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					July–September 2009

                                              From the Army Acquisition Executive

                                                        Test and Evaluation

         his edition of Army AL&T Magazine highlights                                           It is clear that T&E must have a seat at the table from
         the important role of test and evaluation (T&E)                                        the very beginning of the system life cycle to examine
         in fielding the safest, most reliable weapon systems                                   design options, identify potential problems, and elimi-
and equipment to our warfighters based on operational                                           nate redundancy and duplicative testing. The goal is
effectiveness, suitability, and survivability on the battlefield. The T&E       early identification of technical, operational, and system deficiencies
community is a major stakeholder in providing our warfighters with              so that appropriate and timely corrective actions can be developed to
the equipment they need, when they need it. Also, T&E is an integral            reduce program risk, developmental timelines, and program costs.
part of the process that enables the acquisition community to equip
and sustain the world’s most capable, powerful, and respected Army.             As with all of our endeavors, we find that our people are our most
                                                                                important asset. It is the expertise of our T&E workforce and our
The acquisition community is indeed fortunate to enjoy a close                  acquisition workforce, coupled with their continuous education and
working relationship with the T&E community, including MG Roger                 training, that allows us to meet the challenges of equipping and sus-
A. Nadeau, Commanding General of the U.S. Army Test and Evalua-                 taining an Army deployed to two theaters and nearly 80 countries
tion Command (ATEC), and James C. Cooke, Director of the U.S.                   worldwide. As we work to test and evaluate weapon systems and
Army Test and Evaluation Office, which directly supports the acquisi-           equipment for the acquisition and user communities, we are chal-
tion process at headquarters. Their dynamic leadership significantly            lenged to make better use of modeling and simulation in the T&E
enhances the process of providing world-class capabilities to our               process. We are further challenged to integrate developmental testing
warfighters throughout the entire acquisition life cycle.                       (DT) and operational testing (OT) when and where appropriate. DT
                                                                                encompasses models, simulation, and engineering-type tests to verify
Because of the need for continuous assessments throughout the life              that design risks are minimized, system safety is certified, achievement
cycle of Army weapon systems and equipment, there are test events               of system technical performance is substantiated, and readiness for
taking place at the Army’s test ranges within the United States and in          OT is certified. OT is the field test with real users of a system or
Afghanistan and Iraq every single day. T&E provides knowledge to assist         equipment under realistic operational conditions. Effective integration
decision makers in managing the risks involved in developing, produc-           of DT and OT means use in the evaluation of all available, relevant
ing, operating, and sustaining weapon systems and equipment. These              information and data from both contractor and government sources,
T&Es provide knowledge of system capabilities and limitations to the            as well as the collaborative use of DT and OT resources to learn as
acquisition community for use in improving the system performance               much as possible, as early as possible.
and to the user community for optimizing system use in operations.
                                                                                There are many significant T&E success stories for the acquisition
In the Army, T&E has taken on increased importance during the last              community. From the test-fix-test cycle of the Mine Resistant Am-
7-plus years as we continue to meet the urgent needs of our warfighters         bush Protected Vehicle; to the CH-47F’s standardized reliability,
in Afghanistan and Iraq. We learned quickly that rapid acquisition              availability, and maintainability data collection methodology and
could not be accomplished the old-fashioned way. Rapid acquisition              software application from the first flight forward; to T&E of a wide
requires quick assessments with ATEC’s Capability and Limitation (C&L)          range of improvised explosive device jammers, it is clear that mis-
reports that provide decision makers with a performance analysis of the         sion capability and operational support were both enhanced by
system or equipment, along with its strengths and weaknesses. For the           early involvement on these programs.
acquisition community, the C&L data allows us to make procurement
and fielding decisions, as well as to pinpoint where further testing is         The continued close cooperation between the T&E community and the
essential. It also allows the user community to better understand where         acquisition community ensures that our warfighters will always have
the system or equipment best fits into its mission. Fielding programs rapidly   what they need, when they need it. The adage that “we never want to
to today’s warfighters is our top priority, and ATEC is ready to provide the    send our Soldiers into a fair fight” is at the core of our mutual efforts.
T&E support to ensure systems are effective, suitable, and survivable.

                                                                  Dean G. Popps
                                                             Army Acquisition Executive
                                                                                                                                                                     ARMY AL&T

                                                                                                 ACQUISITION, LOGISTICS &
                                                                  July–September 2009
PB 70-09-03                                                      Cover Story
Acting Assistant Secretary of the Army for                                                                                          Unmanned Systems Testing Presents Challenges to
Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASAALT)                                                                                     ATEC’s DTC
and Army Acquisition Executive
                                                                                                                                    Michael Cast
EDITORIAL BOARD                                                                                                                                                                                          Page 2
     Chief, U.S. Army Reserve/Commanding
     General (CG), U.S. Army Reserve Command
     Director, Army Acquisition Corps and Director,
     Acquisition Career Management                                                                                                  Months of Creative Problem Solving Lead to
     LTG STEPHEN M. SPEAKES                                                                                                         Alaska Missile Test
     Deputy Chief of Staff (DCS), G-8
                                                                                                                                    Chuck Wullenjohn
     LTG JEFFREY A. SORENSON                                                                                                                                                                             Page 7
     Chief Information Officer, G-6
     Deputy CG, U.S. Army Materiel Command                       Automotive Testing in Extreme Cold Presents
     MG JAMES K. GILMAN                                          Unique Challenges
     CG, U.S. Army Medical Research and
     Materiel Command                                            Chuck Wullenjohn
     DR. JAMES R. HOUSTON                                                                                                                Page 11
     Director of Research and Development,
     U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
                                                                 YPG Conducts Challenging and Rewarding Stryker Vehicle Testing in Suriname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     Deputy Assistant Secretary (DAS) for                        Mark Schauer
     Acquisition Policy and Logistics, Office of the
     ASAALT (OASAALT)                                            PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
                                                                 Jill Finnie
     Assistant DCS, G-1                                          Product Manager Defense Wide Transmission Systems (PM DWTS) Provides Multiple
     DR. THOMAS H. KILLION                                       Capabilities for Warfighters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     DAS for Research and Technology, OASAALT                    Stephen Larsen
     DAS for Plans, Programs, and Resources,                     Technology Insertion and Sustainment for Army Tactical Satellite Communications—
     OASAALT                                                     Three Decades of Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     MARK D. ROCKE                                               Mark Fagotti
     DAS for Strategic Communications and
     Business Transformation, OASAALT                            The TOW Missile—Precise and Powerful . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     EDWARD M. HARRINGTON                                        Bill Ruta and C.L. “Claude” Higginbotham
     DAS for Procurement, OASAALT
                                                                 UAVs Thrive With PEO IEW&S Payloads, Ground Assets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
     CRAIG A. SPISAK                                             Brandon Pollachek
     Director, U.S. Army Acquisition
     Support Center                                              Javelin Close Combat Missile System (CCMS) Provides Unparalleled Defeat Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     BEN ENNIS                                                   Steven Whitmore
     Executive Secretary, Editorial Board
                                                                 3rd Infantry Division (3ID) Adds Battlefield Medical Recording System to Stateside Aid Stations . . . . . 41
                                                                 Bill Snethen
     CYNTHIA D. HERMES                                           MC4 Reforms Wire Medicine at Detainee Combat Support Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
     Editor-in-Chief                                             CPT Ken Sturtz
     Departments Editor
                                                                 Career Development Update ........................................................................ 47
     Editor                                                      Contracting Community Highlights ................................................................. 48
     Layout and Graphic Design
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                                                                                                                                                      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009                      1
            ARMY AL&T

   Unmanned Systems
    Testing Presents
     Challenges to
     ATEC’s DTC
                  Michael Cast

         he U.S. Army traditionally has acquired
         weapon systems through a process that
         can take years, but the ongoing fight in
Afghanistan and Iraq has shortened the time frame
considerably. Robotic systems that can save lives
on the battlefield are getting into Soldiers’ hands
more rapidly than ever before, and the U.S. Army’s
Developmental Test Command (DTC) is transform-
ing its business practices to support that effort.

        2   JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                     ARMY AL&T

                                                                                        The retractable arm of the TALON enables the safe
                                                                                        removal of explosive ordnances such as IEDs.
                                                                                        (U.S. Navy photo by PH1 Robert R. McRill.)

Processes Transformed                      However, for some of the rapid acquisi-    needs, the Army Test and Evaluation
Test and evaluation (T&E) to support       tion programs, we have left out testing,   Command (ATEC), Aberdeen Proving
rapid fielding of both manned and           for instance, in the cold and tropics,     Ground, MD, provides reports on their
unmanned systems has been stream-          so if the Army moved to a different        capabilities and limitations. The com-
lined in recent years. “We are not doing   theater of operations, we couldn’t tell    mand also deploys testers to the theater
everything we would in a normal test       for certain how well that equipment        of operations to help assess how systems
program,” said James Johnson, DTC’s        would do there.”                           perform there. “Because we are not get-
Executive Director. “In a traditional                                                 ting to do as much testing as we would
program, we would test in a hot,           Developing test reports for acquisition    necessarily like on this end, we are
cold, and tropical environment and         program managers (PMs) and Army            somewhat catching up to the equip-
maybe other environmental testing.         evaluators also has become a speedier      ment out in the field,” said Johnson.
We know fairly well how systems are        process. Instead of issuing a pass/fail    “We’re seeing how the equipment is
going to behave in Iraq or Afghanistan.    report for many systems the Army           operating, and we’re providing expert

                                                                                          JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009           3
                     ARMY AL&T

Soldiers on the battlefield increasingly rely on unmanned systems, including this Tactical Micro Air Vehicle. (Photo by SGT Andre Reynolds.)

  advice to the Soldiers who operate that      DTC has the instrumentation and facil-                           a large vehicle such as a High-Mobility
  equipment. That is quite different.”         ities needed to tackle the challenges                            Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle and it
                                               associated with testing new unmanned                             goes out of control because the remote
  Rapid acquisition is not the only issue      systems, but its test procedures must                            operator loses contact with it, it could
  DTC is working to address. Keeping           evolve to be appropriate for both ground                         run over and kill somebody,” said
  costs down for test customers is a key       and air. “For those new commodities,                             Johnson. “So procedurally we’re taking
  objective of the command. Johnson            procedures are being developed and                               a look at how we test those kinds of
  noted that DTC is constantly tack-           safety concerns arise,” said Johnson.                            things. Then, when we go even a step
  ling the challenge                                               “For example, we talk                        further where we test an unmanned
  of reducing costs to                                             about unmanned aerial                        system with missiles or guns, there are
  customers. “We’ve               Robotic systems that             vehicles [UAVs] oper-                        safety issues we’ve got to work out.
  always got to have                                               ating in the same                            DTC is charged with completing safety
  a reasonable cost,              can save lives on the            airspace as manned                           confirmations and safety releases for
  do testing on time,            battlefield are getting            aerial vehicles, but we                      Soldiers. ... We’ve got to think through
  and provide a qual-                                              haven’t yet fully come                       that and have safety mechanisms in place
                                  into Soldiers’ hands
  ity product to the                                               to grips with how we                         so Soldiers are not placed in a difficult
  customer,” he said.              more rapidly than               can operate in the                           situation where they could get injured
  “When you get                   ever before, and the             same airspace. That’s                        or killed when operating these systems.”
  into these newer                                                 something on which
  commodity areas,
                                  U.S. Army’s DTC is               we’re working with                           Operational Tempo
  such as unmanned             transforming its business           the Federal Aviation                         Another significant challenge testers
  ground systems and              practices to support             Administration.                              face is the operational tempo that goes
  unmanned aerial sys-                                             Right now, this is                           with rapid-acquisition programs. “It
  tems, it adds to the                 that effort.                driving many tests                           is not unusual at many of our ranges
  challenge because we                                             out to our western                           to see employees working two, some-
  have to learn a new                                              ranges, where there is                       times even three, shifts, possibly 6 days
  technology, maybe something we’ve            a lot of airspace and not a concern with                         a week because there is just so much
  never tested before. We’re trying to do      UAVs running into a manned aircraft.”                            pressure to get that equipment over
  that when budgets are tight. We’re try-                                                                       to the Soldier as quickly as possible,”
  ing to figure out how we can cut our          The operation of unmanned ground                                 explained Johnson. “If we’ve got some-
  costs and be more efficient to answer         vehicles (UGVs) on DTC ranges also                               thing that will save lives, we’ve got to
  budget challenges.”                          poses procedural challenges for testers.                         turn that around as quickly as we pos-
                                               “For example, if you remotely operate                            sibly can. That raises issues of burning

              4      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                      ARMY AL&T

  workers out over time, so we’re trying             DTC Customers and Systems                              The Future Combat Systems’ (FCS’)
  to watch out for that. You can drive an                    DTC’s test customers for robotic               Multifunctional Utility/Logistics
  employee so hard that he/she will try to                   systems include the Army’s Rapid               Equipment (MULE) Vehicle is another
  find a job elsewhere because the work                       Equipping Force (REF) and DOD’s                unmanned platform that will require
  hours are just so much.”                                   Robotic Systems Joint Project Office            both developmental and operational
                                                             (RSJPO) and Joint                                                 testing. The MULE
   DTC must do what it can to attract                        Improvised Exp-                                                   transport variants
   and retain workers with the expertise                     losive Device Defeat              DTC must do what                are designed to carry
   needed to support its customers. As                       Organization                      it can to attract and           equipment and sup-
   Army organizations undergo reloca-                        (JIEDDO). The cus-                                                plies in support of
                                                                                               retain workers with
   tions under the Base Realignment                          tomers are involved                                               dismounted maneu-
   and Closure process, they seek to hire                    in the acquisition              the expertise needed to           ver elements. Other
   employees with the kinds of skills tes-                   of various robotic               support its customers.           MULE variants
   ters and evaluators possess, potentially                  systems intended to                                               include the Armed
   drawing them away from DTC. “There                        enhance warfight-                                                  Robotic Vehicle
   is a competition for people because                       ing capabilities and prevent casualties        (ARV)-Assault (Light), and the ARV
   you’ve got a lot of jobs moving in, but                   from roadside bombs and other threats.         (Assault) platform, which will be armed
   not necessarily the bodies that go with                   The RSJPO is aligned to support, field,         to support dismounted infantry in the
   those jobs,” Johnson said. “In the T&E                    and sustain ground robots along three          close assault mission.
   world, as in any other business, we’re                    primary mission areas—maneuver,
   only as good as the people we’ve got.                     maneuver support, and sustainment.             “For the robots that we have fielded,
   Without them, we can lose our exper-                                                                     the mission application includes surveil-
   tise and suddenly not offer that great                    Some of the most urgently needed               lance and extended standoff from the
   service to the customer anymore.”                         and fielded systems are Soldier-portable        Soldier operator to around the corner,
                                                             UGVs. Among these are the PackBot,             into a building, structure, cave tunnel,
                                                                      TALON, and MARCbot, and               or dwelling,” said Jeffrey Jaczkowski, an
                                                                      their variants—relatively small       unmanned systems acquisition worker
                                                                      robotic systems whose payload         at Program Executive Office Ground
                                                                      and configurations depend on           Combat Systems, Warren, MI. “That
                                                                      the mission for which they are        basically allows the Soldier or Marine
                                                                      used. Systems such as these           about a kilometer of standoff to do sur-
                                                                      are teleoperated, meaning an          veillance or interrogation. The systems
                                                                      operator can control them             that we have in that area are MARCbot
                                                                      while looking at video feed-          and xBot. Both of those are Soldier-
                                                                      back for command and control          portable systems. The MARCbot is
                                                                      decisions and local situational       a wheeled platform that is relatively
                                                                      awareness. The payloads that          inexpensive, and the xBot is a PackBot
                                                                      can be mounted onto system            variant primarily used for reconnais-
                                                                      platforms depend on their mis-        sance. TALON, as well as Packbot,
                                                                      sion; in the future, some may         variants are used to enhance route-
                                                                      include weapons.                      clearance missions. On the larger side,
                                                                                                            we have the MV-4, a program-of-record
                                                                      In the sustainment category,          system used for area clearance.”
                                                                      the U.S. Marine Corps is devel-
                                                                      oping a teleoperated front-end        The 5-ton MV-4 is a remotely oper-
                                                                      loader that resembles                 ated tracked vehicle using a flail and
                                                                      a Bobcat tractor. DOD is also         hammer to dig up and destroy, or
                                                                      looking to field a system called       activate, mines. Its small dimensions
                                                                      the Saratoga, designed with           and low track-ground pressure allow
                                                                      sensors to detect chemical, bio-      the machine to pass over difficult ter-
                                                                      logical, radiological, nuclear,       rain, including steep slopes. “MV-4 is
Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, center, operates a UGV
during a tour of the FCS facility at Fort Bliss, TX. DTC has been     and explosive threats.                approaching Milestone C, but we have
instrumental in testing such systems. (U.S. Army photo by                                                   contingency systems in use for both
Cherie Cullen.)

                                                                                                            JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009         5
                ARMY AL&T

Iraq and Afghanistan,” Jaczkowski
said. Milestone C signifies that a
system has gone through system devel-
opment and demonstration and is
ready to enter the production phase
of acquisition.

DTC’s Success
Both Jaczkowski and James Van
Coillie, Product Assurance/Test and
Configuration Management Division
Chief within the RSJPO, advise that
DTC has been successful in facilitat-
ing the fielding of unmanned systems
through expeditious testing. They
see DTC as a reliable partner in the
acquisition process and very support-
ive of fast-track acquisitions. “When
we get Operational Needs Statements
[ONS] and joint ONS that are funded
through an REF or a JIEDDO initia-            A robotic vehicle undergoes mobility testing on a bump course at the Cold Regions Test Center, Fort
                                              Greely, AK. (Photo courtesy of Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, Public Affairs Office.)
tive, it is a very fast acquisition process
to meet some very streamlined sched-
ules,” Van Coillie explained. “We             The development of military robotic                   thinking about how we are going to test
work together with DTC and ATEC,              systems is moving from platforms that                 and get through this together.”
coordinating the appropriate tests to         are teleoperated to those that have auto-
evaluate these platforms for users, cer-      nomous capabilities, meaning they can                 Because DOD still has a long way to
tify their safety, and acknowledge any        sense their environment, adapt to it,                 go in developing the capabilities of
of their limitations. The capabilities        and respond without a command from                    robotic systems, DTC will continue
and limitations document highlights           an operator. Properly testing such sys-               to adapt to support the testing that
any type of dangers associated with           tems will require a close collaboration               future unmanned systems will require.
these platforms. This works relatively        between the acquisition community                     “DOD has not tapped into all the
well, but because we deal with commercial-    and testers. Redundant controls will                  capabilities that these unmanned sys-
off-the-shelf [COTS] items and fast-track     be added to ensure system safety                      tems can bring to bear,” Jaczkowski
programs for meeting contingencies, it        during testing.                                       said. “DTC has to ensure that we’re
makes our relationship with DTC and                                                                 progressing—in our expertise, capa-
ATEC unique.                                  “The test methodologies that we use                   bilities, and instrumentation—along
                                              for teleoperated systems are going to be              with those unmanned systems, so that
“We are challenged to perform all nec-        quite different from those methodolo-                 as unmanned systems become more
essary tests to determine the system’s        gies that we will need for autonomous                 and more prevalent, we’re going after
capabilities and limitations, and meet        or semiautonomous systems,” Jaczkowski                that business. It’s an exciting time to be
the Soldiers’ needs for urgent fielding.       said. “We need to be able to do pro-                  involved in that kind of commodity.”
One of the issues currently slowing           cesses such as an operational test with
down our schedule involves the COTS           the test environment similar to the
trailer,” Van Coillie said. “We’ve got to     environment in which these systems                    MICHAEL CAST is an ATEC Public
make sure the system is adaptable in          will be used. We’ll add initial safety                Affairs Specialist. He holds a B.A. in
the environment in which it’s going to        systems that would not be on a final                   journalism from the College of Public
be used without going through all this        product. We have redundant radios.                    Programs at Arizona State University.
environmental-type testing. Basically,        We have an emergency-stop radio and a                 Cast has written numerous articles
we and the Soldiers are aware that this       safety operator. There are challenges to              on a wide range of military topics for
COTS trailer is a temporary measure           work through that I see in the future,                publication in professional journals,
until we get the long-term solution, the      especially with FCS coming. The test                  trade magazines, and other military-
final government-approved trailer.”            community and the PMs need to start                   oriented publications.

          6     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                          ARMY AL&T

Months of Creative Problem Solving
   Lead to Alaska Missile Test
                                           Chuck Wullenjohn

          he Army’s Cold Regions Test Center (CRTC) is located in the heart
          of Alaska’s largely unspoiled interior, a rugged land of wild river
          valleys, stark glaciers, and herds of animals that have made this
 region their home for thousands of years. Ferocious winter temperatures
 plunge to well below zero, weather conditions capable of wreaking havoc
 on unprepared Soldiers, military vehicles, and weapon systems. The CRTC’s
 mission is to thoroughly test military equipment to meet this critical challenge.

A bulldozer, frozen from overnight temperatures hovering around 50 below zero, is ready to operate after the engine warms
and lubricants begin to flow. Extreme cold can wreak havoc on equipment that has not been winterized. (U.S. Army photo by
Chuck Wullenjohn.)

                                                                                               JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009          7
                    ARMY AL&T

  This past winter, the 50-member                      was that a huge safety zone extending       and brush that came alive with dense
  CRTC workforce devoted months                        over many miles of wilderness would be      clouds of ravenous mosquitoes during
  preparing for the test firing of the                  required. Since extreme cold is known       the relatively brief Alaska summer. He
  Non-Line-of-Sight-Launch System                      to cause problems to systems, in some-      and others forded the Delta River, trav-
  (NLOS-LS), a weapon system under                     times unforeseen ways, the safety zone      eling 26 kilometers to an observation
  development that offers significant                   would ensure safety                                             post built by the U.S.
  battlefield capabilities to American                  to the public.                                                  Air Force (USAF), a
  forces. Reinforced by specialized                                                       The CRTC workforce           trip taking 5 hours in
  crews flown in from Arizona’s Yuma                    The test plan called                                            each direction.
  Proving Ground (YPG) and Alabama’s                   for the missile impact           always goes the extra
  Redstone Technical Test Center, the                  area to be located far            mile to ensure good            As winter came, tem-
  effort involved innovation and creative              downrange, about 50                                              peratures plunged
                                                                                       mission results. People
  problem solving, resulting in unique                 miles from the near-                                             well below freez-
  solutions to daunting challenges.                    est paved road, so a               put in long hours             ing and the Delta
                                                       temporary infrastruc-             and performed tasks            River froze. Viggato
  “The creativity exhibited by the work-               ture of roads, power,                                            huddled with others
  force and the vast amount of work                    communications,
                                                                                          well beyond their             to consider a range
  they performed gave me a greater sense               and support facilities                normal jobs.               of options before
  of pride than almost anything else I                 would have to be                                                 settling on a solu-
  witnessed since assuming command,”                   created for observers,                                           tion regarding the
  remarked LTC Vincent Malone,                         data collection devices, and much             untamed Delta—they would build a
  CRTC Commander.                                      more. Target vehicles would have to be        1-mile-long ice bridge over the water-
                                                       transported from the lower 48 states,         course to solve the transportation
  Test Preparation Begins                              and then driven across the treacher-          dilemma. He handed the task to test
  Preparation began in July 2008, coor-                ous Delta River. With no permanent            officer Dave Hoffman, who boasted
  dinated by test director John Viggato,               bridge, a safe, reliable solution would       long test program experience and is an
  who immediately flew to White                         have to be developed.                         expert on winter survival, but who had
  Sands Missile Range, NM, where the                                                                 never built an ice bridge. With a smile,
  NLOS-LS was already being tested,                    With testing challenges on his mind,          Hoffman accepted the challenge and set
  to develop expertise on the system. A                Viggato set to work. He participated in       to work. He learned fast, for construc-
  5-year CRTC veteran, Viggato had                     several flyovers of the area in late sum-      tion began in November.
  worked on an exceptionally wide variety              mer and fall, developing a lay of the
  of test programs over the years, mak-                land and identifying areas for facilities     The Ice Bridge
  ing him an ideal test director. In short             that needed to be established. The land       “We provided Dave Hoffman a start-
  order, he identified numerous major                   consisted of largely pristine forested        ing point by handing him a copy of
  challenges. The first, and most obvious,              wilderness, with large areas of tundra        a 1964 Army technical manual about
                                                                                                     ice bridges,” said Viggato with a laugh.
                                                                                                     “What he accomplished after that
                                                                                                     was fantastic.”

                                                                                                       Within weeks, Hoffman and his 3-person
                                                                                                       team had completed an informal crash
                                                                                                       course on ice bridge design. They
                                                                                                       searched Internet sites, plowed through
                                                                                                       technical manuals and other written
                                                                                                       documents, and consulted with USAF
                                                                                                       personnel who had experience building
                                                                                                       ice bridges in Alaska.

                                                                                                       “I wouldn’t say I became an ice bridge
                                                                                                       expert, but I sure learned lots,” Hoffman
Dave Sutherland, of CRTC’s maintenance shop, makes final alterations to a piece of metalwork he is
                                                                                                       said. An ice bridge, he explained, con-
fabricating for skids used to haul cargo containers behind tractors downrange. (U.S. Army photo by     sists basically of frozen water over a
Chuck Wullenjohn.)

              8     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                     ARMY AL&T

riverbed. In the case of the one he
designed over the Delta River, the
bridge was 70 feet wide and 1 mile
long. The road surface was about
12 inches above the river surface.
Permanent inspection sites were built
along the bridge about every 50 yards
to monitor water flow beneath.

The Delta River is a “braided” river,
meaning the watercourse divides into
several main channels and a number of
minor tributaries, with islands between.
The exact number of channels varies
from year to year. The river has a gener-
ally gravel bottom and is fed by glacial
streams from nearby mountains, along
with rain and groundwater. Though
everyone at CRTC referred to it as an
                                            A huge truck, traveling to the test site, is carefully maneuvered across the ice bridge over the frozen Delta
ice bridge, and dubbed Hoffman with         River. (U.S. Army photo by Mike Kingston.)
the moniker “bridge troll,” it would
more properly be called a combination
ice bridge and ice road.                    By the time January 2009 rolled                         aboard a barge for movement to Alaska.
                                            around, the outside temperature had                     Once offloaded in Anchorage, they
Hoffman says construction was marred        grown even colder, plunging to a mind-                  were secured aboard railcars bound for
by a few accidents, such as a bulldozer     numbing 50 below zero. The river had                    Fairbanks, a 360-mile trip, in the state’s
crashing through ice in the early weeks,    frozen to a depth of about 55 inches by                 interior. Once there, crews from YPG
but nothing beyond what was expected.       this time.                                              met them, transferred each to a trailer
Once the bridge was built, however,                                                                 for the several hour journey to CRTC,
it required constant maintenance and        The success of the ice bridge proved                    then drove them 50 miles downrange to
Hoffman made a point of inspecting          crucial, for nearly all personnel, sup-                 the target area, crossing the ice bridge
it each day.                                plies, and equipment moved across it.                   on the way.
                                            “Without the bridge, we wouldn’t have
The test center’s standard operating        been able to make it out to the area                    CRTC planners opened and manned
procedure was for Hoffman to cross          where the test was to be conducted,”                    an operations center at Observation
the bridge before anyone went across.       said Hoffman. “Success hinged on                        Post 26, a USAF facility located atop
This policy ensured the maintenance         this bridge.”                                           a remote downrange ridge. Crews of
of accountability for everyone using                                                                two to four employees at a time stayed
the bridge and allowed him to keep          Logistics Prove No Mean Feat                            overnight at the post, often for stretches
a watchful eye for anything amiss.          Real-world targets were needed for the                  lasting four nights. Bunks and a kitchen
                                            missiles and they were located at YPG,                  were located inside the heated building,
“The biggest problem was overflow            where a fleet of more than 100 former                    as was a mission control room featur-
caused by ice dams upstream that            Soviet vehicles, both track and wheeled,                ing several large screens on the wall for
broke and sent torrents of water above      are maintained for just this sort of proj-              video feeds. A wireless communica-
and below the bridge,” he said. “We         ect. Two T-72 main battle tanks and                     tion system was established to allow the
sometimes saw 3 feet of water flowing        four BMPs (Soviet tracked armored                       actual missile firing to be controlled
over.” After these flows subsided, sev-      vehicles), all operational, were readied                from within the control room.
eral inches of new ice would form atop      and sent on their way, a process that
the bridge that had to be groomed. The      involved a complex itinerary and was                    Extreme cold weather is dangerously
overflows occurred regularly through-        an interesting travel feat on its own.                  unforgiving to the unprepared, and
out the winter, occurring several times                                                             workers had to be ready for any eventu-
each month.                                 The vehicles traveled by trailer to                     ality. Observation post personnel were
                                            Seattle, WA, where they were loaded                     outfitted with full arctic survival gear in

                                                                                                         JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009              9
                ARMY AL&T

case power failed or any other calamity      over it while making
occurred. Although everyone kept an          repairs, they expressed
eye on each other and maintained radio       concern that the M88
communication while outside, signifi-         would be unable to
cant emergency help would take time          operate at full power.
to arrive.                                   “And we definitely didn’t
                                             want it to break down
Solutions Developed                          40 or 50 miles from
“The CRTC workforce always goes              the nearest road,”
the extra mile to ensure good mis-           Malone added.
sion results, and we really saw it in this
case,” said Viggato. “People put in long     Mechanics at YPG were
hours and performed tasks well beyond        contacted. They traveled
their normal jobs.”                          to CRTC to remove the
                                             M88’s power pack, cor-
CRTC’s Allied Trades machine shop,           rect the problem, and
for example, solved the problem of           get it back on the road.
transporting heavy warm-up shelters          But there was one more
constructed from large metal transpor-       thing. “The property              CRTC workers carefully mark the sides of the ice bridge to prevent
                                                                               drivers from mistakenly venturing off the carefully prepared bridge
tation containers by fabricating skids,      book folks arranged               surface. (U.S. Army photo by Mike Kingston.)
enabling them to be towed through            for us to exchange our
snow and ice. They also constructed          M88 for a newly recon-
a portable cold chamber from 4-inch          ditioned one and then get an additional             The effort was far from in vain, how-
extruded foam insulation, fastened           M88 sometime in the near future,” said              ever, as Viggato pointed out. “The
together with fabric hook and loop           Malone with a smile. “YPG really went               program manager has committed to
(Velcro) straps, to condition the mis-       out of its way for us.”                             return next winter,” he said. “The test
siles to specific cold temperatures if the                                                        will be identical and we know the full
weather warmed before firing.                 One thing that sets CRTC apart from                 scope of what needs to be done. This
                                             other installations is its tight-knit work-         year’s experience will definitely make it
“Warm-up shelters may not sound as           force that sees employees cross-trained             run smoothly.”
important as they are, but when you’re       in areas other than their specialty.
working outside in temperatures hover-       According to technical director Jeff                And what of the ice bridge that melted
ing far below zero, these shelters can be    Lipscomb, the CRTC workforce is                     away when summer approached? “It’s
lifesaving,” said Malone. “Getting out       small and everyone is multifunctional.              all part of the cycle of life,” mused
of the elements for 10 or 15 minutes to      “We hire specialists for our jobs, just             Hoffman in a soft voice. “The ice
warm up and enjoy a few creature com-        like other installations, but ‘other duties         bridge is like everything else—you give
forts can make a world of difference.”       as assigned’ really means that here,” said          birth to it but, eventually, it dies. The
Each shelter was equipped with a gen-        Lipscomb. When he hires new employ-                 bridge will be back next year.”
erator for electrical power.                 ees, he makes a point of telling them
                                             that there is one thing he won’t accept             One change is probable, though. Army
A situation involving CRTC’s M88             hearing twice from the same person:                 engineer troops from Fort Richardson,
recovery vehicle, the only such vehi-        that something is “not my job.”                     AK, are considering taking on the mis-
cle within the state of Alaska, was                                                              sion of creating and maintaining the
overcome through close cooperation           Test Results                                        bridge throughout the upcoming test
between CRTC and its higher head-            Despite the hard work over many                     effort, which will provide excellent real-
quarters at YPG. “For the test, this         months, the test was postponed shortly              world training. “They appear excited at
vehicle was vital,” said Malone, “for        before the missiles were scheduled                  the opportunity,” remarked Viggato.
each target vehicle had to be recov-         to fire because of system integration
ered and returned.” The problem was          problems. Software upgrades and other
that the M88 had experienced a recur-        issues arose that forced the firing date             CHUCK WULLENJOHN is the YPG
ring mechanical problem for years that       to slip back, to the point where CRTC’s             Public Affairs Officer. He holds a B.S.
caused fuel oil smoke to billow up in        coldest weather had passed.                         in political science from Humboldt
clouds. Though mechanics had fussed                                                              State University.

         10     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                               ARMY AL&T

Automotive Testing in Extreme Cold
    Presents Unique Challenges
                                             Chuck Wullenjohn

            o matter what the weather, automotive testing is critical to assuring
            Soldiers that the vehicles they use in the field perform properly, are
            safe, and, above all, operate dependably. In the midst of America’s
  coldest climate, automotive testing specialists at the Army’s Cold Regions Test
  Center (CRTC) in Alaska ensure that America’s military vehicles are equipped
  to achieve military success when temperatures plunge to well below freezing.

 A military vehicle is put through its paces on the CRTC’s skid pad, which is covered with a thick layer of ice. The vast majority of
 automotive testing that takes place at the center is for military customers. (U.S. Army photo by Chuck Wullenjohn.)

                                                                                                   JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009             11
                     ARMY AL&T

  One of the potentially most deadly             Dan Coakley, CRTC project manager,                               and skid pads provide an ideal venue
  environmental extremes for the unpre-          has worked at the test center for more                           for dynamic vehicle control testing.
  pared, freezing cold weather can bring         than 25 years and has become an expert                           Miles of rugged trails and secondary
  military operations to a halt within           automotive tester. Stationed at CRTC’s                           roads provide real-world test condi-
  minutes. Starting a vehicle is more            mobility test complex, on which con-                             tions in a private, secure environment.
  difficult since engine oil thickens in          struction began in 2004, he works with                           Maintenance and administrative build-
  the cold; parts, such as those made of         a wide variety of vehicles each year.                            ings with voice and data connectivity
  rubber, become brittle and frequently          Although the majority of the vehicles                            make up part of the complex.
  break; lubricants and                                              come from the vari-
  tires harden; and                                                  ous military services,                       CRTC Civilian Customers
  slick, icy roads can                                               about 30 percent                             Early this winter, the Ford Motor Co.
                                   One of the recurring
  make driving a seri-                                               derive from private                          brought almost two dozen vehicles to
  ous problem.                      challenges they face             firms that travel to                          the test complex, including assorted
                                  is the frost that builds           the complex to take                          sedans, vans, and pickup trucks. Several
  CRTC, established                                                  advantage of the                             test surfaces were arranged for them,
  in the days after
                                 over the surface of ice on          modern facility.                             including an ice circle and a broad
  World War II when                the test tracks when                                                           snow field. Since natural snow coverage
  the importance                   the temperature falls             CRTC’s mobility                              was not sufficient at the time, addi-
  of environmental                                                   test complex con-                            tional snow was manufactured right at
  testing was fresh on               below 15 degrees.               centrates a variety of                       the complex. Although Alaska’s interior
  everyone’s mind, is                                                automotive test func-                        is extremely cold, with temperatures
  the only test site on                                              tions in a single area.                      dipping beyond 50 below zero, it is
  U.S. soil that realistically combines the      These include a 3.2-mile, 2-lane paved                           relatively dry. “Ford tested here in the
  elements of a winter battlefield with           oval track that allows high speeds.                              early winter,” said Coakley, “because
  a test season long and cold enough to          Test slopes offer grades from 5 to 60                            we have cold temperatures not avail-
  guarantee suitable test conditions.            percent and huge lateral acceleration                            able anywhere else in the United States.

Dan Coakley, CRTC project manager (left), discusses a cargo area heater undergoing testing with Ben Feilner, test officer, at the mobility test facility. (U.S. Army
photo by Chuck Wullenjohn.)

              12     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                               ARMY AL&T

  Later, Ford moved its
  testing back down to the
  lower 48.” This allowed
  the firm to “extend” its
  annual test season.

  Ford is one of several
  companies that have
  recognized the value of
  CRTC extreme weather
  testing. Others include
  General Motors Corp.,
  Chrysler, Toyota, and
  Cummings. During
                                    Alaska state troopers make good use of the facility for training each year. The track enables drivers to operate their
  the Ford testing, TRW             vehicles in potentially hazardous conditions, garnering excellent experience. (Photo courtesy of CRTC.)
  (automotive suppliers)
  came to examine braking
  systems and suspension components,                have valid, repeatable conditions over                  they enjoy the challenges and find the
  and tire manufacturers brought along              several days or weeks. If not, test data                most enjoyment in the satisfaction they
  two truckloads of                                                      becomes unreliable.                help bring to customers. “It’s good to
  new tires. “This is a                                                                                     see them depart with a smile on their
  world-class facility           A private firm can test                  When the ice sur-                  faces,” says Coakley, “and the qual-
  and customers seem             anywhere it wants and                   face develops frost                ity of our testing brings them back.”
  to like it,” said Ben                                                  or rough peaks, a                  Numerous customers, both civilian and
  Feilner, test officer.         has to make a conscious                  condition automotive               military, have returned over the years.
  “There is a learn-               business decision to                  testers call “peaky,” a
  ing curve involved in                                                  new surface must be                To Coakley, the return customers that
                                     return to CRTC.
  operating this facility                                                laid over it. During               mean the most are the civilian firms. “A
  and every year we get             But they get great                   the test conducted                 private firm can test anywhere it wants
  better at it.”                   results and excellent                 for Ford, the ice field             and has to make a conscious business
                                                                         used was quite large,              decision to return to CRTC,” he said
  Challenges                    customer service, which                  measuring 160 by                   with a satisfied smile. “They must accept
  One of the recurring            is what it’s all about.                950 feet. When the                 additional expenses to test here, such as
  challenges they face is                                                surface had to be                  increased transportation costs. But they
  the frost that builds                                                  recoated with water,               get great results and excellent customer
  over the surface of ice on the test               it took several hours to freeze.                        service, which is what it’s all about.”
  tracks when the temperature falls below
  15 degrees. Any change in the surface             Challenges like this are a daily occur-                 CRTC falls under the management
  is important for testers, who must                rence. Both Feilner and Coakley say                     authority of Arizona’s U.S. Army Yuma
                                                                                                            Proving Ground (YPG), a component
                                                                                                            of the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation
                                                                                                            Command and the Army’s extreme
                                                                                                            weather testing expert. The proving
                                                                                                            ground manages testing at Yuma Test
                                                                                                            Center, AZ; Tropic Regions Test Center
                                                                                                            facilities in Panama, Honduras, and
                                                                                                            other tropic locations; and CRTC.

                                                                                                                   CHUCK WULLENJOHN is the YPG
                                                                                                                   Public Affairs Officer. He holds a B.S.
A variety of testing takes place on the CRTC’s snow and ice circle, only one of many facilities making up the
                                                                                                                   in political science from Humboldt
state-of-the-art test facility. A variety of automotive test data comes from use of the circle regarding suspen-   State University.
sions, acceleration, tires, braking systems, traction control, and much more. (Photo courtesy of CRTC.)

                                                                                                                      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009     13
     ARMY AL&T

          YPG Conducts Challenging
         and Rewarding Stryker Vehicle
              Testing in Suriname
                                                   Mark Schauer

               n conducting its mission of testing equipment for the U.S. Army,
               Yuma Proving Ground’s (YPG’s) reach has long exceeded the
               desert ranges within its geographical boundaries in Yuma, AZ.
          Testing in extreme natural environments is YPG’s forte, which is why
          realistic, rugged testing of military equipment takes place each year
          amid frigid temperatures in Alaska and in the steaming jungles of the
          tropics. Though many Soldiers have never heard of YPG, they are
          well aware that rigorous extreme weather testing ensures that their
          equipment works properly, wherever in the world they serve.

     The Suriname crew drove the Stryker test vehicle more than 2,000 miles through
     punishing jungle terrain, including this flooded road. (U.S. Army photo.)

                                                                                                      ARMY AL&T

Last year, nearly two dozen testers from      maintain and repair. However, the         identified in South America’s smallest
YPG and its subsidiary test centers spent     Stryker is also one of the military’s     country: Suriname.
the better part of the year in the nation     most complex platforms, with an
of Suriname, a former Dutch colony in         operator’s manual that encompasses        Suriname
South America, to test the Stryker com-       14 heavy volumes.                         Suriname has one of the most diverse
bat vehicle. It was the first such test that                                             populations in South America as a result
YPG ever conducted in Suriname and            Prior to its deployment to Iraq,          of waves of foreign laborers from Asia
the challenging effort took hundreds of       the Stryker underwent extensive           coming to the country following the
people, including scores of local contract-   testing at both YPG, in the deserts       abolition of slavery in the mid-19th
ors, to accomplish.                           of southwestern Arizona, and the          century. Since gaining its independence
                                              Cold Regions Test Center, the frigid      in 1975, Suriname has struggled to
The Stryker                                   Alaskan test facility over which          grow a stable economy and raise the
The Stryker is the most versatile and         YPG has jurisdiction. However, the        standard of living. The per capita
technologically advanced armored              platform had never undergone testing      income of Suriname is less than 10
vehicle in the military arsenal of the        in a tropical environment. Although       percent of that of the U.S.
U.S. Particularly suited for transport-       YPG also maintains test facilities in
ing infantry in urban environments,           Hawaii, Honduras, and Panama,             However, the nation is developed
the Stryker has become popular among          none of the three were suitable for the   enough to support the needs of Stryker
Soldiers in the most dangerous areas          unique requirements of testing the        testing. In addition to having sufficient
overseas; they describe the vehicle as        several dozen-ton vehicle. After years    roads, Moengo, a town of 7,000
quiet, reliable, and relatively easy to       of searching, an ideal testing site was   residents located closest to the test site,

                                                                                            JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009        15
                ARMY AL&T

boasts a large bauxite mining presence        European-based, and, thus, were unfa-                  work, the testing activities were similar
and a familiarity with heavy equipment.       miliar to the American crew.                           to those that would be conducted on
Test planners knew                                                                                   armored vehicles at YPG—namely, the
that this knowledge                                              Meanwhile, the test                 meticulous performance data gath-
would benefit the                The vehicle was driven           vehicle was trucked                 ering of every possible facet of the
mission in the event                                             from Arizona to                     Stryker’s operation as it was used at a
of a catastrophic              in excess of 2,000 miles          Ingleside, TX, where                pace comparable to that of the tropical
test vehicle failure.             through punishing              it was placed on a                  environment. The vehicle was driven in
Through years of                                                 flat-bottom boat                     excess of 2,000 miles through punish-
                                   jungle terrain and
effort, senior YPG                                               bound for Suriname.                 ing jungle terrain and was subjected
and Army officials                   was subjected to             The trip was sched-                 to extensive stationary testing of its
negotiated and                   extensive stationary            uled to last 10 days,               intricate electronic components. In
secured the required                                             but, because of a                   addition to providing data for possible
permissions and                 testing of its intricate         hurricane and other                 improvements in the test vehicle, the
clearances to begin            electronic components.            adverse weather, the                information gathered may influence the
testing in Suriname                                              Stryker didn’t arrive               development of entirely new combat
on property owned                                                until 4 weeks later.                vehicle systems in the future.
by BHP Billiton, the world’s largest          The Suriname crew was busy during
mining company.                               the delay, though. “We had plenty to                   The heavy vehicle often sank in the
                                              do while waiting,” said Rolando Ayala,                 clay of the jungle test tracks when they
The challenges the testers faced were         a tester usually based at the Tropic                   were saturated by frequent tropical
immense. Living quarters had to be            Regions Test Center facility in Panama.                rains. According to the Stryker’s multi-
procured for testers participating in the     “We were starting from scratch.”                       volume operator’s manual, lowering the
project. Upon the arrival of advance                                                                 tire pressure is the preferred method of
team members in spring 2008, the pro-         Testing                                                gaining sufficient traction to negotiate
posed test site had no infrastructure,        The crew convoyed to the test site                     muddy terrain. In practice, however,
requiring the rapid construction of a         together each morning, using local                     the testers found that deflating the tires
compound with security fencing, wiring,       drivers and aging vehicles that had                    could allow jungle biomass to compro-
and communications networks. Test             been contracted to support the testers.                mise the space between the wheel and
vehicle operator Jerry Pullen staked 30        The 10-mile commute took about                        the tire. Keeping the tires inflated at
miles of existing roads of various condi-     30 minutes over dirt roads. Once at                    highway pressures prevented this while
tions for use in the test.

