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					Guidance on Energy Efficient Operation and
Replacement of Plant and Equipment

Deliverable D9 Carbon Management Programme




Church of England
September 2008
Table of Contents


Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 2
       This guidance document ................................................................................................... 4

Churches ...................................................................................................................................... 5
      How can we reduce the carbon emissions from our church? ........................................... 5
      How much energy does a church use and how much carbon dioxide does this emit? .... 7
      Where do we start? ......................................................................................................... 10
      How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions? ............................................................... 14
      Energy walk-round checklist ........................................................................................... 15
      What about renewable energy? ...................................................................................... 17
      Further information .......................................................................................................... 18

Cathedrals .................................................................................................................................. 19
      Introduction...................................................................................................................... 19
      Energy and carbon dioxide emissions from cathedrals .................................................. 21
      Creating an energy saving routine .................................................................................. 22
      How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions? ............................................................... 25
      Energy walk-round checklist ........................................................................................... 26
      Renewable energy .......................................................................................................... 28
      Further information .......................................................................................................... 29
      Introduction...................................................................................................................... 30

Clergy Homes ............................................................................................................................ 30
       Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from a home ................................. 31
       Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project .......................................................................... 33
       How to reduce emissions from domestic properties ....................................................... 34
       Good practice in domestic properties ............................................................................. 36
       Tools and resources for the home occupier.................................................................... 37

Schools....................................................................................................................................... 38
      Introduction...................................................................................................................... 38
      Schools energy use and carbon dioxide emissions ........................................................ 39
      Guidance for schools ...................................................................................................... 41
      Measuring the energy consumption of schools............................................................... 43
      What is an energy efficient school? ................................................................................ 45
       Renewable Energy......................................................................................................... 46
      Further information .......................................................................................................... 47

Offices48
       Reducing the carbon footprint of offices ......................................................................... 48
       Where is energy consumed in a typical office?............................................................... 49
       A plan for reducing the carbon footprint .......................................................................... 50
       Further links:.................................................................................................................... 52

Appendices ................................................................................................................................ 53
      Reading a meter.............................................................................................................. 53
      Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment in Cathedrals and Churches.......... 57
Glossary

Kilowatt hours
A unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour.
Kilowatt hours are used to measure the amount of gas or electric that we are billed by the Utility
companies.


Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The most important greenhouse gas. CO2 emissions result from the combustion of fuel, from land
use changes (agricultural processes, deforestation etc) and from some industrial processes. CO2
emissions are limited by the Kyoto protocol.


Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gases are those which contribute to the greenhouse effect when present in the
atmosphere. Six greenhouse gases are regulated by the Kyoto Protocol, as they are emitted in
significant quantities by human activities and contribute to climate change. The six regulated
gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

Emissions of greenhouse gases are commonly converted into carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)
based on their 100 year global warming potential. This allows a single figure for the total impact
of all emissions sources to be produced in one standard unit. Conversion factors of greenhouse
gas to CO2e are calculated by the IPCC and Defra publish guidance on which set of conversion
factors to use.


Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)
There are six main greenhouse gases which cause climate change and are limited by the Kyoto
protocol. Each gas has a different global warming potential. For simplicity of reporting, the mass
of each gas emitted is commonly translated into a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) amount so
that   the    total  impact    from    all  sources   can     be   summed       to    one    figure.


Carbon footprint
The total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an individual or organisation, event or
product. It should be expressed in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).


What is green electricity?
Green electricity is generated by renewable energy; sun, wind, water, the heat of the earth and
well managed forests. Usually “green” electricity is supplied to our homes and other buildings
using the national grid by a utility company that charge for a “green” tariff.

Care should be taken when considering “green” tariffs as they will be supplied on the basis of part
of the electricity being generated by renewable sources. Some tariffs may also have other
environmental benefits and some “green” tariffs will supply electricity that has been generated
from 100% renewable sources.

The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) has announced that the
calculating of greenhouse gas emissions from “Green” tariffs should now use the same conversion
factor as the normal grid supplied electricity. For more information see the DEFRA website.


Emissions conversion factor
When calculating emissions from energy use it is common to know what quantity of energy was
used, either in kWh or by volume or mass of input material. Emissions factors enable a conversion
to be made from the input measure of energy to the amount of carbon dioxide emissions that will
result. UK conversion factors for energy to CO2 are published by DEFRA.
Carbon Offset
An emissions reduction, commonly resulting from a project undertaken in the developing world,
which has been sold to compensate for emissions elsewhere. Offsets are commonly used to net off
corporate emissions so that an organisation can claim to be carbon neutral. See The Carbon
Trust three stage approach to developing a robust offsetting strategy.


Carbon neutral
Commonly accepted terminology for something having net zero emissions (for example, an
organisation or product). As the organisation or product will typically have caused some
greenhouse gas emissions, it is usually necessary to use carbon offsets to achieve neutrality.
Carbon offsets are emissions reductions that have been made elsewhere and which are then sold
to the entity that seeks to reduce its impact. In order to become carbon neutral it is important to
have a very accurate calculation of the amount of emissions which need to be offset – requiring
calculation of a carbon footprint.

Good practice
A term used in this document to indicate a building that has a low annual energy consumption per
square metre of floor area (kWh/m²). This benchmark (kWh/m²) is commonly used to compare
buildings energy consumption performance. Good practice is defined as the top 10% of a given
category of buildings that were surveyed to produce the benchmark figure.


TRVs
Thermostatic radiator valves are fitted to radiators or heat emitters to limit the flow of heat into a
room. They are set manually to a desired temperature and will automatically sense when that
temperature is reached and limit the flow of heat.


Lamps
Lamps are light bulbs and they are used in luminaires (light fittings) to produce light from
electrical energy.


Efficacy
This is the measure of the amount of light emitted per watt (lumens per watt or lm/W) of
electrical power consumed by a lamp. Together with the life expectancy of the lamp figures for
efficacy can provide and indication of the efficiency of the lamp.


CFLs
Compact fluorescent Lamps are commonly used as an energy efficient replacement for
traditional Tungsten lamps. CFLs are now produced with a range of efficacies, power ratings
and are suitable for a range of fittings and uses.


The U-value
Thermal transmittance (i.e. the U-value) is a measure of how much heat will pass through one
square metre of a structure when the air temperatures on either side differ by one degree. U-
values are expressed in units of Watts per square metre per degree of temperature difference
     2
(W/m deg C).


Whole life cost
When considering the purchase of a new energy consuming appliance, piece of equipment or
plant the purchaser should consider the other factors rather than just the initial cost. The whole
life cost considers the initial cost, the cost in use (energy consumption costs) for its lifespan,
maybe maintenance costs and then perhaps the disposal costs. This enables a fuller picture of
cost of the appliance, piece of equipment or plant across its lifespan
Faber Maunsell                                                                                       2




Introduction

Managing and reducing energy consumption can have significant
benefits for everyone. Reducing energy consumption reduces costs,
releases funds to be spent in other areas and helps to reduce the
volume of harmful greenhouse gases being released into the
atmosphere.



                        It has been calculated that the Church of England
                      emits approximately 330,656 tonnes of carbon dioxide
                                         (tCO2) per year.



Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge facing the world today. Rising global
temperatures will bring changes in weather patterns, rising sea levels and increased frequency
and intensity of extreme weather. The effects will be felt in the UK; internationally there may be
severe problems for people in regions that are particularly vulnerable.

Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given
region experiences. The 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) stated that human activity is “very likely” the primary driver of the
observed changes in climate.



The Church of England has an ongoing commitment to reduce the energy being consumed and
the greenhouse gas emissions that are produced. In June 2006 the Church launched Shrinking
the Footprint, a national strategic campaign led by the Bishop of London. This project aims to
challenge and support the whole Church to shrink its carbon environmental footprint to 40% of
current levels by 2050.

Within the Church of England each diocese and parish has, or is in the process of developing,
their own approach to tackling the issues of our climatic impact. Centrally this ongoing
commitment has so far delivered the following projects:

    •   “Measuring our Footprint” – It undertook a national energy audit, which gathered
        information on the energy consumed from churches from across the nation.
    •   In 2007 it undertook the Carbon Trust’s Carbon Management Programme
    •   During 2008 “Greening the Spires” completed church and cathedral energy
        surveys
    •   And also in 2008 with the support of the Energy Saving Trust (EST) the
        Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project was completed.
       Faber Maunsell                                                                                                            3




       Carbon Management Programme
       The Carbon Trust Carbon Management Programme investigates all the possible sources of
       carbon dioxide emissions or other greenhouse gases from an organisation. The programme
       then works with the organisation to identify key areas where reductions in emissions can be
       achieved.




                                                 Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Source

                                               Parsonage houses - Gas
                         Parsonage houses -            16.4%
                              Electricity
                               13.5%                                                                      Church - Electricity
                                                                                                               17.2%




   Offices - Gas
       0.9%


Offices - Electricity                                                                                    Church - Gas
       1.1%                                                                                                 39.7%



Palaces - Gas
                                                                                                  Church - Oil
    0.3%
                                     Cathedral - Electricity                                        7.3%
 Palaces - Electricity
       0.3%                                 1.4%                                 Church - Other fuel
                             Cathedral - Gas                                           0.0%
                                  1.8%

       For the Church of England a Carbon Footprint has been estimated that covers the carbon
       dioxide emissions from the 16,200 churches, 43 cathedrals, around 100 offices, and roughly
       13,000 clergy homes and many other buildings. In 2006 – 2007 it has been estimated that the
       Church of England emitted over 330,000 tCO2.



