Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
1. As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin,
A) fewer slaves were needed on the plantations.
B) short-staple cotton lost popularity.
C) slavery was reinvigorated.
D) Thomas Jefferson predicted the gradual death of slavery.
E) the African slave trade was legalized.
2. Members of the planter aristocracy
A) produced fewer front-rank statesmen than the North.
B) dominated society and politics in the South.
C) provided democratic rule in the South.
D) promoted tax-supported public education.
E) kept up with developments in modern thought.
3. All the following were true of the American economy under Cotton Kingdom except
A) cotton accounted for half the value of all American exports after 1840.
B) the South produced more than half the entire world's supply of cotton.
C) 75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South.
D) quick profits from cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise.
E) the South reaped all the profits from the cotton trade.
4. Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because
A) it relied mainly on artificial means to fertilize the soil.
B) it required leaving cropland fallow every other year.
C) excessive water was used for irrigation.
D) it was too diversified, thus taking essential nutrients from the soil.
E) its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land.
5. Plantation mistresses
A) had little contact with slaves.
B) primarily controlled male slaves.
C) frequently supported abolitionism.
D) commanded a sizable household staff of mostly female slaves.
E) were almost universally loved by their slaves.
6. Plantation agriculture
A) led to a slow return on investments.
B) remained diverse until the Civil War.
C) was economically unstable and wasteful.
D) discouraged immigration to the West.
E) encouraged southern democracy.
7. The plantation system of the Cotton South was
A) increasingly monopolistic.
B) efficient at utilizing natural resources.
C) financially stable.
D) attractive to European immigrants.
E) unable to expand westward.
8. All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation system except that
A) it relied on a one-crop economy.
B) it repelled a large-scale European immigration.
C) it stimulated racism among poor whites.
D) it created an aristocratic political elite.
E) its land continued to remain in the hands of the small farmers.
9. German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by
A) competition with slave labor.
B) southern anti-Catholicism.
C) Irish antislavery groups.
D) immigration barriers enacted by southern states.
E) their inability to tolerate the hot climate.
10. All told, only about _____ of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a
11. __________ said the following quote, “I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get
rid of freedom.”
A) Jefferson Davis
B) John C. Calhoun
C) Ralph Waldo Emerson
D) Abraham Lincoln
E) Andrew Johnson
12. As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised
E) sugar cane.
13. Most white southerners were
A) planter aristocrats.
B) small slaveowners.
C) merchants and artisans.
D) “poor white trash.”
E) subsistence farmers.
14. By the mid-nineteenth century,
A) most southerners owned slaves.
B) the smaller slaveholders owned a majority of the slaves.
C) most slaves lived on large plantations.
D) slavery was a dying institution.
E) southerners were growing defensive about slavery.
15. Most slaves in the South were owned by
B) mountain whites.
C) plantation owners.
D) small farmers.
E) subsistence farmers.
16. The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because
A) they opposed slavery.
B) they could not afford the purchase price.
C) their urban location did not require them.
D) their racism would not allow them to work alongside African Americans.
E) they feared the possibility of slave revolts.
17. The most pro-Union of the white southerners were
A) plantation owners.
B) mountain whites.
C) small slaveowners.
D) nonslaveowning subsistence farmers.
E) people with northern economic interests.
18. Some southern slaves gained their freedom as a result of
A) the prohibition of the Atlantic slave trade after 1807.
B) purchase by northern abolitionists.
C) fleeing to mountain hideaways.
D) purchasing their way out of slavery.
E) the objection to slaveholding by some white women.
19. The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was
largely due to
A) the reopening of the African slave trade in 1808.
B) larger imports of slaves from the West Indies.
C) natural reproduction.
D) reenslavement of free blacks.
E) the deliberate “breeding” of slaves by plantation owners.
20. Northern attitudes toward free blacks can best be described as
A) supporting their right to full citizenship.
B) disliking the race but liking individual blacks.
C) advocating black movement into the new territories.
D) politically sympathetic but socially segregationist.
E) disliking the individuals but liking the race.
21. For free blacks living in the North,
A) living conditions were nearly equal to those for whites.
B) voting rights were widespread.
C) good jobs were plentiful.
D) education opened the door to economic opportunity.
E) discrimination was common.
22. The profitable southern slave system
A) hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole.
B) saw many slaves moving to the upper South.
C) led to the textile industry's development in the South first.
D) relied almost totally on importing slaves to meet the unquenchable demand for
E) enabled the South to afford economic and educational progress.
23. Regarding work assignments, slaves were
A) given some of the most dangerous jobs.
B) generally spared dangerous work.
C) given the same jobs as Irish laborers.
D) usually given skilled rather than menial jobs.
E) generally supervised in small groups.
24. Perhaps the slave's greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet Beecher
Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, was
A) the enforced separation of slave families.
B) slaveowners' frequent use of the whip.
C) the breeding of slaves.
D) having to do the most dangerous work on the plantation.
E) forcible sexual assault by slaveowners.
25. By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” located in the
A) border states of Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland.
B) Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
C) old South states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
D) new Southwest states of Texas, Arkansas, and Indian Territory.
E) mountain regions of Tennessee, West Virginia, and Kentucky.
26. As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, slaveowners most often used the
A) promise of eventual freedom.
B) reward of some legal rights.
C) right to hold private property.
D) whip as a motivator.
E) threat of death.
27. By 1860, life for slaves was most difficult in the
A) Atlantic states of North and South Carolina.
B) Deep South states of Georgia and Florida.
C) territories of Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico.
D) upper South states of Virginia and Maryland.
E) newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
28. Forced separation of spouses, parents, and children was most common
A) in the Deep South.
B) on the large plantations.
C) on small plantations and in the upper South.
D) in the decade before the Civil War.
E) as a punishment for running away.
29. All of the following were true of slavery in the South except that
A) slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas.
B) a distinctive African American slave culture developed.
C) a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the backs of his
slaves to beat them on a regular basis.
D) by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” of the Deep South.
E) most slaves were raised in single unstable parent households.
30. Most slaves were raised
A) without the benefit of a stable home life.
B) in stable two-parent households.
C) never knowing anything about their relatives.
D) not to display their African cultural roots.
E) without religion.
31. Slaves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways except by
A) slowing down the work pace.
B) refusing to get an education.
C) sabotaging expensive equipment.
D) pilfering goods that their labor had produced.
E) running away when possible.
32. As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of
potential slave rebellions, the South
A) formed alliances with white imperialists in Africa.
B) adopted British attitudes toward the “peculiar institution.”
C) emancipated many slaves.
D) shed its image as a reactionary backwater.
E) developed a theory of biological racial superiority.
33. In the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave
A) feigned laziness.
B) sabotage of plantation equipment.
C) running away.
D) armed insurrection.
E) stealing food and other goods.
34. Which one of the following has least in common with the other four?
A) Nat Turner
B) David Walker
C) John Quincy Adams
D) Denmark Vesey
35. The idea of recolonizing blacks back to Africa was
A) proposed by William Lloyd Garrison.
B) proposed as part of the 14th Amendment.
C) advocated by Frederick Douglass.
D) suggested by the African nation of Liberia.
E) supported by the black leader Martin Delaney.
36. Match each abolitionist below with his publication.
A. William Lloyd Garrison 1. Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World
B. Theodore Dwight Weld 2. The Liberator
C. Frederick Douglass 3. Narration of the Life of…
D. David Walker 4. American Slavery as It Is
A) A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
B) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
C) A-3, B-2, C-4, D-1
D) A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
E) A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3
37. Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American
Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, (C) Liberty party.
A) A, B, C
B) C, A, B
C) B, C, A
D) A, C, B
E) C, B, A
38. William Lloyd Garrison pledged his dedication to
A) shipping freed blacks back to Africa.
B) outlawing the slave trade.
C) preventing the expansion of slavery beyond the South.
D) forming an antislavery political party.
E) the immediate abolition of slavery in the South.
39. Match each abolitionist below with his role in the movement.
A. Wendell Phillips 1. abolitionist martyr
B. Frederick Douglass 2. black abolitionist
C. Elijah P. Lovejoy 3. abolitionist golden trumpet
D. William Lloyd Garrison 4. abolitionist newspaper publisher
A) A-4, B-2, C-l, D-3
B) A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3
C) A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2
D) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
E) A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
40. Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential
candidate of the
A) Free Soil party.
B) Republican party.
C) Know-Nothing party.
D) Liberty party.
E) Anti-Mason party.
41. The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the
42. In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, southerners
A) placed themselves in opposition to much of the rest of the Western world.
B) were in opposition to the North but on the side of the Western world.
C) failed to compare slaves with the northern factory worker.
D) allowed considerable dissent in the South.
E) aligned themselves with leading European intellectuals.