The lack of existing topographical           Muddy roads are typical in tropical environments. Although the Stryker’s operating manual suggests deflat-
                                             ing the tires to negotiate this type of terrain, the Suriname testers determined that the practice could allow
maps required assistance from comm-          biomass to compromise the space between the wheel and the tire. Insights like these are only generated in
unications worker Tony Aultman, civil        real-world test conditions. (U.S. Army photo.)
engineer Carlos Mora, and software/
hardware engineer Jonathan Gonzalez,
who together created a map by taking
measurements of more than 1,000
points. “Their competence was very
noteworthy,” marveled Richard
Reiser, lead test officer and second-in-
command on the ground.

Local contractors assisted with all phases
of construction. Although Suriname
is a developing nation, all of the
construction, from road and bridge
upgrades to the compound’s buildings,
had to comply with local construction
codes. Because of Suriname’s history
as a Dutch colony, these codes are

         16     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                                    ARMY AL&T

The Suriname crew, comprised of test personnel from three different test centers under the jurisdiction of YPG, poses in front of the Stryker test vehicle. The test
compound was named in honor of Antonius “Foemi” Berika, a local contractor who was instrumental in the compound’s construction and died in an off-duty
accident during the test activities. (U.S. Army photo.)

  still enabling the vehicle to extricate itself          replacement from the U.S. could take                     “He was able to insulate us from and
  from the mud. These types of insights                   a month to arrive, and it was unlikely                   address many minor local problems
  would not have been generated by test-                  that any specialized equipment would                     that had the potential to turn into
  ing the vehicle in a simulation chamber.                be available on the open market in                       major problems,” said Reiser. “He went
                                                          Suriname. All instrumentation had                        above and beyond on a daily basis.”
  The ability to improvise was another                    been trucked to Suriname in four
  priceless skill in the jungle. As an                    storage trailers. Aside from this, the                   Future
  example, at one point the Stryker’s                     crew worked long hours following the                     Despite the logistical challenges,
  air conditioning system, one of the                     same procedures they would follow                        delays, and culture shock, the Stryker
  many components being tested, mal-                      while conducting vehicle tests at their                  testing was completed 5 weeks ahead
  functioned. The crew had a complete                     typical duty stations.                                   of schedule. “I am very proud of the
  replacement unit packed in a large crate                                                                         way our teams interacted and worked
  inside a storage container. Removing                    Contributing to the                                      together to complete the test early
  the heavy box would have required a                     General Welfare                                          under challenging circumstances,” said
  forklift and lifting out the unit would                 In addition to testing, crew members                     Ayala. “That is a very satisfying feeling.
  have necessitated a crane. Rather                       found themselves contributing                            I look forward to working with these
  than spending 2 to 3 days unpacking                     to the well-being of local society.                      professionals again.”
  and installing the entire unit, vehicle                 The most striking example was the
  maintenance worker Mike Newbourn                        construction of a telemedicine link, a                   Today, locals in Moengo anticipate that
  drilled a hole in the side of the box                   sophisticated audio and video system                     the mining conglomerate BHP Billiton,
  large enough to remove the necessary                    that remotely connects doctors in                        Moengo’s largest employer, will cease local
  replacement component. “Mike had                        isolated Moengo with diagnosticians                      operations in 2010, a development that
  us back on the road in less than an                     at the university hospital in the capital                would significantly hurt the local econ-
  hour,” Reiser recalled. Considering the                 city of Paramaribo. The construction                     omy. This prospect, combined with
  extreme humidity of the jungle climate,                 of this vital piece of infrastructure                    the good rapport the testers established
  the air conditioning system is a criti-                 helped alleviate local concerns about                    with the local populace, make YPG’s
  cally important system as it dries out                  the scope and duration of the test                       potential return eagerly anticipated.
  moisture that would otherwise corrode                   mission, as did a series of town hall
  metallic components within the vehicle.                 meetings with the populace. Eusebio
                                                          Lopez, a 27-year testing veteran who                     MARK SCHAUER is a YPG Public
  Unlike testing at YPG’s established                     served as site manager, was the principal                Affairs Specialist. He is pursuing a
  centers, the Suriname crew did not have                 liaison between the test crew and the                    B.A. in history from Northern Arizona
  ready access to spare parts. Ordering a                 communities in and around Moengo.                        University.

                                                                                                                        JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009            17
         ARMY AL&T

PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance
   to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan
                                         Jill Finnie

    n the business world, it is common knowledge that superior information technology (IT)
    can lead to competitive advantage and successful return-on-investment. The Army’s business
    is conducted on the battlefield and IT systems are key to ensuring that Soldiers, our greatest
investment, stay safe and succeed in their missions. Several hundred Program Executive Office
Enterprise Information Systems (PEO EIS) staff work side-by-side with Soldiers in Iraq and
Afghanistan on a wide range of IT projects that deliver important capabilities. They are
not alone: project and product offices in the U.S. partner with the defense industry to develop
and deploy systems that deliver identity intelligence, electronic medical information, network
connectivity, and computer-based business and logistics tools to ensure troops stay ahead of the
technology curve and out of harm’s way.

                                                       Acting ASAALT Dean G. Popps met with MAJ Robert Ciccolella of
                                                       PM J-AIT during a visit to Afghanistan in early 2009. (U.S. Army
                                                       photo by COL Jonathan Maddux.)

    18   JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                       ARMY AL&T

Biometric Data Aids                        Communications for Combat Casualty             Product Director for Defense Comm-
Identity Intelligence                      Care (MC4) helps this complicated              unications Systems-Southwest Asia
U.S. and coalition forces guarding         process along. MC4 integrates, fields,          (DCS-SWA), an organization that is
security checkpoints at airports, bases,   and supports thousands of medical              part of the PEO EIS Network Service
ports, and mobile locations need to        information management systems in              Center Project Management Office,
know quickly if a person requesting        hundreds of medical treatment facilities       works to ensure that Soldiers have the
access is friend or foe. For a rapid       throughout Afghanistan and 13 other            bandwidth they need to stay connected
identity check at the scene, and to        countries. To date, military medical           and access mission-critical tools. In
gather crucial intelligence for future     personnel have captured more than 10           2008, DCS-SWA implemented more
use, troops rely on systems developed      million electronic patient encounters          than 90 separate projects to improve
by Project Manager Department of           using MC4.                                     IT services in Iraq, Afghanistan, and
Defense (PM DOD) Biometrics.                                                              Kuwait. The team’s successful efforts
Hand-held scanners capture facial          “Complete implementation of MC4                provided as many as 60,000 Soldiers
features, fingerprints, palm prints, and    and the consistent use of the systems          through three troop rotations with
retina scans and check them against a      in theater are critical to the presidential    increased combat capability at a time
central repository. The Office of the       goals concerning the electronic medi-          when they needed it most—the surge.
Assistant Secretary of the Army for        cal record [EMR], the                                             The team traveled
Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology     capture of appropri-                                              extensively through
(OASAALT) calls these biometric            ate health data, and              These improvements              high-risk areas to
capabilities a “game changer” in           the quality of health                                             upgrade communica-
                                                                          enhance the survivability
identifying and capturing known or         care delivered to                                                 tions capabilities and
suspected terrorists.                      service members,”                   of deployed forces            connect joint forces
                                           said LTC Thomas C.                   and enable them              at multiple locations,
PM DOD Biometrics recently                 Burzynski, Former                                                 supporting every
upgraded its database to significantly      Medical Command                    to apprehend more              major command in
improve matching capabilities and cut      and Control Officer,             perpetrators who might            theater. Significant
down on the time it takes to return        Combined Joint                                                    projects modernized
                                                                          otherwise have concealed
match results to the warfighter. The        Task Force-101,                                                   network infrastruc-
new repository manages more than           Afghanistan.                     their true identity and          ture at command
3 million biometric records, provid-                                          avoided detection.             and operation
ing field commanders with responses         MC4 mobile training                                               centers, bringing
up to 28 times faster than the previ-      and support teams                                                 superior communi-
ous system. “These improvements            provide 24-7 assistance to commanders,         cations capabilities to locations where
enhance the survivability of deployed      systems administrators, medical logisti-       little or none previously existed.
forces and enable them to apprehend        cians, and health care professionals who
more perpetrators who might otherwise      manage critical medical information on         With everything else deployed Soldiers
have concealed their true identity and     the battlefield. As a result of the close       need to think about day-to-day, fig-
avoided detection,” according to PM        coordination between MC4 and medi-             uring out how to share a PowerPoint
COL Theodore J. Jennings.                  cal forces in Afghanistan, system users        presentation with a colleague a conti-
                                           are making the most of the system by           nent away or securely chat with family
Electronic Medical                         making best business practices the stan-       back home should be the least of their
Information Coordinates                    dard, resulting in improved continuity         worries. For secure electronic com-
and Enhances Patient Care                  of care and decision making.                   munications, they log on to Army
Continuity of patient care is difficult                                                    Knowledge Online (AKO), the Army’s
enough to achieve in the United States.    Systems Enable Connectivity                    enterprise Web portal. AKO serves
When Soldiers are wounded on the           and Productivity                               more than 2.1 million personnel in the
battlefield, the complexity increases       Soldiers in the war zone have a lot on         Army community and provides secure
significantly—along with the sense of       their minds. There are supplies, weap-         knowledge management, communica-
urgency to ensure that patients receive    ons, and equipment to be ordered,              tions, and collaboration tools anytime,
the best medical treatment available—      moved, and tracked. There is infrastruc-       anywhere in the world. Warfighters
whether they are in theater, a field hos-   ture to be set up and maintained. There        can, for example, set up an AKO group
pital, or for follow-up care at an Army    are facilities to be managed. And above        to communicate with all the mem-
medical facility at home. PM Medical       all is the mission.                            bers of their unit prior to deployment,

                                                                                             JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009       19
                     ARMY AL&T

  store and access critical forms and           geographic locations to collaborate, send,                    Securing the Safety of Defense
  documents, share with other troops            and receive instant messages and main-                        Supplies and Equipment
  and units in the AKO forums, and              tain presence awareness. “I depend on                         GEN Dwight D. Eisenhower once said,
  e-mail anyone on the                                              GFT because of the                        “You will not find it difficult to prove
  Internet with AKO                                                 reliable connection,”                     that battles, campaigns, and even wars
  mail. Warfighters               Complete implementa-               commented MAJ                             have been won or lost primarily because
  can also create their                                             Robert Ciccolella,                        of logistics.” The Army has come a long
                                   tion of MC4 and the
  own Web page, start                                               who works in Arifjan,                     way technologically since World War II,
  a blog to let the folks          consistent use of the            Kuwait, for one of                        but it will always need supplies, equip-
  back home know                  systems in theater are            the PEO EIS prod-                         ment, and vehicles. To track whether
  how things are going,                                             uct offices. “I use it                     items traveling through the war zone
  or use AKO instant             critical to the presiden-          to bounce ideas, trou-                    are secure, DOD turns to another
  messaging to chat                tial goals concerning            bleshoot servers, and                     PEO EIS office, PM Joint-Automated
  with loved ones                                                   send screenshots to                       IT (J-AIT).
                                  the EMR, the capture
  and colleagues.                                                   my guys in Kuwait,”
                                   of appropriate health            said Chad Cobb,                           In early 2009, the Army issued guid-
  An important new               data, and the quality of           who works with                            ance to equip all containers transiting
  electronic tool being                                             the Expeditionary                         between Afghanistan and Pakistan with
  fielded to the Army
                                 health care delivered to           Contracting Com-                          a Container Intrusion Detection Device
  acquisition community              service members.               mand. GFT operates                        (CIDD), to enhance force protection
  worldwide is Green                                                in low bandwidth                          and to deter theft and pilferage. With
  Force Tracker (GFT)                                               environments and                          many containers destined to travel
  with IBM Sametime Technology.                 provides reachback to the U.S. It is                          back to the United States, the use of
  Developed by PM Acquisition Business,         mission critical as phone and e-mail                          the CIDD also works toward enhanc-
  the tool allows Soldiers in different         may not always be available.                                  ing homeland security. The CIDD is a

CIDDs in theater enhance force protection by detecting any intrusion into containers, such as those shown here. (U.S. Army photo by MAJ Robert Ciccolella.)

             20      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                        ARMY AL&T

                                                                                                          the number of MTS systems needed
                                                                                                          to potentially support the theater in
                                                                                                          the future.

                                                                                                          PM Transportation Information
                                                                                                          Systems (TIS) operates an enterprise
                                                                                                          architecture supporting Soldiers
                                                                                                          worldwide to move personnel and
                                                                                                          cargo in deployments, redeployments,
                                                                                                          and sustainment. In first quarter 2009,
                                                                                                          PM TIS established a regional office
                                                                                                          in Kuwait and completed fielding its
                                                                                                          theater operations (TOPS) product
                                                                                                          to Afghanistan. In addition to its
                                                                                                          existing field service engineers in Iraq
                                                                                                          and Afghanistan, PM TIS is adding a
                                                                                                          much-needed server infrastructure to
                                                                                                          support locations throughout SWA.
A Soldier from Supply and Transportation Troop, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, initializes her MTS
and confirms availability of satellite communications prior to deploying from her unit motor pool at the   Once installed, the architecture will
National Training Center, Fort Irwin, CA. (U.S. Army photo by Jim Carver, PM MTS.)                        provide improved connectivity and
                                                                                                          performance for the Transportation
                                                                                                          Coordinators’-Automated Information
  recent capability added to the suite of                also provides CIDD training and over-            for Movements System II (TC-AIMS
  Radio Frequency In-Transit Visibility                  sees the acquisition of the CIDD as              II) users.
  (RF-ITV) technologies that is capable                  well as other automatic identification
  of providing environmental condition                   technology products.                             PM TIS recently opened a new training
  and security monitoring.                                                                                facility in Kuwait and also plans to open
                                              The Movement Tracking System                                one in Balad, Iraq, offering unit move
  The current CIDD has sensors that           (MTS) tracks vehicle locations and                          and TOPS training for TC-AIMS II
  can monitor conditions inside the           gives commanders visibility of in-transit                   users. At the request of the 101st Airborne
  container. Once programmed and set,         assets. It links ground-level operators                     Division (Air Assault) and working with
  the CIDD will detect                                             with commanders                        the Rapid Equipping Force, PM TIS is
  any unauthorized                                                 and staff planners,                    also developing a new capability needed
  intrusion into the          In addition to its existing          providing the ability                  to track air movements.
  container and provide          field service engineers            to control transpor-
  a breach alert at the                                            tation movements                       As Army requirements evolve and tech-
                               in Iraq and Afghanistan,
  next RF identification                                            and mobile logistics                   nology advances, PEO EIS programs
  interrogator that                PM TIS is adding                elements from any-                     will continue to adapt to Soldiers’ needs
  reads the tag. That           a much-needed server               where in the world.                    with projects and products that help
  information is then                                              To date, PM MTS                        them achieve their missions, whatever
  sent to the RF-ITV                infrastructure to              teams have installed                   and wherever they are in the world.
  system, which will               support locations               more than 7,700
  automatically send an                                            systems in 7 forward
                                   throughout SWA.
  e-mail notification of                                            operating bases in                     JILL FINNIE works in the PEO EIS
  the breach to selected                                           Iraq. MTS currently                    Public Affairs Office and has more than
  personnel so that appropriate action        has 24 personnel deployed in Kuwait                         20 years’ experience in strategic comm-
  can be initiated.                           and Iraq who provide technical assis-                       unications working with government,
                                              tance and post installation support.                        business, and media organizations.
  PM J-AIT manages the RF-ITV                 Additionally, PM MTS is coordinating                        She holds a B.S. from James Madison
  system and worldwide infrastructure         to provide satellite coverage for opera-                    University in communications and
  that monitors and reports progress          tions in Afghanistan and is working                         English and is pursuing a master’s
  of these shipments and provides the         with the U.S. Army Central Command                          degree in humanities from American
  breach alert notifications. PM J-AIT         to establish the way ahead and identify                     Military University.

                                                                                                              JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009        21
               ARMY AL&T

                    Product Manager Defense
                    Wide Transmission Systems
                  (PM DWTS) Provides Multiple
                    Capabilities for Warfighters
                                                             Stephen Larsen

                                 n March 6, 2009, at the Armed Forces Communications
                                 and Electronics Association Belvoir Industry Days in
                                 National Harbor, MD, Gary Winkler, the U.S. Army’s
                       Program Executive Officer Enterprise Information Systems (EIS),
                       told an assembled audience of some 1,000 industry partners
                       that Program Executive Office (PEO) EIS had, as of that day, 722
                       personnel deployed to the war zones of Iraq and Afghanistan
                       —more personnel deployed than any other Army PEO.

A worker watches the digging for the grounding ring outside one of the transportable
shelters that make up the Army’s first-ever shelterized MCF at Camp Speicher.
PM DWTS followed that up with a second shelterized MCF at NKC. (U.S. Army
photo by Cory Hanes, PM DWTS contractor.)

        22     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                     ARMY AL&T

More than 300 of those deployed per-        Secret Internet Protocol Router Network    International Security Assistance Force
sonnel are from PM DWTS, part of the        (SIPRNET), video teleconferencing          Headquarters in Kabul, Afghanistan—
Team Defense Communications and             (VTC), and other services.                 completing both projects in 6 months.
Army Transmission Systems (DCATS)
Project Office. PM DWTS is more              Main Communications                        International Zone (IZ)
than a typical PM office. According to       Facility (MCF) and Technical               Support
LTC Clyde Richards, PM DWTS man-            Control Facility (TCF)                     PM DWTS has more than 200 per-
ages more than 50 critical warfighter        In 2007, in response to an urgent          sonnel, most of them deployed to
communications projects and products        warfighter requirement, PM DWTS             the IZ in Baghdad, Iraq, supporting
with a total annual executable budget of    provided the Army’s first-ever shelter-     Multi-National Forces-Iraq (MNF-
more than $500 million.                     ized MCF at Camp Speicher, Iraq,           I) and the U.S. Department of State.
                                            achieving initial operational capability   These personnel provide a total com-
“We manage diverse worldwide proj-          in less than 6 months. PM DWTS             mand, control, communications, and
ects that are direct and immediate          followed that up with a second shelter-    computers (C4) capability and ser-
enablers for combat units and support       ized MCF at New Kabul Compound             vices including installation, operation,
more than 50,000 warfighters, multi-         (NKC), Afghanistan.                        management, maintenance, network
national forces, and federal agencies in                                               operations, information assurance,
Iraq and Afghanistan,” said Richards.       “These shelterized MCFs are modular        communications security, and system
“These projects span the product areas      and portable. They can be moved to         administration for MNF-I and the
of terrestrial transmission systems, very   other locations by military airlift as     State Department.
small aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite    mission priorities shift, and they can
communications systems, fiber-optic          be implemented several months faster       “The best way to describe that mis-
networks, microwave networks, com-          than fixed facilities,” said Richards.      sion is that we’re like the DOIM
munications facilities, critical power      “Plus, they cost 60 percent less than      [Directorate of Information Manage-
infrastructure, and wireless networks.”     fixed MCFs, for which buildings must        ment] for the IZ,” said Richards.
                                            be constructed or renovated.” The suc-     “Whatever communications support
According to Richards, much of PM           cess of PM DWTS’ shelterized MCF           MNF-I and the State Department need
DWTS’ work is to bring the “Defense         solution is underscored by the fact that   to do business in the IZ, we provide it.”
Information Systems Network cloud”          the Army is making it the standard for
of voice, video, and data services to       all future MCF implementations in          An example of PM DWTS support
personnel fighting and supporting the        Iraq and Afghanistan.                      occurred when the U.S. Embassy at
overseas contingency operations. These                                                 Baghdad recently relocated from the
services include the Defense Switch         During the same time that PM DWTS          IZ Republican Palace into the new U.S.
Network (DSN), Voice-over Internet          provided the NKC MCF, they also            Embassy compound, to allow handover
Protocol (VoIP), Non-secure Internet        transformed an area distribution           of the IZ Republican Palace to the Iraqi
Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET),          node into a full-blown TCF at the          government. PM DWTS relocated a

                                                                                           JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009       23
                     ARMY AL&T

  TCF from the IZ Republican Palace                      high-speed, high-bandwidth system,          computed tomography (CT), magnetic
  to another location, providing voice,                  it allows MNF-I personnel to trans-         resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound,
  NIPRNET, and SIPRNET capabilities                      mit near-real-time data,” said Richards.    and computed radiography devices.
  to personnel in and around the Baghdad                 “CIMS is a good                                              “This upgrade allows
  area; installed a 500-kilovolt-ampere                  alternative in provid-                                       medical personnel
  uninterrupted power supply system at                   ing lower-cost and               We manage diverse           to send very large
  the new TCF; and installed commu-                      higher-speed connec-                                         medical files, such
                                                                                       worldwide projects that
  nications infrastructure for multiple                  tivity versus satellite                                      as CT scans, X-rays,
  buildings at the new embassy compound.                 connectivity.”                are direct and immedi-         and MRI films, back
                                                                                       ate enablers for combat        and forth and con-
  Central Iraq Microwave                                 Joint                                                        sult with specialists
  System (CIMS)                                          Telemedicine                  units and support more         to provide the best
  The TCF that PM DWTS relocated                         Network                      than 50,000 warfighters,         care possible for our
  from the IZ Republican Palace is part of               (JTMN)                                                       wounded warriors,”
                                                                                        multi-national forces,
  the CIMS, which PM DWTS provided                       The JTMN, a world-                                           said Richards.
  in 2005 and 2006. “CIMS provides                       wide, long-haul               and federal agencies in
  near-real-time point-to-point, point-                  IP-based telemedi-             Iraq and Afghanistan.         In the first opera-
  to-multipoint, and multipoint-to-                      cine network used                                            tional use of VTC
  multipoint data transmission services                  by medical personnel                                         capabilities provided
  with multiple layers of redundancy for                 providing care for warfighters in Iraq       by PM DWTS, the U.S. Army Surgeon
  MNF-I,” said Richards.                                 and Afghanistan, was also provided by       General conducted a 4.5-hour VTC
                                                         PM DWTS. The JTMN includes nine             with deployed medical elements in
  CIMS includes synchronous opti-                        VSATs that provide satellite connectiv-     Afghanistan.
  cal network communications links                       ity and brings VTC, NIPRNET, and
  across Iraq and provides OC-3 (155                     VoIP capabilities for medical personnel.    Joint Explosive Ordnance
  megabytes-per-second) bandwidth to                                                                      Disposal (JEOD) VSAT
  support warfighters’ critical C4 and                    According to Richards, the JTMN was              Network
  intelligence missions. CIMS allows                     recently upgraded to provide increased           PM DWTS established a VSAT
  MNF-I personnel to tap into services                   bandwidth to JTMN remote sites in                network, including more than 100
  including voice, VTC, NIPRNET,                         Iraq and Afghanistan to allow addi-              VSATs in remote locations, to provide
  SIPRNET, the Combined Enterprise                       tional voice and VTC capabilities,               satellite connectivity for U.S. Central
  Regional Information Exchange                          plus the ability to use MedWeb—an                Command JEOD operations in Iraq
  System, and the Joint Worldwide                        inpatient clinical system that allows the        and Afghanistan. The network brings
  Intelligence Communications System.                    collection of medical imaging data from          DSN, VoIP, NIPRNET, SIPRNET,
  “Because CIMS is a low-latency,                        diagnostic imaging devices, such as              and VTC to JEOD personnel. “We are
                                                                                                          also supporting CONUS JEOD train-
                                                                                                          ing sites with remote VSATs that are
                                                                                                          dispersed throughout the country and
                                                                                                          we’ve provided train-the-trainer train-
                                                                                                          ing to JEOD personnel,” said Richards.

                                                                                                          Communications System
                                                                                                          For the U.S. Army Materiel Command’s
                                                                                                          (AMC’s) Army Field Support Command
                                                                                                          (AFSC), PM DWTS provides the
                                                                                                          Multi-Media Communications System
                                                                                                          (MMCS) at numerous sites in Iraq
                                                                                                          and Afghanistan. MMCS is a modu-
                                                                                                          lar, rapidly deployable, mobile system
                                                                                                          that provides forward-deployed logis-
                                                                                                          tics elements with DSN, NIPRNET,
As LTC Clyde Richards, PM DWTS, inspects the MCF at Camp Speicher, Robert Griffiths, project leader
                                                                                                          SIPRNET, VoIP, and secure and non-
with General Dynamics C4 Systems, points out the facility’s features. (U.S. Army photo by Ernest Baker,   secure VTC services.
PM DWTS contractor.)

             24      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                     ARMY AL&T

“We previously deployed
MMCS to support Operation
Restore Democracy in Haiti,
Operation Joint Endeavor in
Bosnia, Operation Allied Force
in Kosovo, and even Hurricane
Katrina relief efforts in Louisiana
and Mississippi,” said Richards.
“MMCS is the system we send
when a site has absolutely nothing
in the way of communications.”

MMCS keeps AMC’s logisticians
deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan,
and Kuwait—including Logistics
Assistance Representatives (LARs),
Soldiers, Department of the Army
civilians, and contractors—con-
nected. “Without MMCS, AFSC              Embedded Training Team members in Afghanistan such as SGT Nick Brodaczynsky, shown here providing marks-
couldn’t support their LARs and          manship training to Afghan National Auxiliary Police recruits, can stay in touch from remote areas thanks to the
                                         communications infrastructure provided in Afghanistan by PM DWTS. (U.S. Navy photo by PO1 Scott Cohen,
Soldiers with the data they need         Combined Security Transition Command, Afghanistan.)
to order equipment and supplies,”
Richards said. “These logistics
personnel can stay connected with             NIPRNET access via satellite for the                   warfighters worldwide with an Army
e-mail, NIPRNET, SIPRNET, and                 CAISI network, connecting remote                       Acquisition Objective of 3,300. “We
telephone, and it’s all coming off the        users to one of four teleports located                 field CAISI and CSS VSATs to units
MMCS network.”                                strategically around the world.                        and their home stations, and at the
                                                                                                     same time, we provide New Equipment
Defense Contract                              “The CAISI and CSS VSAT tandem                         Training,” said Richards. “Those units
Management Agency                             saves Soldiers’ lives by eliminating the               then deploy with their CAISI and
(DCMA) VSAT Support                           ‘sneaker net’—the need for Soldiers to                 CSS VSAT systems as organic equip-
For DCMA, PM DWTS provides                    get in convoys and go in harm’s way                    ment.” Currently, PM DWTS is
satellite connectivity via VSATs              to place requisitions,” said Richards.                 supporting hundreds of CSS VSATs
that bring services including DSN,            “Now, Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan                 in Iraq and Afghanistan with deployed
NIPRNET, VoIP, and secure and non-            can stay inside the wire and securely                  technical personnel.
secure VTC to seven DCMA locations            transmit requisitions wirelessly.”
in Iraq and two in Afghanistan. The                                                                  What’s on tap for CAISI and CSS
DCMA VSAT system is Ku-band and               Recently, PM DWTS leveraged                            VSAT? “We’re exporting the CAISI and
includes connectivity to the DCMA             advanced technologies to refresh the                   CSS VSAT solutions to the medical,
Data Center in Boston, MA.                    legacy version, CAISI 1.1, with a                      biometrics, [Department of ] Homeland
                                              better, faster, and cheaper solution:                  Security, and personnel communities,
Logistics Systems That                        CAISI 2.0. “CAISI 2.0 doubled the                      and we’re increasing the bandwidth
Protect Soldiers                              throughput, increased the range from                   and the coverage to more areas of
PM DWTS provides two informa-                 3 miles to more than 35 miles, and                     Afghanistan,” Richards concluded.
tion technology systems that enhance          lowered the unit cost by 40 percent,”
the effectiveness of Combat Service           said Richards.
Support (CSS) Soldiers: the CSS                                                                      STEPHEN LARSEN is the Public
Automated Information Systems                 To date, PM DWTS has fielded                            Affairs Officer for Team DCATS. He
Interface (CAISI) and the CSS VSATs.          8,000 CAISI 2.0 modules to more                        holds a B.A. in American studies from
CAISI provides secure wireless network        than 100 Army units—2,000 of these                     the College of Staten Island of the City
connectivity for Soldiers’ Standard           ahead of the Army Resourcing Priority                  University of New York. Larsen has
Army Management Information                   List schedule—and has fielded more                      nearly 30 years’ experience in public
Systems and CSS VSAT provides                 than 2,000 CSS VSAT systems to                         affairs and video production.

                                                                                                          JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009            25
            ARMY AL&T

Technology Insertion and Sustainment for
 Army Tactical Satellite Communications
      —Three Decades of Success
                                                             Mark Fagotti

              n 1978, the Army awarded contracts for the first multichannel Tactical
              Satellite Communications Terminals (TACSATs) designed to provide critical
              reachback communications for deployed forces, allowing voice and data
         circuits to be extended from anywhere in the world using the Defense Satellite
         Communications System (DSCS). The DSCS consists of a constellation of geo-
         synchronous satellites orbiting the Earth at 22,500 miles above the surface.
         These satellites act as transponders, in the simplest sense, reflecting signals
         from deployed forces back to a terrestrial access point. From 1978 to present
         day, the demand for satellite communications has expanded exponentially to
         the point where thousands of satellite terminals and dozens of constellations
         exist around the world.

The DSCS consists of a constellation of geosynchronous satellites, one of which is depicted here,
orbiting the Earth at 22,500 miles above the surface. (Image courtesy of Lockheed Martin.)

    26      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                   ARMY AL&T

  The first large-scale, multichannel,                 accomplished through a partner-                 existing electronics. However, sustain-
  high-data rate TACSATs procured by                  ship between Tobyhanna Army Depot               ment also implies technology insertion.
  the Army were designated as the AN/                 (TYAD), Tobyhanna, PA, and the U.S.             Communications-electronics technol-
  TSC-93 and AN/TSC-85. Under the                     Army Communications-Electronics                 ogy is evolving at a rapid pace in today’s
  first production contract, these termi-              Command                                                             world, and sustain-
  nals were capable of providing circuit              (CECOM) Life                                                        ing older electronics
                                                                                        From 1978 to present
  extension for voice and data com-                   Cycle Management                                                    becomes more costly
  munications. Since that time, these                 Command (LCMC),                    day, the demand for              every year. Cost/
  terminals have undergone four major                 Fort Monmouth, NJ.              satellite communications            capability tradeoff
  upgrades designated as the A, B, C, and             The D model upgrade                                                 analyses inevitably
  D models. These terminals are still used            was accomplished                 has expanded exponen-              reveal that inserting
  by the Army 31 years after they were                via Modification                 tially to the point where           new technology costs
  procured, and they still provide the                Work Order, and was                                                 less than sustaining
                                                                                        thousands of satellite
  same mission-delivering, high-data rate             termed the TACSAT                                                   older technology.
  critical communications for worldwide               Service Life Extension            terminals and dozens              Not only does tech-
  deployed forces.                                    Program (SLEP).                   of constellations exist           nology insertion
                                                      Under the SLEP con-                                                 reduce sustainment
   Technology Insertion                               cept, these terminals               around the world.               costs, but it also pro-
   Versus Sustainment                                 were upgraded using                                                 vides the Soldier with
   The most recent upgrade to the AN/                 insertion of state-of-the-art technology.       enhanced capabilities not available from
   TSC-93 and AN/TSC-85 TACSATs                       This “technology insertion” concept             the older, legacy electronics. This pro-
   was the D model upgrade. This was                  takes advantage of product develop-             cess implies an upgrade, but in today’s
                                                                      ments in the private            technological world, there is a gray area
                                                                      sector and allows the           between sustainment and upgrade.
                                                                      Army to benefit from
                                                                      investments made by            COTS Versus GOTS
                                                                      commercial industry.           The AN/TSC-93 and AN/TSC-85
                                                                      Technology insertion           TACSAT SLEP uses the commercial-
                                                                      saves the Army millions        off-the-shelf (COTS) and government-
                                                                      of dollars annually, since     off-the-shelf (GOTS) approaches to
                                                                      procuring new systems is       provide for the sustainment and upgrade
                                                                      usually more costly than       of these older legacy systems. The
                                                                      upgrading older ones.          TACSAT SLEP upgraded 178 Army
                                                                      The technology insertion       terminals to D models from 2004 to
                                                                      process is also usually        2008, as well as 19 terminals for the
                                                                      accomplished in a much         U.S. Marine Corps, resulting in better
                                                                      shorter time frame than        reliability, upgraded capability, and
                                                                      procurement of new sys-        lower sustainment costs.
                                                                      tems, allowing the Army
                                                                      to field new technology         COTS implies electronic products that
                                                                      to Soldiers faster.            are currently available from the pri-
                                                                                                     vate sector and fully meet the Army’s
                                                                      Nearly everyone in the         requirements. GOTS refers to products
                                                                      Army military and civil-       that are readily available from govern-
                                                                      ian world is familiar with     ment organizations such as the Army,
                                                                      the term “sustainment.”        and are COTS products that are usu-
                                                                      But what does sustain-         ally modified by the government in
                                                                      ment really mean? In           some way. The term “modified COTS”
                                                                      the traditional sense,         means the same thing as GOTS in the
                                                                      sustainment of com-            TACSAT arena. Typically, the Army
                                                                      munications electronics        contracts a private manufacturer to
SSG Guy Fuhrman shows PFC Joshua Smith the operation of the
orderwire in an AN/TSC-85D TACSAT at Camp Victory, Iraq. (Photo       systems includes repair-       modify its standard commercial prod-
by Donald W. Mumma, CECOM Senior Command Representative,              ing and refurbishing           uct to meet specific requirements.
U.S. Army Sustainment Command Headquarters.)

                                                                                                         JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009        27
                     ARMY AL&T

                                     PM WIN-T                           New System                            Soldier

                                                    Procure System                         Field

                                                 Sustain                                             Repair

                                                            Procurement of a new TACSAT

                   CECOM LCMC                                                                                              Soldier

                                     Procure                                     Upgrade                         Field


                                       Sustain                                                       Repair

                                                           Upgrade of an existing TACSAT

  These products are then purchased,                       continue to be upgraded and sustained,       undergo more upgrades, and new high-
  stocked, and issued to the Soldier.                      and the fielding of new systems is            capacity communications capability
                                                           always on the horizon. For example,          systems are in procurement.
  Procurement of New                                       the AN/TSC-93 and AN/TSC-85
  Systems Versus Upgrade                                   terminals were upgraded to a D               In summary, the Army’s balance be-
  of Existing Systems                                      model during the same time frame             tween the upgrade of existing TACSATs
  The procurement of new TACSAT                            that the Program Manager Warfighter           and the procurement of new systems
  systems and the upgrade of existing                      Information Network-Tactical (PM             has been working well for our Soldiers
  TACSATs are held in balance by the                       WIN-T) procured the new AN/TSC-              for more than 3 decades. The Army is
  Army. The older legacy terminals                         156 Phoenix TACSAT. Both of these            “keeping the TACSAT tradition alive”
                                                                          programs serve the Army       by diversification of satellite commu-
                                                                          equally well, ensuring        nications assets, therefore maintaining
                                                                          that our Soldiers have        reliability, upgrading capability, and
                                                                          the newest, most capable      reducing sustainment costs for
                                                                          technology needed to win      our Soldiers.
                                                                          the information war.

                                                                         In 2009, the Army              MARK FAGOTTI is an electronics
                                                                         has authorized more            engineer at TYAD. He holds a B.S. in
                                                                         upgrades of existing           electrical engineering and an M. Eng.
                                                                         TACSATs as well as the         in engineering science from Penn-
                                                                         procurement of new             sylvania State University. He is Level II
                                                                         systems. The AN/TSC-           certified in systems planning, research,
John Morelli, a lead electronics technician in the Satellite Communi-    93, AN/TSC-85, and             development, and engineering and is a
cations Systems Directorate’s Engineering Design and Development
Division, inspects a component of an AN/TSC-85C-Plus Enhanced
                                                                         AN/TSC-156 terminals           U.S. Army Acquisition Corps member.
Tactical Satellite Signal Processor prototype at TYAD. (Photo by         have been authorized to
Anthony J. Ricchiazzi.)

              28     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                               ARMY AL&T

                           The TOW Missile—
                           Precise and Powerful
                        Bill Ruta and C.L. “Claude” Higginbotham

“If there’s one weapon the insurgents don’t want to face in this fight, it is the
Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided [TOW] antitank missile launcher.
Accurate, powerful, and deadly, it is the biggest weapon in our platoon’s arsenal.
Some say the big wire-guided missile went out of fashion after we stopped
confronting enemies with heavy mechanized armor. I say otherwise: when it
comes to urban fighting, a TOW is a gift from the Pentagon gods.”

                     —House to House by SSG David Bellavia, 2nd Battalion (Bn),
                      2nd Infantry Regiment, regarding his time in Fallujah, Iraq,
                      with his Bradley Infantry squad.

A Soldier from Delta Co., 2nd Bn, 27th Infantry Regiment, 3rd BCT, 25th Infantry Division, assembles the ITAS TOW missile system
in Riyadh, Iraq. (U.S. Air Force photo by TSgt Maria J. Bare.)

                                                                                                    JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009            29
                    ARMY AL&T

  Since 1970, more than 650,000 TOW            TOW is a relatively simple weapon and                     Army Space and Missile Defense
  missiles have been produced. In the          very reliable. It is also relatively inex-                Command, numerous program
  last 5 years of per-                                              pensive compared to                  executive offices (PEOs), and major
  sistent conflict, the                                              many missile systems.                components of the Defense Intelligence
  U.S. Army and                    TOW is the world’s               This combination of                  Agency and the Missile Defense
  U.S. Marine Corps                premier heavy anti-              reliability, effective-              Agency, to study the technical feasi-
  (USMC) have fired                                                  ness, and affordability              bility of the emerging heavy antitank/
  almost 9,500 TOW
                                    armor and assault               has made it a success-               assault weapon system requirements
  missiles. While there              weapon system,                 ful weapon system                    for the Army. In 1964, the first TOW
  have been many                   consisting of crew-              overall. Continuing                  Project Management Office (PMO)
  weapon systems                                                    TOW enhancements                     was established at Redstone. The first
  developed and pro-                portable ground,                provide an afford-                   TOW missile was fielded in 1970.
  duced over the last 4          vehicle-mounted, and               able path to the
  to 5 decades, TOW                                                 future of U.S. preci-                For almost 45 years, Redstone’s TOW
  remains an extremely                                              sion close combat                    PMO and its successors have been
  effective weapon sys-          launcher variants, and             weapons. Almost 5                    responsible for managing TOW devel-
  tem, especially given            10 missile versions.             decades after it was                 opment, production, and sustainment
  today’s enemy in Iraq                                             first fielded, TOW is                  contracts. Today, the Close Combat
  and Afghanistan.                                                  thriving and remains                 Weapons System (CCWS) Project
  Even with its originally intended anti-      one of the most effective and most used                   Office, part of PEO Missiles and Space
  tank purpose, TOW’s precision and            weapon systems by the U.S. military.                      (M&S), is responsible for the Javelin
  effectiveness with minimum collateral                                                                  and TOW weapon systems.
  damage make it particularly suitable for     Redstone’s Role
  the nontank targets of the current the-      In 1958, a small group met at Redstone                    TOW’s Evolution
  ater environment.                            Arsenal, AL, home to the U.S. Army                        TOW is the world’s premier heavy
                                               Aviation and Missile Command, U.S.                        anti-armor and assault weapon system,

USMC Cpl Joshua Logsdon, Battle Landing Team 22, Combined Anti-Armor Team, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit, looks through a sight on a TOW missile mounted
on top of a HMMWV during a vehicle and weapons static display at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti. The M220A4 TOW launcher is being replaced with ITAS in both the
Army and USMC. (U.S. Air Force photo by A1C Bryan Boyette.)

             30     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                         ARMY AL&T

consisting of crew-portable ground,           and power line restrictions, enhanced         makes it possible to direct other
vehicle-mounted, and helicopter-              combined arms applications in urban           weapon system fires and to call in close
mounted launcher variants, and 10             environments, and greater environmen-         air support (CAS) or indirect artillery
missile versions.                                                 tal compliance under      fires. The ITAS FTL was introduced
TOW can effec-                                                    training conditions       into OEF in May 2008 with Destiny
tively employ in all                                              (no recovery of guid-     Co., 2nd Bn, 503rd Infantry (Airborne
                                 The ITAS, IBAS, and
weather conditions                                                ance wires needed).       (AB)), 173rd AB Brigade Combat
to engage tanks,                 MITAS have played a              The removal of the        Team (BCT), who employed it with
armored and non-              leading role by providing           wire link hardware        great success.
armored vehicles, and                                             also creates volume
various point targets            precision assault and            within the airframe       Weapon of Choice
such as bunkers and             antitank fires in OEF/             that facilitates future   TOW is used primarily against machine
crew-served weapons.                                              technology insertion.     gun and mortar positions, snipers,
                                    OIF since 2003.
TOW is most often                                                                           rocket-propelled grenade teams, com-
used mounted on                                                   The Improved Target       mand and control elements, field
vehicles including the                                            Acquisition System        fighting positions, caves, and enemy
High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled            (ITAS), the latest fire control system for     ambush positions in buildings. In OEF,
Vehicle (HMMWV), Bradley Fighting             the TOW, has integrated optical and           the Anti-Afghan Forces (AAF) estab-
Vehicle, Stryker Antitank Guided              second-generation, forward-looking            lished positions high in the mountains
Missile (ATGM) Vehicle, USMC’s                infrared sights and an eye-safe laser         in very rugged terrain that is extremely
Light Armored Vehicle-Antitank and            range finder (LRF). It is capable of fir-       difficult for U.S. and allied forces to
Cobra helicopter, and many foreign            ing all versions of TOW missiles and          maneuver against; it is also out of range
vehicles. Its successful evolution has        can be employed                                                of most small arms.
seen many improvements, each adding           mounted on the                                                 AAF then proceeded to
to the capabilities of the Soldier. (See      HMMWV or                                                       engage, inflict maxi-
TOW Evolution sidebar on Page 33.)            dismounted on a               TOW is used primarily            mum damage, and
                                              tripod. Equivalent          against machine gun and            withdraw before CAS
Current and Future TOWs                       capabilities are                                               or indirect artillery
                                                                          mortar positions, snipers,
Current TOW missile improvements              integrated into the                                            fires could be achieved,
include a bunker buster (BB) variant and      Bradley A3 vehicle          rocket-propelled grenade           giving U.S. and allied
replacement of the obsolete wire guid-        with the Improved              teams, command and              troops only a 3- to
ance link with one that operates via          Bradley Acquisition                                            5-minute window in
radio frequency (RF). The TOW BB,             Subsystem (IBAS)               control elements, field          which to find, fix, and
which is just entering the Army and           and the Stryker              fighting positions, caves,         destroy the enemy.
USMC inventories, is optimized for            ATGM Vehicle
                                                                               and enemy ambush
precision assault capability and features     with its modified                                               TOW ITAS solves this
a blast fragmentation warhead that can        ITAS (MITAS).                  positions in buildings.         problem by providing
punch through an 8-inch thick, double-        The ITAS, IBAS,                                                a long-range, precision
reinforced concrete wall from ranges up       and MITAS have                                                 weapon that is organic
to 3,750 meters. The RF guidance link         played a leading role by providing            to the wheeled assault platoon of the
is in production with deliveries begin-       precision assault and antitank fires in        Interim BCT. Its ability to quickly
ning in FY10. The RF transmitter is part      Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom         engage during that brief time frame is
of the missile case with an RF receiver       (OEF/OIF ) since 2003.                        especially important in Afghanistan,
integrated into the missile’s aft section.                                                  since CAS and artillery fires are often
TOW missiles with the RF guidance             The latest upgrade to ITAS incorpo-           not available because of the extensive
link are compatible with existing             rates a global positioning satellite-based    geographic terrain that forces are trying
launchers and stowage racks without           position attitude determination subsys-       to control there.
any hardware or software modifications.        tem (PADS). PADS, when used with
                                              the LRF, provides a far target location       TOW in the Field
While the unavailability of wire drove        (FTL) capability that provides gunners        TOW gunners are trained on a basic
the development of TOW RF, modest             with precise 10-digit grid coordinates        skills simulator to establish and main-
inherent improvements were achieved,          for their own position and for the            tain gunner proficiency. The Redstone
including the elimination of overwater        selected target. The new capability           CCWS Project Office conducts training