       Greening the Spires
       This project utilised Carbon Trust funding to carry out energy surveys at 24 Churches and 6
       Cathedrals from 7 dioceses. At each site the opportunities for energy savings were
       investigated and estimations of the potential energy, carbon and financial savings were
       reported. The energy savings found during these investigations have been supplemented by
       reference and guidance documents to produce the church and cathedral guidance sections for
       reducing carbon emissions.



       Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project
       It is estimated that the 13,000 clergy homes emit just around 99,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide
       per year. After churches this makes them the second largest contributor to the overall
       emissions of the Church of England.
       The Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project was an investigation into the possibilities for energy
       efficient refurbishment for clergy homes. The project was undertaken by Marches Energy
       Agency and run with the help of the Energy Saving Trust and some project sponsors. It
       investigated insulation, high efficiency boilers, renewable energy and behaviour change to
       create energy and carbon dioxide savings.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                  4




This guidance document
This guidance document is aimed at people that are responsible or want to be responsible for
energy consumption, the carbon footprint and/or the environmental impacts of a building. The
sections can be used independently; they each present essential information and provide a
simple plan and actions to get you started. This guidance document is split into sections for
each of the major building types within the Church of England.
    •   Churches
    •   Cathedrals
    •   Clergy Homes
    •   Schools
    •   Offices
    •   Appendices – references are made to the detail in this section by this information
        mark.
            o     Reading your meter
            o     Technical guidance table - Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment
                  in Churches and Cathedrals
Faber Maunsell                                                                                           5




Churches


How can we reduce the carbon emissions from our church?


                         The 16,200 churches are responsible for 65% of the
                          total carbon dioxide emissions of the Church of
                                              England



Carbon dioxide emissions from churches arise from a limited number of activities. Mainly
emissions come from energy used when heating and lighting a church but at larger sites other
activities like hot water generation, kitchen and catering activities and office energy use will also
contribute. It should be noted that using energy, whether it is electrical energy or fossil fuels like
gas, oil or coal, will result in the release of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. This
guidance document sets out information that is aimed to help each church reduce its carbon
dioxide emissions;


    •   Where is energy used?
    •   Where do emissions come from?
    •   A plan to create a routine of energy saving
    •   What about renewable energy?
    •   And where you could find further information?



This guidance document will link to some further information on carbon emissions and energy,
reading meters and conducting energy walk rounds and guidance that include technical detail
on replacement and refurbishment of energy saving appliances and plant, an information sign
will indicate that further information is available.


The next page shows a list of the most important actions that can be undertaken to save energy
and carbon dioxide emissions. The table includes:
    •   An indication of cost.
    •   The expected range of energy savings as a percentage.
    •   The cost savings from an average church.
 Faber Maunsell                                                                                       6




 Top actions to reduce a typical church’s carbon footprint
 The table below shows the typical energy saving actions that a church could undertake and the
 potential savings that these could achieve. More information on these actions can be found in
 the Church and Cathedral Guidance Table – found in the appendix of this document.



                                                              Typical energy        Typical cost
                                                             saving as a % of       saving from
                                           Capital cost
       Description of action                                    the annual           heating or
                                                £
                                                             heating, electric      electrical bill
                                                                or total bill

Begin a routine of energy saving           Low or no cost           5-15% total        £280 total

Improve boiler controls                       £1-5,000               5-10%heat      £300-1000heat

                                             £10-30 per
Insulate hot water pipes                                              5%heat         £200-350heat
                                               metre

Install draught proofing                    £200 -£5,000            2.5-10%heat      £50-700heat

Reducing heat loss associated with
                                            £250 -£1,000              1%heat          £0-100heat
windows

                                              <£100 to
Replace lighting installation                                       3-50%electric   £15-800electric
                                               £4,000

Replace boiler                               £2-15,000              15-25%heat      £200-1000heat


       total =this is a total energy saving
       electric=this is a saving from the electricity consumption
       heat = this is a saving from the heat consumption
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     7




How much energy does a church use and how much carbon
dioxide does this emit?
The energy consumption of a church varies with size, age, heating type, weekly occupancy and
the community use of the buildings. It is possible to compare the energy consumptions of
churches using the benchmarks. Benchmarks are defined by investigating the actual energy
consumption of a range of sites. This information is then compiled to indicate the energy
consumed as a Normalised Performance Indicator (NPI). Typically this is the annual energy
                                                     2
consumption per square metre of floor area (kWh/ m per year) and will represent buildings that
are average performers (Typical Practice), the top 10% of performers (Good Practice).

The table below shows the benchmarks established by the Chartered Institute of Building
Service Engineers (CIBSE). CIBSE have compiled energy consumption and floor areas from a
number of sites to compare churches by the amount of fossil fuel (this is most commonly
natural gas) and electrical energy. The information is presented in the volume of kilowatt hours
(kWh) they consume per square metre (m²) of floor area, or kWh/m².

                                       Good                Typical
                                      practice            operation
                      Fossil Fuel     80 kWh/m²           150 kWh/m²

                      Electricity     10 kWh/m²            20 kWh/m²



The typical operation benchmark is the average consumption of the sampled buildings. The
Good Practice figures indicate what could be achieved if the church that is being operated
efficiently.




                     Fossil fuel energy used in churches, 43% of churches
                       use natural gas and 21% use oil for heat energy.



An average church
In 2008 a series of surveys were undertaken to outline the possible energy saving opportunities
for the Church of England. The table below displays the average energy consumption, cost and
carbon dioxide emissions, from the church energy surveys that were undertaken.


                                                                       Tonnes
                         kWh        Benchmark          Cost £
                                                                        CO2
       Fossil fuel     151,581       151 kWh/m²        £4,244.27       29 tCO2

       Electricity      17,339        35 kWh/m²        £1,387.12        9 tCO2


Energy use within a church
The charts below show the information collected during two of the energy surveys. Energy is
consumed differently in each church and the charts show urban/suburban and rural church
energy consumption. The rural church typically has lower energy consumption with the majority
of energy used for heating and lighting the church and associated buildings. For the
urban/suburban church the size, community centre, kitchen/café, office and longer hours of
occupation mean the energy consumption is greater.
     Faber Maunsell                                                                                                8




                  Rural church                       Urban/Suburban church and community centre


                  Hot Water                                                          Ventilation
                     4%           Lighting                           Small Power
                                                                                        1%              Lighting
                                    17%                                12%
                                                                                                          20%
                                                                   Kitchen
                                                                     8%

                                                             Hot Water
                                                                6%




           Heating
            79%                                                                               Heating
                                                                                               53%

     The average energy consumption of all the rural churches surveyed is less than a tenth of that
     used by urban and suburban churches; the average energy consumption of a rural church is
     approximately 13,000kWh and average energy consumption of an urban and suburban church
     is approximately 165,000kWh per year.



     What are the carbon dioxide emissions of a church?
     The carbon dioxide emissions from the energy use of a building or site are usually combined to
     create a simple carbon footprint. Below are two example simple carbon footprints for the rural
     and urban/ suburban churches used above.

          Rural church                           Urban/Suburban church and community centre


                                                                             Ventilation
      Hot Water                                           Small Power           1%
         7%                                                 18%
                                                                                                   Lighting
                              Lighting                                                               30%
                                31%
                                                         Kitchen
                                                           6%

                                                       Hot Water
                                                         10%


Heating
                                                                                   Heating
 62%
                                                                                    35%

     Comparing the charts we those on the previous page we can see that the activities using
     electricity contribute to a greater proportion of the carbon footprint of a building or site.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                   9




                       The average carbon dioxide emissions from
                       The average carbon dioxide emissions from the
                                 the surveyed churches
                                    surveyed churches

                           Electricity,
                            9tonnes




                                                             Gas, 29tonnes




The above chart shows the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions that arise from the average
electricity and gas use of the churches surveyed. More information on carbon dioxide emissions
and creating footprints can be found on page 14.
         Faber Maunsell                                                                                 10




         Where do we start?
         Tackling the energy consumed in a building or series building requires lots of actions to be
         undertaken. The plan below shows these keys actions as a routine of energy saving.


                                     Nominate someone to take
                                   responsibility of energy and CO2




Create carbon footprint and                         Create meter reading schedule
         compare                                            and record book



                                   Undertake energy walk-round –
                                         take meter reading



                                  Work through energy checklist and
                                             identify …..




           A list of actions that will reduce            A low carbon replacement list -
             emissions – actions could be                 when will equipment be replaced
            undertaken during housekeeping                 and would an energy efficient
            or part of an awareness campaign                   options cost extra?




                                  Create awareness campaigns –
                                  ask others to help manage the way
                                    energy is used, look for help to
                                          reduce emissions




                                  Report on the progress made:
                                      •   Newsletters.
                                      •   To cathedral management.
                                      •   Notice boards.




