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					The New Face(book) of
   Higher Education
Session No.: G-SUN-1030-f
         Web 2.0
 Colleges --- Universities
       Social Media
                          Dr. Tom Seymour
                            Dr. John Girard
                      Minot State University
                       Minot, North Dakota
            tom.seymour@minotstateu.edu
              John.girard@minotstateu.edu
             Introduction
As technology becomes more pervasive within
our society it seems as if we are constantly
surrounded by a sea of new and exciting
changes. One new change that has recently
caught the attention of several information
technology professionals is social media.
(Medure)
What is        Social media describes the
Social          online tools that people use to
Media?          share content, profiles,
                opinions, insights, experiences,
                perspectives and media itself,
                thus facilitating conversations
                and interaction online between
                groups of people.




          http://www.webpronews.com/blogtalk/2007/06/29/the-definition-of-social-media
 How long did it take to reach 50
         million users?
 Telephone: 74 years
 Radio: 38 years
 Personal Computer: 16 years
 Internet: 2 Years
 Blog: 1 year
 HR.com
Social Media
The Social Media Share
                          Types of Social Media
                               Size Data Sourced from:
   http://thefuturebuzz.com/2009/01/12/social-media-web-20-internet-numbers-stats/
Google search stats:                                             YouTube stats
1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) - approximate number of         70,000,000 – number of total videos on YouTube (March
    unique URLs in Google’s index (source)                           2008)
2,000,000,000 (two billion) – very rough number of Google        200,000 – number of video publishers on YouTube (March
    searches daily (source)                                          2008)
$110,000,000 – approximately amount of money lost by             100,000,000 – number of YouTube videos viewed per day
    Google annually due to the “I’m Feeling Lucky” button            (this stat from 2006 is the most recent I could locate)
    (source)                                                     112,486,327 – number of views the most viewed video on
24,400 – number of people employed by Google (December,              YouTube has (January, 2009)
    2008)                                                        2 minutes 46.17 seconds – average length of video
                                                                 412.3 years – length in time it would take to view all
                                                                     content on YouTube (March 2008)
Wikipedia stats                                                  26.57 - average age of uploader
2,695,205 - the number of articles in English on Wikipedia       13 hours – amount of video are uploaded to YouTube every
684,000,000 – the number of visitors to Wikipedia in the last        minute
    year                                                         US $1.65 billion in Google stock – amount Google Inc.
75,000 - the number of active contributors to Wikipedia               announced that it had acquired YouTube for in October
10,000,000 – the number of total articles in Wikipedia in all         2006
    languages                                                    $1,000,000 – YouTube’s estimated bandwidth costs per day
260 – the number of languages articles have been written in on   (sources here, here and here)
    Wikipedia (source)
                         Types of Social Media
Blogosphere stats                                                  Facebook stats
133,000,000 – number of blogs indexed by Technorati since 2002     200,000,000 – number of active users
346,000,000 – number of people globally who read blogs             100,000,000 - number of users who log on to Facebook at least
      (comScore March 2008)                                              once each day
900,000 – average number of blog posts in a 24 hour period         170 - number of countries/territories that use Facebook
1,750,000 – number of RSS subscribers to TechCrunch, the most      35 - number of different languages used on Facebook
      popular Technology blog (January 2009)                       2,600,000,000 – number of minutes global users in aggregate
77% - percentage of active Internet users who read blogs                 spend on Facebook daily
55% – percentage of the blogosphere that drinks more than 2 cups   100 – number of friends the average user has
      of coffee per day (source)                                   700,000,000 – number of photos added to Facebook monthly
81 - number of languages represented in the blogosphere            52,000 – number of applications currently available on Facebook
59% – percentage of bloggers who have been blogging for at least   140 - number of new applications added per day source
      2 years source
                                                                   Digg stats
Twitter stats                                                      236,000,000 – number of visitors attracted annually by 2008
1,111,991,000 – number of Tweets to date (see an up to the              (according to a Compete survey)
     minute count here)                                            56% - percentage of Digg’s frontpage content allegedly controlled
3,000,000 – number of Tweets/day(March 2008) (from                      by top 100 users
     TechCrunch)                                                   124,340 - number of stories MrBabyMan, the number one user,
165,414 - number of followers of the most popular Twitter user          has Dugg (see updated number here)
     (@BarackObama) – but he’s not active                          612 - number of stories from Cracked.com that have made page 1
86,078 – number of followers of the most active Twitter user            of Digg (see all 41 pages of them here)
     (@kevinrose)                                                  36,925 – number of Diggs the most popular story in the last 365
63% – percentage of Twitter users that are male (from Time)             days has received (see story here)
Outbound Marketing is Broken
                          800-555-1234
                          Annoying
                          Salesperson
       Inbound Marketing
Blog         SEO    Social Media
       Social Media = Cocktail Party
   Social media is similar to a cocktail reception
   Without constraints of time or space
   More public – easier for other people to listen
    in




