to be on hand?
      * What type of work bench is required for proper organization of tools and other
      equipment. (Part of 5S program).
      * Where the tools, jigs, dies, blades, cutters placed after each use. How do you
      verify the parts are ready for the next time they are used).

    Demand Chain Solutions                                                                 85
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Separate External from Internal- Continued
-   Pre-assemble. Do any assembly of parts attachment when the machine
    is running and adjust “pre-sets” also during External Time.
-   Eliminate “guess work” and repeated need to adjust to get correct
    settings of tooling, jigs, beds, etc.
-   Use standard and “One-Touch” Tools. “One-Touch” tools are quick
    fitting jigs, fixtures, that require minimal adjustment and are easily
    placed repeatedly and accurately for each set-up.
-   Simplify Clamping Mechanisms.
     * Reduce the number of bolts.
     * Use single thread bolts versus multiple thread bolts.
     * Replace bolts with hydraulic or cam-operated clamps.

Demand Chain Solutions                                                       86
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Separate External from Internal- Continued
- Prepare Operating Conditions in Advance.
  * Preheat dies prior to set-up instead of waiting until on the machine.
  * Setting Bits on Lathes.
  * Setting Centers for Press-Die processing.
- Add parallel operations. Two people are more effective than one and
  the set-up time can often be reduced by more than 50% with the same
  amount of labor.
- Optimize the Number of Workers and the Division of Labor.
   * On lengthy set-ups, use more than two people.
   * Determine what the “optimum” number is through analysis.
   * Determine how the work is to be divided to optimize efficiency and
  avoid duplication of efforts. Standardize the work and cross-train.

Demand Chain Solutions                                                      87
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Elimination of Repeated Adjustments-

The goal of Elimination of Repeated Adjustments is:

   “ To have no trial and error or guesswork in positioning parts, tooling,
   fixtures, jigs so as to have consistent and repeatable placement for centering,
   dimensioning, or machining, and complete the set-up with only one piece”.

   This trial and error adjustment can cause up to 50% of the time
   wasted in many set-ups.


Demand Chain Solutions                                                          88
                         Set-Up Reduction
  Elimination of Repeated Adjustment-Continued

      Causes of Mis-adjustments-
             Examples:
              (1) Lack of precision equipment.
              (2) No set control limits.
              (3) Combination of wear and tear on tooling, fixtures,
                   equipment, control limits.
              (4) Human Error.
              (5) Lack of rigidity (material that flexes, gives)
              (6) Lack of standards or reference points.
              (7) Unclear or undefined work methods.

Demand Chain Solutions                                                 89
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Elimination of Repeated Adjustment-Continued

- Many people confuse the distinction between setting
  and adjusting. This causes people to assume,
  incorrectly, that adjustments are a necessary part of
  set-ups and they fail to look on finding solutions to
  eliminating repeated adjustments.


Demand Chain Solutions                                    90
                          Set-Up Reduction
 Six Step Process for Analyzing Effectiveness
  of Adjustments-

(1)   Determine purpose of each step (What is the step’s function and is it
      necessary?)
(2)   Current rationale. Determine why the step is needed
(3)   What is the skill level of the Set-Up Operator?
(4)   Method. Why is it necessary to perform it this way?
(5)   Causal Factors. What conditions create the need for repeated
      adjustments?
(6)   Consider the alternatives that can eliminate or drastically reduce Steps 1-
      5 above, and implement.


 Demand Chain Solutions                                                             91
                         Set-Up Reduction
  Ways to eliminate Need for Repeated
   Adjustments-

 -    Draw permanent reference lines on equipment/tooling.
 -    Have set height gauges and center settings.
 -    “On-the-fly” tool changes.
 -    Rotating Profile Templates.




Demand Chain Solutions                                       92
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Ways to Eliminate Need for Repeated
  Adjustments- Continued
- Assign specific machines and keep set-up for a specific
  product line without having to change from one job to the
  next.
- Standardize parts, tools and fixtures.
- Design product and processes to manufacture the product
  together (Use Concurrent Engineering Team with Set-Up
  Team)
- Avoid Threads and Threading where possible.
- Avoid need for hand-tools.

Demand Chain Solutions                                        93
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Ways to Eliminate Need for Repeated Adjustments-
  Continued
- The Use of Functional Clamps.
    A Functional Clamp is an attachment device serving to hold objects
    in place with minimal efforts.

    The following are examples of Functional Clamps:
        - Pear-Shaped Hole Method (Works like a Key Hole)
        - The U-Shaped Washer Method. (Makes placing washer easily
         with fluid motion for inserting and taking out).
        - The Split Thread Method. (Male-Female Design)
        - The U-Slot Method. (Slide bolt into a U-shape slot)



Demand Chain Solutions                                                   94
                         Set-Up Reduction
-Ways to Eliminate Need for Repeated Adjustments-
   Continued

         - The Clamp Method. (Clamps instead of bolts).
         - The Cam-Method. (Cams instead of bolts).
         - Hydraulics versus bolts.
         - Magnetics.
         - Vacuum Suction.
         - Interlocking Methods (where parts can be fitted together and hold
          each other without having to manually fasten)


Demand Chain Solutions                                                         95
                         Set-Up Reduction
 13 Step Set-Up Process Improvement Program-Review

   (1) Select Set-up Team (cross-functional)

   (2) Select a Team Leader, Recorder.

   (3) Assemble Team Members and conduct training class in:
               - Why Change?
               - Concepts of Waste
               - Flow-Charting/Value Stream Analysis
               - Problem-Solving Techniques
               - Set-Up Reduction Principles.

   (4 ) Select a Pilot Project.
Demand Chain Solutions                                        96
                         Set-Up Reduction
 13 Step Set-Up Improvement Process (continued)
     (5) Flow Chart Current Set-up Process and determine a videotape
        schedule of the Pilot Project. Discuss videotaping project with
        work center Supervisor and Employees to gain their
        understanding and support for the project.

    (6) Videotape the set-up process as currently performed.

    (7) As you videotape the set-up operation, have 1-3 team members
         complete a Set-Up Worksheet that documents the elements and
         indicate if external or internal element.

    (8) When completed with Step #6 & #7, Team meets and goes
         through thorough analysis of the videotape and worksheet and
         determines areas for improvement. Develops a new process.
Demand Chain Solutions                                                    97
                          Set-Up Reduction
 13 Step Set-Up Improvement Process (continued)

      (9) Record new process on worksheet. Implement changes.

      (10) Videotape the new process.

      (11) Review videotape of new process and analysis for additional
           changes/improvements that can be made.

      (12) Monitor set-up operation. Take corrective action if
           not getting the desired results or if process “backslid”.

      (13) Reward Success.


 Demand Chain Solutions                                                  98
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Establish Effective Measurement System
Why Measure?
    (1) It is important to establish the “current base” and
   measure improvement against that base.

     (2) Need a reliable indicator of the progress that is being
   made from old procedures.

     (3) Insures projects take on a “results orientation” that is
   measurable and positively impacts performance parameters.


Demand Chain Solutions                                              99
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Establish Effective Measurement System-(Continued)
Possible Measurements of Improvement:
(1) Reduced number of steps in set-up process. Set-Up reduction
    should leave you with significantly less steps per setup that
    before the set-up reduction project.
(2) Total Time for Average Set-Up or Changeover.
(3) Reduced Lead Time.
(4) Machine “Run Time” / Utilization Time.
(5) Improved Scheduling and Running More Products, More
    Often with smaller lot sizes.

Demand Chain Solutions                                         100
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Establish Effective Measurement System-(Continued)
    - It is critical to post information on progress and project’s
   success, where all employees can see the information.
  - Can be used to then increase buy-in for additional Set-Up
   Reduction Projects.

   - Consider starting a quarterly newsletter for only Process
   Improvement/Set-Up Reduction project information.


Demand Chain Solutions                                               101
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-

 What are the two categories that set-up elements fall into?

(1)

(2)


Demand Chain Solutions                                         102
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
 Define Internal Set-up Time. Give at least two examples.
 Explain how Internal Set-up Time influences Set-Up
 Operations




Demand Chain Solutions                                      103
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-

  Define External Set-Up Time and explain how it affects overall
  Set-Up process. Give at least two examples.




Demand Chain Solutions                                        104
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
   Why is it important to convert as many Internal Set-up
   elements to External Set-up Elements to achieve a successful
   Set-Up Reduction project?




Demand Chain Solutions                                            105
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
  Give at least five examples of converting internal set-up
  elements to external set-up steps. (Example: preheating dies
  before placing on machine to reduce wait time for dies to heat
  up)




Demand Chain Solutions                                         106
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
   List at least five ways to reduce Trial and Error Adjustments
   during a set-up.




Demand Chain Solutions                                             107
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
   Provide several examples of how time is wasted within the set-
   up process that would be easy to eliminate or significantly
   reduce.




Demand Chain Solutions                                         108
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
  Why is it important to have effective measurements in place to
  verify set-up reduction improvements?




Demand Chain Solutions                                         109
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-
   What are three measurements that could be used to provide
   reliable performance and feedback information on set-up
   projects?




Demand Chain Solutions                                         110
                         Set-Up Reduction
 Review of Key Points in Part III-

   What are the Six Steps in Analyzing Trial and Error
   Adjustments during Set-Up?




Demand Chain Solutions                                   111

				
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