                                                                                               JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009       31
                     ARMY AL&T

ITAS brings long-range, lethal, anti-armor and precision assault fire capabilities to Soldiers by doubling target acquisition ranges and maximum range engagements
with TOW missiles, thus significantly enhancing system lethality and Soldier survivability. (U.S. Army photo by Perry Taylor, CCWS Project Office.)

  at unit locations in the field upon deliv-       easily identifiable—farmers and fighters                       forces there have a tremendous nonlethal
  ery of new TOW equipment. They                  looked similar within the population.                        mission, including collaborating with
  also retrain gunners and new personnel          TOW allowed positive identification                           and training Afghan police, facilitating
  concurrent with equipment reset that            (PID) of the enemy beyond the range                          a weapons turn-in program, providing
  returns from Iraq or Afghanistan.               of their heavy weapons. Using the ITAS                       humanitarian assistance, refurbishing
                                                                    was the only solution                      mosques, conducting ceremonies,
  TOW’s successes in                                                for Destiny Co. to                         providing care and support to the pop-
  OEF were recounted                    The Army’s current          PID and engage prior                       ulation’s children, and much more.
  firsthand by the                       combat strategy is          to being shot at.
  173rd AB BCT at the                                                                                          With TOW’s proven success in winning
                                    built around the
  Infantry Warfighting                                               “It’s the fastest, most                    the fight, insurgent communications
  Conference in                    concept of a light,              effective weapon                           were overheard referring to TOW as the
  Columbus, GA, in               lethal, and deployable             system on the battle-                      “Finger of God” because of its deadly
  September 2008.                                                   field,” recounts CPT                        precision and effectiveness on target.
  In their assigned
                                 force that relies solidly          Josh Harrison, 173rd                       When villagers heard this, they gained
  area, the terrain was           on a family of sensors            AB BCT. “It allows                         confidence in U.S. troops and tended
  remote, rugged,               and precision weapons.              you to PID, engage,                        to cooperate with them more, making
  and austere, making                                               and destroy the                            the mission of the 173rd AB BCT
  maneuverability very                                              enemy at range with                        perhaps a bit easier.
  difficult. They faced many challenges          zero collateral damage and immediately
  in accomplishing both their lethal            conduct battle damage assessment. And                          The 173rd AB BCT made many TOW
  and nonlethal missions. TOW proved            TOW has serious psychological effects                          modifications in the field to adapt to
  invaluable to both of these efforts.          on the enemy in addition to its devas-                         the unique fight in Afghanistan, and
                                                tating lethality.”                                             has provided the Army with significant
  With attacks numbering no less than                                                                          input. Some of these modifications
  four times per day in a 1-month period,       The fight in Afghanistan is more than                           include custom turret mounts on vehi-
  TOW was indispensable. The enemy              a kinetic or lethal fight; it is also about                     cles such as up-armored HMMWVs
  was on high ground at all times and not       connecting with the population. U.S.                           and ground-mounted pedestals in

             32      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                  ARMY AL&T

fortified positions that allow for 360-     BILL RUTA is the Project Manager          C.L. “CLAUDE” HIGGINBOTHAM
degree operation for extended periods.     CCWS, PEO M&S. He holds a B.S.            is the TOW Weapon Systems Product
                                           in mechanical engineering from the        Director, CCWS, PEO M&S. He
The Army’s current combat strategy         University of Tennessee at Chattanooga    holds a B.A. in music education from
is built around the concept of a light,    and an M.S. in systems engineer-          Texas A&M University-Commerce and
lethal, and deployable force that relies   ing from the University of Alabama        an M.S. in contract management from
solidly on a family of sensors and pre-    at Huntsville, and is a graduate of the   the Florida Institute of Technology. His
cision weapons. Within this context,       Defense Acquisition University Senior     military education includes the Infantry
the TOW weapon systems of today,           Service College Fellowship Program.       Officer Basic Course, Air Defense
together with forthcoming enhance-         Ruta is Level III certified in program     Officer Basic and Advanced Courses,
ments, will provide the speed, range,      management and systems planning,          and Ordnance Officer Advanced
precision, and improved lethality and      research, development, and engineer-      Course. Higginbotham is Level III
survivability needed in the field now       ing and is an Army Acquisition Corps      certified in program management and
and far into our military’s future.        (AAC) member.                             is an AAC member.

                                            TOW Evolution

 1962 to 1972—Original                     1991—TOW 2B                               2004—TOW 2B Aero
 Basic TOW                                 • “Fly-over and shoot-down”               • Increased maximum range to
 • 3,000-meter range.                        missile, two explosively                  4.5 km by adding wire and
 • First American-made guided                formed penetrator warheads.               aerodynamic nose.
   missile fired in combat by U.S.          • Defeats advanced armor.
   Soldiers in May 1972 at Kontum,         • Dual-mode sensor, new                   2006—TOW 2B RF
   South Vietnam.                            armament section equipped               • Army contracted production of
                                             with two warheads.                        new wireless TOW 2B RF missile.
 1978—Extended Range TOW                   • Complementary weapon to                 • More than 17,000 TOW missiles
 • Increased maximum range to                TOW 2A.                                   with RF guidance link have been
   3,750 meters.                                                                       placed on contract for U.S. Army,
                                           1992—ITAS                                   USMC, and allied nations.
 1981—Improved TOW                         • Improved target detection,
 • Added extendable probe,                   recognition, and engagement.            2008—Introduction of ITAS
   improved armor penetration.             • Integrated second-generation            with FTL capability
                                             imaging forward-looking infrared        • Four ITAS-FTL fielded to 173rd
 1983—TOW 2                                  with the optical sight, laser             Infantry AB BCT in Afghanistan.
 • Full caliber warhead, extendable          rangefinder, automatic tracking.         • Four ITAS-FTL fielded to border
   probe.                                                                              patrol to support homeland
 • Redesigned flight motor,                 2003—TOW BB                                 defense.
   30 percent greater impulse.             • Bunker defeat capability,               • FY08 3rd quarter—official
 • Improved launcher guidance link.          breaches 8-inch double rein-              fielding of ITAS-FTL to Army
                                             forced masonry.                           and USMC units begins.
 1987—TOW 2A                               • 500 TOW BB missiles deployed
 • Counters armor threat by                  in support of Stryker BCTs in OIF.
   Explosive Reactive Armor.               • Available to all BCTs in 2009.
 • Uses tandem warhead armament            • TOW’s sole source wire vendor
   system.                                   exits market.
 • Used in Iraq assault that killed
   Uday and Qusay Hussein,
   July 2003.

                                                                                         JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009     33
       ARMY AL&T

        UAVs Thrive With PEO IEW&S
           Payloads, Ground Assets
                                                  Brandon Pollachek

                               s Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have become
                               increasingly more important to military operations,
                               so, too, has the role that the Program Executive Office
                      Intelligence, Electronic Warfare, and Sensors (PEO IEW&S)
                      plays in supporting the U.S. military’s eyes in the sky.

     The Fire Scout will carry the TSP as well as STARLite, which will provide the future system with SAR/GMTI. (Photo courtesy of PM FCS.)

34     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                        ARMY AL&T

                                                                                                           Warrior Block 1 and the Fire Scout Class
                                                                                                           IV Future Combat Systems (FCS). These
                                                                                                           payloads offer two important capabili-
                                                                                                           ties to our warfighting decision makers.

                                                                                                           In the GMTI mode, “the radar senses
                                                                                                           and tracks moving targets on the
                                                                                                           ground,” said LTC Terrence Howard,
                                                                                                           PdM RUS. As an example, he explained
                                                                                                           that, “If you have a series of vehicles
                                                                                                           on the ground, [GMTI] tracks the
                                                                                                           movement of those targets. Although
                                                                                                           you cannot positively identify those
                                                                                                           moving targets, this capability allows
                                                                                                           for situational awareness [SA] of move-
                                                                                                           ment that might be of importance to
                                                                                                           operations. These systems are especially
                                                                                                           important on poor visibility days when
                                                                                                           camera technology does not work as well.”
The CSP and STARLite will provide the Sky Warrior with a broad spectrum of coverage, allowing the system
to be an all-in-one tool for conducting ISR missions. (Photo courtesy of PEO Aviation.)
                                                                                                    Assisting GMTI in providing an iden-
                                                                                                    tification of a target is the responsibility
  PEO IEW&S develops, fields, and                       PEO is producing to complement the           of the SAR portion of the payload.
  sustains numerous systems that play a                bevy of options available for UASs.          “Think of SAR as a single map devel-
  vital role in UAS operations. The PEO,                                                            oped from smaller strip pictures,”
  headquartered at Fort Monmouth,                      SAR/GMTI and EO/IR/LD                        explained Howard. “SAR takes a pic-
  NJ, is responsible for systems that are              Providing the warfighter with a view          ture of a strip of land and the next
  involved in the full cycle of UAS mis-               of the operational                                                strip of land and then
  sions. Through its various program                   environment and an                                                the next strip of land,
  managers (PMs), PEO IEW&S touches                    ability to neutralize a           TSP will provide                tying those strips
  multiple facets of the UAS world—                    threat with UASs is                                               together to provide a
  from payloads to systems—that make                   a fundamental por-              the warfighter with                2-D map of the area
  sensor information and imagery avail-                tion of the systems            enhanced SA, emitter               of interest. If there is
  able for analysts who can, in turn,                  provided by Product               mapping, target                 a tank or a truck or
  package information for the command-                 Manager Robotics                                                  something in those
  ers who are responsible for cueing an                and Unmanned                     identification, and               strips, the analysis
  aircraft for additional missions.                    Sensors (PdM RUS).             electronic intelligence            can detect that.”
                                                       SAR/GMTI and EO/
                                                                                        preparation of the
  The PEO’s involvement in UASs                        IR/LD are payloads                                                The payload has the
  includes both airborne and ground-                   found on current                     battlefield.                  flexibility to switch
  based systems. Ground-based systems                  UASs with plans to                                                back and forth dur-
  that are currently fielded to the                     be incorporated on to                                             ing a mission between
  warfighter include the Distributed                    the future Fire Scout, which                 the two capabilities depending on the
  Common Ground System-Army                            RUS manages.                                 information needed. The combination
  (DCGS-A) and the Base Expeditionary                                                               of STARLite, Lynx I, and another RUS
  Targeting and Surveillance Systems-                  Currently housed on the Warrior Alpha        payload—EO/IR/LD—allows the UAS
  Combined (BETSS-C). The Tactical                     is the Lynx I, a SAR/GMTI payload            to be an all-in-one tool for conducting
  Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) Payload                 supporting current operations to sat-        intelligence, surveillance, and recon-
  (TSP), Electro-Optic/Infrared/Laser                  isfy a quick-reaction response for our       naissance (ISR) missions.
  Designator (EO/IR/LD), and the                       warfighters. STARLite, the SAR/GMTI
  Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground                      program of record (POR) production           The Common Sensor Payload (CSP),
  Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI)                   system, will be integrated and fielded        the next version of EO/IR/LD, is the
  represent aerial-based systems that the              in all 10 Army divisions with the Sky        primary payload for all Army UAVs.

                                                                                                               JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009      35
               ARMY AL&T

“Typically, you are going to cue an          “TSP will provide the warfighter with         DCGS-A
EO/IR because you can’t fire on any-          enhanced SA, emitter mapping, target         Analyzing and making use of the various
thing without positive identification,”       identification, and electronic intel-         types of information that SAR/GMTI,
said Howard. The EO portion provides         ligence preparation of the battlefield.       EO/IR/LD, TSP, and BETSS-C cur-
a picture of the area being surveyed         Our big thing is emitter mapping, but        rently provide or will provide in the
by a UAS and the LD gives the UAV            TSP provides so much more. It is more        future falls into the world of DCGS-A.
the ability to point at a target for the     than just a map; it’s all the identifica-     “All roads lead to DCGS,” said LTC
direction of weapons. “Every [UAS]           tion behind the signals it is collecting.”   Daniel Cunningham, PdM ISR/RSTA
mission is an EO/IR/LD because not                                                        Operations DCGS-A. DCGS-A is the
only does CSP provide them with the          TSP locates emitters on the battlefield       Army’s ground portion of the Joint
contents for the reconnaissance piece, it    and provides that data to a map so that      Intelligence Enterprise, unifying the
also provides a targeting element that is    a warfighter or commander can see             collection, processing, analysis extrac
reconnaissance, surveillance, and target     where these emitters are on the battle-      tion, query, and visualization capabil-
acquisition [RSTA],” noted Howard.           field. “Putting SIGINT on UASs is             ities for tactical environments. This
                                             going to be a big step forward for the       unification is accomplished by fusing
CSP offers a broad spectrum of cover-        Army in terms of adding to the collec-       the technology of nine existing intel-
age for commanders and analysts              tion and data information that decision      ligence systems into one net-centric
with options that include color and          makers can get right now,” added             enterprise capability.
black and white TV, image intensified         Schwartz.
TV, and midwave forward-looking                                                           DCGS-A users receive UAS data from
infrared sensors. The CSP and                BETSS-C                                      other DCGS systems in the enterprise
STARLite have both been accepted             Another capability that PEO IEW&S            via metadata. The system can receive
for the Sky Warrior and will replace         provides to warfighters is the BETSS-C        UAS data using tactical communica-
the Lynx II and EO/IR/LD.                    system. Managed by PM NightVision/           tions. Version 4 of the system will
                                             RSTA, BETSS-C is currently being             have access to FMV and other direct
TSP                                                             fielded to units in        sensor feeds.
Another capability in                                           the field. The goal
great demand from            DCGS-A is the Army’s               of BETSS-C is to          Images or signals relayed from a UAS
the field is SIGINT.                                             rapidly provide the       are available to DCGS-A analysts in
                                ground portion of
The TSP payload,                                                warfighter with a          near-real-time—“essentially as fast as
which is slated to             the Joint Intelligence           flexible, mobile,          the sensor can send the data to the
reside on the Sky            Enterprise, unifying the           adjustable, scalable,     ground receiver,” said Cunningham.
Warrior UAS, will                                               and expeditionary         As new payloads are incorporated on
offer an amplified
                              collection, processing,           surveillance sys-         future UASs such as TSP and EO/IR,
amount of SIGINT                analysis extraction,            tem or integrated         DCGS-A should not be required to
coverage to the field.        query, and visualization           system-of-systems         add new sensor processing capabilities
Complementing the                                               for standoff surveil-     unless the UAS is carrying a new and
existing SIGINT               capabilities for tactical         lance and persistent      unique sensor.
assets currently avail-           environments.                 ground-targeting
able, this POR,                                                 capability and force-     PEO IEW&S will continue to provide
which used to be a                                              protection operations.    proactive support to meet the chal-
part of PdM Prophet, is managed by                                                        lenges and demands from the UAS
PM Aerial Common Sensors.                    BETSS-C serves as a sensor data man-         community as America’s eyes in the sky
                                             agement architecture that provides           continue to evolve.
Regarding the history of the program,        information to the intelligence and
Mike Schwartz, Assistant PdM TSP,            operations communities. With respect
said, “We were on the MH-60 Black            to DCGS-A and UASs, BETSS-C will             BRANDON POLLACHEK is the
Hawk helicopter and then we went             provide another path for full-motion         PEO IEW&S Public Affairs Officer at
to the Hunter/Fire Scout and now we          video (FMV)/imagery ingestion from           Fort Monmouth. He holds a B.S. in
have a requirement for the Extended          UASs into the DCGS-A, with further           political science from Cazenovia College
Range Multipurpose UAS as that is            FMV/imagery availability for other           and has more than 9 years’ experience
becoming the new UAS of choice               intelligence platforms.                      in writing about military systems.
for the Army.” Schwartz continued,

         36    JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                             ARMY AL&T

                         Javelin Close Combat Missile
                           System (CCMS) Provides
                        Unparalleled Defeat Capabilities
                                                                   Steven Whitmore

                              nitially designed as an anti-armor missile, the Javelin has proved to be
                              extremely effective for today’s unconventional warfare and is actively
                              defeating not only armored threats, but also other vehicles, fortifications,
                         and urban targets in theater. Employed at the infantry company level in all
                         U.S. Army brigade combat teams (BCTs), Javelin is playing a prominent role
                         in both Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF ).

Two U.S. Marines with the 2nd Battalion (Bn), 6th Marines, fire
a Javelin missile on Blair Airfield, Al Kut, Iraq. (USMC photo by
SGT Mauricio Campino.)

                                                                                     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009   37
                ARMY AL&T

“Javelin is ideal for infantry Soldiers,”      a direct-attack mode for use in urban                Instruments (now Raytheon Missile
said LTC Erik Simonson, Deputy                 terrain against buildings or fortifica-               Systems) of Dallas, TX, and Lockheed
Product Director Javelin Missile               tions. The Javelin’s fire-and-forget                  Martin Electronics and Missiles (now
System, Close Combat Weapon                    guidance enables the gunner to fire and               Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire
Systems (CCWS), Program Executive              then immediately take cover, greatly                 Control) of Orlando, FL. The CCWS
Office Missiles and Space (PEO MS).             increasing survivability. Additionally,              Project Office, part of PEO MS at
“They can reach out and touch the              Javelin’s soft launch reduces the visual             Redstone Arsenal, AL, is responsible
enemy faster and farther than the              and acoustic signature of the missile,               for the Javelin Missile System and
enemy can touch them without the               making it difficult for the enemy to                  its life-cycle management. In 1994,
need to wait for close air support.”           identify and locate the gunner. The lim-             low-rate initial production of Javelin
                                               ited back blast also enables gunners to              was authorized, and in 1996, the first
The warfighters agree. “The Javelin             safely fire from enclosures and covered               Javelins were deployed with U.S. Army
missile was an invaluable weapon in            fighting positions.                                   units. Full-rate production began in
defeating enemy armored forces and                                                                  May 1997.
reinforced positions to include bun-           A man-portable system, Javelin is the
kers, buildings, and revetments. There         only CCMS that can be operated pri-                  More than 25,000 missiles and 6,600
is no other weapon that can support            marily in a dismounted role. At less                 CLUs have been sold to the U.S. Army,
dismounted infantry in fighting against         than 50 pounds, Javelin is designed to               USMC, and international customers.
these types of engagements,” reads the         take the fight to the enemy and give                  Javelin has been selected by the armed
after action report of the 3rd Infantry        dismounted Soldiers the ability to deal              forces of 11 allied nations: the United
Division (Div.) (Mechanized) following         with a host of unexpected threats. Its               Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand,
the 2003 invasion of Iraq.                     imposing lethality, high reliability, and            Ireland, Norway, Lithuania, the Czech
                                               small logistics tail make Javelin ideally            Republic, Taiwan, Jordan, United Arab
Javelin is the first “fire-and-forget”           suited to rapid deployment.                          Emirates, and the Sultan of Oman.
shoulder-launched, anti-tank missile                                                                Another six nations are currently con-
fielded to the Army and U.S. Marine             Modern History                                       sidering the Javelin system.
Corps (USMC). Replacing the wire-              In 1989, the U.S. Army Aviation and
guided Dragon missile system, Javelin          Missile Command awarded a contract                   Production of the Block I missile
consists of a missile in a disposable          to the Javelin Joint Venture (JJV) for               upgrade began in 2006, with success-
launch tube and a reusable Command             the development of Javelin as a replace-             ful qualification firings taking place
Launch Unit (CLU) that houses the              ment for the M47 Dragon antitank                     in January 2007. The Block I missile
day sight, night vision sight, and con-        missile. The JJV was formed by Texas                 upgrade features an improved rocket
trols. The CLU allows for battlefield
surveillance, target acquisition, missile
launch, and battle damage assessment.
Training is supported by three compo-
nents that are fielded with the system:
the Missile Simulation Round, Field
Tactical Trainer, and Basic Skills Trainer.

The Javelin Basic Skills Trainer provides
training in field surveillance, target locat-
ing and acquisition, and fire mission
control in the classroom, garrison, or
aboard ship. It features preprogrammed
training scenarios that are available
through a color liquid crystal display
embedded in the simulated CLU.
Operational switches and controls per-
form exactly like the actual equipment.

Javelin offers a top-attack flight mode         LCpl Ray Alvarado, a vehicle commander assigned to Weapons Co., Task Force 2nd Bn, 7th Marine Regiment,
to defeat armored vehicles, as well as         1st Marine Div., fires a Javelin missile at enemy targets during an assault on a Taliban-held compound in
                                               Now Zad, Helmand, Afghanistan, in August 2008. (USMC photo by LCpl Gene Allen Ainsworth III.)

         38     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                                  ARMY AL&T

A British Royal Marine carries a Javelin missile launcher while on patrol as part of a clearance operation of the Nad-e Ali District of Helmand province in southern
Afghanistan in December 2008. (Photo by CPL John Rafoss, International Security Assistance Force HQ Public Affairs.)

  motor that reduces the missile’s time                   hot” display, and an RS-170 standard                   insurgents placing improvised explosive
  of flight, improved probability of hit/                  video output to allow remote viewing                   devices, and other soft targets, but it
  kill at 2,500 meters, and an enhanced                   of the gunner display. Units deploying                 will also maintain its lethality against
  performance warhead that increases                      to theater have priority for being fielded              the world’s best armored vehicles
  Javelin’s lethality. Full materiel release              CLUs with Block I upgrades.                            and tanks.
  for the Block I missile was received in
  2008 and the first production lots are          These improvements are geared at                                CCWS is also looking to develop
  now in the U.S. Army stockpile.                maintaining Javelin’s lethality against                         Precision Terminal Guidance, which
                                                 the latest armor, while developing                              would allow the gunner to redirect
  The Block I CLU upgrade received               greater effectiveness against irregular                         the missile midflight, and advanced
  full materiel release in 2007 and field-        threats. Future modifications include                            networking capability to provide and
  ing to units began that same year. A           a multipurpose warhead (MPWH)                                   transmit real-time tactical data for oper-
  significant performance improvement             featuring shaped charges for armored                            ations or surveillance.
  in the Block I CLU is an increase in           vehicles and fragmentation for antiper-
  target identification range through             sonnel effects. Army laboratories have                          Javelin has been selected as a comple-
  use of a larger afocal                                            contributed a signifi-                        mentary system for the Army’s Future
  lens (12X versus 9X)                                              cant investment to                           Combat Systems (FCS) program. The
  plus the addition of             The Javelin’s fire-and-           ready the MPWH                               Javelin system will be employed both
  electronic zoom capa-                                             for production. The                          as a dismounted, man-portable mis-
  bility. Surveillance            forget guidance enables           cut-in of the MPWH                           sile system and on FCS Armed Robotic
  operating time was               the gunner to fire and            into the Javelin pro-                        Vehicle-Assault (Light) (ARV-A(L)).
  increased through a              then immediately take            duction line, when                           The ARV-A(L) will employ a powerful
  combination of lon-                                               funded, will represent                       suite of sensors and a lethal combi-
  ger lasting batteries           cover, greatly increasing         a significant increase                        nation of a machine gun and Javelin
  and CLU power man-                    survivability.              in capability against                        missiles on a semi-autonomous wheeled
  agement. Additional                                               the type of irregu-                          robotic vehicle. These vehicles will
  improvements                                                      lar targets that our                         support the dismounted infantry’s
  include improved software processing, a        warfighters are currently pitted against                         efforts to locate and destroy enemy
  digital display with menu-driven access        and will continue to face in future                             platforms and positions and can be
  to features, the ability for the gunner to     fights. The MPWH will not only be                                used in scenarios that would other-
  select between a “black hot” or “white         very effective against bunkers, snipers,                        wise endanger a Soldier. The platoon’s

                                                                                                                      JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009            39
                ARMY AL&T

ability to have a mobile support by fire       use in the unconventional battlefields        and enables night surveillance from
and reconnaissance asset will increase        of Iraq and Afghanistan. The Army,           more than 2 miles away. The CLU’s
that unit’s lethality, responsiveness, and    USMC, and British allies are effectively     stand-alone surveillance capability
survivability.                                employing Javelin against a wide range       makes the Javelin ideally suited for
                                              of secondary targets, including light-       peacekeeping and stability operations
In Theater                                    skinned vehicles, bunkers, buildings,        as well.
A Javelin-equipped commander not              and other fortifications, as well as per-
only controls the tempo of the battle-        sonnel. “The Javelin gunner becomes          Proven in combat, Javelin boasts an
field, but also influences its shaping. “A      the most powerful weapon in the entire       operational readiness rate of greater
few well-placed shots with the Javelin        battalion,” according to a certified          than 98 percent. “Our Soldiers report
will bring an enemy’s approach to a           Javelin gunner who witnessed firsthand        complete confidence in the system’s
halt,” said MAJ Bill Venable, Assistant       the power of the missile during the          performance. Its reliability, both from
U.S. Army Training and Doctrine               Second Battle of Fallujah, the site of       a maintenance and lethality perspective,
Command Capability                                                 some of the heavi-      contributes to that sense of confi-
Manager, Infantry                                                  est urban combat in     dence,” said Venable. “It works when
BCT. “The enemy                As Javelin continues to             OIF. Soldiers who       you need it, it hits what you’re aiming
commander is forced                                                used Javelin or saw     at, and it kills anything it hits.”
                               receive positive reviews
to reconsider his                                                  the weapon in action
approach and the                from the front lines of            attest to its effec-    As Javelin continues to receive positive
array of forces he is          ongoing operations, the             tiveness as an urban    reviews from the front lines of ongoing
presenting to the                                                  assault weapon.         operations, the lessons learned in the-
U.S. force.”                  lessons learned in theater           Man-portable,           ater are actively shaping the program.
                               are actively shaping the            Javelin can be car-     Javelin offers a strong growth poten-
Since its fielding,                      program.                   ried up to the top      tial because of the system’s modular
Javelin has changed                                                of a building or fired   construction, CLU software enhance-
the way enemy                                                      from inside a small     ments, and adaptability to a wide range
armored forces plan assaults on sus-          room using its soft-launch feature.          of platforms. Its combat-proven effec-
pected U.S. infantry areas of operation.      With its pinpoint targeting, a Javelin       tiveness as a precision man-portable
“A single Javelin team of two Soldiers        gunner can send the missile through a        system ensures that the Javelin will be
can hide in a concealed location more         door or window.                              a key weapon system for many years to
than 1.5 miles away from an approach-                                                      come. Our warfighters will continue to
ing tank formation and kill the best          British troops, in particular, are hav-      take the weapon forward into the fight
tanks in the world with proven effec-         ing great success using Javelin to defeat    wherever it is needed—whether it is the
tiveness,” said Venable. Battlefield           irregular targets at extended ranges.        crowded, urban neighborhoods of OIF
comments from Iraqi soldiers who were         Of the more than 1,200 Javelins fired         or the remote, austere terrains of OEF.
in tank formations that were engaged          by British troops, none has been used
by U.S. Soldiers corroborated that the        against armored targets.
Iraqis were not able to detect the launch                                                  STEVEN WHITMORE is the Product
or approach of the missiles. Tanks in         The CLU, used in the stand-alone mode        Director Javelin Missile System, CCWS,
the formation started exploding around        for battlefield reconnaissance and target     PEO MS. He holds a B.S. in engineering
them before they knew anything was            detection, has also proven effective in      from the University of Alabama at
happening. Javelin was also critical in       both Afghanistan and Iraq. The most          Huntsville and an M.S. in engineer-
the taking of Baghdad Airport and in          powerful man-portable sensor on the          ing from Southeastern Institute of
the Battle of Debecka Pass, where 30          battlefield below battalion level, it pro-    Technology. He is a graduate of the
U.S. Special Forces Soldiers who were         vides dominant surveillance capability       Defense Acquisition University Senior
pinned down by an advancing Iraqi             to the dismounted Soldier. The CLU is        Service College Fellowship Program
armored column used Javelin to stop           employed at the front lines of combat        and the Competitive Development
the enemy in its tracks and sustained         formations and is likely one of the very     Group Program. Whitmore is a U.S.
no casualties.                                first sensors to detect an enemy target.      Army Acquisition Corps member
                                              Its long-wave infrared sensors can see       and is Level III certified in program
Following the neutralization of the           through today’s complex battlefields,         management; test and evaluation; and
armored tank threat in the early days of      characterized by sandstorms, smoke,          systems planning, research, develop-
OIF, Javelin continues to see extensive       dust, explosions, fog, and obstructions;     ment, and engineering.

         40     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                              ARMY AL&T

   3rd Infantry Division (3ID)
Adds Battlefield Medical Recording
 System to Stateside Aid Stations
                                                   Bill Snethen
                                              Photos courtesy of MC4

         he 3ID recently expanded its use of the Army’s battlefield electronic
         medical recording (EMR) system—Medical Communications for Combat
         Casualty Care (MC4)—to two more garrison aid stations at Fort Stewart,
GA. The 1st Battalion (Bn), 64th Armor Regiment, and 26th Brigade Support Bn
joined the Special Troops Bn (STB) Aid Station at Fort Stewart and the 603rd Avi-
ation Support Bn at Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, GA, as the first group of 21
garrison aid stations led by 3ID to discontinue the use of paper medical records.

  PFC Don Pickering Jr., 603rd Aviation Support Bn medic, checks in a patient at the aviation clinic at Hunter Army Airfield.

                                                                                                  JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009          41
                    ARMY AL&T

  The implementation of the digital med-                system on a daily basis in garrison                professional officer filler information
  ical recording system by 3ID, and the                 reduces future training requirements               system member with the 3rd Armored
  82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg,                 and helps to eliminate any delay service           Cavalry Regiment, Fort Hood, TX.
  NC, in January, has resulted in captur-               members may experience in receiv-
  ing 3,000 electronic patient encounters               ing medical care. Also, the S6 and                 “MC4 was very effective when we con-
  in garrison. The use of MC4 at bat-                   CSSAMO are better prepared to effi-                 ducted sick call in theater,” Johnson
  talion aid stations in the U.S. not only              ciently install and support the system,            said. “We supported a post with
  provides an EMR capability for clinics                as well as troubleshoot any issues that            approximately 20,000 service members,
  with low-to-no connectivity, it also sup-             may arise.”                                        contractors, and foreign nationals who
  ports a new initiative by the Army to                                                                    worked onsite. I saw approximately 30
  “train as you fight” with MC4.                         In addition to training, Soldiers who              patients a day and all of the informa-
                                                        visit the clinics in garrison also benefit          tion was collected in the outpatient
  LTC Edward Michaud, 3ID surgeon,                      from the use of MC4. “The staff is able            program. If I had to hand-write the
  ushered in the new business process so                to provide enhanced care since they                patient information onto paper forms,
  that personnel supporting the facilities              now have the ability to quickly access             the process of seeing patients and
  would gain valuable hands-on expe-                    historical information and view previ-             charting the care would have been
  rience using the same equipment to                    ous illnesses and treatments,” Michaud             very slow.”
  electronically document patient care                  said. “Without EMR, aid stations pri-
  in garrison that is used in theater. The              marily screen patients. Today, 3ID has             Now using the MC4 system in garri-
  laptops and servers used in the stateside             four aid stations with the ability to elec-        son, Johnson frequently treats Soldiers
  clinics—fielded, trained, and sustained                tronically capture patient encounters,             who report to the STB Aid Station
  by the MC4 program—are the same                       document notes, and reorder medica-                for sick call. She then goes to the
  used by medical personnel and sup-                    tions. Use of the MC4 system offers a              Lloyd C. Hawks Troop Medical Clinic
  ported by the technical staff of signal               significant benefit to the Soldier and               (TMC) to administer acute care.
  officers (S6) and the Combat Service                   the unit while in garrison that was not            The combined TMC is the only
  Support Automation Management                         previously available.”                             facility on Fort Stewart that provides
  Offices (CSSAMOs) in Iraq, Afghan-                                                                        a higher level of care, other than Winn
  istan, and 12 other countries.                        MC4 System Augmentation to                         Army Community Hospital. At Hawks
                                                        AHLTA Proving Useful                               TMC Johnson is able to view patient
  “The primary benefit of this endeavor                  CPT Christina Johnson, 3ID STB Aid                 encounters in AHLTA after having
  is the training and habituation that                  Station physician assistant, used the              initiated the records using MC4 at
  improves through continued use,”                      MC4 system in 2008 while deployed                  her aid station.
  Michaud said. “Utilizing the EMR                      to Camp Buehring, Kuwait, as a
                                                                                                           “When patients arrive at the TMC for
                                                                                                           additional care, I can go into AHLTA
                                                                                                           and pull up their medical records and
                                                                                                           see encounters generated from the STB
                                                                                                           Aid Station using MC4,” Johnson said.
                                                                                                           “This information allows me to quickly
                                                                                                           see the treatments that have been per-
                                                                                                           formed and what medications a Soldier
                                                                                                           has been prescribed.”

                                                                                                           Lessons Learned, Forecasting
                                                                                                           Technical Hurdles in Theater
                                                                                                           CPT Ricardo Swenness, 3ID STB
                                                                                                           Aid Station physician, deployed to Iraq
                                                                                                           in 2006. He worked in an aid station
                                                                                                           that did not use MC4. The problem
                                                                                                           was not a lack of equipment, but con-
                                                                                                           fusion regarding who to contact to
LTC Edward Michaud (second from left), 3ID surgeon, meets with the technical support personnel for Forts
                                                                                                           install the systems.
Stewart and Benning, GA, as well as MC4 personnel, to discuss challenges and hurdles integrating MC4
systems into more garrison aid stations.

             42     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                          ARMY AL&T

                                                                                                            By having every entity involved
                                                                                                            throughout the process, it will help
                                                                                                            make the implementation successful.
                                                                                                            It also helps prepare every level of the
                                                                                                            organization with their roles in using
                                                                                                            the system in future deployments.”

                                                                                                            More MC4 Stateside
                                                                                                            Integration to Follow
                                                                                                            Michaud is encouraged about the
                                                                                                            progress that has been made with
                                                                                                            MC4 use in the aid stations and is
                                                                                                            looking forward to installing the EMR
                                                                                                            system into the remaining 3ID clinics.
CPT Christina Johnson, 3ID STB Aid Station physician assistant, uses the MC4 system to document Soldiers’
medical information and review their medical history.                                                       “In light of the successful use of MC4
                                                                                                            in the aid stations, I feel comfortable
                                                                                                            continuing the effort with the other
  “When I talked with my medics about                   As a result of the collaboration, more              facilities,” Michaud said. “We have
  setting up MC4, they didn’t know who                  garrison aid stations have connected                learned so much during this process
  to go to,” Swenness said. “We didn’t                  to local networks via a secure wireless             that the other sites can benefit from
  know that the CSSAMO staff had the                    channel—Combat Service Support                      the trials and errors experienced while
  knowledge to help us install the system.              Automated Information Systems                       integrating the systems in the first few
  If we had used MC4, we would have                     Interface (CAISI). As 3ID expands                   locations. More importantly, the use
  had better access to information.”                    MC4 to other locations, alternatives                of EMRs gives us a new capability that
                                                        may be required.                                    enhances the care we can provide to
  Swenness recalled that connectivity                                                                       our Soldiers.”
  was always an issue at the deployed aid               “As we work to bring additional aid
  station. It is also an issue for garrison             stations online with MC4, we have                   Michaud acknowledges that in addition
  aid stations. Traditionally, the build-               discovered that there is a severe lack of           to organizational collaboration, user
  ings that house the aid stations are not              CAISIs and very small aperture termi-               support has been key. “If the provid-
  wired into the local computer network.                nals to establish network connections,”             ers were not happy with the system,
  This can be a setback when trying to                  Michaud said. “It is important to know              then I would be very hesitant to move
  install an EMR system. Connectivity                   this information early in the process               forward and continue the effort,” he
  is required to transmit patient data                  so that we understand the hurdles that              said. “Many are familiar with the sys-
  to the central data repository, where                 lie ahead. Many of the problems we                  tem from previous deployments. They
  it comprises a Soldier’s longitudinal                 experience in garrison are potential                see the benefits and understand the
  health record and becomes immediately                 problems in theater. By implementing                importance of its use. We now have the
  available to other medical personnel,                 MC4 in our stateside facilities, we                 advantage of taking better care of our
  regardless of location.                               can mitigate similar issues when we                 Soldiers in the states and during future
                                                        go downrange.”                                      deployments. We also benefit from
  To mitigate technical issues that may                                                                     having the medical staff and technical
  derail EMR systems implementation in                  LTC Larry France, physician assis-                  support personnel practice using the
  garrison clinics, Michaud involved the                tant consultant, U.S. Army Medical                  system on a daily basis. This is a win-
  3ID’s S6 and CSSAMO staffs from day                   Command, Office of the Surgeon                       win for everybody.”
  one. “The technical staff has worked                  General, recently visited the aid stations
  tirelessly to hammer out technical issues             using MC4, crediting the close collabo-             For more information and articles
  as well as uncover solutions to the net-              ration between the 3ID and others to                about MC4, visit
  working challenge,” Michaud said.                     the success thus far. “I used the MC4
  “Meetings are held regularly to foster                system in 2006 when I worked in the
  communication between the different                   palace in Baghdad, Iraq,” France said.              BILL SNETHEN provides MC4
  organizations and to keep the process                 “I know the positives and negatives                 program public relations support. He
  moving forward.”                                      with the system and the 3ID is working              holds a B.S. in communications from
                                                        through a lot of the negatives now.                 William Paterson University.

                                                                                                                JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009       43
     ARMY AL&T

                                                      Camp Bucca encompasses 29 independent compounds that can
                                                      hold as many as 15,000 detainees at once. Here, SGT Albert Grant,
                                                      Alpha Troop, 102 Cavalry Squadron, 50th Infantry Brigade Combat
                                                      Team, New Jersey National Guard, patrols the perimeter of Camp
                                                      Bucca. (U.S. Army photo by SSG Shawn Morris.)

  MC4 Reforms Wire Medicine at
 Detainee Combat Support Hospital
                               CPT Ken Sturtz

          heckpoints, concertina wire, and guard towers canvas the horizon at
          the largest internment facility throughout the U.S. Central Command
          (CENTCOM)—Camp Bucca, Iraq. What has doctors and nurses looking
 up, however, are 3 miles of newly entrenched fiber-optic cables that save them
 hours of work at the end of their 12-hour shifts.

                                                                                                                           ARMY AL&T

  Spanning 1 square mile and located                   and patients. While a fence
  at the southern border of Iraq, Camp                 no longer exists between
  Bucca encompasses 29 independent                     patient and medical person-
  compounds that can hold as many as                   nel, additional barriers have
  15,000 detainees at once. Since the                  made care difficult.
  beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom,
  more than 100,000 detainees have been                Evolution From Paper
  held at this location.                               to Electronic Records
                                                         Originally, wire medicine at
  Not apparent from its formidable sur-                  Camp Bucca was captured
  roundings, Camp Bucca houses a                         on field medical cards—the
  state-of-the-art medical facility, the                 same paper forms that were
  115th Combat Support Hospital                          first used on the battlefield
  (CSH), which provides the highest level                during World War II. The
  of care on a nonstop basis to a diverse                problem with any paper                SPC Jeffrey Powers (sitting) and SPC Mark Lefevres, 115th CSH
  detainee population. “Our patients usu-                medical record, regardless if         medics, electronically record patient data via MC4 at Camp
  ally do not speak English, so we have                  the patient is a detainee or          Bucca. (U.S. Army photo.)

  to use the services of translators so we               service member, is that the
  can communicate with each other,” said                 information can easily be
  SFC Robert Callahan Jr., 115th CSH                     lost while an individual is in transit to         treatment rooms to hospitals several
  Noncommissioned Officer-in-Charge                       another facility for additional care. The         times a day, did not win over new users.
  of wire medicine. “Our patients are                    lack of information delays the health
  escorted by guards and they also have                  care process, requiring staff to conduct          To lighten the workload, MC4 hand-
  primary care medical issues. It’s not the              repeated tests and procedures to deter-           held devices were introduced, reducing
  typical mission our medics are trained                 mine a patient’s malady.                          the amount of typing required by the
  to support before they arrive here.”                                                                     medical staff. Medics could record
                                                         To eliminate this delay, the 31st CSH,            information into their personal digital
  Atypical is an understatement, given                   the medical unit that immediately pre-            assistants and synch it with an MC4
  the location’s layout and history. Each                ceded the 115th CSH at Camp Bucca                 laptop, transferring records into a cen-
  of the 29 compounds has its own                        from 2007 to 2008, took the first step             trally available location.
  primary care facility, known as a com-                 in moving its medical recording prac-
  pound treatment room. In each of these                 tice into the 21st century. The first              To enhance data transfer from the
  rooms, medics and primary care provid-                 solution involved installing laptop com-          hand-helds to the MC4 network, the
  ers perform “wire medicine” around the                 puters in the main hospital facility.             31st CSH established wireless access
  clock. The term was originally coined                                                                    points throughout the internment
  to describe the medical care adminis-                  Regardless of who received care, the              facility to every treatment room. The
  tered to insurgents, which included a                  31st CSH committed to digitally docu-             wireless network then allowed medical
  wire fence separating medical personnel                menting patient data by employing                 personnel to upload patient data from
                                                                       the same system used to             the 29 different compounds, collected
                                                                       chart medical information           via hand-held devices immediately fol-
                                                                       for U.S. service members            lowing patient care.
                                                                       in combat—the Army’s
                                                                       Medical Communications              “When we took over the mission at
                                                                       for Combat Casualty                 Camp Bucca, we used more than 100
                                                                       Care (MC4) system.                  hand-held devices to capture and upload
                                                                       This permitted medics to            thousands of patient encounters within
                                                                       transcribe handwritten              a few months of our arrival,” said
                                                                       encounter notes onto com-           Callahan. “We really liked the hand-
                                                                       puters at the end of their          helds. They’re easy to use. We were able
                                                                       shifts. However, the addi-          to enter the information quickly, and
                                                                       tion of another step tasked         our young Soldiers were familiar with
SPC Victoria Krause, CPL Sheri Simpson, and PFC Amanda John-           to providers, who traverse          them since the devices are similar to
son, 115th CSH patient administration personnel, use the MC4           half-mile walkways from             hand-held organizers used in CONUS.”
system to review patient data at Camp Bucca. (U.S. Army photo.)

                                                                                                                JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009          45
               ARMY AL&T

Shift From Wireless Network                 improving overall net-
to Fiber-Optic Cable                        work performance.
While the use of MC4 hand-helds in
a wireless network setting bridged the      Upon switching to a
change from paper to computers, the         fiber-optic network,
network could not handle the workload       the hand-held devices
and hand-helds posed unforeseen chal-       were removed from the
lenges. The 115th CSH accounts for          compound treatment
approximately 20 percent of all digital     rooms and replaced
patient encounters (7,000 per month)        with new MC4 laptops.
captured via MC4 in CENTCOM,                Today, medical person-
making it one of the busiest treatment      nel throughout Camp
facilities in theater. As such, a growing   Bucca have access to
patient population coupled with a           the full suite of medi-
taxed network meant the need for            cal applications on the
                                                                           SPC James Scott, S6 staff member with the 1163rd Area Support Medical
change yet again.                           MC4 systems without            Co., services an MC4 laptop in one of the 29 treatment rooms at Camp
                                            the concern of band-           Bucca. (U.S. Army photo.)
The network was not robust enough to        width restrictions.
transmit patient encounter tasks in an
efficient manner, thus causing delays in     “Technology played a central role in            Chief of Patient Administration.
detainee care. The hand-held devices        the evolution of health care at Camp            “MC4’s interface with the Theater
would not allow providers to co-sign        Bucca,” said LTC Stephen Wooldridge,            Medical Data Store allows each treat-
notes initiated by medics. Additionally,    Task Force 115 South Deputy                     ment room and internment facility to
at the end of a long shift, medical per-    Commander for Administration.                   electronically view patient encounters.
sonnel were unable to determine if          “Under the direction of our com-                Providers can track the medical progress
every encounter had transmitted to the      mander, COL John McGrath, we have               of their patients, as well as the efficacy
network. The 115th CSH realized that        transitioned our efforts from paper             of the medications dispensed in near-
the use of the hand-helds and transfer-     documentation to electronic records.            real time. This is an incredibly difficult
ring data via the wireless network was      We took on this role from the moment            task to accomplish without the advan-
not making the grade and the infra-         we assumed this mission.”                       tage of a robust medical network.”
structure needed to
be upgraded.                                                     Replacing hand-helds       The 115th CSH has overcome a number
                              Camp Bucca houses a                with more MC4              of changes since taking on the mission
After months of              state-of-the-art medical            laptops has since          at Camp Bucca and, in the process, sig-
planning and hun-                                                provided medical           nificantly improved the network infra-
                            facility, the 115th CSH,
dreds of hours of                                                personnel with an          structure used to collect patient data.
hard work, more                 which provides the               unexpected benefit.         As a result of their efforts, they have
than three miles of         highest level of care on a           The 115th CSH              enabled the medical team to rapidly
fiber-optic cable was                                             is able to track the       treat and diagnose thousands of detain-
added to the network
                            nonstop basis to a diverse           medical care that          ees every month, improving the level of
infrastructure. The            detainee population.              detainees receive as       care administered at Camp Bucca.
115th CSH coor-                                                  they move through-
dinated permission                                               out the numerous           For more information on how medical
to dig and run the cable throughout         compounds, as well as at other medical          information is being captured and shared
the internment facility after procur-       facilities for follow-on care. By using         in theater, visit
ing, configuring, and installing more        laptops instead of hand-helds, users
than 30 fiber switches so that the new       have a type of patient visibility not pos-
network could efficiently carry patient      sible with hand-helds.                          CPT KEN STURTZ is the S6 and
data throughout the facility. Ultimately,                                                   Information Management Officer
a large portion of data that traveled       “It is critical to be able to view the          for the 115th CSH at Camp Bucca.
over the Nonclassified Internet Protocol     health care administered to our patients,       He holds a B.S. in biology from the
Router Network at Camp Bucca was            regardless of the location,” said CPT           University of Colorado. Sturtz is Level I
transitioned over to the MC4 network,       Sara Wilson, Task Force 115 South               certified in information management.

         46    JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                           ARMY AL&T

                                                                     he said. “Our push toward a more integrated, holistic approach
                                                                     to product development and sustainment is driving changes in
          From the Acquisition                                       acquisition training and education to better prepare our work-
          Support Center Director                                    force for the many challenges it will face in the 21st century.”

                                                                     In April 2009, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced
                                                                     in-sourcing plans to increase the size of the DOD acquisition

A          t the Southeast Medical Command’s
           Noncommissioned Officer (NCO)
           Symposium in Columbus, GA, Silver
Star Medal recipient SFC Jose Blanco shared
his account of the gallantry in action that
                                                                     workforce by converting contractors to government positions,
                                                                     hiring additional acquisition professionals, and reducing the
                                                                     number of service support contractors from 39 to 26 percent,
                                                                     the pre-2001 level. Thompson said the Army is “aggressively
                                                                     moving toward this important directive,” and shared the Army’s
earned him the prestigious award. Blanco, then                       in-sourcing strategy. “The Army is using a comprehensive
a sergeant, was a gunner on a Bradley Fighting                       approach to comply with Congressional direction to give special
Vehicle during the initial invasion of Iraq in 2003 when he          consideration to civilian performance of contracted services.

                                                                                                                                             CAREER DEVELOPMENT UPDATE
and his crewmates came under attack. After recovering from           In-sourcing cannot be effectively implemented within a single
the initial blast that had knocked him out of the turret to the      stovepipe. It is not simply a contracting matter but also involves
bottom of the vehicle, Blanco “shook off the cobwebs,” treated       the civilian manpower authorization, hiring process, and bud-
his wounded crewmates, and took them out of harm’s way.              get. It requires identifying funding sources to hire civilians,
                                                                     along with the use of over-hires until an authorization is docu-
Seeing that the turret gun had not been damaged, Blanco              mented. We find that a practical in-sourcing schedule must be
crawled back into the turret, placed the gun in manual mode,         established in order to ensure continuity of service.”
and started to engage the enemy, destroying an enemy recoil-
less rifle team and four rocket-propelled grenade teams before        Thompson also emphasized the importance of recruiting people
help arrived. “I didn’t go out there to win a Silver Star,” Blanco   for the AL&T Workforce who are able to perform high-technology
recounted. “I didn’t do it to be a hero, I was doing my job—to       missions. “All of the acquisition career fields require highly trained
stay alive and make sure that my battle buddies and crew were        people, not just scientists and engineers, but also business and
well taken care of.”                                                 financial experts to put together contract instruments. My strategic
                                                                     objective is to make the Army a very tough customer. I want the
This is just one example of the numerous heroic actions              Army AL&T Workforce negotiating the best deal for the U.S.
taken by our Soldiers. During this year of the NCO, we must          Army because that allows us to put the best capabilities in the
remember as Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (AL&T)            hands of our Soldiers. Increased investment in our people, coupled
Workforce members that our mission to keep our Soldiers well         with sufficient, predictable investment in our programs, will
equipped with the best weapons, technology, and services is a        continue to give our Soldiers the equipment, services, and sup-
crucial duty that enables our Soldiers to perform extraordinary      port they need for success on the battlefield,” he concluded.
and heroic actions in our Nation’s defense.
                                                                     On May 22, 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law
Acquisition Reform                                                   The Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act (Public Law 111-23)
In the wake of Congressional concerns regarding DOD acqui-           to strengthen accountability standards for DOD purchases for
sition, several hearings were conducted to review and listen to      military operations. Please visit Defense Acquisition University’s
recommendations on overhauling DOD’s approach to procure-            Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (AT&L) Knowledge
ment, acquisition, and contracting. In April 2009, LTG N.            Sharing System Web site at
Ross Thompson III, Principal Military Deputy to the Acting           for a summary of this legislation.
Assistant Secretary of the Army for AL&T, and Director, Army
Acquisition Corps (AAC) and Acquisition Career Management,           Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund
testified at the U.S. House of Representatives Oversight and          Program, Section 852, Catalog of Opportunities
Investigations Subcommittee. Thompson discussed the over-            Having successfully presented the Army’s FY09 Section 852
all state of the AL&T Workforce and plans for its future. “The       plan to the Acting Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for
Army is creating and sustaining a healthy acquisition workforce      AT&L, the Army’s Section 852 requirement was increased to
focused on getting products to the Soldier faster, making good       $109.7 million. While the Army’s throughput capability has
products even better, minimizing life-cycle costs, and enhancing     been expanded for many AL&T Workforce training programs
the synergy and effectiveness of the Army AL&T communities,          via Section 852, the following efforts have also been initiated
while ensuring proper fiscal stewardship of taxpayer dollars,”        through this capability:

                                                                                                 JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009       47
                                              ARMY AL&T

                            • The first centrally managed and funded Student Loan
                              Repayment Program with the pilot program attracting                   Contracting
                              more than 1,200 applicants.
                            • New hires that include 91 Student Career Experience





                                                                                                                                                                 , L            TE
                                                                                                                                                                     OGISTICS &
                              Program students, 345 interns, 24 system-of-systems
                              journeyman engineers, and 3 highly qualified experts.
                            • Successful launching of the Civilian Incentive Program,

                              bringing recruitment and retention incentives throughout                                     very day the Army’s contracting work-
                              the AL&T community.                                                                          force performs a critical mission under
                                                                                                                           extraordinary conditions. Faced with
                            The Army’s Catalog of Opportunities, as well as instructions                            incredible challenges of a 600-percent increase
                            for submitting new requirement considerations, can be found                             in workload in the last decade concurrent with
                            at For                             a decreasing workforce, our community has
                            more information, contact Kelly L. Terry at (732) 414-1431 or                           succeeded largely as a result of a strong “can-do”
                                                                 spirit. As the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Procure-

                                                                                                   ment (DASA(P)), one of my roles is to provide you with the
                            AAC Annual Awards Ceremony                                             tools that will improve your day-to-day performance mission.
                            There are some workforce members whose performance and
                            contributions to the warfighter set them apart from their peers.        Some of you may be aware of the current Materiel Enterprise
                            These extraordinary people will be recognized for their achievements   (ME) effort between Dean G. Popps, Acting Assistant Secretary
                            at the AAC Annual Awards Ceremony on Sunday, Oct. 4, 2009, at          of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology, and
                            the Marriott Crystal Gateway Hotel in Arlington, VA. I invite          GEN Ann E. Dunwoody, Commanding General, U.S. Army
                            all AL&T Workforce members to join us in “Celebrating Our              Materiel Command. They are personally championing this
                            Acquisition Stars” and recognizing the significant accomplish-          process to bring together senior leaders from both organizations
                            ments and achievements of our research and development                 and identify the current challenges that affect the enterprise
                            laboratories, life-cycle logistics and contracting communities,        organizations’ processes and boundaries. Over the past several
                            project/product managers and acquisition directors, acquisition        months, the ME has identified opportunities for transformation,
                            NCOs, and other acquisition excellence contributors. For more          both at the enterprise level and within the operating domains.
                            information, contact Marti Giella at (703) 805-1095/DSN                From this transformation analysis, I have identified two enterprise
                            655-1095 or                              projects that will increase the efficiency and operating effective-
                                                                                                   ness between the DASA(P) and the contracting community.
                            AAC Celebrates 20th Anniversary
                            This year marks the AAC’s 20th anniversary. On Oct. 13, 1989,          The first project is to create a standardized communication
                            then-U.S. Army Chief of Staff GEN Carl E. Vuono approved               process and procedure flow between my office and the con-
                            AAC’s creation as “an organization of dedicated military and           tracting community. Creating and implementing this initiative
                            civilian acquisition specialists and leaders.” Spanning four presi-    will be a joint enterprise effort between DASA(P) and the U.S.
                            dential administrations, two wars, and numerous contingency            Army Contracting Command (ACC), but the results will be
                            operations, the AAC has made a tremendous impact on the                felt across all contracting activities. This project will facilitate
                            Army’s ability to protect our country. To all AAC members past         timely, consistent, and accurate information distribution; assign
                            and present, as well as the entire Army acquisition community,         suspenses; and receive and process data. Once implemented,
                            I offer my congratulations and a sincere thank you for a job           this initiative will provide a standardized way of doing business
                            well done. My hope is that for future generations, the AAC will        by reducing the burden at all levels, increasing data quality and
                            continue its dedicated service to our Soldiers by improving the        accuracy, and reducing cycle time.
                            Army’s combat capability and developing critical systems and
                            services that enable our Army to meet its non-negotiable               The second joint ME project is to establish an Army Procurement
                            contract to fight and win our Nation’s wars.                            Policy Council for regulatory and policy issues. This team of
                                                                                                   representatives from DASA(P), ACC, and other major com-
                                                                                                   mands will meet regularly to address Army contracting-related
                                                                                                   processes, procedures, and new statutory and regulatory initia-
                                                                                                   tives, as well as to incorporate revisions to the Army Federal
                                                    Craig A. Spisak                                Acquisition Regulation Supplement. The council will provide the
                                                  Director, U.S. Army                              Army contracting workforce with a standard process for creat-
                                               Acquisition Support Center                          ing, distributing, and incorporating Army contract policies.

                                       48     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                            ARMY AL&T

To further my commitment to improving Army contracting                            “We had to reinvent every aspect of the way we deliver proj-
and enhanced collaboration within our community, I am direct-                     ects,” said Todd Smith, Pedestrian Fence Program Manager
ing an Army contracting stand-down day on July 20, 2009.                          (PM), Fort Worth, TX, USACE Engineering and Construction
This training day will be broadcast live from the Pentagon and                    Support Office (ECSO). “There really is no ‘business as usual’
will cover various contracting issues. Complete details of this                   anywhere within the fence program.” That meant putting to the
event will be forthcoming.                                                        test a “virtual teaming” concept. The ECSO office, originally
                                                                                  with 20 employees, would ramp up to 60, then reach out to
I appreciate your continued support and shared experiences                        build a nationwide virtual team of 500-plus USACE employees
and accomplishments with the contracting community through                        and hundreds of contractor personnel.
Army AL&T Magazine.

                                                                                                                                                                 CONTRACTING COMMUNITY HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                  The team knew that planning would take up most of the execu-
                                                                                  tion time, leaving a very small construction window at the end.
                    Edward M. Harrington                                          The chosen acquisition method was to establish $3.4 billion
              Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army                              of contract capacity in Multiple Award Task Order Contract
                         (Procurement)                                            (MATOC) pools to maximize competition and prevent any
                                                                                  single point of failure. This strategy pre-qualified contractors.
                                                                                  When the fence laydown was determined and environmen-
                                                                                  tal regulations and real estate acquisition issues were resolved,
Tight U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Border Fence                           execution could move quickly.
Construction Timetable Spurs Innovation
                                                                                  ECSO established 15 regional MATOCs consisting of 52
                                                                                  contractors of various business sizes (8(a), HUBZone, and
                   Ginger Gruber and Jim Frisinger                                Unrestricted). The effort was led by a tiger team in the Tulsa,
                                                                                  OK, district and was completed in an astonishing 7 months.
The first large-scale border fence construction project in U.S.                    With 12 months remaining, more than 55 task orders, ranging
history began Oct. 26, 2006, when then-President George W.                        from $1 million to more than $100 million each to build hun-
Bush signed the Secure Fence Act. It required the Department                      dreds of miles of fencing, remained to be executed. To meet the
of Homeland Security (DHS) to construct hundreds of miles                         schedule, a number of innovations had to be implemented.
of pedestrian and vehicle fence, including roads, across the
Southwest border by Dec. 31, 2008. This aggressive timetable                      Instead of USACE districts working independently, ECSO
meant finding ways to accelerate procurement and logistics.                        formed a virtual team from four USACE districts: Los Angeles,
Scheduling would be key.                                                          CA; Albuquerque, NM; Fort Worth; and Galveston, TX. This
                                                                                  programmatic approach leveraged the best contracting talent
The project goal would expand the fence to 670 miles over a                       and formed the heart of the procurement effort. To eliminate
2,000-mile construction zone from the Pacific Ocean to the                         the differences in procurement procedures across districts, the
Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP)                          team drafted a template Request for Proposal (RFP) that helped
tapped USACE and its industry partners to leverage resources                      contractors more easily respond to multiple RFPs.
and complete this multibillion-dollar, politically charged task.

The Secure Fence Act required the DHS to construct hundreds of miles of pedestrian and vehicle fence, including roads, across the Southwest border by Dec. 31,
2008. Here, BG Kendall Cox, USACE Southwestern Division Command, leads the site visit at Imperial Sand Dunes fencing in Southeastern California. (USACE photo
by Todd Smith.)

                                                                                                                 JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009          49
                                                      ARMY AL&T

                                                                                                                                                       steel—enough to build two
                                                                                                                                                       aircraft carriers. Mesh, panels,
                                                                                                                                                       and hollow tube were needed.
                                                                                                                                                       The program was timed to
                                                                                                                                                       crescendo during the second
                                                                                                                                                        half of 2008. Any supply
                                                                                                                                                       bottlenecks would cripple suc-
                                                                                                                                                       cessful project completion.

                                                                                                                                                              A CBP, USACE, and Boeing

                                                                                                                                                              team decided to bulk pur-
                                                                                                                                                              chase all long lead items up
                                                                                                                                                              front. The steel pre-purchase
                                                                                                                                                              saved the government approxi-
                                                                                                                                                              mately $76 million in market
                                                                                                                                                              price escalation from January
                                                                                                                                                              through August 2008. Under
                                                                                                                                                              this complex procurement
                                                                                                                                                              arrangement, Boeing pur-
                                                                                                                                                              chased the materials, set up
                                   The project goal would expand the fence to 670 miles over a 2,000-mile construction zone from the Pacific Ocean to
                                                                                                                                                              border distribution centers,
                                   the Gulf of Mexico. Here, border fence is erected near El Paso, TX. (Photo courtesy of Cerrudo Services.)                  and handed off the materials
                                                                                                                                                              to USACE construction con-
                                                                                                                                                              tractors who were responsible
                                   ECSO worked with the USACE Engineering Resource and                                     for trucking them to the work site. The vast amount of mate-
                                   Development Center in Champaign, IL, to supplement the                                  rial required a robust scheduling system. With 6,000 truckloads
                                   DOD Standard Procurement System by creating an RFP “wiz-                                needed, material pick-ups were scheduled every single hour at
                                   ard.” The electronic program streamlined the mass development                           peak times. USACE monitored the life cycle of the government-
                                   of RFPs for separate fence segments. Because 90 percent of each                         furnished material supply chain, tracking quantities picked up,
                                   RFP shared common language, it ensured consistency and accu-                            monitoring the quantity installed, and ensuring that any excess
                                   racy. Because program requirements evolved on a daily basis,                            was returned to the government.
                                   the wizard could rapidly update changes to all draft RFPs simul-
                                   taneously. It saved approximately 40 work hours per RFP on                              Communication was critical with dozens of separate construc-
                                   the contracting sections. It also enabled a multifunctional team                        tion crews operating simultaneously. Weekly coordination
                                   to simultaneously mesh RFP language formulated by separate                              teleconferences ensured that everyone was moving down the
                                   parties working in different offices, including both procurement                         same path with the same goals. This was new and different
                                   (by USACE personnel) and technical passages (by engineering                             work. The team was moving much faster than everyone was
                                   partners at Baker and Prime Engineering).                                               accustomed to.

                                   It was critical to keep the contractor workforce fully informed               By year’s end, border fence mileage reached the 578-mile mark.
                                   of rapid changes in the program. First, regularly scheduled                   It is now at 630 miles, with construction of most remaining
                                   industry days allowed face-to-face interaction among USACE,                   segments well underway. “Frankly, almost no one believed we
                                   CBP, and MATOC personnel. Second, a twice monthly elec-                       could do this well,” said Mark S. Borkowski, Executive Director
                                   tronic newsletter, TI(ma)TALK, was launched to keep MATOC                     of the Secure Border Initiative, in a 2008 year-end assessment.
                                   contractors informed on issues and provide early warnings                     “Between our Tactical Infrastructure [program], USACE, and
                                   for upcoming projects. Both actions made contractors more                     our contractors, we exceeded almost everybody’s expectations.”
                                   responsive to USACE needs and cut their inquiries during the
                                   Request for Information stage that follows the issuing of RFPs.               Ginger Gruber is the USACE ECSO Acquisition PM. She holds a
                                                                                                                 B.S. in business economics and an M.B.A. from the University of
                                   Through early refinement of the final fence requirements, it                    Nebraska at Omaha.
                                   became evident that steel supplier capacity constraints would
                                   be compounded by separate purchases by multiple builders.                     Jim Frisinger is an ECSO contract public affairs specialist. He
                                   Fence construction would consume more than 120,000 tons of                    holds a B.A. in liberal arts from the University of Michigan.

                                               50     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                          ARMY AL&T

                                                                           of an engineering brigade, and a Polish brigade (with U.S.
                                                                           liaison officers). We also support provincial reconstruction
RCC Sharana—Overcoming Contracting Challenges                              and agricultural development teams, U.S. and coalition
                                                                           Special Operations Forces, U.S. Army Materiel Command
                                                                           elements, and various other small activities. In all, we support
                          MAJ Andrew Carter                                8,000 U.S. and coalition forces personnel at more than 20
                                                                           forward operating bases, combat outposts, and fire bases.
The Regional Contracting Center (RCC) Sharana, one of seven
Afghanistan RCCs, is located in Central Paktika Province in                During recent unit changeovers, we engaged the arriving
Eastern Afghanistan. In our general support role, we provide               units with an aggressive customer education program geared

                                                                                                                                                               CONTRACTING COMMUNITY HIGHLIGHTS
contracting for all U.S. and coalition forces in both Paktika and          toward the battalion staffs, company commanders, and com-
Ghazni provinces. The office consists of a U.S. Army major and              pany executive officers. We conducted numerous classes as the
a U.S. Air Force captain, master sergeant, and two staff ser-              units arrived. One particular piece that piqued the units’ inter-
geants. In FY09, RCC Sharana has performed more than 500                   est was the process overview chart, which explains the steps
contract actions and obligated in excess of $45 million with               involved in the requirement process.
almost $40 million going to Afghan businesses.
                                                                           Field Manual Interim, 4-93.42, Contracting Support Brigade
Paktika and Ghazni provinces span 17,000 square miles,                     (CSB), Chapter-2, states, “It is the responsibility of the requiring
about twice the size of New Jersey in area. In the east along              activities, not the CSB, to develop acquisition-ready require-
the Pakistan border, the terrain is extremely mountainous                  ments.” The contracting community looks at this from a
with many locations only accessible via air. The road network,             contracting perspective, emphasizing to the requiring activities
although robust in places, is still mostly gravel or dirt and sub-         that a good Statement of Work and funding (Department of the
ject to significant traffic issues. Travel time to visit the sites via       Army 3953 Purchase Request and Commitment (PR&C )) are
helicopter can range from 20 to 80 minutes. Communications                 needed for us to do our job. So we trained them, they thanked
are challenging at best.                                                   us for the training and the electronic tool kit we gave them,
                                                                           and we sent them on their way. A few weeks later the phone
Our primary customers are two infantry battalions, the majority            calls started, at first one or two, then enough to identify a
of a brigade support battalion, a large portion of two battalions          systemic problem.

                                          Procurement Players

                                                         Statement of Work, Performance Work Statement/PR&C,
                                                         sources, quotes, photos, evaluation criteria
      Define correct requirement early
      so that contracting can execute.
                                              Unit Defines
                                                                                Initial Joint Facilities Utilization Board (construction), local validation,
                                                                                legal review, Working Program Budget Advisory Committee

  Solicit lowest cost?     Contracting                                 Commander
  Best value?               Procures                                    Authorizes

                                                                                  Joint Facilities Utilization Board (construction), Joint Communications
                                                                                  Utilization Review Board (computers), Joint Acquisition Review Board,
                                      Resource                    Logistics        legal review, Program Budget Advisory Committee
                                     Management                   Validates

                                                                                                             JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009               51
                                                     ARMY AL&T

                                   Executing units do not understand how to validate, get approval,
                                   and fund requirements on time. Because we gave an overview of        Executive Director Receives Decoration for Exceptional
                                   the process, they mistakenly thought we were the process own-        Civilian Service (DECS) Award
                                   ers. The unsigned PR&Cs started to flow in with the comment,
                                   “what else do you need from us?” or worse, “how long before
                                   the contract is in place?”                                                                      Danielle Oglevee

                                   During our presentations, we assumed they had a basic under-         Edward G. Elgart, Executive Director of the U.S. Army
                                   standing of the requirements process through their commands          Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Con-
                                   and staffs. We were just explaining our role and where contract-     tracting Center, received the DECS Award during a ceremony

                                   ing fits in the process. Instead, we found ourselves being asked      at the Women in Military Service for America Memorial at
                                   to explain someone else’s process.                                   Arlington National Cemetery, VA, on March 18, 2009.