Flickr: TECHcocktail
Men Vs. Women
Males vs. Females on Networks
       Social Media Metrics
 Visitors and sources of traffic
 Network size (followers, fans,
  members)
 Quantity of commentary about brand
  or product
 Social media leads
 Engagement duration
 Bounce rate
 Membership increase and active
  network size.
          Social Media Metrics
 73% of online users read a blog
 57% join social networks
 45% have started a blog
 83% have viewed a video online
 39% subscribe to RSS feeds
 36% think more positively about
  companies that have blogs
   Source: Universal McCann Wave3 research
    into social media
Texting at Your University
              Web sites
 www.seymour-senate.com
 http://web.ndak.net/seymour/
 Movies
 Ads
        Twitter Media Sites
        www.PollDaddy.com
 www.WhyFacebook.com – twitter blog
 www.SocialToo.com – auto-follow $ 5.00
 www.TweetLater.com – preschedule
 www.Twellow.com – like keywords –follow
 www.ExecTweets.com – Execs Tweeting
 www.TwitterGrader.com – research stars
 www.TweetBeep.com – keyword alerts
 www.Involver.com – Facebook Contest
 Founded by Reid Hoffman in 2002
 Business oriented social networking site
 Allows users to have professional
  connections and contacts with them
 www.Linkedin.com
 Tips to Build Your LinkedIn Network:
 Start with the people you know
 Find people by searching
 Start participating in Answers
 Update your status often
 Connect your Twitter and LinkedIn
  accounts
          BLOGS



 Type of website maintained by an
  individual that creates entries
 Usually can control who sees blogs
 http://senator-tom-
  seymour.blogspot.com/
    About Blogs (web + logs)
 Chronologically arranged websites
 Lots of content
 Easy to update / instant Web
  publishing
 Attract inbound links
 Informal two-way conversations
 RSS feeds = more ways to be found
     develops loyal readers who subscribe
     indexed in additional search engines
                    smallbiztrends.com
   Created by 3 former PayPal employees in 2005
   Video sharing website
   Non-registered users can watch videos using a
    search engine will registered users can upload and
    view videos
   Flip Camera and Droid
   www.youtube.com
   Search for Senator Tom Seymour
   Senator Tom Seymour in North Dakota Senate - TV Interview-2003
   Senator Tom Seymour in North Dakota Senate - TV Interview-2003
   no rating 5 months ago 38 views no rating minot66
   Senator Tom Seymour in North Dakota Senate - TV Interview-2003
   1:43 September 07, 2009
   News & Politics
   minot66
   Senator Tom Seymour in North Dakota Senate - TV Interview-2003
   38 views
   Added to
    Quicklist 0:58

    Academic benefitis of YouTube
   Distance learning capability
   Additional lectures capability (e.g. research skills,
    presentation skills)
   Putting an issue into a particular context, e.g. old
    lectures or class discussion recordings
   Perspectives for students to listen to lectures from other
    professors and teachers
   Supplemental humour videos to break up a long lecture
   Ability to assign students assignments to upload videos
    to spread knowledge
   Hawaiian word for quick

   A piece of server software that allows
    people to edit web pages content

   Wikipedia

   Can edit each other’s info if you feel
    its incorrect
 Created by Dustin Moskovitz and Mark
  Zuckerberg in 2004 as a way for their
  fellow Harvard students to stay in touch.
 Over 400 million users
 Provided in over 70 languages
 More than 10 billion minutes are spent on
  the Facebook homepage everyday
 www.facebook.com
             Why You Should Care
   Over 400 million active users

   700,000 new users every day

   3rd most trafficked website

   More than half outside college

   Fastest growing demographic
    is those 35 years or older
130 friends Average on Facebook
 Facebook – 5,824,000 plus
 Starbucks – 5,116,000 plus
 Coca-cola – 4,007,000 plus
 YouTube – 3,800,000 plus
 Skittles – 3, 600,000 plus
 Average user spends more than 55 minutes per day on
  Facebook: share photos, content on the web, blog
  posts,information about events, and news stories

www.insidefacebook.com
    Academic benefitis of YouTube
   Distance learning capability
   Additional lectures capability (e.g. research skills,
    presentation skills)
   Putting an issue into a particular context, e.g. old
    lectures or class discussion recordings
   Perspectives for students to listen to lectures from other
    professors and teachers
   Supplemental humour videos to break up a long lecture
   Ability to assign students assignments to upload videos
    to spread knowledge
Sign Up at www.facebook.com
Facebook   ref. 1
Facebook   ref. 1
Engagement: Activity
         Avenues and Opportunities for Colleges and
                  Universities to Leverage
                       Social Media
                                                      ref. 3


1.   Recruiting
2.   Promoting, publishing and
     connecting
3.   Office Hours via Facebook
4.   Emergency Services and
     Notification
5.   Alumni Engagement
                    Recruiting
With the advent of social media and as seen in the graphic
   on the preceding slide, social media as a form of
   communication is becoming second to none.
In order to leverage social media for recruiting to the
   fullest colleges and universities need to ensure their
   presence is noticed.

                          In the end “CONTENT” is King and these
                                 institutions must ensuring that
                                    Recruiting information is:
                                          • Relevant
                                           • Useful
                                      • and Interesting
  Social Media to Research Students
Students need to be wary of their online image or
  presence. Just as employers are now using the
  social media to research candidates, universities
  are using it to research their prospective
  students.

  Colleges are even reviewing
  prospective students posted
  pictures to ensure the
  individuals they are selecting
  are on contributing to illicit
  activities.        Ref. 4
           Office Hours via Facebook
                                  The University of Stanford has piloted a process of
                                     offering Office Hours Via Facebook. With busy
                                     schedules of students and faculty, Facebook
                                     provides a forum for topics to be introduced,
                                     questions to be asked, and answers to be
                                     provided.
                                  Most often video is posted on the research topic,
                                     blog posts are where questions are asked used
                                     to describe the topic of research and follow up
                                     video answers commenting specifically on the
                                     questions follow.




This method benefits both the student and the faculty in that Students can see all
the questions and answers asked. Faculty no longer need to answer a question
more than once, as their information in now available for every student to review.
                 Ref. 5
         Publishing and Promoting
Ref. 4
                    More schools are using social media to
                       publish articles about academic
                       achievements and athletic events.
                       Keeping students engaged and
                       informed about all the various
                       opportunities offered.




                    A snapshot of Harvard University’s twitter
                    page from today shows us:
                        • Health Tips for Valentines Day
                        • Harvard Arts Medal Award for 2010
                        • Free Ice Skating at the Allston Rink
                        • Student Concert Event
               Alumni Engagement
Colleges and Universities are extending the reach of their social
     networking efforts to include one of their most powerful
     resources, their Alumni

             Through the use of social media Alumni
                can benefit in the areas of:

                            Job placement
                 Collaboration with current students
                             Fundraising
                      Alumni Generated Content
                Meeting with Alumni where they are at
                     Promoting Alumni Networks
                      Creating Mobile Reunions
                                         Ref. 7
                       Connecting
The University of Michigan uses
  Facebook as a mechanism to
  allow its 46,000 friends to
  connect with each other on
  various topics. The effort has
  been a particular success for
  incoming freshman to connect
  with each other.
The University of Michigan
  supports varying groups
  including one for each
  graduating class.     Ref. 5


                                   While the University of Michigan is one of
                                   the largest in the nation, Facebook is
                                   helping them create a sense of community
                                   within their populous.
   Emergency Services and Notifications
We have all heard the horrific tales of on campus
    violence and shooting rampages. Just this week a
    professor at an Alabama college allegedly shot six of
    her colleagues, killing three.
Using text messages, twitter, and Facebook students and
    faculty can be immediately have an emergent
    situation brought to their attention. This type of
    information can be invaluable in a true emergency.
    With sprawling campuses and disconnected
    constituents, social media is the only mechanism to
    achieve speed of deliver and accuracy in information
    during emergency situations