                                      Create an energy policy -
                                  Integrate lower energy use and the
                                  quest to reduce emissions into the
                                   day to day running of the church



         More detail on these actions is contained on the following page.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                         11




Putting a plan into action

    •   A routine of energy saving is a commitment to reducing energy consumption. Most
        likely you are already undertaking some if not lots of actions to manage and reduce
        energy consumption, i.e. using energy saving light bulbs, closing doors and turning
        things off. These actions should be incorporated into a plan that is carried out annually
        and incorporates elements that will tackle emissions from the building as a whole, see
        page 10. Below is some further information on the actions listed in the plan to help
        create a routine of energy saving.


    •   Nominate someone to be in charge of monitoring energy consumption and to take
        responsibility of a programme of energy saving. This role may fit easily with the duties
        of the Church Warden or Parish Clergy but anyone that is interested could undertake
        this role. Once in place the first action that this person should undertake is to review the
        above plan undertake the actions.


    •   Meter reading schedule, meter readings should be undertaken regularly (monthly,
        quarterly or at least annually) to monitor energy consumption, costs and help with
        emissions. Guidance on how to do this can be found in the appendix. Meter reading
        and recording energy consumption is an important part of Shrinking the Footprint.
        Energy information will help the Church of England measure its progress towards
        carbon dioxide emissions reduction.


    •   Create a carbon footprint, use meter readings to measure the amount of energy
        (natural gas, electricity, oil, LPG etc) being used each year to construct a simple carbon
        footprint. Further guidance on how to create a carbon footprint see page 14.




                        Each week 16,200 churches consume approximately
                                      £203,000 of electricity



    •   Energy walk-rounds are used to establish where energy is being used, to reduce
        wasteful practices and to establish which appliances, equipment or plant, will need
        replacing. An energy walk-round is a simple tour of inspection of a building or site.
        Armed with a checklist, you simply walk around the church and other buildings and
        make a systematic visual inspection of each room and circulation areas. An energy
        walk-round can be carried out as part of the Church’s Calendar or Care. The inspection
        should note down where:
            • energy is being wasted (i.e. good housekeeping practices are not being
                followed)
            • repair or maintenance work is needed (to reduce energy costs)
            • there is a need for capital investment (to improve energy efficiency)

        By undertaking an energy walk round is possible to understand where energy is being
        used and how it can be reduced. The overall aim is to use this information to construct
        two separate lists:
            • A list of actions that will reduce emissions (Good Housekeeping).
            • A low carbon replacement list (Repairs and Maintenance).

        The energy walk-round checklist can be found on page 15 and 16.

        A Good housekeeping list that will reduce emissions is a simple task list. The
        questions on the checklist will get you started. Once you have undertaken the energy
Faber Maunsell                                                                                      12




        walk-round and completed the checklist you will be able to construct your Good
        Housekeeping list.

        A Low carbon replacement list, eventually it will be necessary to replace current
        appliances, equipment and plant (boilers, hot water heaters, air conditioning units). At
        this point the church should invest in new equipment, before doing this it should
        consider the energy efficiency and the longer term running costs of the equipment.
        Even if you have to pay more for the equipment the lower running costs usually
        payback on this extra investment. More information on these replacement options can
        be found in the appendix.

        Outcomes of the energy walk-rounds, including the good housekeeping and low carbon
        replacement lists, could be reviewed as part of the quinquennial inspections.


    •   Create awareness campaigns. Once you worked out how much energy you are using,
        where you are using energy and developed an action plan it is time to bring on board
        support. Creating energy awareness campaigns and other schemes will help you make
        progress and implement your action plan. Encourage others to take part and focus on
        the day to day things included in the checklist. Use the actions in the checklist to get
        you started but ask for people’s opinions and create awareness campaigns specific for
        your church.

        The key to a good
        awareness campaign is to
        have a specific aim that
        you would like to achieve
        and to undertake the
        campaign for a fixed
        period of time, i.e. tackle
        heating during winter and
        reducing lighting during
        summer. Once complete
        replace the campaign and
        review your progress.


    •   Monitor success and report. Once your programme of energy saving is up and
        running it is important to keep track of your progress. Monitor meter readings and
        awareness campaigns and report on your progress;
            •   How effective is the awareness campaign? Do people like it? Has it achieved
                what was hoped? How effective have you been?
            • How much energy are you using?
            • What are the emissions from this?
            • What is the cost?
        A good place to do this would be on a notice board with a graphic display like a chart. A
        report could then be presented at the Annual Parish Meeting. For more information on
        monitoring, meter reading, and comparisons of performance look at See the appendix.


    •   Create an energy policy to integrate this focus on energy reduction and lower carbon
        dioxide emissions into the day to day running of the church.

        The Church of England has committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 40% of
        current levels by 2050. To achieve this it will require an ongoing commitment from all
        areas of the church. Integrating energy saving and managing your carbon dioxide
        emissions into the day to day working life of the church is key to encouraging ongoing
        progress.

        An ongoing commitment is normally set out in a policy or statement. Many churches
        and diocese already have these and there is more information available through the
Faber Maunsell                                                                                    13




        Shrinking the Footprint website, see links section on page 18. This policy or statement
        can then be displayed and referred to internally when decisions need to be made and
        externally by the public and other organisations.

        Could you incorporate the themes of reducing energy consumption, reducing waste or
        pollution, global equality, social pressures due to changing environments into the
        weekly services? Could the parish be encouraged to think about their own carbon
        footprints? The goal would be to get the rest of the church involved and to help make
        the link between energy efficiency in the church, the carbon footprint, and the broader
        community. Perhaps you could begin this process by holding an extra PCC meeting or
        a special coffee morning to discuss the issues.


    •   Repeat Once completed repeat the cycle. Undertake another walk round and complete
        the checklist. Reflect on previous awareness campaigns and create new ones. Once
        you understand your energy consumption/carbon footprint and the options for energy
        saving perhaps you can set a target for energy reduction?


The following section gives further information on calculating a Carbon Footprint and contains
an energy walk-round checklist to help get you started.
Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                         14




How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions?
Once you know the amount of energy used, normally the annual consumption figures in kWh,
calculating the carbon dioxide emissions is simple. Because carbon dioxide is released as fossil
fuel is burnt it is possible to measure and calculate the volume of gas released for every kWh or
litre of energy used. The table below shows a list of carbon dioxide levels, or conversion figures,
for the main fuel types. These figures are revised regularly for government and posted on the
Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) website.



     Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, CO2
                     emissions by fuel type for the UK
                                                     kgCO2/kWh                   kgCO2/litre

 Electricity                                            0.537                           -

 Natural Gas                                            0.185                           -

 Domestic Heating Oil                                   0.252                        2.674

 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)                             0.214                        1.495

                                                          * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.



When considering action to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions it is important to
consider the relative emissions from the different types of energy we use. Investigation has
shown that approximately 43% of churches use Natural Gas and 21% use Domestic Heating Oil
as their main heat source. If we compare the kgCO2 per kWh for these two fuel types we can
see that the emissions per kWh of natural gas are roughly ¾ of the emissions of Domestic
Heating Oil with emissions from electricity significantly higher then both of these.

Below is a worked example of calculating carbon dioxide emissions from typical energy
consumption information.


 Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked
                               example
                                                                                       *Total
                                      Energy         multiplied
                         Units                                      kgCO2/unit       emission in
                                     consumed           by
                                                                                       kgCO2

Electricity           kWh                 55,000          x             0.537                29,535

Natural Gas           kWh                156,000          x             0.185                28,860

Heating Oil           Litres                1500          x             2.674                 4,011

                                                                            Total            62,406

                                                 * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000

The example shows that this site emits 62.4tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon dioxide
emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating tool:
www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htm

When reading gas meters it is important to make a note of the unit of measurement on the
meter. Some meters use cubic feet, others use cubic metres, conversion factors are listed on
gas bills, more information on reading meters can be found in the appendix.
                        Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                                                                 15




                       Energy walk-round checklist
Date or Survey:                                                Undertaken by:
Begin by taking meter readings. Then move from room to room noting where energy saving actions are or are not being
undertaken, make notes on the Good Housekeeping actions that could save energy.

Good housekeeping actions                          Yes?          Church                       Other buildings
Record meter readings (include units, kWh,
litres, m³ etc)                                                                                   List which building(s) the meter applies too


Lighting
Is lighting switched off when not required
(subject to safety)?
Are time clocks for external lighting correct?
Is outside lighting switched off whilst there is
daylight?
Have windows and lights been cleaned?


Heat and Hot Water
Has the boiler or heating convectors or
electric heaters been maintained/serviced?
Are curtains and blinds drawn at dusk?
Are radiators (or other heat emitters) free
from obstruction?
Is draught proofing intact and working?
Are the time clock(s) on the heating controller
set correctly?
Are electric hot water heaters switched off at
the end of the day?
                                       o
Is the hot water thermostat is set 60 C
                                 o
Are thermostats set to 16 to 18 C whilst the
church is in use?
Is the church heating turned off or setback to
  o
8 C whilst not in use?
Are radiator TRVs set correctly?


Kitchen actions
Are switch on/off times set correctly to
minimise time unused?
Are fridge, freezer and dishwasher
temperatures monitored?
Is electrical equipment switched off at the end
of the day?


