"Intership report on MSC textile Company"
1 QUESTION NO#1 EXPLAIN HOW BUSINESS CAN USE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR STRATEGIC COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH ENTERPRISE INTERNET WORKING, GLOBALIZATION AND BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING? ANSWER USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR STRATEGIC ADVANTAGE There are many ways that organizations may view and to use information system strategically, or they may be content to use it to support efficient everyday operations. But if a company emphasized strategic business and commence and from this and use of information technology, its management would view it as a major competitive differentiator. It would then devise business strategy that would use it to develop product, series, and capability that would give the company major advantage in the market in which it competes. ANALYING STAPLES INC We can learn more about electronic business and commerce strategies from this example. Under leadership of Michel Ragunes, chief technology officer of staples.com, staples developed a web-based procurement system which used the staples business website as an interface between staples, procurement system and the procurement system of large cooperate customer. BUILDING A CUSTOMER FOCUSED BUSINESS The driving force behind world economic growth has changed from manufacturing business lies in its ability to improve customer value. As a result, the key success factor for many firms (in) is maximum or maximizing customer value. For many companies, the chief business value of becoming a customer focused business lies in its ability to help them keep customer loyal anticipate their future strategic focus on customer value recognizes that quality rather than price, because people or customer see only quality if the quality is better then customer purchased product because he know that this product has good quality, so he will satisfied from the product. So a company should made good quality product and according to the desire of the customer value. Internet technology can make customer focused the focal point of all e-business and e- commerce applications. Intranet, and extranet website create new channels for interactive communication with a company. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 2 Let customer Let customer place orders place order directly through distribution partner Internet Internet Extranet Web s-ite Build a customer database segmented by preferences and Transact- profitability ion database Link employees and distribution Customer partners to database databases and customers Internets Extranets Give all Make loyal Let customers employees a customers feel check order complete view special with history and of each personalization delivery status customer Internets int ernet Building a web community of customers, employees, and partners With customer, and with the suppliers business partners and other in the external environment REENGINEERING BUSINESS PROCESSES MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 3 One of the most important implementation of competitive strategies today is business process reengineering (BRP)/(BPR), most often simply called reengineering. Reengineering is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvement in cost quality, speed and services. So (BPR) combines a strategy of promoting business innovation with a strategy of making major improvements to business processes so that a company can become a much stronger and more successful competitor in the market place. However points out that while the potent ional pay back of reengineering is high, so is its risk of failure and level of disruption to the organizational environment. The order to management process consists of several businesses processes and crosses the boundaries of traditional business functions. IMPROVING BUSINESS QUALITY. Information technology can be used strategically to improve business performance in many ways other than in supporting reengineering initiative. One important strategic thrust is continuous quality important. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Total quality management is a much more strategic approach to business improvement. Quality is emphasized from the customer’s viewpoint, rather then the products. Thus quality is defined as meeting and exceeding the requirements and expectations of customer for the product or services. This may in value many features and attributes. BECOMING AN AGILE COMPANY Agility in business performance is the ability of a company to prosper in rapidly changing continually fragmenting global market for high quality, customer configured product and services. An agile company can make a point in market with broad product ranges and short models life times, and can produced orders in arbitrary lot size. It supports mass customization by offering individualized product while maintaining high volumes of productions. QUESTION NO#2(a) MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 4 HOW MANY TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS EXIST IN OUR BUSINESS WORLD? EXPLAIN EACH CATEGORY WITH RELATIVE EXAMPLES? ANSWER Conceptually the applications of information system that are implemented in today’s business world can be classified in several different ways. There are mainly two types of information system. Information system Operation Support of Support of Management support system Business managerial support system Operations decision-making Transaction Process Enterprise Management Decision Executive processing control collaborate information support information system system system system system system Processing control of team and pre-specified interactive information Business industrial workgroup reporting decision tailored for Transactions processes collaboration for management support executive OPERATIONS SUPPORT SYSTEMS Information systems have always been needed to process data generated by, and used in business operations, such operations support systems produced a verity of information products for internal and external use. However they do not emphasize producing the specific information products that can be used by managers. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 5 Operation system has further three types: Transaction processing system Process control system Enterprise collaboration system TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS Transaction processing systems are an important example of operation support system that record and process data resulting from business transactions. They process transactions in two basic ways: In batch processing In real time/ online PROCESS CONTROL SYSTEMS Process control systems monitor and control physical processes. For example a petroleum refinery uses electronic sensors linked to computers to continually monitor chemical processes and make instant [real-time] adjustments that control the refinery process. ENTERPRISE COLLABORATION SYSTEMS Enterprise collaboration systems enhance team and work group communications and productivity and are sometime called office automation group communications system. Example Knowledge workers in a project team may be use electronic mail to send and received system application and video conferencing to hold electronic meetings to coordination their activities. MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS When information system applications focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by managers, they are called management support system. Several types of information support a variety of decision-making system, responsibility. Management information system Decision support system Executive information system MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS It’s provided information and support for effective decision-making by managers, they are called management system but it’s different from management information system. It MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6 provides all information in the form of reports and displays to managers and many business professionals. For example sales managers may use their networked computers and web browsers to get instantaneous, display about the sales results of their products and to process/access their corporate intranet for daily sales analysis report that evaluate sales made by each sale persons. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS Decision support systems give direct computer support to managers during the decision- making process. For example managers may use an electronic spreadsheet program to do what. If analysis as they test the impact of alternative advertising budgets on the forecasted sale of new product. EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Executive information system provides critical information from a wide variety of internal and external sources, in easy to use displays to executive and managers. For example top executive may use touch screen terminals to instantly view text and graphics displays that highlight key areas of organizational and competitive performance. All the system, which include in all the process is basically used to get more and more information about the business and to for run any organization. (b) WHY PROTOTYPING HAS BECOME A POPULAR WAY TO DEVELOP NEW COMPUTER-BASED BUSINESS SYSTEMS? EXPLAIN. ANSWER On the next page PROTOTYPING The system development process frequently takes the form of, or includes a prototyping approach. Prototyping is the rapid development and testing of working models, or prototypes of new applications in an interactive, iterative process that can be used by both (IS) specified and business professionals, prototyping makes the development process faster and easier, especially for project where and user requirement are hard to define. Thus prototyping is sometime called rapid application decision. THE PROTOTYPING PROCESS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 7 Prototyping can be used for both small and large applications. Typically, large business systems still require using a traditional system development approach, but parts of such system can frequently be prototyped. A prototype of a business applications needed by a end user is developed quickly using a variety of development software tools, the prototyping system is then repeatedly refined un till it is acceptable. Identify an end user’s business requirement Development business system prototypes Prototyping cycle Revise the prototypes to better meet and users Use and maintain the Maintenance cycle accepted business system Application development using prototyping notes how prototyping combines the steps of the system development cycle and changes the traditional roles of (IS) specifics and end users. QUESTION NO#3 HOW DIFFERENT ROLES OF SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE AFFECT A BUSINESS AND USER? HOW DO YOU SEE THIS CHANGING IN FUTURE? ANSWER The analysis of software by looking at on overview of the major types and functions of application software and system software available to computer users, tells the major categories of system and application software. There are two main types of software; MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8 1. Application software 2. System software APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application software system is that system in which we perform information processing tasks for end user is called application software system. There are two main branches: 1) General-purpose application program 2) Application specific program Computer software Application System software software General Application System System application specific management development program program program program This is an overview of computer software system. So application software has another two main types. In general purpose application programs we disused more function which user use to improve overall system. Software system Web browsers E-mail Word processing Spreadsheet Data base managers Groupware Application specific program is the second function of the application software. It has also different types, which we discussed under with the help of headings. Business accounting, transaction processing Customer relationship management Electronic commerce MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 9 Sciences and engineering Education, entertainment etc. GENERAL PURPOSE APPLICATION PROGRAMS General-purpose application programs are programs that perform common information processing jobs for end users. For example database, spreadsheet program, personal information managers, web browsers, e-mail etc. SOFTWARE SUITES Let’s begin our discussion of popular general purpose group or application software by looking at software suites. That’s because the most widely used productivity packages come bundled together as software suites such as Microsoft office, louts SmartSuite, coral word perfect office, and sun’s star office. Examining their components give us an overview of the important software tools that you can use to increase your productivity. A software suites cost a lot less then the total cost of buying its individual packages separately. Another advantages is that all programs use a similar graphical user interface (GUI) of icons, tools and status bars, menus, and so on, which gives them the same look and fell and makes them easier to lean and use. WEB BROWSERS AND MORE The most common or important software components for many computer users today is the once simple and limited but now