43. Those in the North who opposed the abolitionists believed that these opponents of
A) were creating disorder in America.
B) were defending the American way of life.
C) deserved the right to speak freely.
D) had turned their backs on religion.
E) were undermining fundamental American beliefs.
44. “Varying Viewpoints” notes that Ulrich B. Phillips made certain claims about slavery
that have been challenged in recent years. Which of the following is not one of his
A) Slaves were racially inferior.
B) Slavery was a dying economic institution.
C) Planters treated their slaves with kindly paternalism.
D) Slaves were passive by nature and did not abhor slavery.
E) Slavery was comparable to the Nazi concentration camps.
45. John Tyler joined the Whig party because he
A) thought that it was the easiest way to become president.
B) could not stomach the dictatorial tactics of Andrew Jackson.
C) was forced to resign from the Senate.
D) believed in its pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, and pro-internal improvements
E) believed it better represented Virginia's interests.
46. The Whigs placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to
A) have him instead of President William Henry Harrison actually run the executive
B) win northern votes.
C) attract the vote of the states' rightists.
D) reward him for his strong support of the Whig party platform.
E) respond to the Democrats' expansionist appeal.
47. After President John Tyler's veto of a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States,
A) he was expelled from the Whig party.
B) all but one member of his cabinet resigned.
C) an attempt was made in the House of Representatives to impeach him.
D) Tyler also vetoed a Whig-sponsored high-tariff bill.
E) all of the above.
48. The only member of President Tyler's Whig cabinet who did not resign in protest over
his policies was
A) Henry Clay.
B) Zachary Taylor.
C) Robert Walker.
D) Daniel Webster.
E) Millard Fillmore
49. During an 1837 Canadian insurrection against Britain,
A) the United States stayed neutral in word and action.
B) the United States imprisoned several American violators of neutrality.
C) America was unlawfully invaded by the British.
D) Canada warned the United States to stay out of the conflict.
E) the U. S. government plotted to annex Canada.
50. As a result of the panic of 1837,
A) the U. S. established restrictions on foreign loans.
B) Britain lent money to America, its close ally.
C) anti-British passions cooled in America.
D) the Democrats led America into war for more territory.
E) several states defaulted on their debts to Britain.
51. The British-American dispute over the border of Maine was solved
A) by the Third War for American Independence.
B) by a compromise that gave each side some territory.
C) when America was given all of the territory in question.
D) by the Caroline incident.
E) by admitting Maine into the Union and New Brunswick into Canada.
52. The Aroostook War was the result of
A) a short-lived insurrection in British Canada.
B) the Caroline incident.
C) the offer of asylum to the crew of the Creole.
D) a dispute over the northern boundary of Maine.
E) a fishing dispute between Britain and the U. S.
53. Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) annexation of Texas, (B) Webster-
Ashburton Treaty, (C) settlement of the Oregon boundary, (D) Aroostook War.
A) A, B, D, C
B) B, D, C, A
C) D, B, A, C
D) C, A, B, D
E) A, D, C, B
54. Some people in Britain hoped for a British alliance with Texas because
A) the alliance would help to support the Monroe Doctrine.
B) this area would provide an excellent base from which to attack the United States.
C) Mexican efforts to attack the United States would be stopped.
D) Texas could become a location for the settlement of undesirable British emigrants.
E) the alliance would give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in Texas.
55. One argument against annexing Texas to the United States was that the annexation
A) could involve the country in a series of ruinous wars in America and Europe.
B) might give more power to the supporters of slavery.
C) was not supported by the people of Texas.
D) offered little of political or economic value to America.
E) would lead to tensions and possible war with the British.
56. Texas was annexed to the United States as a result of
A) Senate approval of the Treaty of Annexation.
B) President Tyler's desire to help his troubled administration.
C) a presidential order by Andrew Jackson.
D) the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
E) a compromise to admit free-state Iowa at the same time.
57. Arrange in chronological order the United States' acquisition of (A) Oregon, (B) Texas,
A) A, B, C
B) C, B, A
C) B, A, C
D) B, C, A
E) A, C, B
58. The primary group that was instrumental in strengthening and saving American claims
to Oregon were
A) the Lewis and Clark expedition.
B) the Hudson's Bay Company.
C) American missionaries to the Indians.
D) U.S. naval forces in Puget Sound.
E) Mormon settlers from Utah.
59. Most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country were attracted by the
A) rich soil of the Willamette River Valley.
B) expectation of fighting British troops.
C) potential profits in the fur trade.
D) discovery of gold and silver in the Cascade Mountains.
E) hope of finding a better trade route to East Asia.
60. The nomination of James K. Polk as the Democrats' 1844 presidential candidate was
A) southern expansionists.
B) anti-Texas southerners.
C) Henry Clay.
D) eastern business interests.
E) proslavery forces.
61. The area in dispute between the United States and Great Britain in 1845 lay between
A) the forty-second parallel and the Columbia River.
B) the Cascade Mountains, the Columbia River, and Puget Sound.
C) the 36º 30' line and the Columbia River.
D) the forty-ninth parallel and the 54º 40' line.
E) the Columbia River, the forty-ninth parallel, and the Pacific Ocean.
62. In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation
stretching across North America was called
D) Divine Mandate.
E) Manifest Destiny.
63. In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate, Henry Clay,
A) opposed the annexation of Texas.
B) called for immediate annexation of Texas.
C) favored both the annexation of Texas and the postponement of that annexation.
D) ignored the issue of the annexation of Texas.
E) favored dividing Texas into several states.
64. The election of 1844 was notable because
A) the campaign raised no real issues.
B) a genuine and clear mandate emerged.
C) it was fought over numerous issues.
D) Polk won the electoral vote but lost the popular vote.
E) it brought the slavery issue into politics.
65. The group most supportive of gaining control of all the Oregon Country was the
A) southern Democrats.
C) northern Democrats.
E) Protestant missionaries.
66. In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the United States
was established to the Pacific Ocean along the line of
B) 52º 40'.
C) 54º 40'.
D) 36º 30'.
67. One reason that the British government decided to compromise on the Oregon Country
A) the support of the Hudson's Bay Company.
B) their belief that the territory was not worth fighting over.
C) John Tyler's election to the presidency.
D) America's acceptance of 54º 40'.
E) their better ability to defend British Columbia.
68. In his quest for California, President James K. Polk
A) advocated war with Mexico from the beginning.
B) argued strongly for annexation, because Americans were the most numerous people
in the area.
C) was motivated by his knowledge of gold deposits there.
D) sought British help to persuade Mexico to sell the area to the United States.
E) first advocated buying the area from Mexico.
69. Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) Bear Flag revolt, (B) Slidell mission
rejected, (C) declaration of war on Mexico, (D) American troops ordered to the Rio
A) B, D, C, A
B) A, C, B, D
C) D, B, A, C
D) C, A, D, B
E) A, D, C, B
70. In 1846 the United States went to war with Mexico for all of the following reasons
A) the ideology of Manifest Destiny.
B) the deaths of American soldiers at the hands of Mexicans.
C) the desire to gain payment for damage claims against the Mexican government.
D) the impulse to satisfy those asking for “spot” resolutions.
E) Polk's desire to acquire California.
71. President Polk's claim that “American blood [had been shed] on the American soil”
referred to news of an armed clash between Mexican and American troops near
A) San Francisco.
B) the Nueces River.
C) Santa Fe.
D) the Rio Grande.
E) San Antonio.
72. During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called on several times to respond
to “spot” resolutions indicating where American blood had been shed to provoke the
war. The resolutions were frequently introduced by
A) Abraham Lincoln.
B) Henry Clay.
C) Robert Walker.
D) David Wilmot.
E) Lewis Cass.
73. One goal of Mexico in its 1846–1848 war with the United States was to
A) demonstrate the strength of Latino culture.
B) regain control of Texas.
C) capture slaves and take them back to Mexico.
D) force America to make good on unpaid claims of damages to Mexican citizens.
E) free black slaves.
74. When the war with Mexico began, President James K. Polk
A) advocated taking all of Mexico.
B) believed the British would intervene on behalf of the Americans.
C) hoped to fight a limited war, ending with the conquest of California.
D) supported a large-scale conflict.
E) denied any intention of expanding slavery.
75. Match each American officer below with his theater of command in the Mexican War.
A. Stephen W. Kearny 1. northern Mexico
B. Zachary Taylor 2. California
C. Winfield Scott 3. Santa Fe
D. John C. Frémont 4. Mexico City
A) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
B) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
C) A-3, B-4, C-2, D-1
D) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
E) A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3
76. The terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ending the Mexican War included
A) a guarantee of the rights of Mexicans living in New Mexico.