General actions
Is all electrical equipment switched off at the
end of the day?
Are computers and I.T. appliances switched
off when not in use?


                       Now construct your list of Good Housekeeping actions.
                       Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                                          16




Date or Survey:                                                Undertaken by:
Whilst looking at the Good Housekeeping actions that could save energy you should consider the appliances and plant and
their replacement or maintenance. Are they low energy? How can low energy consumption be maintained? Could they be
replaced with lower energy consuming versions?

                                            Estimated
Replacement/Maintenance                    replacement               Church                      Other buildings
                                               date
Heating, check -
• Boiler performance/reliability
• Install/repair/replace boiler
  controls
• Install/repair/replace thermostats
• Air filters on convection heaters
• Install/replace pipe insulation
•

Lighting, check -
• Lighting levels, is it dull or bright,
  are you using daylight?
• Types of fittings and lamps, are
  there any efficient versions
  available?
• Install/rearrange/reposition
  lighting controls
•

Other Electrical, check energy
ratings of -
• Computers
• Printers
• Photocopiers
• Fridges
• Freezers
• Hot water urns
•

General building:
• Maintain door closing
  mechanisms
• Install/repair/replace draught
  proofing
• Install/top up insulation in
  appropriate roof spaces
• Repair dripping taps
•

Other:
•
•
•
•
•
•

                       Once completed create a list of appliances and plant that need replacing and maintaining and
                       investigate lower energy consuming options. For more information on replacement and
                       maintenance see the appendix
Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                  17




What about renewable energy?
The renewable energy sources are:
    •   The Sun
    •   Wind
    •   Well managed forests (i.e. wood)
    •   Intrinsic heat of the Earth
    •   And movement of water
These resources can be harnessed by the following technologies:
    •   Solar photovoltaic panels for electricity and solar flat plate panels or evacuated tubes for
        heat collection
    •   Wind turbines at range of scales
    •   Burning wood in boilers for heat (i.e. biomass heat)
    •   Hydro turbines at a range of scales
    •   Ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling generation
The energy output from renewable technologies is dependant on the availability of renewable
resources (e.g. sun, wind) and can be impacted by site specific constraints such as
overshading, ground condition and building design. Because of this, it is not possible to find a
single renewable technology solution that can be applied to all sites. Therefore selecting the
appropriate renewable technology can be very complex.

More information on the types of renewable energy and how to select the appropriate renewable
technology can be found in the Renewable Energy Appraisal document. This report highlights
the issues that need to be considered when assessing the technologies that are most suitable
for any given site. The aim is to provide guidance to individual parishes that wish to install
renewable energy technologies on their church so that they can make an informed decision and
obtain the best cost benefits balance.

It should be noted that energy efficiency improvements should be implemented before
considering renewable energy technologies. Energy efficiency improvements in most instances
provide a more cost effective way of saving CO2, and money than the renewable technologies

                                           This diagram illustrates the amount of energy that can
                 Reduce                    be saved by different types of action and the decreasing
                                           ease with which this energy can e saved. The top of the
                                           diagram displays the easy action of turning things off,
                 Efficiency                the middle section looks to use energy more efficiently
                                           which may require some investment, the final section
                    RE                     reflects the resources required to utilise renewable
                                           energy (RE) for the remaining energy or CO2 savings.


Figure 0 Energy hierarchy
For more information on the use of renewable energy please see the links below.
Faber Maunsell
                                                                                               18




Further information
Documents
The Cathedral and Church Buildings Division hold two further supporting
documents:
  • Renewable Energy Appraisal
  • Research Report on Grant Funding Availability

Technical documents for places of worship:
   • New Work in Historic Places of Worship, English Heritage, 2003.
   • Energy conservation in traditional buildings, English Heritage, 2008
   • Heating your church, Bordass, W. and Bemrose, C. Church Care, 1996
     - although this is focused on Parish Churches the description of heating systems and
        heat and humidity are useful when considering the appropriate systems for Cathedral.

Christians tackling environmental issues:
  • How Many Light bulbs Does it Take To Change a Christian? Foster,
      C. and Shreeve, D Church House Publishing, 2007.
  • Don't Stop at the Lights: Leading your church through a changing
      climate, Foster, C. and Shreeve, D. Church House Publishing, 2008.

Websites
Church Care website
www.churchcare.co.uk

Church maintenance and repair, Calendar of Care
http://www.churchcare.co.uk/calendar.php

Shrinking the Footprint
To keep up to date on the developments with the Church of England’s progress towards
reducing its carbon footprint
www.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/church40.php
There are also a list of links and resources available on the following page
www.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/link_res.php

Conversion factors for carbon dioxide emissions, Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/conversion-factors.htm

The Carbon Trust, publications page
www.carbontrust.co.uk/publications
Faber Maunsell                                                                                      19




Cathedrals


Introduction

Energy, environmental issues and renewable energy are growing areas of concern and interest
for us all. This includes those working to operate, maintain and protect cathedrals, as reflected
in the Cathedral Fabric Commission’s Annual Report 2007. Cathedrals, although limited in the
scope of refurbishment work that can be undertaken, represent a significant opportunity for
saving energy and carbon dioxide emissions.


                         In total the 43 cathedrals in the Church of England are
                         estimated to emit over 10,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide
                          (tCO2) a year. This is equivalent to the annual carbon
                           dioxide emissions from over 1,800 average homes.



This document has been constructed to support cathedral staff that wish to begin a structured
programme of energy saving. This guidance document aims to help you establish a plan to
reduce the carbon footprint of the cathedral and give you some ideas about how you will go
about it. This document consists of the following sections:
    •   Energy and carbon dioxide emissions from cathedral’s
    •   Creating an energy saving routine
    •   How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions?
    •   Energy walk-round checklist
    •   Renewable energy
    •   Further information


This guidance document also links into further information on reading meters and technical
information on the replacement of energy using equipment that may be useful when working to
create a greater awareness with other cathedral staff.



The next page shows a list of the most important actions that can be undertaken to save energy
and carbon dioxide emissions. The table includes:
    •   An indication of the capital cost.
    •   The expected range of energy savings as a percentage.
    •   An indication of the cost and carbon dioxide savings.
    •   And the years that the investment may take to pay back.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                           20




The information contained in the table is based upon 6 cathedral energy surveys carried out in
2008. The cost and carbon dioxide savings are calculated using the average of the energy
consumed at each of the sites visited.



                                                                                     Average
                                             Energy          Average
                             Capital                                                annual CO2
     Description                             saving         annual cost
                              cost                                                    saving
                                               %             saving £
                                                                                     (tonnes)
 Begin routine of
                                None           5% total         £1,850 total            12.5 total
 energy saving^

 Insulate hot water          £10-30 per
                                               3% heat      £900 - £1,800 heat           4.2 heat
 pipes                          metre


 Install draught
                            £400-£1,500       2-9% heat     £300 - £1700 heat          3 - 13 heat
 proofing

 Upgrade lighting                            1.5 – 30%
                           Approx £1,000                   £250 – £5,700 electric       33 electric
 controls                                      electric


 Install efficient                            5 – 10%
                           £1,500-£4,000                    £900 - £1,800 heat         7 – 14 heat
 boiler controls                                 heat


 Install energy               £1,500 -        5 – 50%
                                                           £950 - £9,500 electric    5.5 - 66 electric
 efficient lighting           £100,000         electric

                              £10,000 -
 Upgrade Boiler                             10-15% heat    £1,800 - £2,760 heat        14-21 heat
                              £100,000


      total =this is a total energy saving
      electric=this is a saving from the electricity consumption
      heat = this is a saving from the heat consumption
Faber Maunsell                                                                                        21




Energy and carbon dioxide emissions from cathedrals
The energy consumption of different cathedrals can not be directly compared due to the
variation in the size, heating systems, occupancy, lighting systems and the events held
throughout the year. Therefore it is important for cathedral staff to record fossil fuel (generally
natural gas) and electricity consumption monthly so that they can check performance against
previous years.

In 2008 a series of surveys were undertaken to outline the possible energy saving opportunities
for the Church of England. The table below displays the average energy consumption, cost and
carbon dioxide emissions from the cathedrals surveyed.


                                      kWh                 Cost £          Tonnes CO2
          Fossil fuel                740,000              £18,400           140 tCO2

          Electricity                255,000              £19,000           110 tCO2




                        If lighting efficiency is improved at a cathedral as part of
                          the scheduled lighting refurbishment it could create a
                        saving of over £3,500 a year with little or no extra initial
                                                financial outlay.



Carbon dioxide emissions from a cathedral
The chart below shows an approximate breakdown of the carbon dioxide emissions from a
cathedral. Although actual emissions may be different at each cathedral this chart gives an
indication of the relative importance of each area of energy consumption.

            The approximate split carbon dioxide emissions from a cathedral

                                            Ventilation
                            Small Power        1%
                              17%
                                                               Lighting
                                                                 31%
                           Kitchen
                             6%

                         Hot Water
                            9%



                                                Heating
                                                 36%
       Faber Maunsell                                                                                 22




       Creating an energy saving routine
       Tackling the energy consumed in a building or series building requires lots of actions to be
       undertaken. The plan below shows these keys actions as a routine of energy saving.


                                   Nominate someone to take
                                 responsibility of energy and CO2




Create carbon footprint                           Create meter reading schedule
                                                          and record book



                                 Undertake energy walk-round –
                                 take meter reading and create…




         A list of actions that will reduce             A low carbon replacement list
                     emissions



                                 Create awareness campaigns



                                Report on the progress made:
                                    •   Newsletters.
                                    •   To cathedral management.
                                    •   Notice boards.




                                     Create an energy policy




       Putting a plan into action

           •   A routine of energy saving is a commitment to reducing energy consumption. Most
               likely you are already undertaking some if not lots of actions to manage and reduce
               energy consumption. These actions should be incorporated into a plan that is carried
               out annually. Below is some further information on the actions listed above.


           •   Nominate someone to be in charge of monitoring energy consumption and to take
               responsibility of a programme of energy saving.


           •   Meter reading schedule, meter readings should be undertaken regularly (monthly,
               quarterly or at least annually) to monitor energy consumption, costs and help with
               emissions. Guidance on how to do this can be found in the appendix. Meter reading
Faber Maunsell                                                                                       23




        and recording energy consumption is an important part of Shrinking the Footprint.
        Recording energy information will help the cathedral and the Church of England
        measure its progress towards carbon dioxide emissions reduction.


    •   Create carbon footprint, use meter readings to measure the amount of energy
        (natural gas, electricity, oil, LPG etc) being used each year to construct a simple carbon
        footprint. Further guidance on how to create a carbon footprint is on page 25.




                      It is possible to make a 25% saving by creating a routine of
                           energy saving and merely specifying the right energy
                                  efficient equipment upon replacement



    •   Energy walk-rounds can be carried out as part of the normal cathedral maintenance
        programme. The energy walk-round checklist is an outline of the actions that need to
        be considered and can be used to inform any maintenance programmes already in
        operation. The inspection should consider the following principles where:
            • energy is being wasted (i.e. good housekeeping practices are not being
                followed)
            • repair or maintenance work is needed (to reduce energy costs)
            • there is a need for capital investment (to improve energy efficiency)

        By incorporating the above energy saving criteria into your inspection work you can
        create an ongoing focus on the energy saving performance of the building. The overall
        aim of an energy focused inspection or walk-round is to construct two separate lists:
            • A list of actions that will reduce emissions (Good Housekeeping).
            • A low carbon replacement list (Repairs and Maintenance).

        The energy walk-round checklist is included on page 26.


        A Good housekeeping list will help to you to create awareness raising campaigns that
        can be used to involve cathedral staff and visitors. The questions on the checklist on
        page XX will get you started.

        A Low carbon replacement list will help you plan investment to create energy savings
        and carbon dioxide emission reductions. When considering new appliances and plant it
        is important to consider the whole life cost (the annual energy consumption in use
        multiplied by the life span) as well as the initial investment. Studies into whole life
        costing have shown that higher capital investment for better performance usually
        produces long term energy savings. More information on replacement options, whole
        life costs and payback periods can be found in the appendix.

        It is especially important to consider the energy consumption performance of new
        appliances or plant before undertaking any programmes of works to the cathedral.
        Rewiring, installing new audio-visual systems and conducting lighting replacements are
        very important opportunities for reducing the energy consumption of a cathedral.

        Outcomes of the energy walk-rounds, including the good housekeeping and low carbon
        replacement lists, could be reviewed as part of the quinquennial inspections.


    •   Create awareness campaigns. Creating energy awareness campaigns and other
        schemes will help you gain support for your work. Commonly, the outcomes of
        awareness campaigns are shared with building users alongside key energy
        consumption costs or carbon dioxide emissions to demonstrate the importance of day
Faber Maunsell                                                                                      24




        to day actions like switching off lights in areas with adequate daylight. The actions on
        the energy walk-round checklist are a great place to start.


    •   Monitor success and report. Once your routine of energy saving is up and running it
        is important to keep track of your progress. Monitor meter readings and awareness
        campaigns and report on your progress;
            •    How effective is the awareness campaign? Do people like it? Has it achieved
                 what was hoped? How effective have you been?
            •    How much energy are you using?
            •    What are the emissions from this?
            •    What is the cost?


    •   Create an energy policy to integrate energy and lower carbon dioxide emissions into
        the day to day running of the cathedral.

        The Church of England has committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 40% of
        current levels by 2050. To achieve this it will require an ongoing commitment from all
        areas of the Church. Integrating energy saving and managing carbon dioxide emissions
        into the day to day working life of the cathedral is key to encouraging ongoing progress.

        An ongoing commitment should be set out in a policy or statement that is agreed and
        endorsed by the staff and clergy involved with managing the cathedral. At this stage it
        may be useful to ask for comments from relevant cathedral stakeholders or outside
        consultants or architects. This policy or statement can then be displayed and referred to
        internally when decisions need to be made and externally by the public and other
        organisations.


    •   Repeat, once completed repeat the cycle. Undertake another walk round and complete
        the checklist. Reflect on previous awareness campaigns and create new ones. Once
        energy consumption and the carbon footprint of the cathedral is accepted and
        understood then consider setting a target for energy reduction?


The following section gives further information on calculating a Carbon Footprint and contains
the Energy Walk-Round Checklist.
Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                       25




How do I calculate carbon dioxide emissions?
Use the annual energy consumption figures in kWh to calculate the carbon dioxide of the
cathedral. Carbon dioxide is released as fossil fuel is burnt and it is possible to measure and
calculate the volume of gas released for every kWh or litre of energy used. The table below
shows a list of carbon dioxide levels, or conversion figures, for the main fuel types. These
figures are revised regularly for government and posted on the Department of Environment,
Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) website.



     Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, CO2
                     emissions by fuel type for the UK
                                                   kgCO2/kWh                   kgCO2/kWh

 Electricity                                          0.537                           -

 Natural Gas                                          0.185                           -

 Domestic Heating Oil                                 0.252                        2.674

 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)                           0.214                        1.495

                                                        * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.



When considering actions to reduce carbon dioxide emissions it is important to consider the
relative emissions from the different types of energy we use. If we compare the kgCO2 per kWh
for natural gas and domestic heating oil we can see that the emissions per kWh of natural gas
are roughly ¾ of the emissions of domestic heating oil, emissions from electricity are
significantly higher then both of these.

Below is a worked example of calculating carbon dioxide emissions from typical energy
consumption information.


 Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked
                               example
                                                                                     *Total
                                     Energy        multiplied
                        Units                                     kgCO2/unit       emission in
                                    consumed          by
                                                                                     kgCO2

Electricity          kWh                 55,000        x              0.537                29,535

Natural Gas          kWh                156,000        x              0.185                28,860

Heating Oil          Litres                1500        x              2.674                 4,011

                                                                          Total            62,406

                                               * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000

The example shows that this site emits 62.4tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon dioxide
emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating tool:
www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htm
                        Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                                                                 26




                       Energy walk-round checklist
Date or Survey:                                                Undertaken by:
Begin by taking meter readings. Then move from room to room noting where energy saving actions are or are not being
undertaken. Make notes on the Good Housekeeping actions that could save energy.

Good Housekeeping actions                          Yes?        Cathedral                      Other buildings
Record meter readings (include units, kWh,
litres, m³ etc)                                                                                   List which building(s) the meter applies too


Lighting
Is lighting switched off when not required
(subject to safety)?
Are time clocks for external lighting correct?
Is outside lighting switched off whilst there is
daylight?
Have windows and lights been cleaned?


Heat and Hot Water
Has the boiler or heating convectors or
electric heaters been maintained/serviced?
Are curtains and blinds drawn at dusk?
Are radiators (or other heat emitters) free
from obstruction?
Is draught proofing intact and working?
Are the time clock(s) on the heating controller
set correctly?
Are electric hot water heaters switched off at
the end of the day?
                                       o
Is the hot water thermostat is set 60 C
                                 o
Are thermostats set to 16 to 18 C whilst the
church is in use?
Is the church heating turned off or setback to
  o
8 C whilst not in use?
Are radiator TRVs set correctly?


Kitchen actions
Are switch on/off times set correctly to
minimise time unused?
Are fridge, freezer and dishwasher
temperatures monitored?
Is electrical equipment switched off at the end
of the day?


General actions
Is all electrical equipment switched off at the
end of the day?
Are computers and I.T. appliances switched
off when not in use?


                       Now construct your list of Good Housekeeping actions.
                     Faber Maunsell
                                                                                                                          27




Date or Survey:                                                Undertaken by:
Whilst looking at Good Housekeeping actions consider the appliances and plant and their replacement or maintenance. Are
they low energy? How can low energy consumption be maintained? Could they be replaced with lower energy consuming
versions?

                                          Estimated
Replacement/Maintenance                  replacement               Cathedral                    Other buildings
                                             date
Heating, check -
• Boiler performance/reliability
• Install/repair/replace boiler
  controls
• Install/repair/replace thermostats
• Air filters on convection heaters
• Install/replace pipe insulation
•

Lighting, check -
• Lighting levels, are there areas
  that could use better daylight?
• Types of fittings and lamps, are
  there any efficient versions
  available?
• Install/rearrange/reposition
  lighting controls
•

Other Electrical, check energy
ratings of -
• Computers
• Printers
• Photocopiers
• Air conditioning systems
• Over door heaters
•

General building:
• Maintain door closing
  mechanisms
• Install/repair/replace draught
  proofing
• Install/top up insulation in
  appropriate roof spaces
• Repair dripping taps
•

Other:
• Fridges
• Freezers
• Other kitchen equipment
• Hot water urns
•
•
•

                    Once completed create a list of appliances and plant that need replacing and maintaining and
                    investigate lower energy consuming options. For more information on replacement and
                    maintenance see the appendix
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     28




Renewable energy
The renewable energy sources are:
    •    The Sun
    •    Wind
    •    Well managed forests (i.e. wood)
    •    Intrinsic heat of the Earth
    •    And movement of water
These resources can be harnessed by the following technologies:
    •   Solar photovoltaic panels for electricity and solar flat plate panels or evacuated tubes
        for heat collection
    •   Wind turbines at range of scales
    •   Burning wood in boilers for heat (i.e. biomass heat)
    •   Hydro turbines at a range of scales
    •   Ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling generation
The energy output from renewable technologies is dependant on the availability of renewable
resources (e.g. sun, wind) and can be impacted by site specific constraints such as
overshading, ground condition and building design. Because of this, it is not possible to find a
single renewable technology solution that can be applied to all sites. Therefore selecting the
appropriate renewable technology can be very complex.

More information on the types of renewable energy and how to select the appropriate
renewable technology can be found in the Renewable Energy Appraisal document. This report
highlights the issues that need to be considered when assessing the technologies that are most
suitable for any given site. The aim is to provide guidance to individual parishes that wish to
install renewable energy technologies on their church so that they can make an informed
decision and obtain the best cost benefits balance.

It should be noted that energy efficiency improvements should be implemented before
considering renewable energy technologies. Energy efficiency improvements in most instances
provide a more cost effective way of saving CO2 and money than renewable technologies.
Cathedrals, although historic buildings, may still be able to utilise renewable energy
technologies but you should always consult the appropriate statutory bodies.


For more information on the use of renewable energy please refer to the Renewable Energy
Appraisal document, see below.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                 29




Further information
Documents
The Cathedral and Church Buildings Division hold two further supporting
documents:
  • Renewable Energy Appraisal
  • Research Report on Grant Funding Availability

Technical documents for places of worship:
   • New Work in Historic Places of Worship, English Heritage, 2003.
   • Energy conservation in traditional buildings, English Heritage, 2008
   • Heating your church, Bordass, W. and Bemrose, C. Church Care, 1996
     - although this is focused on Parish Churches the description of heating systems and
        heat and humidity are useful when considering the appropriate systems for Cathedral.

Christians tackling environmental issues:
  • How Many Light bulbs Does it Take To Change a Christian? Foster,
      C. and Shreeve, D Church House Publishing, 2007.
  • Don't Stop at the Lights: Leading your church through a changing
      climate, Foster, C. and Shreeve, D. Church House Publishing, 2008.
Websites
Care of Cathedrals Rules 2006
www.cofe.anglican.org/about/cathandchurchbuild/cathedralsguidance

English Cathedrals
www.englishcathedrals.co.uk

Church Care website – although not directly focused at Cathedrals there are some useful
links and information available
www.churchcare.co.uk

Shrinking the Footprint
To keep up to date on the developments with the Church of England’s progress towards
reducing its carbon footprint
www.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/church40.php
There are also a list of links and resources available on the following page
www.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/link_res.php

Conversion factors for carbon dioxide emissions, Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/conversion-factors.htm

The Carbon Trust, publications page
www.carbontrust.co.uk/publications
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     30




Clergy Homes


Introduction
Clergy homes are estimated to contribute to almost a third of the total carbon footprint of the
Church of England. The 13,000 homes emit around 100,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.



                       The average household could save around 1.5 tonnes of
                         carbon dioxide (CO2) a year by making their home
                                          energy efficient


Every year diocese surveyors inspect Clergy homes and implement renewal and refurbishment
programmes. These programmes include filling cavity walls and insulating lofts, installing
thermostats and thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs), and installing new boilers and double or
secondary glazing as and when they can.

Every five years Diocese surveyors are required to undertake a quinquennial inspection of
church buildings. With changing energy efficiency requirements in sold, rented and bought
properties surveyors are beginning to look at energy consumption more closely.

Earlier in 2008 the Church of England worked in collaboration with the Energy Saving Trust,
Marches Energy Agency and two dioceses to undertake a programme that would identify the
potential energy savings that can be achieved through refurbishment of a range of types of
clergy homes. This project was called the Parsonages Sustainable Energy Project.


This document
This document provides information on energy saving actions for clergy homes aims. It is
recognised that across the dioceses there is a lot of knowledge of such issues and that
considerable work has already been undertaken. This document is aiming to draw together
useful information for surveyors and the incumbent clergy living in them. It contains a guidance
section that;

    •   covers the typical energy consumption in a home,
    •   covers the carbon dioxide emissions from a home,
    •   gives a summary of the Parsonages Sustainable Energy Project,
    •   lists the cost and carbon dioxide savings from a range of energy efficiency,
    •   and provides sources of information and links for the home occupier, Clergy and
        diocese surveyors.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                               31




Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from a
home
Greenhouse gas emissions from a domestic building (home) arise from heating, hot water,
lighting and other electrical consumption, see below. The total emissions from a household will
be somewhere in the range of 4-8 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year, with the lower value being
a home most likely built after 1995.
               Energy consumption of an average home built circa 1975
                                                Cooking, 6%
                           Lights and
                        appliances, 25%




                                                                  Space heating, 44%




                      Water heating, 25%




This chart shows where energy is used within a home. When we begin thinking about the
carbon footprint of a building it is important to realise that we are considering the amount and
types of energy we use. Carbon dioxide is released from burning the fossil fuels (natural gas,
coal, petrol, diesel, LPG etc) required to supply us with the heat, electrical and transport energy
– the UK generated 4.7% of its electricity from renewable sources in 2006, DEFRA 2008. The
table below show the relative carbon dioxide intensities of each of the most common energy
types used in a home.

 The relative carbon dioxide emissions from each unit/volume of energy
                                                         kgCO2/kWh                     kgCO2/kWh

 Electricity                                                    0.537                        -

 Natural Gas                                                    0.185                        -

 Gas/Diesel oil                                                 0.252                     2.674

 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)                                     0.214                     1.495
                                                              * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.


When considering action to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions it is important to
consider the relative emissions from the different types of energy we use. If we compare the
kgCO2 per kWh of Natural Gas and Domestic Heating Oil we can see that the emissions per
kWh of natural gas are roughly ¾ of the emissions of Domestic Heating Oil with emissions from
electricity significantly higher then both of these.



                            In 2006 27% (149 million tonnes) of emissions came
                             from the energy we use to heat, light and power our
                                                  homes.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     32




Below is a worked example of calculating carbon dioxide emissions from typical energy home.


  Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked
                                example
                                                                                    *Total
                                     Energy          multiplied    kgCO2/uni
                        Units                                                     emission in
                                    consumed            by             t
                                                                                    kgCO2

Electricity          kWh                   5,000          x           0.537               2,685

Natural Gas          kWh                 30,000           x           0.185               5,550

                                                                          Total           8,235

                                                   * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000

The example shows that this site emits 8.2tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon dioxide
emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating tool:
http://actonco2.direct.gov.uk/index.html

When reading gas meters it is important to make a note of the unit of measurement on the
meter. Some meters use cubic feet, others use cubic metres, conversion factors are listed on
gas bills, more information on reading meters can be found in the appendix. To confirm your
carbon dioxide emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint calculating
tool.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     33




Parsonage Sustainable Energy Project
This project provided action focused achievable examples of how the Church of England can
deliver low-carbon parsonages in a practical and cost effective manner. There is a great
potential to improve the clergy housing stock and this project demonstrated, through a series of
case studies, what is achievable around sustainable energy in the different types of parsonage
housing and how it can be achieved.


                      The emissions caused by passenger cars, buses and
                     mopeds and motorcycles accounted for a 16% (87 million
                               tonnes) of CO2 emissions in 2006


The project looked at the property types in 2 dioceses and selected 8 properties from 5 housing
categories; post war housing, Hard to Treat, Inter-war, Post 1996 and one for an Eco-house
upgrade. Below is a list of the outcomes of the project.



Outcomes
    •   Six out of eight properties required loft insulation,
    •   Four required cavity walls to be filled
    •   Two required solid wall insulation.
    •   Heating controls were specified as well as draught proofing and new boilers.
    •   Energy efficient light bulbs were fitted throughout the properties.
    •   Post war properties have the greatest potential for energy and emissions saving
        at the least cost.
    •   Supplying information and guidance on energy efficiency and carbon dioxide
        reduction could help incumbents to reduce heating bills.
    •   There is an opportunity for recognised training on carbon dioxide emissions and
        climate change to be delivered to raise knowledge levels.
    •   There is a potential to review the procedures for the quinquennial survey to make
        them more rigorous with regard to managing carbon dioxide emissions from
        Clergy homes
    •   There is funding available from energy supplies and manufacturers for
        insulation, boilers and light bulbs. Using a bulk purchasing approach will help to
        attract this funding.
    •   The Parsonage Design Guide should be reviewed



More information can be obtained by contacting the Cathedrals and Church Buildings Division,
Church House.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                      34




How to reduce emissions from domestic properties
Reducing emissions from domestic properties is relatively simple. There are many no cost
actions that should be undertaken initially to reduce energy consumption and then many easily
available capital investments that can provide on going savings.


Ways to reduce energy consumption – no cost actions
It is not possible to save when you are unsure how much you use – sounds obvious but very
few people or organisations know how much energy they use and if that is more or less than
the previous year. Therefore regularly reading meters is very important. Simply reading meters
and keeping track of the amount of energy being consumed can help save money. If the
occupier is conscious of the amount of energy being consumed they invariably become
interested in undertaking actions to reduce energy use.

Reading meters is also essential to build on the success of “measuring the footprint”. More
information on reading meters can be found in the appendix. As the Church of England
develops the Shrinking the Footprint it will depend upon the collection of energy consumption
information from a variety of building types including Clergy homes to construct an ongoing
picture of the emissions arising from the Church’s operations..

No cost actions for saving energy at home are well documented. From switching off lights to
filling the kettle with enough water to make the tea or coffee required. The Energy Saving Trust
10 ways to save energy and help prevent climate change. is a good resource, see this link
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/what_can_i_do_today/getting_started

More guidance and information on how to save energy at home refer to the Marches Energy
Agency Parsonages Sustainable Energy Project


Ways to reduce energy consumption – capital investment
Within the Church of England replacement and refurbishment of Clergy homes will be
undertaken by the Diocese. Previous work has shown that there is an opportunity to
standardise the best options for replacement and refurbishment of clergy homes and also to
continue sharing the knowledge gained from pervious work in each of the Dioceses.

The Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) - which came into effect on 1 April 2008 and
will run until 2011 - is an obligation on energy suppliers to achieve targets for promoting
reductions in carbon emissions in the household sector. Practically promotion means funding
reduced price insulation and other energy saving measures. These can be purchased directly
through Utility companies or indirectly through larger Council and Utility run energy efficiency
schemes such as the British Gas Council Tax scheme.

This and other national or regional funding scheme may help to support the work undertaken by
the Dioceses to improve the energy performance of Clergy homes.

Options to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from homes
The table on the following page displays a list of the potential no cost actions and replacement
and refurbishment options from homes. Beside each option the table displays the potential
annual saving in terms of cost and carbon dioxide, these figures are calculated using the
average figures from a three bedroom detached gas
central heated property unless otherwise indicated. The                          Cost
table also give an indication of the potential cost of
implementing each option.                                        No              £0
                                                                 Low             <£100
Please refer to the table to the right which explains the        Medium          £100 - £1,000
cost savings from different options.                             High            £1,000 - £5,000
                                                                 Very high       £5,000 - £12,500
                                                                 very very high >£12,500
Faber Maunsell                                                                                                               35




Table displaying the options to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from home
                                                                    Savings
                                                                  £s    kg CO2             Cost
 Wall insulation *
  Install cavity wall insulation                                   70         464        Medium
  Install solid wall insulation (internal)                        200        1376        High
  Install solid wall insulation (external)                        220        1464        High
 Loft insulation *
  Install loft insulation to 270mm                                210        1419        Medium
  Top up your loft insulation to 270mm                             60         389        Medium
 Double glazing
  Install double glazing                                          40          265        High
 Draught proofing *
  Fit draught proofing                                            10           97        Low
 Floor insulation *
  Install floor insulation                                        30          173        Medium - High
 Tanks and pipe insulation *
  Fit a hot water tank jacket                                     30          195        Low
  Insulate your primary pipe work                                 10           64        Low
 Buy Energy saving recommended products




                                                                                                            Low if purchased at
  Fridge freezer                                                  30          142        Medium




                                                                                                             replacement date
  Upright/chest freezer                                           20           85        Medium
  Refrigerator                                                    10           48        Medium
  Washing machines                                                10           45        Medium
  Dishwasher                                                      20           90        Medium
  Integrated Digital Television                                   10           45        Medium
 Heating *
  Install a condensing boiler                                     80          562        High
  Install heating controls                                        90          619        Low
 Fit energy saving light bulbs
  Fit energy saving light bulbs in your home                      40          172        Low
 Simple tips *
  Turn down your thermostat by 1°C                                30          187        No
  Turn appliances off and avoid standby                           30          133        No
  Wash your laundry at 30°C                                       10          45         No
  Only boil as much water as you need                             10          29         No
  Always turn off your lights when you leave a room               10          23         No
 Generate your own energy
  Install biomass *                                              180**       2880        Very high
  Ground source heat pumps **                                     90**       1386        Very high
  Install a wind turbine                                          200        860         High - very high
  Install solar photovoltaics***                                  400        1720        Very very high
  Install solar water heating****                                  24         146        High

 Assumptions
 * If replacing Gas central heating, savings will be higher if system is replacing electric or oil
 ** assuming a gas central heating consumption of 18,000kWh/year
 *** assuming a 5kWp system is installed
 **** assuming 2 m² of installed solar thermal area


Information taken from the Energy Saving Trust Checklist saving assumptions and the Church
of England Renewable Energy Appraisal
Faber Maunsell                                                 36



                 Good practice in domestic
                 properties

                 This is an Energy Saving Trust diagram that
                 demonstrates the areas of energy loss and the
                 areas for potential energy savings.

                 Figures are indicative of the potential savings.
                 The savings generated from individual energy
                 saving measures will vary with property type,
                 construction, heating fuel, occupancy and the
                 energy saving measures already installed.
Faber Maunsell
                                                                                       37




Tools and resources for the home occupier
Energy Saving Trust website has lots of useful information
  • What can I do and how much would it save?
     www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/calculator/checklist
  • Grants and Offers for the home occupier
     www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/what_can_i_do_today/energy_saving_gra
     nts_and_offer
  • What can I do today?
     www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/what_can_i_do_today

Christians tackling environmental issues:
  • How Many Light bulbs Does it Take To Change a Christian? Foster,
      C. and Shreeve, D Church House Publishing, 2007.
  • Don't Stop at the Lights: Leading your church through a changing
      climate, Foster, C. and Shreeve, D. Church House Publishing, 2008.


Information and links for surveyors
The Cathedral and Church Buildings Division hold two further supporting
documents:
  • Renewable Energy Appraisal
  • Research Report on Grant Funding Availability

More on government funding
  • Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT)
      www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climatechange/uk/household/supplier/

Technical documents:
   • Energy conservation in traditional buildings, English Heritage, 2008
   • Document - GPG 171 Domestic Energy Efficiency Primer. Provides a
     useful breakdown of housing types and gives detailed descriptions of the
     potential energy efficiency measures that can be installed.


Websites
Shrinking the Footprint
To keep up to date on the developments with the Church of England’s progress towards
reducing its carbon footprint
www.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/church40.php
There are also a list of links and resources available on the following page
www.shrinkingthefootprint.cofe.anglican.org/link_res.php

Conversion factors for carbon dioxide emissions, Department for
environment, food and rural affairs (DEFRA)
www.defra.gov.uk/environment/business/envrp/conversion-factors.htm
Faber Maunsell                                                                          38




Schools


Introduction
“Reducing energy use has many advantages for schools – it saves money,
reduces carbon emissions (helping to combat climate change), improves the
learning environment and can enhance a school’s reputation.” Carbon Trust,
CTV019.

The Church of England is involved in the operation of over 4,000 primary schools
(25%) and 200 secondary schools (6%). Although the involvement for the Church of
England varies between each school it is acknowledged that under Shrinking the
Footprint the Church of England should begin to engage with schools on the issue of
reducing carbon dioxide emissions.


                         UK schools release up to four million tonnes of
                      carbon dioxide (tCO2) a year. 7% or 300,000 tonnes
                      of these emissions could be saved through effective
                        energy management. An average English home
                                 uses approximately 5.3 tC02.

The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) discusses energy
savings as a component of the push towards sustainable schools. A sustainable
school is one that is considering more than just the carbon dioxide emissions and
has a wider focus on trying to manage its overall environmental impact. The DCSF
state that a sustainable school has the following characteristics:

    •   It conserves energy and water
    •   It avoids the use of pollutants and potential pollutants
    •   It takes steps to minimise the production of waste
    •   It enhances and protects plants and wildlife
    •   It meets local needs while respecting people and their environment.

The first and most important step towards becoming a sustainable
school is managing the energy consumption of the school. This document
is intended to provide staff at the Church of England with a higher level view of the
issues of energy management and reducing carbon dioxide emissions from a school.
Its aim is to give a summary of the information and tools that the Church of England
may require to communicate with schools. This document outlines the following:

    •   Schools energy use and carbon dioxide emissions.
    •   The guidance available for schools.
    •   Measuring the energy consumption of schools?
    •   What is an energy efficient school?
    •   Renewable energy.
    •   Further information.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     39




Schools energy use and carbon dioxide emissions
Energy use in schools
Energy consumption will vary from school to school. Size, age, hours of occupancy,
pupil numbers and the presence of sporting facilities will all affect energy
consumption. This chart displays where energy is consumed in an average school.