powerful and feature rich, web browser. A browser like Netscape navigator or Microsoft explorer is the software interface you use to point an click your way through the hyper linked resources of the worldwide web and the rest of the inter net, as well as corporate intranets and extranets. Industry experts are predating that the web browser will be the model for how most people will use networked computers in the future. E-MAIL The first thing many people do at work all over the work is checks their e-mail has changed the way people work and communication. Millions of end user now depends on e-mail software to communicate with each other sending and receiving electronic massages and file attachment via the Internet or their organization’s intranets or extranets. E-mail is stored on network servers until you are ready. As we mentioned earlier, e-mail software is now a component of top software suites and web browsers. GROUPWARE Groupware is collaboration software, that is, software that helps workgroups and teams work together to accomplish group assignments. Groupware is a fast wowing category of general- purpose application software that combines a variety of software features and functions to facilitate collaborate. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 10 Examples groups’ products like lotus notes novels group wise, Microsoft exchange, and Netscape communication, task management, data etc. APPLICATION SPECIFIC PROGRAM Application specific packages are available to support specific of end users, in the business and other fields. It has many types: Business accounting, Transaction processing Customer relationship Sciences and engineering Education, entertainment SYSTEM SOFTWARE System software is that system in which we manages and supports operations of computer systems and networks. That system has more two types: 1) System management programs 2) System development programs SYSTEM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS System management programs are that program that manages the hardware, software, and network and database resource of computer systems during the execution of the various information processing jobs of users. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Program that help users develop information system programs and procedures and prepare the user programs for computer processing. Major software development programs are programming language translates and editors and variety of (CASE) and other programming tools. FUNCTION OF BOTH SYSTEM BRANCHES The functions of system management and system development are as follow: 1. System management 2. System development SYSTEM MANAGEMENT The functions of system management are as: MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 11 Operating system Network management system Database management system Application servers System utilities Performance and security monitors SYSTEM DEVELOPMEN The functions of system development are as: Programming language translators Programming editors and tools Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) package QUESTION NO#4 WHAT IS TELECOMMUNICATION MEDIA? WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TELECOMMUNICATION CHANNENLS? EXPLAIN THEM. ANSWER TELECOMMUNICATION MEDIA Telecommunications channels make use of a variety of telecommunications media. These include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables, all of which physically link the devices in a network. Also include are terrestrial microware, communication satellites, cellular phone system, and packet and LAN radio, all of which use microware and other radio waves. In addition, there are infrared systems, which use microwave and other radio waves or light to transmit and receive data. There are many types, which we use to explain all the process. Twisted-pair wire Coaxial cable Fiber optics Wireless technology Terrestrial microwave Communications satellites TWISTED PAIR WIRE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 12 Ordinary telephone wire, consisting of copper wire twisted into pairs, is the most widely used medium for telecommunications. These lines are used in established communication network through all over the world for both voice and data transmission. Thus twisted pair wiring is used extensively in home and offices telephone system and infrared light to transmit and receive data. COAXIAL CABLE Coaxial cable consists of a sturdy copper or aluminum wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it. The cable’s cover and insulation minimize interference and distortion of the singles the cable carries. Groups of coaxial cables may be bundled ungrouped and laid on the floors of lakes and oceans. They allow high-speed data transmission and are used instead of twisted pair wire lines in high service metropolitan areas, for cable TV, system and for short distance connection of computer and peripheral devices. Coaxial cables are also used in many office buildings and other work sites for local area networks. WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Wireless telecommunications technologies rely on radio wave, microwave, infrared, and visible light pulses to transport digital communications devices. Wireless technology include terrestrial microwave, communications satellites, cellular and (PCS) telephone and (paper) pager system, mobile data radio wireless LAN’s, and various wireless internet technology. TERESTRAL MICROWAVE Terrestrial microwave involves earthbound microwave systems that transmit high-speed radio signed in a line of sight path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart. Microwave antennas are usually placed on top of buildings, towers, hills and mountain peaks, and they are a familiar sight in many section of the country. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES Communication satellites also used microwave radio as their telecommunications medium. Many communication satellites are placed in stationary geo synchronous orbits approximately 22000 miles above the equator. CELLULAR AND PCS SYSTEM Cellular and PCS system and telephone and pager systems use several radio communication technologies. However, all of them divided a geographic area into small areas, or cell, typically from one to several square miles in area. Each cell has its own low power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay cell from one cell to another. Computer and other communication processors coordinates and control the transmissions to and from mobile users as they more from one area to another. WIRELESS LANS MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 13 Wiring an office or a building for a local area network is often a difficult and costly task. Older buildings frequently do not have conduits for coaxial cables or additional twisted pair wire, and the conduits in never building may not have enough room to pull additional wiring through. The use of wireless (LANs) is growing rapidly as new high speed technologies are implemented. A prime example is a new open standard wireless radio wave technology technically known as (IEEE) 802.11b, or more popularly as Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi is faster and less expensive than standard Ethernet. WIRELESS WEB Wireless access to the Internet, intranets, and extranets is growing as more web-enabled information in appliance proliferates. Smart telephone, pagers (PDAs) and other portable communications device have become very thin clients in wireless networks. For example the smart phone, a (PDAs) phone can send and receive e-mail and provide web access via a. “web clipping” technology that general. Custom designed web pages from popular financial. Wireless Access protocol Filter Proxy HTML WML This diagram shows that where from signal start and reach on the original point. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 14 QUESTION NO#5(a) WHAT ARE THE LIMITATIONS AND BENEFITS OF RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL FOR BUSINESS APPLICATIONS? ANSWER BENEFITS The benefits of relational database for business applications are as follow REDUNDANCY In the relational data the duplication of the data is accrued. The records of the data are stored in all the level of process. If the data disappear at any stage the information can be calculated from the other resources because the data has already save at many levels. CONSISTENCY The consistency of the data is sure in the relational data. The relational data remain consistence from the point of origin to the point of end. The information remain correct and consistence to all the users. Consistency of relational data is more beneficial as compare to the other data because the facts and figures remain unchanged. DATA INTEGRITY Correctness and accuracy of the data is main and most benefit of the relational data. The decision-making is easy on the basic of the relational data. The relational data have all the facts which are helpful to decision maker. BACK UP AND RECORD The relational data have his back up and record. If the data delete any stage of process. The delete information can be again getting for further processing because the relational data has his record his back up. DATA SECURITY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 15 In the relational data the data remain the secure at all level of the data process. There is no any of the unsecured data the management can relay easily on the relational data. LIMITATIONS 1. High cost 2. Complex structure 3. High storage require 4. High time require (B) EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING TERMS: 1. CHARACTER 2. FIELD 3. RECORD 4. FILE 5. DATABASE 6. PRIMARY KEY ANSWER CHARACTER The most basic logical data element is the character, which consists of a single alphabetic, numeric, or other symbol. One might argue that the bit or byte is a more elementary data element, but those terms refer to the physical storage elements provided by the computer hardware. From a user’s point of view (that is, from a logical as opposed to a physical or hardware view of data), a character is the most basic element of data that can be observed and manipulated FIELD The higher level of data is the field, or data item. A field consists of a grouping of characters. For example the grouping of alphabetic characters in a personal name forms a name field, and the grouping of numbers in a sales amount forms a sales amount field. Specially, a data field represents an attribute (a characteristic or quality) of some entity (object, person, place, or event). For example an employee’s salary is an attribute that is typical data field used to describe an entity that is an employee of a business. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 16 RECORD Related fields of data are grouped to form a record. Thus, a record represents a collection of attributes that describe an entity. For example the payroll record for a person, which consists of data fields describing attributes such as the person’s name, social security number, and rate of pay Fixed-length records contain a fixed number of fixed-length data fields. Variable-length records contain a variable number of fields and field lengths. FILE A group of related records is a data file, or table. Thus, an employee file would contain the records of the employees of a firm. Files are frequently classified by the application for which they are primarily used, such as a payroll file or an inventory file, or the type of data they contain, such as a document file or a graphical image file. Files are also classified by their performance, such as a payroll master file versus a payroll weekly transaction file. A transaction file, therefore, would contain records of all transactions occurring during a period and might be used periodically to update the permanent records contained in a master file. A history file is an obsolete transaction or master file retained for backup purposes or for long-term historical storage called archival storage. DATABASE A database is an integrated collection of logically related data elements. A database consolidates records previously stored in separate files into a common pool of data elements that provides data for many applications. The data stored in a database are independent of the application programs using them and of the type of storage devices on which they are stored. Thus, databases contain data elements describing entities and relationships among entities. For example some of the business applications (billing, payment processing) that depend on access to the data elements in the database. PRIMARY KEY All data records usually contain one or more identification fields, or keys that identify the record so it can be located. For example the social security number of a person is often used as a primary key field that uniquely identifies the data records of individuals in student, employee, and customer files and databases. The other methods also identify and link data records stored in several different database files. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 17 For example hierarchical and network databases may use pointer fields. These are fields within a record that indicate (point to) the location of another record that is related to it in the same file, or in another file. Relational database management packages use primary keys to link records. Each table (file) in a relational database must contain a primary key. This field (or fields) uniquely identifies each record in a file and must also be found in other related files. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS