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									                             SCCC BIO 130
                   Exam 4 Study Guide: Chapters 12-17
It consists of 50 multiple choice questions and 10 fill-ins.

Good Luck Studying!!!

Ch. 12: STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 4 and EXAM 4

   1. What are the division of the PNS and what are they involved in (voluntary,
       involuntary, afferent or efferent?
   2. What are the functional differences of afferent and efferent neurons?
   3. What are the different neuroglial (glial) cells of the CNS and PNS and their
       functions?
   4. What are the different components that make up a neuron?
   5. What are the differences between retrograde and anterograde transport and what
       is it involved in?
   6. What is the resting potential, grade potential, action potential, and synaptic
       potential involved in neural activities? What channels are opened during each
       step, what ions move in and out of the cell, what does the movement of ions result
       in, in the neuron (dendrite/soma or axon)?
   7. What are the steps involved in graded potentials?
   8. What is involved in the generations of an action potential?
   9. What are the two methods of propagating and how do they differ?
   10. What are the 3 different types of axons, how do they differ, and which allows for
       the fastest speed of action potential down the axon and the lowest?
   11. What are the two types of synapses? What are their characteristics?
   12. What do excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters allow for?
   13. What are the steps involved in a cholinergic synapses?
   14. What are the two types of post synaptic potentials and what do they allow for?
   15. What are the two types of EPSP summations and how are they each defined?
   16. What are the common neurotransmitters and how do they differ? What type of
       synapses do they use, are they excitatory or inhibitory, etc.?

Ch. 12: NEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 4

1. What neuroglia cells of the CNS and PNS form the myelin shealth around the
   neuronal axon?
2. What is the neurilemma and what cell makes up the neurilemma in the CNS and PNS?
3. Where do neurons communicate?
4. What are the characteristics of creating the resting potential?



AnnMarie Armenti, MS                                                                    1
SCCC BIO 130
5. What are the differences between temporal and spatial summation in EPSP
   summation?
6. What 2 properties increase the speed at which an action potential travels along the
   axon?

Ch. 13: STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 4 and EXAM 4
   1. What are the structures of the PNS and CNS and how are they defined?
   2. What are spinal meninges and what are their functions?
   3. What are the three layers of spinal meninges, where are they located, what do they
       consist of and involved in?
   4. What makes up the gray matter of the spinal cord? What is located in each horn?
   5. What makes up the white matter of the spinal cord?
   6. What is located in the dorsal root, dorsal root ganglion, and ventral root?
   7. How many spinal nerve pairs are there and what are they involved in?
   8. When is the spinal cord completely developed? What is the anatomy of the spinal
       cord?
   9. What is the structure of the nerve and what are the three layers (list outermost to
       innermost layer)?
   10. Why are parts of the cord enlarged?
   11. What are plexus and what the different spinal cord plexuses? What do they
       innervate with?
   12. What are neural reflexes and what are the 5 steps?
   13. What are the withdrawal reflexes and what are the three parts?

Ch. 13: NEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 4
   1. What neurons make up the afferent and efferent division of the PNS?
   2. What is the difference between polysynaptic reflexes and monosynaptic reflexes?
   3. What reflexes are involved in skeletal muscles and what are involved in visceral
       muscles?

Ch. 14: STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 5 and EXAM 4
1. Make sure you know the anatomy of the brain such as:
     A. What part of the brain consist of a neural cortex?
     B. Where are the lateral ventricle, third ventricle, and fourth ventricle located?
     C. What separates the Left and Right cerebral hemispheres and cerebellur
        hemispheres?
     D. What are the lobes of the cerebrum and what functions occur in each lobe? (last
        page of hand out)
     E. Etc.
2. What are the four aspects that protect the brain? How are they able to protect the
brain (functions)?
3. What are the three cranial meninges, what do they consist of, what is their location in
relationship to the brain, and what are their functions?