B) United States annexation of all the territory south of the Rio Grande.
C) the banning of slavery from all territory ceded to the United States.
D) a requirement that Mexico pay $3.25 million in damages to the United States.
E) United States payment of $15 million for the cession of northern Mexico.
77. Those people most opposed to President James K. Polk's expansionist program were the
A) western Democrats.
B) antislavery forces.
C) Senate Democrats.
D) supporters of Nicholas P. Trist.
E) proslavery Whigs.
78. The Wilmot Proviso
A) symbolized the burning issue of slavery in the territories.
B) gained House and Senate approval in 1846.
C) settled once and for all the issue of slavery in California.
D) allowed slavery in the territory taken from Mexico in 1848.
E) left open the issue of slavery in New Mexico and Utah.
79. The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that
A) Mexican territory would not be annexed to the United States.
B) slavery would be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the United States.
C) the United States should annex all of Mexico.
D) the United States should have to pay Mexico a financial indemnity for having
provoked the war.
E) slavery in the territories would be determined by popular sovereignty.
80. The largest single addition to American territory was
A) the Louisiana Purchase.
B) the Mexican Cession.
C) the Oregon Country.
D) the Old Northwest.
81. The first Old World Europeans to come to California were
82. The Spanish Franciscan missionaries treated the native inhabitants of California
A) according to the principles of their founder St. Francis.
B) well but refused to convert them to Christianity.
C) very harshly.
D) better than they treated their African slaves.
E) as capable of civilization if educated.
83. When the Mexican government secularized authority in California,
A) missionaries gained power.
B) slavery became an accepted practice.
C) convicts brought in by Spain were expelled.
D) California's Indians received better treatment.
E) Californios eventually gained control of the land.
84. The Californios' political ascendancy in California ended
A) with the arrival of Franciscan friars.
B) as a result of the influx of Anglo golddiggers.
C) when Mexico gained control of the area in 1826.
D) when agriculture became more profitable than mining.
E) when the U. S. government made English mandatory.
85. In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, party
A) decided to ban slavery from all United States territories.
B) decided to allow slavery into all United States territories.
C) avoided public discussion of slavery.
D) banished abolitionists from membership in either national party.
E) worked to make third parties almost impossible.
86. The United States' victory in the Mexican War resulted in
A) renewed controversy over the issue of extending slavery into the territories.
B) a possible split in the Whig and Democrat parties over slavery.
C) the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to the United States.
D) a rush of settlers to new American territory in California.
E) all of the above.
87. The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have
A) prevented the taking of any territory from Mexico.
B) required California to enter the Union as a slave state.
C) overturned the Fugitive Slave Law.
D) prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War.
E) all of the above.
88. The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession
A) threatened to split national politics along North-South lines.
B) nearly resulted in the return of the territory to Mexico.
C) resulted in the formation of the Republican party.
D) resulted in strong hostility to further expansionism.
E) all of the above.
89. In 1848, the Free Soil party platform advocated all of the following except
A) support of the Wilmot Proviso.
B) federal aid for internal improvements.
C) free government homesteads for settlers.
D) opposition to slavery in the territories.
E) giving women the right to vote.
90. According to the principle of “popular sovereignty,” the question of slavery in the
territories would be determined by
A) the most popular national leaders.
B) a national referendum.
C) congressional legislation.
D) a Supreme Court decision.
E) the people in any given territory.
91. The public liked popular sovereignty because it
A) stopped the spread of slavery.
B) fit in with the democratic tradition of self-determination.
C) provided a national solution to the problem of slavery.
D) supported the Wilmot Proviso.
E) upheld the principles of white supremacy.
92. In the 1848 presidential election, the Democratic and Whig parties
A) lost to the Free Soil party.
B) addressed the issue of slavery.
C) remained silent on the issue of slavery.
D) abandoned the tactic of nominating military leaders.
E) were divided on the issue of admitting California.
93. The key focus for the major parties in the 1848 presidential election was
D) Indian removal.
E) the economy.
94. The event that brought turmoil to the administration of Zachary Taylor was the
A) passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
B) influx of immigrants to the west coast.
C) attempt to acquire Cuba.
D) growth of lawlessness in California.
E) discovery of gold in California.
95. The Free Soilers argued that slavery
A) was unsuited to the West.
B) would cause more costly wage labor to wither away.
C) would, through its profits, enable small farmers to buy more land.
D) should be gradually abolished.
E) an immoral institution.
96. Of those people going to California during the gold rush,
A) the majority had come from foreign nations.
B) slaves constituted a sizable minority.
C) the majority gained considerable financial rewards.
D) most were interested in free-soil farming.
E) a distressingly high proportion were lawless men.
97. The Free Soilers condemned slavery because
A) of the harm it did to blacks.
B) of moral principles.
C) it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self-employment.
D) it was the only way they had of combating the appeal of the Democratic party.
E) it damaged the national economy.
98. By 1850, the South
A) was experiencing economic difficulties.
B) feared that slavery might be abolished in states where it already existed.
C) remained concerned about its weak voice in national government.
D) was relatively well off, politically and economically.
E) recognized that slavery expansion was over.
99. Harriet Tubman gained fame
A) by helping slaves to escape to Canada.
B) in the gold fields of California.
C) as an African American antislavery novelist.
D) as an advocate of the Fugitive Slave Law.
E) by urging white women to oppose slavery.
100. During the 1850s, slaves probably gained their freedom most frequently by
A) running away.
B) persuading masters to free them.
D) use of federal laws.
101. John C. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved
A) a constitutional amendment permanently guaranteeing equal numbers of slave and
B) southern secession from the Union.
C) support of Henry Clay's proposed concessions by both the North and the South.
D) repealing the president's veto power.
E) the election of two presidents, one from the North and one from the South.
102. Daniel Webster's famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in
A) Senate rejection of a fugitive-slave law.
B) a shift toward compromise in the North.
C) condemnation by northern commercial interests.
D) charges of accepting bribes.
E) a movement to draft him for the presidency.
103. In his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster
A) attacked Henry Clay's compromise proposals.
B) urged reasonable concessions to the South.
C) advocated a congressional ban on slavery in the territories.
D) proposed a scheme for electing two presidents, one from the North and one from the
South, each having veto power.
E) became a hated figure in the South.
104. For his position in his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster was viciously
A) northern Unionists.
B) northern banking and commercial interests.
D) Henry Clay.
E) John C. Calhoun.
105. The Young Guard from the North
A) regarded preserving the Union as their top priority.
B) agreed fully with the Old Guard on the issue of slavery.
C) saw expansionism as a solution to the slavery question.
D) gave support to John C. Calhoun's plan for rescuing the Union.
E) were most interested in purging and purifying the Union.
106. In the debates of 1850, Senator William H. Seward, as a representative of the northern
Young Guard, argued that
A) the Constitution must be obeyed.
B) John C. Calhoun's compromise plan must be adopted to preserve the Union.
C) Christian legislators must obey God's moral law.
D) compromise must be achieved to preserve the Union.
E) African Americans should be granted their own territory.
107. During the debate of 1850, _________________ argued that there was a “higher law”
than the Constitution that compelled him to demand the exclusion of slavery from the
A) William H. Seward
B) Henry Clay
C) Daniel Webster
D) Stephen A. Douglas
E) Zachary Taylor
108. An event which helped the cause of compromise in 1850, was when President Zachary
A) led an invasion of Texas to halt its attempts to take part of New Mexico.
B) supported fellow southerner John C. Calhoun's plan for union.
C) died suddenly and Millard Fillmore became president.
D) ushered in a second Era of Good Feelings.
E) decided not to run for re-election.
109. Southern delegates met at a convention in Nashville in the summer of 1850 to
A) plan southern secession.
B) plan ways to acquire more slave territory.
C) propose a series of constitutional amendments.
D) denounce Daniel Webster as a traitor to the South.
E) condemn the compromises being worked out in Congress.
110. In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and
Utah territories was
A) to be banned.
B) protected by federal law.
C) to be decided by popular sovereignty.
D) to be ignored until either territory applied for admission to statehood.
E) to be decided by the Supreme Court.
111. The most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision
A) slavery in the District of Columbia.
B) slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories.
C) the new Fugitive Slave Law.
D) settlement of the Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute.
E) continuation of the interstate slave trade.
112. The Fugitive Slave Law included all of the following provisions except
A) the requirement that fugitive slaves be returned from Canada.
B) denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves.
C) denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf.
D) the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape.
E) a higher payment if officials determined blacks to be runaways.
113. Many northern states passed “personal liberty laws” in response to the Compromise of
1850's provision regarding
A) slavery in the District of Columbia.
B) slavery in the territories.
C) restrictions on free blacks.
D) the interstate slave trade.
E) runaway slaves.
114. In light of future evidence, it seems apparent that in the Compromise of 1850 the South
made a tactical blunder by
A) allowing a ban on the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
B) demanding a strong fugitive-slave law.
C) not insisting on federal protection of slavery in the territories.
D) allowing the admission of California as a free state.
E) allowing popular sovereignty in Nebraska territory.
115. The fatal split in the Whig party in 1852 occurred over
A) the nomination of General Winfield Scott or Daniel Webster.
C) the Gadsden Purchase.
D) homestead laws.
E) the transcontinental railroad route.
116. The election of 1852 was significant because it
A) saw the victory of a pro-South northerner.
B) marked the return of issues-oriented campaigning.
C) saw the rise of purely national parties.
D) marked the end of the Whig party.
E) saw the emergence of an antislavery third party.
117. For a short time in the 1850s William Walker, an American adventurer, seized control
D) El Salvador.
E) Puerto Rico.
118. The man who opened Japan to the United States was
A) William Walker.
B) Franklin Pierce.
C) Lafcadio Hearn.
D) Clayton Bulwer.
E) Matthew Perry.
119. In 1850, rebuffed as buyers, some Southern adventurers undertook to shake the tree of
Manifest Destiny by attempting to seize __________ by force.
E) the Dominican Republic.
120. The United States' scheme to gain control of Cuba was stopped when
A) Spain threatened war.
B) northern free-soilers fiercely protested the effort.
C) U.S. leaders signed the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
D) Cuba refused to go along with the plan.
E) U.S. adventurers bungled their invasion.
121. Some Southerners felt Cuba would be an enticing prospect for annexation for all of the
following reasons except
A) it was not controlled by any European power and would be easily acquired.
B) it was a sugar-rich and economically productive territory.
C) it already had a large population of enslaved blacks.
D) it could be carved into several states, restoring political balance in the Senate.
E) it was located just off the nation's southern doorstep.
122. On July 3, 1844 the first formal diplomatic agreement between the United States and
China was the
A) Ostend Manifesto.
B) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
C) Chinese Open-Door Treaty.
D) Treaty of Wanghia.
E) Hong Kong / Chinese Treaty.
123. A scheme to acquire Cuba from Spain in the 1850's was known as the
A) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
B) Wilmot Proviso.
C) Kansas-Nebraska Act.
D) Gadsden Purchase.
E) Ostend Manifesto.
124. Most American leaders believed that the only way to keep the new Pacific Coast
territories from breaking away from United States control was
A) to allow slavery in these areas.
B) to build a canal across Central America.
C) to grant the territories quick statehood.
D) to construct a transcontinental railroad.
E) to establish large naval bases in San Diego and Seattle.
125. A southern route for the transcontinental railroad seemed the best because
A) northern areas were organized territories.
B) slave labor could be used to construct it.
C) the railroad would be easier to build in this area.
D) Mexican leader Santa Anna agreed to contribute money for the project.
E) it would firmly tie southern California to the Union.
126. Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the question of slavery in the Kansas- Nebraska
Territory be decided by
A) popular sovereignty.
B) making Kansas a free territory and Nebraska a slave territory.
C) the Supreme Court.
D) admitting California, Kansas, and Nebraska to the Union as free states.
E) the winner of the next presidential election.
127. Stephen A. Douglas's plans for deciding the slavery question in the Kansas-Nebraska
scheme required repeal of the
A) Compromise of 1850.
B) Fugitive Slave Act.
C) Wilmot Proviso.
D) Northwest Ordinance.
E) Missouri Compromise.
128. One of Stephen Douglas's mistakes in proposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act was
A) not securing the transcontinental railroad for the North.
B) overestimating the protest to the bill.
C) allowing slavery to spread into new territory.
D) underestimating the depth of northern opposition to the spread of slavery.
E) believing that slavery could not survive in Kansas.
129. Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
A) intended to show the cruelty of slavery.
B) was prompted by passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
C) comprised the recollections of a long-time personal witness to the evils of slavery.
D) received little notice at the time it was published but became widely read during the
E) portrayed blacks as militant resisters to slavery.
130. Uncle Tom's Cabin may be described as
A) a firsthand account of slavery.
B) a success only in the United States.
C) a romanticized account of slavery.
D) having little effect on the start of the Civil War.
E) a powerful political force.
131. As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, many northerners
A) found the book's portrayal of slavery too extreme.
B) vowed to halt British and French efforts to help the Confederacy.
C) rejected Hinton Helper's picture of the South and slavery.
D) would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law.
E) sent guns to antislavery settlers in Kansas (“Beecher's Bibles”).
132. When the people of Britain and France read Uncle Tom's Cabin, their governments
A) realized that intervention in the Civil War on behalf of the South would not be
B) concluded that they must end slavery in their own territory.
C) decided to give aid to the slaveholding South.
D) banned the book.
E) distributed the book as anti-American propaganda.
133. Hinton R. Helper's book The Impending Crisis of the South argued that those who
suffered most from slave labor were
A) African Americans.
B) southern planters.
C) northern Republican abolitionists.
D) western farmers.
E) nonslaveholding southern whites.
134. In 1855, proslavery southerners regarded Kansas as
A) territory governed by the Missouri Compromise.
B) slave territory.
C) geographically unsuitable for slavery.
D) too close to free states for slavery to be practical.
E) a test for slavery in wheat-growing areas.
135. In “Bleeding Kansas” in the mid-1850s, ________________ was/were identified with
the proslavery element, and ________________ was/were associated with the
A) Beecher's Bibles; border ruffians
B) John Brown; Preston Brooks
C) the Pottawatomie massacre; the sack of Lawrence
D) the Lecompton Constitution; the New England Immigrant Aid Society
E) Stephen A. Douglas; William Sumner
136. In 1856, the breaking point over slavery in Kansas came with
A) the arrival of John Brown.
B) an attack on Lawrence by a gang of proslavery raiders.
C) the influx of a large number of slaves.
D) the establishment of evangelical abolitionist churches.
E) the passage of the Lecompton Constitution.
137. President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution
A) hopelessly divided the Democratic party.
B) admitted Kansas to the Union as a free state.
C) admitted Kansas to the Union as a slave state.
D) reaffirmed the Democratic party as a national party.
E) turned the focus of controversy to Nebraska.
138. The Lecompton Constitution proposed that the state of Kansas
A) be free of all slavery.
B) hold a popular referendum on slavery.
C) be controlled by the free-soilers if approved.
D) allow slavery but prohibit slave auctions.
E) protect slave owners already in Kansas.
139. The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of
_______________ in the territories.
B) free soil
C) popular sovereignty
E) cotton growing
140. The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed
A) the seriousness of political divisions in the North.
B) the importance of honor to northerners.
C) despite divisions over slavery, the House of Representatives would unite to expel a
member for bad conduct.
D) passions over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both North and
E) the division between the House and the Senate over slavery.
141. James Buchanan won the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1856 because he
A) took a strong stand against popular sovereignty.
B) had gained fame as an explorer.
C) controlled the key swing state of Pennsylvania.
D) opposed further immigration from Ireland.
E) was not associated with the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
142. Match each candidate in the 1856 election below with the correct party.
A. John C. Frémont 1. Democratic
B. Millard Fillmore 2. Republican
C. Martin Van Buren 3. Know-Nothing
D. James Buchanan
A) A-2, B-3, C-1
B) B-1, C-2, D-3
C) A-2, B-3, D-1
D) A-3, C-1, D-2
E) A-1, B-3, C-2
143. The central plank of the Know-Nothing party in the 1856 election was
A) popular sovereignty.
144. Nativists in the 1850s were known for their
A) support of Native Americans (Indians).
B) support of slavery.
C) opposition to old-stock Protestants.
D) anti-Catholic and antiforeign attitudes.
E) opposition to alcohol and Sabbath-breaking.
145. The Republicans lost the 1856 election in part because of
A) southern threats that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war.
B) lingering support for slavery in the North.
C) northern bullyism.
D) the North's unwillingness at this stage to let the South depart in peace.
E) the division between Democrats and Know-Nothings.
146. As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of
A) of innate liberalism.
B) the Democrats presented excellent candidates.
C) many did not want to lose their profitable business connections with the South.
D) the Democrats were the only national party.
E) all of the above.
147. In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court
A) hoped to stimulate further debate on the slavery issue.
B) held that slaveowners could not take slaves into free territories.
C) supported the concept of popular sovereignty.
D) reunited the Democratic party.
E) expected to lay to rest the issue of slavery in the territories.
148. The decision rendered in the Dred Scott case was applauded by
C) popular-sovereignty proponents.
D) proslavery southerners.
E) conservative unionists.
149. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Dred Scott decision, (B) Lincoln-
Douglas debates, (C) Kansas-Nebraska Act, (D) Harpers Ferry raid.
A) A, C, B, D
B) B, D, C, A
C) C, A, B, D
D) D, B, A, C
E) A, C, D, B
150. For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in
the Dred Scott case was
A) that as a slave Scott had no right to sue in federal court.
B) that Scott did not automatically become free when his owner took him through free
states and territories.
C) that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory.
D) that slaveowners had the right to flood into territories so as to control popular
E) that the Bill of Rights did not apply even to free African Americans.
151. As a result of the panic of 1857, the South
A) saw the weakness of its economic system.
B) supported government gifts of homesteads.
C) believed that “cotton was king.”
D) backed away from secession.
E) saw the need to develop manufacturing.
152. The panic of 1857 resulted in
A) a demand to end the government policy of giving away farmland.
B) the extension of slavery to the territories.
C) price supports for farmers.
D) calls for restrictions on land and stock speculation.
E) clamor for a higher tariff.
153. The panic of 1857
A) was caused by overexportation of southern cotton.
B) hit hardest among grain growers of the Northwest.
C) finally brought southern congressmen to support free homesteads.
D) stimulated northern demands for lower tariff rates.
E) demonstrated the economic dominance of the North.
154. The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as
A) characterized by a rapid rise to power.
B) hurt by his marriage.
C) hurt by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
D) slow to get off the ground.
E) marred by early political opportunism.
155. As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates,
A) Lincoln was elected to the Senate.
B) Lincoln's national stature was diminished.
C) Douglas increased his chances of winning the presidency.
D) Illinois rejected the concept of popular sovereignty.
E) Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate.
156. Stephen A. Douglas argued in his Freeport Doctrine during the Lincoln-Douglas debates
A) the Dred Scott decision was unconstitutional.
B) slavery would stay down if the people voted it down.
C) no matter what the people wanted, the Supreme Court was law.
D) Congress should reopen the Atlantic slave trade.
E) a new version of the Missouri Compromise was needed.
157. In his raid on Harpers Ferry, John Brown intended to
A) foment a slave rebellion.
B) discredit abolitionists.
C) force the North and South to compromise on the slavery issue.
D) make Kansas a free state.
E) overthrow the federal government.
158. After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded that
A) the raid was an isolated incident.
B) the U.S. army could not protect slavery.
C) Brown should be put in an insane asylum.
D) Brown had been attempting to defend his right to own slaves.
E) the North was dominated by “Brown-loving” Republicans.
159. Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 Republican party presidential nomination in part
A) had been a strong supporter of William Seward.
B) had never taken a stand on the issue of slavery in the territories.
C) had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward.
D) was a longtime supporter of Stephen Douglas.
E) had more political experience than his opponents.
160. Match each presidential candidate in the 1860 election below with his party's position
on the slavery question.
A. Abraham Lincoln 1. extend slavery into the territories
B. Stephen Douglas 2. ban slavery from the territories
C. John Breckenridge 3. preserve the Union by compromise
D. John Bell 4. enforce popular sovereignty
A) A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4
B) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
C) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1
D) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
E) A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2
161. The presidential candidate of the new Constitutional Union party in 1860 was
A) Stephen A. Douglas.
B) William Seward.
C) John Bell.
D) Jefferson Davis.
E) James Crittenden.
162. In the election of 1860, the Constitutional Union Party was formed
A) to show support for the Constitution and the decisions made by the United States
B) as a middle-of-the-road party fearing for the break up of the union.
C) to help catapult the country into a Civil War.
D) as a anti-slavery southern party who supported Lincoln.
E) as a pro-slavery northern party.
163. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, people in South Carolina
A) waited to see how other southern states would act.
B) were very upset because they would have to secede from the Union.
C) vowed to give their loyalty to Stephen Douglas.
D) rejoiced because it gave them an excuse to secede.
E) accepted the democratic process and vowed to support Lincoln.
164. The government of the Confederate States of America was first organized in
A) Atlanta, Georgia.
B) Montgomery, Alabama.
C) Richmond, Virginia
D) Knoxville, Tennessee
E) Charleston, South Carolina.
165. “Lame-duck” President James Buchanan believed that
A) southern states had a legal right to secede from the Union.
B) his duty was to protect federal installations from assault.
C) the election of 1860 was a fraud.
D) southern states had no choice but to secede from the Union.
E) the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union.
166. President James Buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of
the following reasons except that
A) northern public opinion would not support it.
B) the army was needed to control Indians in the West.
C) he believed that the Constitution allowed secession.
D) a slim chance of reconciliation remained.
E) he was surrounded by pro-southern advisers.
167. Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because
A) it allowed the doctrine of popular sovereignty to be overridden once statehood was
B) it permitted slavery in Utah territory.
C) its adoption might provoke Kentucky to leave the Union.
D) he felt bound by President Buchanan's earlier rejection of it.
E) he had been elected on a platform that opposed the extension of slavery.
168. Secessionists supported leaving the Union because
A) they were dismayed by the success of the Republican party.
B) they believed that the North would not oppose their departure.
C) the political balance seemed to be tipping against them.
D) they were tired of abolitionist attacks.
E) all of the above.
169. The immense debt owed to northern creditors by the South was
A) repaid immediately after the Civil War.
B) repudiated by the South.
C) paid by pro-Union southerners during the war.
D) not repaid until the twentieth century.
E) converted into long-term Confederate bonds.
170. European powers favored a civil war in the United States because
A) they could regain control of a divided America.
B) war would weaken the United States' power in the Western Hemisphere.
C) war could end the concept of balance of power in the Americas.
D) such a conflict would halt the flow of blacks to Canada.
E) two North American nations would have weaker economies than one.
171. President Lincoln's decision on what to do about the situation at Fort Sumter in the first
weeks of his administration can best be characterized as
A) ill thought out.
B) rash and hotheaded.
C) the only possible option.
D) a strategic blunder.
E) a middle of the road solution.
172. Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter when it was learned that
A) Lincoln had ordered the fort reinforced with federal troops.
B) Lincoln had ordered supplies sent to the fort.
C) the fort's commander was planning to evacuate his troops secretly from the fort.
D) Lincoln had called for seventy-five thousand militia troops to form a voluntary
E) southern support for secession was weakening.
173. Many Northerners were willing to allow Southern states to leave the Union until
A) John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry.
B) the South attacked Fort Sumter.
C) Robert E. Lee was named to head the potential new nation's army.
D) South Carolina seceded from the United States.
E) Virginia and Tennessee joined the seceding states.
174. In order to persuade the Border States to remain in the Union, President Lincoln
A) relied solely on moral appeal.
B) used only totally legal methods.
C) guaranteed that they could keep slavery permanently.
D) never had to use troops.
E) used legally dubious methods.
175. The Border States offered all of the following advantages except
A) a large population.
B) a good supply of horses and mules.
C) valuable manufacturing capacity.
D) shipbuilding facilities.
E) large navigable rivers.
176. Lincoln's declaration that the North sought to preserve the Union with or without
A) came as a disappointment to most Northerners and demoralized the Union.
B) revealed the influence of the Border States on his policies.
C) caused some seceded states to rejoin the Union.
D) contradicted the campaign promises of the Republican party.
E) cost him support in the “Butternut region” of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois.
177. During the Civil War, most of the Five Civilized Tribes in the Indian Territory of
A) supported the Confederacy.
B) supported the Union.
C) remained neutral.
D) gave up their slaves.
E) sought admission as a Confederate state.
178. In return for support from the Plains Indians during the Civil War, the Union
A) gave them land in California.
B) increased their federal payments.
C) allowed them to send delegates to Congress.
D) made them scouts for the U. S. Army.
E) waged war on them and herded them onto reservations.
179. To achieve its independence, the Confederacy had to
A) invade the Union.
B) win a decisive military victory on its own soil.
C) fight the invading Union army to a draw.
D) attract more talented military commanders.
E) capture Washington, D.C.
180. As the Civil War began, the South seemed to have the advantage of
A) greater ability to wage offensive warfare.
B) more talented military leaders.
C) superior industrial capabilities.
D) superior transportation facilities.
E) a more united public opinion.
181. All of the following were similar characteristics that both Union and Confederate
soldiers shared except:
A) most soldiers had been farmers or farm laborers.
B) poor unskilled workers were well represented among both armies.
C) most troops were native born.
D) almost half were under the age of 22.
E) both shared a common commitment to patriotism.
182. Johnny Reb tended to be all of the following except
D) detached personally from the war.
E) bred to fight.
183. Billy Yank tended to be all of the following except
184. Of all the hardships faced by the soldiers during the Civil War, the greatest was
C) decline of moral standards.
D) lack of proper clothing.
E) constant fighting.
185. The greatest weakness of the South during the Civil War was its
A) military leadership.
C) slave population.
E) political system.
186. The North's greatest strength in the Civil War was its
A) ethnic unity.
B) military leadership.
D) high morale.
187. Much of the hunger experienced by Confederate soldiers in the Civil War was due to
A) poor agricultural production.
B) the Union's naval blockade.
C) the South's rickety transportation system.
D) the fact that slaves abandoned the plantations.
E) profiteering by military suppliers.
188. Northern soldiers eventually became known for their
A) discipline and determination.
B) cowardice in battle.
C) lack of proper training.
D) high-pitched battle yell.
E) love of military pomp and hierarchy.
189. To find effective high-level commanders, the Union
A) took only top graduates of West Point.
B) drew on its reserve officer training program.
C) relied on the advice of foreign experts.
D) did not let politics enter the decision-making process.
E) used trial and error.
190. A supposed asset for the South at the beginning of the Civil War that never materialized
to its real advantage was
A) effective military leadership.
B) intervention from Britain and France.
C) the fighting skill of Southern males.
D) its ability to fight on its own soil.
E) its belief that it was defending its way of life.
191. One reason that the British did not try to break the Union blockade of the South during
the Civil War was that
A) they feared losing Northern grain shipments.
B) they did not want to fight against the superior American navy.
C) the British upper class had supported the North from the onset of hostilities.
D) the war caused no economic problems for Britain.
E) the South resented British interference.
192. The South believed that the British would come to its aid because
A) the people in Britain would demand such action.
B) British Canada was strongly hostile to the Union.
C) Britain still had slavery in its empire.
D) the government had refused to allow Uncle Tom's Cabin to be sold in the empire.
E) Britain was dependent on Southern cotton.
193. During the Civil War, Britain and the United States were nearly provoked into war by
A) the incompetence of Charles Francis Adams, the United States ambassador to
B) Britain's refusal to observe the Union's blockade of Southern ports.
C) the Trent affair, involving the removal of Southern diplomats from a British ship.
D) Napoleon III's effort to place Maximilian on the Mexican throne.
E) British working class support for the South.
194. During the Civil War, diplomacy for the Union and the Confederacy
A) played only a small role.
B) was important for the Union but not for the Confederacy.
C) was critical for both.
D) was important for the Confederacy but not for the Union.
E) relied on international organizations.
195. Confederate commerce-raiders such as the Alabama
A) were of little value.
B) proved effective against Union shipping.
C) were supplied by the French.
D) lasted less than a year.
E) operated mostly off the Atlantic coast.
196. The Confederacy's most effective commerce-raider was the
197. Napoleon III's attempt to install Maximilian on the Mexican throne was a clear violation
A) French neutrality.
B) the Rush-Bagot agreement.
C) Spanish sovereignty.
D) the Monroe Doctrine.
E) Pan-American treaties.
198. France abandoned its attempt to control Mexico
A) because the effort proved to be unprofitable.
B) when the British pressured them to leave.
C) when the American Civil War began.
D) because the Mexicans declared independence.
E) when the United States threatened to force France to leave.
199. During the Civil War,
A) relations between the Union and Canada were at times very poor.
B) Southerners were unable to use Canada as a base from which to attack the Union.
C) the Union and Canada became very close allies.
D) France made an effort to regain control of Canada.
E) the British army in Canada mobilized for intervention.
200. The Southern cause was weakened by
A) the concept of states' rights that the Confederacy professed.
B) a president, Jefferson Davis, who catered to public opinion and did not work hard at
C) the failure of the Southern people to commit to the ideal of Southern independence.
D) a lack of sound military leadership.
E) the constant threat of slave rebellion.
201. As leader of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis
A) enjoyed real personal popularity despite the South's loss.
B) was a poor administrator.
C) developed a good relationship with his congress.
D) effectively articulated southern ideals.
E) defied rather than led public opinion.
202. The problems that Abraham Lincoln experienced as president were less prostrating than
those experienced by Jefferson Davis partly because the North
A) had a long-established and fully recognized government.
B) had strong political support from Britain and France.
C) held firm to states' rights principles.
D) was united in the cause of abolitionism.
E) had fewer internal political divisions.
203. As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis did not exercise the arbitrary power
wielded by Abraham Lincoln because
A) of the South's emphasis on states' rights.
B) there was such strong agreement on policy in the South.
C) he did not believe in strong executive action.
D) Lee's insistence on keeping his army out of politics.
E) the Confederate Constitution gave him all the power he needed.
204. To fill the army's demand for troops, the North relied mainly on
A) the draft.
B) bounty brokers.
C) substitute brokers.
E) foreign mercenaries.
205. The Union's establishment of the National Banking System
A) led to the issuance of depreciated paper money.
B) established the gold standard in the U.S.
C) resulted in the reestablishment of the Bank of the United States.
D) lasted only during the Civil War.
E) was the first significant step toward a unified banking network since 1836.
206. During the Civil War, the Union
A) launched a new national banking system.
B) lowered tariff rates.
C) imposed a 10 percent levy on farm produce.
D) experienced runaway inflation.
E) was plagued by unstable banks.
207. As a result of the Civil War, the Northern economy
A) became dependent on international trade.
B) saw industrial profits improve but agricultural profits fall.
C) saw unscrupulous business practices dramatically reduced.
D) greatly benefited ordinary workers.
E) emerged more prosperous than ever before.
208. The only major Northern industry that suffered economic reversal during the Civil War
A) textile manufacturing.
B) the petroleum industry.
C) wheat farming.
D) foreign shipping.
E) iron manufacturing.
209. During the Civil War, women in the North
A) generally played a small role.
B) worked on farms but not in cities.
C) saw their numbers in the manufacturing force greatly reduced.
D) had new opportunities opened to them in industry.
E) agitated for the vote.
210. At the beginning of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln favored
A) postponing military action as long as possible.
B) making the Civil War about ending slavery.
C) long-term enlistments for Union soldiers.
D) quick military action to show the folly of secession.
E) seizing control of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
211. Lincoln hoped that a Union victory at Bull Run would
A) lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond.
B) bring an end to slavery.
C) destroy the economy of the South.
D) pull the Border states out of the Confederacy.
E) all of the above.
212. Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) the Battle of Bull Run, (B) the Battle
of Gettysburg, (C) Lee's surrender at Appomattox, (D) the Battle of Antietam.
A) B, C, A, D
B) D, B, C, A
C) C, A, D, B
D) A, B, D, C
E) A, D, B, C
213. The South's victory at Bull Run in 1861
A) reduced enlistments in the South's army.
B) reduced the number of Confederate deserters.
C) demonstrated how difficult Confederate independence would be.
D) convinced the South of the need to prepare for a protracted conflict.
E) forced Lincoln to flee Washington.
214. In the Civil War, the South won the battle of
B) Bull Run.
E) Lookout Mountain.
215. The Union's defeat in battle at Bull Run in 1861 was better than a victory because
A) Ulysses S. Grant took command of the army immediately after the setback.
B) the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.
C) “Stonewall” Jackson was killed.
D) it caused Lincoln to declare a war against slavery.
E) all of the above.
216. George B. McClellan is best described as
A) disliked by his own men.
D) not very intelligent.
E) a great strategist.
217. After assuming command of the Army of the Potomac, General George McClellan
made the mistake of
A) taking too many risks.
B) relying on Lincoln's military judgment.
C) being unconcerned about the morale of his troops.
D) not drilling his troops enough to prepare them for battle.
E) consistently believing that the enemy outnumbered him.
218. As a result of the Union loss in the Peninsula Campaign,
A) Lincoln named George McClellan commander of the Union forces.
B) the North backed away from total war.
C) Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.
D) Winfield Scott was relieved of his command.
E) the war was forced off southern soil.
219. After the Peninsula Campaign, Union strategy included all of the following except
A) cutting the Confederacy in half.
B) marching through Georgia and then the Carolinas.
C) blockading the Confederacy's coastline.
D) liberating the slaves.
E) bypassing the Confederate capital at Richmond.
220. As a result of the Confederate victory in the Peninsula Campaign,
A) Robert E. Lee was named to command the entire Southern army.
B) Lincoln named Ulysses S. Grant as commander of the Union forces.
C) Lincoln delayed his issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
D) the Union turned to a strategy of total war.
E) Lincoln abandoned the war in the West.
221. The final Union war strategy included all the following components except
A) guerrilla warfare.
B) a naval blockade.
C) undermining the Confederate economy.
D) seizing control of the Mississippi River.
E) capturing Richmond.
222. Britain did not protest too loudly against the Union naval blockade of the Confederacy
A) Britain might want to use a similar blockade in a future war.