                                   We do not advocate contracting’s involvement in the require-         Secretary of the Army (SecArmy) Pete Geren, assisted by LTG
                                   ment approval process. The decision that Soldiers should sleep       David H. Huntoon Jr., Director of the Army Staff (DAS), and
                                   four instead of six in a B-Hut (barracks) or the number of non-      Dr. Lynn Heirakuji, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army
                                   tactical vehicles allowed per unit, is, and should remain, within    (DASA) for Personnel Oversight, presented Elgart and 16 other
                                   the command. However, for us to turn a requirement into a            recipients with SecArmy Awards.
                                   contract, that decision has to be made and funding applied.
                                   Getting the right approvals and the funding takes 75 percent of      DECS is the highest award granted by the SecArmy to Army
                                   the time from an identified need to contractor performing.            civilians. It is bestowed on recipients who have accomplished
                                                                                                        duties of major program significance to the Army that are
                                   We have had success with our collocated infantry battalion S4        exceptional among all others performing similar duties.
                                   (logistics) officer, but it was because of three factors:
                                                                                                        Elgart has dramatically enhanced the Army’s ability to acquire
                                   • He is an outstanding junior officer who takes initiative and        research, development, production, and sustainment services of
                                     cares about Soldiers.                                              highly complex, state-of-the-art command, control, communi-
                                   • His battalion’s locations/missions makes them more reliant on      cations, computer, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance
                                     contracted support.                                                systems for the Army, joint services, and coalition forces. As
                                   • Our collocation allowed for daily meetings over several weeks.     Executive Director and Principal Assistant Responsible for
                                                                                                        Contracting, Elgart manages more than 12,000 contracts valued
                                   These factors, although unique to this battalion, demonstrate        at $260 billion and obligates more than $10 billion annually,
                                   the effectiveness of empowering junior leaders through knowl-        much of it in support of ongoing operations in Iraq, Afghan-
                                   edge. Their requirements get validated and funded faster than        istan, overseas contingency operations, and hurricane relief
                                   the other units, and the requirements are acquisition-ready.
                                                                                                        SecArmy Pete Geren presents the DECS Award to Edward G. Elgart, Executive
                                                                                                        Director of the CECOM Contracting Center, as DAS LTG David H. Huntoon Jr.
                                   Before deploying, battalion S4s and junior leaders need require-     looks on, during the 2008 SecArmy Awards ceremony at the Women in Military
                                   ments processing training from their commands. They need             Service for America Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, March 18, 2009.
                                                                                                        (U.S. Army photo by C. Todd Lopez.)
                                   to understand the process just like they do normal supply
                                   requests. This will help them plan accordingly and, when
                                   necessary, influence the process. Requirements management
                                   should not be considered only as a function of the brigade/
                                   division staffs. This training could be executed in their basic
                                   branch schools or as part of their predeployment training.

                                   MAJ Andrew Carter is the RCC Sharana Chief. He holds a B.S.
                                   in management from the U.S. Military Academy and an M.B.A.
                                   from the University of California, Los Angeles. Carter is certified
                                   Level II in program management and Level I in contracting.

                                               52    JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                            ARMY AL&T

efforts. He provides outstanding technical capability to the         is a classic example of a traditional, 2-tier client/server applica-
warfighter through prudent trade-offs between price, capabil-         tion. It was designed to operate in a local area network (LAN)
ity, quality, delivery, and past performance, saving more than       with almost all application logic resident in the client computer.
$1 billion in the last 3 years through this best-value contracting   The very architecture of the client-server transaction requires
method. Recognized for setting the standard across all levels of     the robust connectivity of a high-speed LAN and significant
the Army, DOD, and the federal government, Elgart is consis-         resources on the client’s computer. Connectivity requirements,
tently called on by these agencies to execute the most complex       among other factors, dictated that each operational site install a
and crucial acquisitions.                                            PD2 server, along with support systems.

Recognized as an Army subject matter expert for source selec-        As a result, dedicated PD2 servers and the required support

                                                                                                                                               CONTRACTING COMMUNITY HIGHLIGHTS
tions, Elgart was appointed by the DASA for Procurement              staff have reached high levels. The Army has more than 300
(DASA(P)) to chair the rewrite of the Army Source Selection          PD2 servers with an equal number of personnel maintaining
Guide and to develop a comprehensive acquisition plan                and administering the program. PD2 and future versions under
preparation guide, adopting best practices and acquisition           contract do not lend themselves, from an architectural point of
business processes that he pioneered. His leadership brought         view, to effective use in a wide area network.
a 56-percent reduced acquisition cycle time from requirement
identification to contract award and an increase in business base     The current Army implementation of the PD2 requires 321
from $6.15 billion in FY03 to more than $14.5 billion in FY07.       individual servers and 319 support personnel at 80 installations.
Elgart’s innovations, reduced cycle times, and cost savings          Labor costs total more than $12.7 million per year to support
contribute to rapidly providing Army warfighters with state-of-       the contract writing system (CWS). The Army allocated more
the-art equipment that increases their combat power and force        than $928,000 in FY03 to provide sites with upgraded versions
protection and decreases mortality rates.                            of the application. Although the exact amount is unknown,
                                                                     installations spent significant additional dollars to upgrade
Elgart’s ability to build coalitions and foster communication        physical servers. Previous experience indicates that major
resulted in the CECOM Contracting Center attracting many             upgrades (and costs) occur approximately every 18 months. The
customers from outside CECOM who rely on his leadership              cost of supporting the current CWS exceeds $16.2 million a year.
and visionary qualities for creative solutions. In that regard,
the DASA(P) requested Elgart’s acquisition expertise to lead         A consolidated CWS offers material and logical benefits to the
the $1.35 billion procurement of the Army Recruiting and             Army. By moving to a modern, distributed system for contract
Advertising Program that supports recruitment and reten-             writing, the Army takes advantage of a reduction in administrative,
tion of a relevant and ready campaign-quality force for com-         maintenance, and training costs. Server consolidation reduces
batant commanders in support of the National Security and            the number of servers, sites, and server administrators. Initial esti-
Defense Strategies.                                                  mates place these savings at approximately 50 percent per year.

Danielle Oglevee is a CECOM Contracting Center Procurement           Centralized sites will be protected by high levels of network and
Analyst. She holds a B.A. in corporate communications from the       data security and will not be subject to the variances in local instal-
College of Charleston and is Level III certified in contracting.      lations’ security and backup policies. Moving to the consolidated
                                                                     server architecture to support CWS provides benefits of speed and
                                                                     productivity. System upgrades need occur at only two sites with
                                                                     no desktop upgrades needed. Redundancy of site data reduces user
Army Procurement Desktop-Defense (PD2)                               downtime during server upgrade requirements or system failures.
Server Consolidation
                                                                     The consolidated PD2 environment will consist of data centers
                                                                     in Radford, VA, and Huntsville, AL. These centers will support
                Thomas Evans and Berry Dunbar                        approximately 8,300 users connecting from remote sites. Each
                                                                     Army site will have a unique database running on the new servers.
Since the mid-1990s, DOD has pursued a common system for             The Radford data center will provide the primary support, while
contract writing automation. After a significant acquisition and      Huntsville will be the continuity of operations plan data center.
development effort, all U.S. military branches began deploying
the Standard Procurement System software PD2.                        The hardware and software to support server consolidation
                                                                     has been purchased and is being installed. Migration of exist-
PD2 is a product of its time. Initially developed before the         ing databases will start as soon as the new hardware has been
widespread use of the Internet for distributed applications, it      accredited and will be phased in over 2 years.

                                                                                                  JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009        53
                                                    ARMY AL&T

                                   Whatever the challenges, whether technical, budgetary, or envi-       Army Contracting Business Intelligence System (ACBIS) to
                                   ronmental, it is clear that the move to a centrally housed CWS        create, in conjunction with FPDS, V&V reports and a reporting
                                   makes both economic and business sense. This plan offers cost         tool as part of the FPDS-NG elements in the DQIP. ABCAS
                                   savings and agility as well as the possibility of increased produc-   successfully created the V&V reporting tool; however, the tool
                                   tivity and cost enhancements.                                         had its problems, especially when downloading and uploading
                                                                                                         numerous spreadsheets. The tool was time-consuming for
                                   Thomas Evans is an Information Technology Specialist in the           V&V of FPDS-NG entries and troublesome for the contracting
                                   Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Procurement (DASA(P))      offices/commands to follow the detailed uploading process after
                                   Army Contracting and Transformation Enterprise Systems                completing V&V.
                                   Directorate. He is Level II certified in contracting.

                                                                                                         To improve the condition, ABCAS created the Acquisition
                                   Berry Dunbar is a CACI employee providing service to the              Data Validation Tool (ADVT). Managed through the ACBIS
                                   DASA(P) Army Contracting and Transformation Enterprise                Web portal operated by ABCAS, ADVT includes the 48 ele-
                                   Systems Directorate. He holds a B.S. in industrial administration     ments required to complete V&V consistent with the DQIP.
                                   (management) from the University of Illinois, an M.S. in contract     Systems administrators and contract writing system super users
                                   management from the Naval Postgraduate School, and an M.S. in         have tested ADVT and their feedback was outstanding. The
                                   management sciences from the University of Southern California.       ABCAS team loads the V&V data and it becomes available 3
                                   Dunbar is Level III certified in contracting.                          working days after the end of a quarter. The ABCAS team has
                                                                                                         also developed ADVT information and instruction bulletins
                                                                                                         and user guides.

                                   Army Business Center for Acquisition Systems Improves                 ADVT is a tremendous step toward creating an automated
                                   Verification and Validation (V&V) Reporting                           reporting tool that meets DPAP and OMB requirements,
                                                                                                         expands the V&V reporting window, and is easy to use by the
                                                                                                         Army contracting offices. V&V requirements are making a dif-
                                                           Stephanie Mullen                              ference on the award data accuracy that the Army is posting
                                                                                                         through FPDS-NG. The V&V reports are available and con-
                                   The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of            tinue to be used by our contracting offices to gauge data integrity.
                                   2006 required the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
                                   to create a free, publicly accessible Web portal, USASpending.        Stephanie Mullen is the former Director of the DASA(P) Army
                                   gov, which made all FY07 public fund expenditures available           Contracting and Transformation Enterprise Systems Directorate.
                                   on Jan. 1, 2008. OMB’s administrator requested that all fed-          She holds a B.S. in accounting from Monmouth University and an
                                   eral agencies and services describe their plans for ensuring the      M.B.A. from Fairleigh Dickinson University and is Level III certi-
                                   veracity of their data inputted to the Federal Procurement Data       fied in contracting. Mullen retired from federal service in May 2009.
                                   System-Next Generation (FPDS-NG) on the Web portal. The
                                   submissions were so diverse that OMB created an FPDS Data
                                   Quality Improvement Plan (DQIP) with FPDS elements to
                                   confirm data integrity and directed that all federal agencies and
                                   services submit their individual plan by July 2008.                   Boomerang Warrior Helps Soldiers Detect Snipers

                                   The Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy (DPAP)
                                   submitted its plan to OMB and directed all DOD services                             Valerie DeAngelis and Nathan Jordan
                                   and agencies to submit a DQIP input on the certification,
                                   verification, and validation award data for 2008. At a mini-           It was a clear and brisk day, perfect for a field demonstration of
                                   mum, the plan must reflect the quality goals and objectives,           the Army’s innovative Soldier-wearable shooter detection sys-
                                   including FPDS-NG data V&V as compared to the contract                tem—the Boomerang Warrior. Invited representatives from the
                                   file. OMB established 46 elements from FPDS-NG and                     U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Department of Homeland Security,
                                   DPAP included two elements for review.                                and various law enforcement agencies attended the event at the
                                                                                                         Fort Devens Shooting Range, Ayer, MA.
                                   Not to exacerbate the Army contracting community’s workload,
                                   the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Procurement            Contractor Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) Technologies
                                   (DASA(P)) tasked the Army Business Center for Acquisition             developed the initial acoustic array technology under a Defense
                                   Systems (ABCAS) Software Engineering Center to use the                Advanced Research Projects Agency program. The innovative

                                             54     JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                                                                                                                                 ARMY AL&T

                                                                                                                  As part of the event, a manikin dressed
                                                                                                                  as a Soldier, complete with an armored
                                                                                                                  vest, assault pack, and the Boomerang
                                                                                                                  Warrior, was placed downrange. A BBN
                                                                                                                  employee, acting as the shooter, took shots
                                                                                                                  from various positions on the range to
                                                                                                                  determine if the Boomerang Warrior sen-
                                                                                                                  sors could accurately identify his location.
                                                                                                                  Guests, who were in the test site tent far
                                                                                                                  removed from the shooting, could observe

                                                                                                                                                                   CONTRACTING COMMUNITY HIGHLIGHTS
                                                                                                                  on a computer what a Soldier would hear
                                                                                                                  in his earpiece and see on his wristband
                                                                                                                  while under sniper fire. This information
                                                                                                                  was similar to what a network-connected
                                                                                                                  command center would observe during an
                                                                                                                  actual attack. To demonstrate its accuracy,
                                                                                                                  the manikin was turned sideways and only
                                                                                                                  the shoulder sensor closest to the shooter
The Boomerang III and Boomerang Warrior alert Soldiers of incoming sniper fire, providing accurate
information on the shooter’s location and giving Soldiers the opportunity to retreat to safety. Here, a Soldier   recorded the gunfire. The beauty of the
returns to his vehicle, which is equipped with the mounted Boomerang III. (Photo courtesy of BBN.)                dual-shoulder system approach is that it
                                                                                                                  reports only the two best solutions for
                                                                                                                  optimum performance.
technology, called the Boomerang, has now been enhanced into
the Boomerang III. The success of Boomerang III led the Army                              The contributions of this technology will help to ensure the safety
to seek a miniaturized version of the shooter detection system                            of our Soldiers, in both a mounted and dismounted capacity.
for the dismounted Soldier.
                                                                                          Valerie DeAngelis is a U.S. Army Research, Development, and
In response to a U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research,                                       Engineering Command (RDECOM) NCD contract specialist. She
Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) broad                                        holds a B.A. in political science from Rhode Island College and is
agency announcement, BBN submitted a concept paper and                                    Level II certified in contracting.
follow-on proposal to miniaturize Boomerang III into a device
that could be worn by the individual foot Soldier. As a result,                           Nathan Jordan is a second-year U.S. Army Civilian Training,
Bruce Buckland, NSRDEC project engineer, initiated procure-                               Education, and Development System intern working as an
ment for the Natick Contracting Division (NCD) to broker a                                RDECOM NCD contracting specialist. He holds a B.S. in
contract with BBN for further research and development into                               science from Framingham State College and is Level I certified
Boomerang III. Boomerang III estimates a shooter’s range and                              in contracting.
elevation by comparing the timing of sound waves using minia-
ture computer chips similar to those found in cell phones.                                Editor’s Note: BNN Technologies personnel contributed to this article.

The Boomerang Warrior provides the same reliable performance
and features as the vehicle-mounted Boomerang III system, but
it’s smaller, lighter, and integrated into tactical vests worn by
the Soldier. Boomerang Warrior gives foot Soldiers an imme-                               Federal Employees Incorporate Recovery Act Into the FAR
diate warning of hostile fire locations and, when networked,
can also provide unit leaders with the situational awareness
needed to coordinate team responses to hostile fire. Incoming                                                            Ann Budd
fire announcements are transmitted to an earpiece while a
lightweight wrist display provides range, azimuth, and eleva-                             On Feb. 17, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the
tion coordinates of the shooter’s position. As the Soldier moves,                         $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
the system compensates for the Soldier’s motion and continu-                              (Recovery Act) into law. Its intent was outlined by Congress
ally updates the threat’s location on the wrist display. A digital                        on Feb. 2, 2009: “This legislation will create and save jobs;
interface is also included to transmit shot coordinates to other                          help state and local governments with their budget shortfalls
situational displays.                                                                     to prevent deep cuts in basic services such as health, education,

                                                                                                                       JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009       55
                                                    ARMY AL&T

                                   and law enforcement; cut taxes for working families; and invest       • Reporting Requirements (FAR Case 2009-009). This rule
                                   in the long-term health of our economy.” To lessen the fears of         implements Recovery Act, Section 1512, Division A, requir-
                                   the American public concerning oversight of taxpayer dollars,           ing contractors to report on funding received. A new FAR
                                   the summary also stated that the Recovery Act would provide             Subpart 4.15 and Clause 52.204-11, Recovery Act Reporting
                                   “unprecedented oversight, accountability, and transparency to           Requirements, have been added. All nonclassified solicitations
                                   ensure that taxpayer dollars are invested effectively, efficiently,      and contracts, commercial and commercial-off-the-shelf
                                   and as quickly as possible.”                                            contracts, and Simplified Acquisition Threshold actions,
                                                                                                           funded in whole or in part by Recovery Act funds, must
                                   Federal employees have been working feverishly to incorporate           include the new clause.
                                   the provisions of the Recovery Act, also known as the stimulus        • Government Accountability Office/Inspector General

                                   package, into the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR ). This was       (GAO/IG) Access (FAR Case 2009-011). This rule imple-
                                   accomplished through the opening of five new FAR cases whose             ments Sections 902, 1514, and 1515, providing for the audit
                                   interim rules were published in the Federal Register on March           and review of both contracts and subcontracts and to inter-
                                   31, 2009, as part of Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC ) 2005-32.       view contractor and subcontractor personnel under contracts
                                   This was an unprecedented effort that was completed in 42 days.         containing Recovery Act funding. Three new alternate clauses
                                                                                                           have been added: 52.212-5, Contract Terms and Conditions
                                   The following five Recovery Act interim rules were issued                Required to Implement Statutes or Executive Orders-Commercial
                                   in FAC 2005-32:                                                         Items; 52.214-26, Audit and Records-Sealed Bidding; and
                                                                                                           52.215-2, Audit and Records-Negotiation. They provide specific
                                   • Buy American Requirements For Construction Material                   authority for the Comptroller General to audit contracts and
                                     (FAR Case 2009-008). This rule implements Section 1605,               subcontracts and to interview contractor and subcontractor
                                     prohibiting the use of funds appropriated for any project for         employees under contracts using Recovery Act funds. The same
                                     the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of a public      authorities also apply to federal IGs, with the exception of
                                     building or public work unless all of the iron, steel, and manu       interviewing subcontracting employees.
                                     factured goods used in the project are produced in the United
                                     States. However, there are certain caveats. It specifies that this   Although not part of the Recovery Act, an additional item
                                     requirement be consistent with U.S. obligations under inter-        was also included in FAC 2005-32: GAO Access to Contractor
                                     national agreements that the least developed countries be the       Employees (FAR Case 2008-026 ). It implements Section 871
                                     exceptions and treated as designated countries. Waivers are         of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for
                                     permitted under one of three specific circumstances.                 FY09 (Public Law 110-417 ) by amending FAR Parts 12 and
                                   • Whistleblower Protections (FAR Case 2009-012). This                 52. Modifications to Clauses 52.215-2, Audit and Records-
                                     rule implements Section 1553, revising FAR Subpart 3.9              Negotiation, and 52.214-26, Audit and Records-Sealed Bidding,
                                     by adding Section 3.907, which provides procedures for              allow GAO to interview contractor employees when conducting
                                     whistleblower protection when using funds appropriated or           audits. The rule will not apply to the acquisition of commercial
                                     otherwise provided by the Recovery Act. Section 3.907 specifies      items and is reflected in FAR Subpart 12.503.
                                     that nonfederal employers are prohibited from discharging,
                                     demoting, or discriminating against employees as a reprisal         The implementation of these interim rules should provide the
                                     for disclosing certain covered information to certain categories    “unprecedented oversight, accountability, and transparency”
                                     of government officials.                                             that President Obama and Congress intended and “ensure
                                   • Publicizing Contract Actions (FAR Case 2009-010). This              that taxpayer dollars are invested effectively, efficiently, and as
                                     rule implements the Office of Management and Budget’s                quickly as possible.”
                                     guidance M-09-10, Initial Implementing Guidance for the
                                     Recovery Act, Section 6.2. FAR Part 4 requires the contracting      Ann Budd works for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army
                                     officer (KO) to enter data in the Federal Procurement Data           for Procurement and is a Defense Acquisition Regulation council
                                     System (FPDS) on any action funded in whole or in part by           member. She holds a B.S. in business administration from Mary
                                     the Recovery Act, in accordance with the instructions included      Washington College, an M.B.A. from Strayer University, and an
                                     on the FPDS Web page. FAR Subpart 5.7 directs the KO to             M.S. in national resource strategy from the National Defense
                                     use the governmentwide point of entry to download specific           University. Budd is certified Level III in contracting and Level
                                     information. FAR Parts 8, 13, and 16 have been amended to           II in program management, and is a U.S. Army Acquisition
                                     reflect the new posting requirements for orders at Subpart 5.7.      Corps member.

                                              56    JULY–SEPTEMBER 2009
                               ASAALT Leaders Past and Present

A recent promotion ceremony brought together former and current Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASAALT) leaders.
Shown here (left to right) are former Military Deputy (MILDEP) GEN Paul J. Kern (U.S. Army, Ret.), current Principal MILDEP LTG N. Ross Thompson III, former
ASAALT Paul J. Hoeper, former ASAALT Claude M. Bolton Jr., former MILDEP LTG John S. Caldwell Jr. (U.S. Army, Ret.), and current Acting ASAALT Dean G. Popps.
(U.S. Army photo by Steve Lusher, a contractor providing support to the Joint Program Executive Office Chemical and Biological Defense.)
ISSN 0892-8657

FT BELVOIR, VA 22060-5567

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 Headquarters Department of the Army | PB-70-09-03 | Approved for public release: Distribution is unlimited

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