     Waterfall’s AlertU emergency notification system already enables colleges
     to send text messages to students, faculty and staff in the event of a
     campus emergency. The system is integrated into current emergency
     action plans quickly and easily, enabling an additional communication
     channel that delivers vital information to registered users, students,
     faculty and staff at colleges across the country (Feb, 2010).     Ref. 6
   Tufts University is now accepting YouTube videos from
    prospective applicants for admission

       Approx 1000 of the 15000 applicants submitted
        videos

       This is just new ways of Universities reaching out to
        the new waves of students
   Yale has used YouTube as a marketing pitch
    for the school. Following the High School
    Musical theme they recently posted a video
    on YouTube called "That's Why I Chose Yale"




http://thechoice.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/01/19/yale/
   Social Media Marketing can help to increase Adult Student
    Recruitment

   Many Universities are now set up on FaceBook, Twitter, MySpace
    and YouTube

   Universities have links to their social media sites on their university
    pages

An Example: Saint Leo University
   http://www.saintleo.edu/Admissions/Center-for-Online-Learning
   Used by some universities to build
    online communities that allow
    current and future students to
    "interact, keep up with and explore
    the "world' of that particular
    university. Ex : University of Phoenix
                                 Higher Education
   How large an impact are social media having on the way colleges and universities communicate with their
    various audiences (students, prospective students, alumni, etc.)?

    Social media are starting to have a large impact with colleges and universities, but we are very early in the
    adoption curve. Admissions are the furthest along, and "student life" blogs, for lack of a better name, are the
    most prevalent and popular, for example the admissions blogs at MIT.

   What are the disadvantages of using these tools in higher education?

    The perceived disadvantages are that they take too much time, and may reveal "secrets" the institution does not
    want to have publicized. Of course everything takes time, but plenty of very busy people make time to blog. In
    reality, higher education administrators and other employees are just starting to realize blogs exist and may be a
    very effective communications tool for them. As for "revealing secrets," anyone - students, administrators,
    alumni, etc., can and will blog, anonymously if necessary. There are no secrets anymore!

   What are the risks of NOT using these tools?

    The main risk is falling behind in the adoption curve and not reaping the benefits. For example, if a desirable
    student is deciding between two colleges, and one has a number of blogs that better reveal what life at the
    school is like, that can only be positive. If the school seems like a good match, most likely the student will
    chose it, but if it's not a good match, better to find out quickly for all concerned.

   What are the implications in terms of cost and other "bottom line" measures in higher education?

     The only significant cost is time, and students and fervent alumni can sometimes do the blogging happily and
     not consider it work!
(Article online Social Media and Higher Education)
   Why is higher education uniquely suited for adoption of social media?

    I'm not sure higher education is uniquely suited; however it is extremely highly suited as education is based
    on the free flow of ideas and knowledge, and blogs and other social media facilitate that greatly.

   How do you predict the use of social media in higher education will continue to evolve and change?

    Expect to see enormous growth in four areas:

    a) Admissions blogs -- how can a potential student better understand what daily life would be like at that
    school other than reading blogs written by students currently there? There is no better way!

    b) Alumni blogs -- fostering a sense of community with alumni is something higher educational institutions
    always strive to do, and blogs do this quite effectively. Quite bluntly, if former students view their
    relationship as a prior business relationship, i.e. "I paid X dollars for Y years of education and a degree," that
    will harm alumni involvement AND donations.

    c) Higher education employee blogs. Not a great name perhaps, but a catch-all phrase for all high ed
    employees blogging on their experiences, whether professors, administrators, or even janitors. Hey, my
    freshman year janitor was only slightly older than me and a good friend to most of us, like an older brother.
    He was also quite literate and intelligent. If he blogged on his experiences at Dartmouth, I would absolutely
    read them! Ditto for many of my professors.

    Another big benefit for professors is the networking with other academics working in similar areas, whether
    it's researching the mating habits of the White-eared Hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis - thanks Wikipedia)
    or working in a similarly obscure branch of mathematics. A blogger is very visible to anyone searching on
    their topic due to the search engines ranking bloggers highly.

     d) Class blogs. For example, Delaney J. Kirk, PhD, Professor of Management at Drake University, ran an
     experimental class blog and had 100% of the students contribute to it in the form of contents, including some
     lively conversation. Compare that to a typical class where perhaps only 5-20% of the students maximum
     participate.
(Article online Social Media and Higher Education)
 Developed by a Vancouver-based
  company in 2006
 Photo/video sharing website
 Also allows users to blog
 www.flickr.com
 www.ducttapemarketing.com
 www.google.com/alerts
 www.ping.fm – Update Your Social sites
 www.hubspot.com
 Created by Jack Dorsey in 2006
 Micro-blogging site
 Allows users to make posts up to 140
  characters long
 Comparable to text messaging but online
 www.twitter.com -- SenTomSeymour
Twitter   ref. 2
                   Tweet This!

Ever had a                            Ever been worried
problem with                          about confronting
individual                            them on your own
drinking at a                         or why security
supposedly dry                        doesn’t notice
college sporting                      them?
event?


 Enter Twitter - some colleges are publishing
    their twitter sites and text numbers as a
      way for fans to anonymously inform
    security at football games of individuals
          causing problems or drinking
Keep up with bands
Keep in touch with friends
Get information on business’
Instant messaging
               What is “Delicious” ?
   Is a social media Bookmarking website. Its primary purpose is to
    allow the users the capability to save and store bookmarks online.
    Furthermore, it also gives the users the capability to organise their
    bookmarks with tags or keywords making it a really useful tool
   The social aspect “kicks-in” when the user is given the ability to
    follow other users bookmarks and also allow users to send or
    receive links from other users
   http://www.delicious.com
    Potential uses for Delicious
   Provides you with the ability of keeping the same set of
    bookmarks even though you maybe on a different computer
   The ability to access your bookmarks from anywhere around the
    world so long as you have an internet connection
   The bookmark list becomes an organised collection of resources
   Its an excellent social bookmarking tool and enables you to
    develop a network and share bookmarks and information
   It provides for an alternative search engine
             What is “Slideshare” ?
   Slideshare is an online tool that allows a user to upload and share
    your PowerPoint presentations, Word documents and Adobe PDF
    Portfolios on. The sharing can be done either publicly or privately
    and an audio or mp3 soundtrack or narration can also be added to
    make the page a webinar. These slides can also be further
    complemented with YouTube feeds and community features such as
    tags, commenting capability, favorites listing and slidecasts can also
    be added.

   http://www.slideshare.net/
    Academic uses for SlideShare
 Disseminating lecture material for revision purposes
 Discuss lecture material using the comments feature to
  aid understanding
 As a student assignment assessing virtual presentation
  skills
 Find other presentations on your topic - save reinventing
  the wheel
 Building up a body of resources over time on a particular
  topic
 Drawing together conference / seminar materials using a
  common tag or keyword
              What is a “Podcast” ?
    A podcast is a series of digital media files (either audio or video)
    that are released episodically and downloaded through web
    syndication.
   The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of
    accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct download, or
    streamed webcasting
    Podcasts – potential uses
 Podcasts are an excellent resource for distance
  learning or self-paced learning
 They provide excellent supplementary material for a
  class or topic
 Research material and articles could be shared
 Lecture material could be uploaded in updated posts
 Classroom lectures can be replaced with podcasts
 In acquiring student assessment and feedback
 Podcasts are excellent resource for collecting field data
 An excellent article covering Podcasting for Learning in
  Universities
                                    Bebo
   Bebo, an acronym for "Blog early, blog often”, is a social networking
    website, founded in January 2005.
   It can be used in many countries including Ireland, Canada, the United States,
    the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia.
   A Polish version was launched recently, which uses a different user database.
   There are plans for French German and other versions.
   Founded by husband and wife Michael and Xochi Birch, Bebo had a major
    relaunch in July 2005.
   It was bought by AOL on March 13, 2008 for $850 m.
   Bebo is similar to other social networking sites.
   Each profile must include two specific modules, a comment section where
    other users can leave a message, and a list of the user's friends.
   Users can select from many more modules to add.
   By default, when an account is created the profile is private, which limits
    access to friends specifically added.
   The user may select the "Public Profile" option so as the profile will still be
    visible to any other members of a school they may have joined.
   Profiles may be personalized by a design template that is the background of
    the user's profile, known as a skin. (wiki)
            Classroom Uses
 File swapping
 Blogs, wikis and podcasts
 Early education to prevent social issues
 Enhance course content
 YouTube
 Twitter or Facebook lesson plans
•City University of New York offers a graduate level class on using
social media for news gathering Examples of social media uses
are Twitter, FriendFeed, Scoopler and SearchMerge

•Stanford University uses Facebook to showcase faculty and
student work University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill uses
YouTube to post helpful videos for students and faculty on its own
YouTube Channel
•Georgia Southern University offers a course titled "Marketing
Connections: Facebook & Beyond"The class teaches
communication and networking skills.

    • Class covers how to use social media and teaches the
      value of communication with others by using online
      assignments using Twitter and Facebook.

    • Students are required to start a blog. The instructor
      Barbara Nixon keeps a blog on the class assignments
      and answers questions through her Twitter account.
Global Usage
    Social Media Brings a Different
    Category of Computing Users:
 Creaters --- make social content go.
 Critics --- respond to content from others.
 Collectors --- organize content for themselves or others
  using RSS feeds, tags, and voting sites like Digg.com
 Joiners --- connect in social networks like Facebook,
  MySpace and www.linkedin.com
 Spectators --- consume social content including blogs,
  user-generated video, podcasts, forums, or reviews
 Inactives --- neither create or consume social content
www.alexa.com
                           Summary
Social Media is here to stay! As described in the preceding context the
   younger generations have embraced Twitter, Facebook, blogging
   and text messaging as norms within their communication
   expectation. Colleges and Universities that choose not to recognize
   this trend will find themselves further behind the recruiting and
   development curve. Those who embrace social media and integrate
   its capabilities into their everyday environment will realize significant
   benefits.
         Your University Will Not Be The
                Same Institution



trends for
the
future of
web
    Mediajobs.net indicates job
     candidates are reviewed:
 75 percent us LinkedIn more than once a
  month
 66 percent use Facebook
 45 percent use Google Reader
 28 percent use Twitter
 57 percent plan to spend more time
  maintaining a profile in an online social or
  professional network
a social semantic web of objects and
services
       we are teaching the world to machines
  THE ADVENT OF

MOBILE LEARNING
 TECHNOLOGY
Number of people who carry a
 mobile communication device




                    4 MILLION
Number of years it will take smart phones to
  outsell desktops, notebooks and net-books




                                 TWO
According to the E-Learning Guild Report:


                     Mobile Learning makes up
                        about 9.3% of the
                        overall training in an
                            organization


                   The content that is specifically
                           developed for
                      mobile learning is 13%
So again, what is Mobile Learning?

                    It is the acquisition or
                      modification of any
                        knowledge and
                   skill through using mobile
                    technology, anywhere,
                           anytime
                       and results in the
                   modification of behavior
The phone is more than a just simple
       communication device
                    Fueling the rapid increase in
                       mobile learning is the
                      advent of more powerful
                    telecommunication networks
The phone is more than a just simple
       communication device
                    Fueling the rapid increase in
                       mobile learning is the
                      advent of more powerful
                    telecommunication networks


                      Networks now support a
                      whole range of data and
                      internet access services
Mobile Learning at school
                   Duke University provided all
                  incoming freshmen with their
                     own 20-gigabyte iPods
The advent of Mobile Learning is upon us

                     New devices having new features
                     & new capabilities are appearing
                          at an accelerated pace
Upside Learning Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
        www.upsidelearning.com
   E-mail: info@upsidelearning.com


     www.upsidelearning.com/blog


     http://www.facebook.com/UpsideLearning


     http://twitter.com/UpsideLearning



                                   Images courtesy of www.sxc.hu
                           References
1.   Google Images, Accessed Feb. 14, 2010, via,
     http://scorechicago.files.wordpress.com/2008/03/facebook-page-small.jpg
2.   Google Images, Accessed Feb. 14, 2010, via,
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4.   Harvard University, Accessed Feb. 14, 2010, via, http://twitter.com/Harvard
5.   Mashable, “10 Ways Universities Share Information Using Social Media“, Accessed
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7.   Mashable, “10 Ways Universities Are Engaging Alumni Using Social Media
     Accessed”, Feb. 14, 2010, via, http://mashable.com/2009/07/23/alumni-social-
     media/

				
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