B) the British government clearly supported the Union.
C) it would have been useless to try to run the blockade.
D) profits were not high enough to justify the risk.
E) the blockade did not cut off cotton shipments.
223. The most alarming Confederate threat to the Union blockade came from
A) British navy vessels on loan to the South.
B) swift blockade-running steamers.
C) the threat of mutiny from pro-southern sailors.
D) the sinking of the Union's Monitor.
E) the ironclad Merrimack (the Virginia).
224. The Confederate blockade runner, the Merrimack, was
A) destroyed by Union troops.
B) captured and used by Union troops.
C) destroyed by Confederate soldiers.
D) able to escape to British ports.
E) none of the above.
225. After halting Lee's troops at Antietam, General George McClellan
A) retired from the military.
B) moved to confront Lee again at Gettysburg.
C) was appointed to command the main Western army.
D) marched his army toward Atlanta.
E) was removed from his field command.
226. One of the key developments enabling the Union to stop the Confederate thrust into the
North at Antietam was
A) Europe's refusal to help the South before the battle.
B) the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans.
C) Lincoln's removal of General McClellan from his command.
D) the use of the new repeating rifle for the first time.
E) the death of Stonewall Jackson during the battle.
227. The two major battles of the Civil War fought on Union soil were
A) Shiloh and Chancellorsville.
B) Bull Run and Vicksburg.
C) Gettysburg and Antietam.
D) Peninsula Campaign and Fredericksburg.
E) Mobile and Missionary Ridge.
228. The Battle of Antietam was particularly critical because it
A) inflated an already dangerous overconfidence among Southerners.
B) ended Lee's plan of invading the North.
C) delayed Lincoln's plan to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
D) ensured the reelection of President Lincoln.
E) probably prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of the
229. The North's “victory” at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to
A) issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
B) seek military assistance from Great Britain.
C) force the Border States to remain in the Union.
D) keep General McClellan as commander of the Union forces.
E) suppress Copperhead opposition in the North.
230. Slavery was legally abolished in the United States by the
A) Union victory over the Confederates at Gettysburg.
B) surrender terms of Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox.
C) Emancipation Proclamation.
D) statutes of the individual states.
E) Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
231. The Emancipation Proclamation had the effect of
A) reducing desertions from the Union army.
B) strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union.
C) increasing popular support for the Republicans in the 1864 election.
D) quieting public opposition to Lincoln's war policies.
E) weakening Confederate morale.
232. When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those
A) the Border States.
B) slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
C) United States territories.
D) states still in rebellion against the United States.
E) areas controlled by the Union army.
233. All of the following occurred as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation except
A) mounting opposition in the North to an “abolition war.”
B) sharp increases in Union desertions.
C) heavy congressional defeats for Lincoln's administration.
D) the disappearance of European working-class support for the Union.
E) complaints from abolitionists that it did not go far enough.
234. During the Civil War
A) blacks were enlisted by the Union army only after the Emancipation Proclamation
B) Southern armies found no way of utilizing slave labor.
C) thousands of slaves rose in armed rebellion behind Southern lines.
D) about one out of every four Union troops was black.
E) captured black soldiers were treated well by Confederates.
235. African Americans who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War
A) saw little actual combat.
B) served mainly as supply personnel.
C) served bravely and suffered extremely heavy casualties.
D) accounted for less than 1 percent of total Union enlistments.
E) refused to serve under white officers.
236. The Confederacy enlisted slaves into their army
A) a month before the war ended.
B) at the beginning of the war.
C) as a response to the Emancipation Proclamation.
D) to help in the attack on Gettysburg.
E) in recognition that the idea of slavery was wrong.
237. Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North through Pennsylvania in order to
A) deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen the Northern peace movement.
B) force the Union to ease its blockade of the South.
C) cut Northern supply lines.
D) stir northern draft resisters to rise in revolt.
E) seize Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.
238. The Battle of Gettysburg was significant because
A) the war ended shortly thereafter.
B) it guaranteed Lincoln's re-election in 1864.
C) the Union had uncovered the Confederates' battle plans wrapped around cigars.
D) it was decided so quickly.
E) Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.
239. The Union victory at Vicksburg was of major importance because
A) it reopened the Mississippi River to Northern trade.
B) coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, foreign help for the Confederacy was
C) it helped to quell Northern peace agitation.
D) it cut off the supply of cattle and other goods from Texas and Louisiana.
E) all of the above.
240. One consequence of General William T. Sherman's style of warfare was
A) a longer war.
B) the loss of more lives.
C) fewer desertions on the Confederate side.
D) southern resignation to defeat.
E) a shorter war that saved lives.
241. The group in the North most dangerous to the Union cause was the
A) Northern Peace Democrats.
B) Radical Republicans.
C) Northern War Democrats.
D) Union Party.
E) African Americans.
242. Clement L. Vallandigham, a Southern sympathizer and vocal opponent of the war, was
derisively labeled a
E) Prince of Jesters.
243. In the election of 1864, the Republicans joined with the prowar Democrats and founded
the _______________ party.
244. In the 1864 election, Abraham Lincoln's running mate was
A) Salmon P. Chase.
B) Wendell Phillips.
C) William Tecumseh Sherman.
D) Stephen A. Douglas.
E) Andrew Johnson.
245. In the l864 election, the Democratic party nominated _______________ to oppose
A) George McClellan
B) Ulysses S. Grant
C) Andrew Johnson
D) Clement C. Vallandigham
E) Horace Greeley
246. The Union army's victory in the capture of _______________ was probably critical to
Lincoln's reelection in 1864.
247. General Ulysses S. Grant's basic strategy in the Civil War involved
A) attacking the enemy one army at a time.
B) striking tactically from the flanks.
C) assailing the enemy's armies simultaneously and directly.
D) extensive use of interior line defense.
E) surrounding enemy armies for a long siege.
248. During the Civil War, Grant lost one man to every ___ , and Lee lost one man to every
A) 10, 5
B) 5, 10
C) 5, 20
D) 2, 10
E) 5, 2
249. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln
A) was a calamity for the South.
B) benefited the South.
C) had little effect on Reconstruction.
D) saved him from possible impeachment.
E) brought an abolitionist to the White House.
250. The supreme test of American democracy in the nineteenth century was
A) the Revolution.
B) surviving the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
C) helping Britain to pass the Reform Bill of 1867.
D) the War of 1812.
E) the Civil War.
251. The Civil War resulted in which of the following?
A) expanded federal powers of taxation
B) the end of nullification and secession
C) the creation of the first federal social welfare agency
D) the end of slavery
E) all of the above
252. The fate of the defeated Confederate leaders was that
A) most were sentenced to prison for life.
B) several were executed for treason.
C) after brief jail terms all were pardoned in 1868.
D) they were immediately returned to citizenship and full civil rights.
E) many went into exile in slaveholding Brazil.
253. In the postwar South
A) the economy was utterly devastated.
B) the emancipation of slaves had surprisingly little economic consequence.
C) the much-feared inflation never materialized.
D) industry and transportation were damaged, but Southern agriculture continued to
E) poorer whites benefited from the end of plantation slavery.
254. At the end of the Civil War, many white Southerners
A) reluctantly supported the federal government.
B) began planning a new rebellion..
C) saw their former slaves in a new light.
D) asked for pardons so that they could once again hold political office and vote.
E) still believed that their view of secession was correct.
255. Freedom for Southern blacks at the end of the Civil War
A) occurred immediately with the Emancipation Proclamation.
B) caused large numbers to migrate to the big cities in the North.
C) came haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered Confederacy.
D) was achieved without the use of Union soldiers.
E) was a source of considerable anxiety.
256. For blacks, emancipation meant all of the following except
A) the ability to search for lost family.
B) the right to get married.
C) the opportunity to form their own churches.
D) the opportunity for an education.
E) that large numbers would move north.
257. In 1865, Southern
A) whites quickly admitted they had been wrong in trying to secede and win Southern
B) whites rapidly turned their slaves into paid employees.
C) blacks uniformly turned in anger and revenge against their former masters.
D) blacks often began traveling to test their freedom, search for family members, and
seek economic opportunity.
E) blacks looked to the federal government for help.
258. The “Exodusters” westward mass migration to Kansas finally faltered when
A) homesteading on the Great Plains proved more difficult than expected..
B) the Fifteenth Amendment was passed.
C) steamboat captains refused to transport more former slaves across the Mississippi.
D) white Kansans passed strict segregation laws..
E) none of the above.
259. The greatest achievements of the Freedmen's Bureau were in
A) its distribution of land.
C) the provision of food and clothing.
D) helping people to find employment.
E) all of the above.
260. The white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as
A) a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset white racial dominance.
B) an agency acceptable only because it also helped poor whites.
C) a valued partner in rebuilding the South.
D) more helpful in the North than the South.
E) a threat to state social service agencies.
261. In President Andrew Johnson's view, the Freedmen's Bureau was
A) a valuable agency.
B) acceptable only because it also helped poor whites.
C) a tolerable compromise with the radical Congress.
D) a potential source of Republican patronage jobs.
E) a meddlesome agency that should be killed.
262. Andrew Johnson was named Lincoln's second-term vice president because
A) he championed a strong federal government.
B) he would politically attract War Democrats and pro-Union southerners.
C) he would appeal to the hard-drinking anti-temperance vote.
D) he had been an effective Republican leader for years.
E) President Lincoln admired his personal integrity and courage.
263. As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a reputation as
A) a supporter of the planter aristocrats.
B) an opponent of slavery.
C) an inspiring and calmly eloquent speaker.
D) a champion of the poor whites.
E) a secret Confederate sympathizer.
264. The controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the
Confederate states to the Union demonstrated
A) the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress.
B) the close ties that were developing between President Lincoln and the Democrats.
C) President Lincoln's desire for a harsh reconstruction plan.
D) that a Congressional majority believed that the South had never legally left the
E) the Republicans' fear of re-admitting Confederate leaders to Congress.
265. In his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised
A) rapid readmission of Southern states into the Union.
B) former slaves the right to vote.
C) the restoration of the planter aristocracy to political power.
D) severe punishment of Southern political and military leaders.
E) a plan to allow 10 percent of blacks to vote.
266. That the Southern states were “conquered provinces” that had completely left the Union
and were therefore at the mercy of Congress for readmission was the view of
A) War Democrats.
B) the Supreme Court.
C) President Lincoln.
D) President Johnson.
E) congressional Republicans.
267. President Johnson's plan for Reconstruction
A) differed radically from Lincoln's.
B) guaranteed former slaves the right to vote.
C) required that all former Confederate states ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
D) established literacy tests for voting in the South.
E) aimed at swift restoration of the southern states after a few basic conditions were
268. The main purpose of the Black Codes was to
A) guarantee freedom for the blacks.
B) ensure a stable and subservient labor supply.
C) prevent interracial sex and marriage..
D) prevent blacks from becoming sharecroppers.
E) create a system of justice for ex-slaves.
269. The Black Codes provided for all of the following except
A) a ban on jury service by blacks.
B) voting by blacks
C) a bar on blacks from renting land.
D) punishment of blacks for idleness
E) fines for blacks who jumped labor contracts.
270. To many Northerners, the Black Codes seemed to indicate that
A) it would take some time to reconcile the South and the North.
B) the transition to black freedom would be difficult.
C) the Civil War had been worth the sacrifice.
D) presidential Reconstruction was working.
E) the arrogant South was acting as if the North had not really won the Civil War.
271. For congressional Republicans, one of the most troubling aspects of the Southern states'
quick restoration to the Union was that
A) with the black population fully counted, the South would be stronger than ever in
B) pro-Union southern politicians would be weak and inexperienced.
C) the majority white South might be represented by black Congressmen.
D) a high tariff might be reinstituted.
E) slavery might be re-established.
272. The incident that caused the clash between Congress and President Johnson to explode
into the open was
A) passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.
B) the creation of the sharecropping system.
C) the attempt to pass the Fourteenth Amendment.
D) the South's regaining control of the Senate.
E) Johnson's veto of the bill to extend the Freedmen's Bureau.
273. The first and only ex-Confederate state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment in 1866 and
thus be immediately readmitted to the Union under congressional Reconstruction was
E) West Virginia.
274. The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed
A) citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves.
B) land for former slaves.
C) voting rights for former Confederates who had previously served in the U.S. Army.
D) freed slaves the right to vote.
E) education to former slaves.
275. The Fourteenth Amendment
A) required former Confederate states to pay their war debts.
B) prohibited ex-Confederate leaders from holding public office.
C) guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote.
D) met all the demands of the radical Republicans.
E) made women as well as blacks U.S. citizens.
276. In the 1866 congressional elections,
A) President Johnson conducted a highly successful “swing around the circle”
campaign tour promoting his policies.
B) radicals replaced moderates as the dominant Republican faction in Congress.
C) voters endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction.
D) Republicans lost their majority control of Congress.
E) a substantial number of white southern Republicans were elected to Congress.
277. The root cause of the battle between Congress and President Andrew Johnson was
A) Johnson's personal vulgarity and crude style of campaigning.
B) the president's former ownership of slaves.
C) Johnson's “soft” treatment of the white South..
D) Johnson's “class-based” policies that favored poor whites.
E) Johnson's underlying loyalty to the Democratic Party.
278. Both moderate and radical Republicans agreed that
A) federal power must be used to bring about a social and economic revolution in the
B) blacks should be the foundation of the southern Republican Party.
C) the federal government must become involved in the individual lives of American
D) Southern states should quickly be readmitted into the Union.
E) freed slaves must be granted the right to vote.
279. Radical congressional Reconstruction of the South finally ended when
A) the South accepted the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
B) the last federal troops were removed in 1877.
C) President Johnson was not reelected in 1868.
D) the Supreme Court ruled in Ex parte Milligan that military tribunals could not try
E) blacks showed they could defend their rights without federal intervention.
280. Which of the following was not one of the Reconstruction era constitutional
E) All of the above were Reconstruction amendments.
281. Many feminist leaders were especially disappointed with the Fourteenth Amendment
A) did not free all the slaves.
B) failed to give women the right to serve on juries.
C) guaranteed male but not female property rights.
D) did not define what constituted equal national citizenship.
E) specified for the first time in the Constitution that only males could vote.
282. Blacks in the South relied on the Union League to
A) help them escape to the North during the Civil War.
B) provide them with relief payments until the Freedmen's Bureau was established.
C) educate them on their civic duties.
D) gain admittance to the Union Army.
E) protect them from the Ku Klux Klan.
283. During Reconstruction, African American women assumed new political roles which
included all of the following except
A) participating in black church life.
B) monitoring state constitutional conventions.
C) participating in political rallies.
D) organizing mass meetings.
284. Which one of the following is least related to the other three?
B) Ku Klux Klan
E) Union League
285. Radical Reconstruction state governments
A) did little of value.
B) passed much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms.
C) were more corrupt than Northern state governments.
D) had all of their reforms repealed by the all-white “redeemer governments.”
E) failed to address the issue of education.
286. Political corruption during Reconstruction was
A) primarily the fault of white carpetbaggers and scalawags.
B) located in the North.
C) common in both North and South.
D) present in all Southern states except South Carolina and Louisiana.
E) almost entirely conducted by blacks.
287. A primary motive for the formation of the Ku Klux Klan was
A) hostility to the growing practice of interracial sex.
B) anger at the corruption in Reconstruction legislatures.
C) the southern desire to instigate guerrilla warfare against the occupying U.S. Army.
D) the sense of brotherhood that a secret society could develop.
E) white resentment of the ability and success of black legislators.
288. Even though the Force Acts and the Union Army helped suppress the Ku Klux Klan, the
secret organization largely achieved its central goal of
A) driving the Union Army out of the South.
B) preventing blacks from migrating to the West or North.
C) keeping white carpetbaggers from voting.
D) Intimidating blacks and undermining them politically.
E) destroying the Freedmen's Bureau.
289. The official charge that the House of Representatives used to impeach President
Johnson was his
A) highly partisan “swing around the circle” in 1866.
B) readmission of Southern states without seriously reconstructing them.
C) dismissal of Secretary of War Stanton contrary to the Tenure of Office Act.
D) apparent sympathy with the Ku Klux Klan.
E) veto of the Freedmen's Bureau bill.
290. In 1867 Secretary of State Seward achieved the Johnson administration's greatest
success in foreign relations when he
A) commissioned the building of an all-new ironclad navy.
B) recognized the independent republic of Hawaii.
C) purchased Alaska from Russia.
D) acquired the former Dominican Republic as an American territory.
E) established friendly relations with the newly independent Dominion of Canada.
291. All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson
A) opposition to abusing the Constitutional system of checks and balances.
B) concern about the person who would become President.
C) fears of creating a destabilizing period.
D) Johnson promised to step down as President.
E) Johnson's promise to stop obstructing Republican policies.
292. Reconstruction might have been more successful if
A) Andrew Johnson had won reelection in 1868.
B) the U.S. army had more quickly suppressed the Ku Klux Klan.
C) control of the South had been returned to Southerners much sooner.
D) the federal government had not tampered with property rights.
E) Thaddeus Stevens's radical program of drastic economic reforms and stronger
protection of political rights had been enacted.