AnnMarie Armenti, MS                                                                         2
SCCC BIO 130
4. What are the functions of the CSF and what is responsible for producing and secreting
csf? Where is it circulating?
5. What are the functions of the medulla oblongata, pons, and mesencephalon?
6. What does the autonomic nuclei of the medulla oblongata consist of and what are their
functions?
7. What two parts does the pons connect?
8. What are the components that make up the gray matter of the Midbrain? List was is
present in each of these collinculi, nuclei, and formations.
9. What is the function of the Diencephalon? What are the three subdivisions of the
diencephalon and their functions? What is present within these subdivisions and what
processes are they involved in?
10. What are the functions of the cerebellum? What nuclei is present in the gray matter
and what is its functions?
11. What are the components present within the limbic system? What are they involved
in?
12. What are the functions of the cerebrum? What are the three fibers of the white
matter? Define the function of the fibers and where they are present in the cerebrum?
13. What makes up the gray matter of the cerebrum? What are the components of the
cerebral cortex, where are each of these components located?
14. What are association areas and integrative centers? What are three integrative
centers.

Ch. 14: NEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 4
1. What are the functions of the mamillary bodies of the hypothalamus?
2. What are the functions of the red nuclei, superior colliculi and inferior colliculi of the
   mesencephalon (midbrain)?
3. What area of the brains is involved in the highest levels of information processing?

Ch. 15: STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 5 and EXAM 4

1. What are the general sensory receptors? What are their functions?
2. What is adaptation, peripheral and central adaptation?
3. What are numerous tactile receptors and how do they differ?
4. In the somatic sensory pathway there are three neurons. Name the neurons and where
they are within the pathway. When is the second order neuron needed?
5. How many neurons are present in the visceral sensory pathway? Where are they
located?
6. Where do the nerves of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
innervate with?
7. How many neurons does the efferent division of the somatic nervous system consist
of? What are their names and where are they in the pathway?
8. What are some of the motor related disorders?



AnnMarie Armenti, MS                                                                        3
SCCC BIO 130
Ch. 15: NEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 4

1. Where are the first, second, and third-order neurons of the Somatic sensory pathways
   located?
2. Where the upper and lower neurons of the Autonomic motor pathways located?
3. What sensory neurons are always active and which are temporarily active?
4. What is the receptive field and which receptors demonstrate a receptive field?

Ch. 16: STUDY GUIDE FOR QUIZ 5 and EXAM 4

1. What are the neurons that make up the autonomic nervous system? Make sure you
understand this pathway fully.
2. What are the two divisions of the ANS and at what times are they stimulated?
3. What are the ganglia of the sympathetic division and what do they secrete?
4. During activation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic division what results?
5. For the two divisions that neurotransmitter is released at the synapses and what
receptors at the synapse stimulate an excitatory or an inhibitory response.
6. What are the higher order functions?
7. What are components of memories and what is involved in the mechanism of memory
formation and storage?
8. What part of the brain is involved in memory consolidation? What does memory
consolidation depend on?
9. What are the components of sleep and arousal?
10. What changes are the age related changes of the brain?

Ch. 16: NEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 4
1. What cranial nerve does most of the parasympathetic outflow travel along?
2. What does the conscious state depend on for proper functioning?
3. What does the ANS coordinate?
4. What is the difference between deep sleep and REM?

Ch. 17: NEW QUESTIONS FOR EXAM 4
1. What causes olfaction?
2. What are the olfactory, gustatory, visional, and hearing pathways?
3. How do the olfactory and the gustatory receptors differ and how are they similar?
4. Where are taste buds present and what cranial nerves monitory the taste buds?
5. What is the function of the lens and how can the lens change to improve vision?
6. What makes up the fibrous, vascular (uvea) and neural tunic?
7. What are the two types of photoreceptors and what causes their stimulation?
8. What is rhodopsin and opsin and how are they involved in the absorption of light and
   the stimulation of photoreceptors?
9. What is the wavelength range at which the human eye can detect? What are the three
   different types of cones and what range of photons stimulate each of them?


AnnMarie Armenti, MS                                                                  4
SCCC BIO 130
10. What are the components of the external, middle, and inner ear? What are the
    functions of each of the components?
11. What doe the ossicles or bones of the middle ear connect?
12. What is the tectorial membrane, where is it located and what is it involved in?
13. What does the flexion of stereocilia of hair cells in the organ of corti result in? How
    is it involved in hearing?
14. How is the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions involved in papillary
    constriction and dilation?
15. Where are sound waves converted to vibrations?
16. Where are the sensory organs for hearing located?




AnnMarie Armenti, MS                                                                          5
SCCC BIO 130

								
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