                   Chart taken from the Carbon Trust report CTV019

The chart shows that the main use of energy in schools is firstly for heating and then
secondly for hot water.

Below is a table of benchmarks published by the Carbon Trust (GPG343, Good
Practice Guide 2005). These benchmarks demonstrate the energy consumption of
primary and secondary school, with or without a swimming pool. Benchmarks are
defined by investigating the actual energy consumption of a range of sites. This
information is then compiled to indicate the energy consumed as a Normalised
Performance Indicator (NPI). This NPI compares a school’s energy consumption by
                  2
floor area (kWh/ m per year).

Energy benchmarks (kWh/m²) for good, typical and poorly performing schools
                        Primary school          Secondary school (no        Secondary school (with
                           (no pool)                   pool)                        pool)

                    Fossil Fuel   Electricity   Fossil Fuel   Electricity   Fossil Fuel   Electricity

Good Practice          110            25           114            28           142            29

Typical Practice       157            34           160            36           187            36

Poor Practice          209            47           207            45           233            41


For more information on benchmarks and how to use them, see page 43


Carbon dioxide emissions from schools
Calculating the amount of carbon dioxide emissions being released from energy
consumption is relatively easy. Carbon dioxide is released as fossil fuel is burnt to
produce heat or electrical energy. Therefore it is possible to calculate the volume of
Faber Maunsell                                                                                        40



gas released for every kWh or litre of energy used. The table below shows a list of
weights of carbon dioxide emission, or conversion figures, for the main fuel types.
These figures are revised regularly for government and displayed on the Department
of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs website – www.defra.gov.uk.



 Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, CO2
 emissions by fuel type for the UK
                                                  kgCO2/kWh                   kgCO2/litre

 Electricity                                         0.537                           -

 Natural Gas                                         0.185                           -

 Gas/Diesel oil                                      0.252                         2.674

 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG)                          0.214                         1.495

                                                       * conversion factors taken from DEFRA, 2008.

Below is a worked example calculating the carbon dioxide emissions from typical
energy consumption information.

 Calculating carbon dioxide emissions from your energy use, a worked
 example
                                                                                      *Total
                                      Energy       multiplied
                         Units                                    kgCO2/unit        emission in
                                     consumed         by
                                                                                      kgCO2

 Electricity          kWh                55,000         x             0.537                29,535

 Natural Gas          kWh               156,000         x             0.185                28,860

 Heating Oil          Litres               1500         x             2.674                 4,011

                                                                           Total           62,406

                                                * for tonnes of carbon dioxide divide by 1000

The example shows that this site emits 62.4tCO2 per year. To confirm your carbon
dioxide emission calculations you can visit the carbon trust carbon footprint
calculating tool:
www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htm
            Faber Maunsell                                                                                  41




            Guidance for schools
            There are a lot of publications and guidance documents that have been produced to help
            schools reduce emissions and energy consumption. This document focuses upon two
            documents, one produced by the Carbon Trust that focuses on energy management in a
            school, and another produced by the Department for Children, Schools and Families, this
            document outlines actions that should be undertaken to make a school sustainable.

                •   CTV037: A whole School Approach – Management Guide. Carbon Trust, 2008.
                •   A bursar’s guide to sustainable school operations, DfES 2007.

            These documents are not exhaustive. But it is possible for a school to gain most of the
            information they need to implement a simple energy/carbon management programme whilst
            gaining a basic understanding of the technical issues associated. Further links and
            information can be found on page 47.


            Diagram displaying the basic elements of energy/carbon management
            programme

                                            Church of England



                                                         School – energy champion
Circulate guidance from Carbon
        Trust and DFCS

                                    Policy – energy, climate change etc



                                    Read meters and undertake energy
                                            efficient actions



                                       Create awareness campaigns



                                    Have an energy efficient replacement
                                    and maintenance programme in place



                                    Report on the progress made:
                                        •   Newsletters.
                                        •   To cathedral management.
                                        •   Notice boards.




            Above is a flow diagram showing the input of information into a school and the basic elements
            of energy/carbon management that a school should have in place. For the Church of England
            to continue making progress towards its goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions it will
Faber Maunsell                                                                                       42



require communication with schools to understand their emissions and the work that they are
undertaking to reduce them. To enable this to happen the schools must have undertaken the
following initial steps.

Initial steps for schools and the Church of England

Communication
The Church of England must initially set up communication channels with schools to discuss
energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.

Energy Champions
The Church of England must encourage the schools to nominate an energy champion. The
energy champion will oversee the monitoring of energy consumption and take responsibility
for a routine of energy saving. This role may fit easily with the duties of the Facilities Manager
or Head Teacher or interested Governor.

Collecting good (actual) energy information
The schools should be encouraged to begin meter reading and recording energy consumption
as an important foundation action. Energy information will also help the Church of England
communicate with schools about carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Schools should begin
by creating a Meter Reading Schedule, meter readings should be undertaken regularly
(monthly, quarterly or at least annually) and energy consumption should be discussed
regularly to monitor energy consumption, costs and help with emissions. Guidance on how to
do this can be found in the appendix.

Circulate guidance information
Once contact has been made with schools it should be possible to establish which have
already undertaken work and which need some guidance. Circulate guidance documents to
the Energy Champions and encourage them to communicate back.




Once the above actions have been put in place and reliable energy information is being
collected it is possible to communicate with schools about energy consumption. Lots of
schools will have many examples of the work that they have been undertaking and this will
compliment the energy information and calculated carbon dioxide emissions that they are
collecting.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                         43




Measuring the energy consumption of schools
How can a school reduce its energy consumption and resultant carbon dioxide emissions? How
do you compare their performance and is the school performing well, bad or somewhere in the
middle?

Comparing the energy performance and emissions from schools should be undertaken via a
variety of methods by an energy management professional. This section outlines some of the
basic principles used in the Carbon Trust document CTV037: A whole School Approach –
Management Guide.

Note: Trends in energy consumption can fluctuate greatly over a year and from one year to the
next. Care should be taken when considering the energy consumption information from a site.


Benchmarks
As seen previously benchmarks are defined by investigating the actual energy consumption of
a range of sites. This information is then compiled to indicate the energy consumed as a
Normalised Performance Indicator (NPI). Typically this is the annual energy consumption per
                                     2
square metre of floor area (kWh/ m per year) and will represent buildings that are average
performers (Typical Practice), the top 10% or performers (Good Practice) and those using too
much energy (Poor Practice). Other NPIs can use energy costs or energy consumption per
pupil per year.

Below is a table of benchmarks published by the Carbon Trust (GPG343, Good Practice Guide
2005). These benchmarks were chosen because they split between primary and secondary
school with or without swimming pool. Other benchmarks have also been published by
organisations such as the Charted Institute of Building Service Engineers (CIBSE).
                                                                      2
Comparing a school’s energy consumption by floor area (kWh/ m per year) to the benchmark
is a quick way to establish the potential energy savings available if energy saving good practice
was undertaken.

 Energy benchmarks (kWh/m²) for good, typical and poorly performing
 schools
                    Primary school (no          Secondary school            Secondary school
                          pool)                     (no pool)                  (with pool)

                   Fossil Fuel   Electricity   Fossil Fuel   Electricity   Fossil Fuel   Electricity

 Good Practice        110            25           114            28           142            29

 Typical
                      157            34           160            36           187            36
 Practice

 Poor Practice        209            47           207            45           233            41


The benchmarks for schools and industrial buildings are currently being reviewed as part of the
government’s implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive.

Reasons for fluctuations in energy consumption
If the school’s energy performance differs greatly from the benchmarks, don’t become too
alarmed. Many factors can cause differences to the levels of recorded energy consumption,
See below:
• Occupancy levels
     When comparing schools by kWh/pupil, in general, the more efficiently a school utilises its
     space, the lower its energy costs per pupil.
• Additional facilities.
     Additional facilities such as swimming pools, sports halls, and on site catering and media
     centres can result in a significant increase in energy consumption.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                         44




•   Age of school
    The influence of age is less pronounced. Older schools aren’t always higher energy
    consumers. However, a higher than average proportion of the better energy performers are
    newer schools.
•   Hours of use
    Extending the hours of use will increase energy consumption. Two hours a day of extra
    use is likely to increase annual energy costs by about 10%.
•   Size of school
    It has been shown that larger schools tend to be more energy-efficient per square metre or
    per pupil.


Performance Matrix Tool
Once an organisation or site is aware how much energy is consumed, the next step is to
discover how they can improve their efficiency.

The Carbon Trust has developed a Performance Matrix tool which can help assess the
strengths and weaknesses across six main areas of energy management, these six areas
should be considered to be key pillars for building a strong sustainable school:

•       Policy – what commitments has the school made?
•       Organisation – whose job is it to manage energy at the school?
•       Training – are staff aware of the issues and their role in tackling them?
•       Performance measurement – what systems are in place to give you the data needed?
•       Communication – are staff, pupils, parents and the Board interested in reducing the school’s
        carbon footprint? Do they know what to do? What has been achieved?
•       Investment – spending money on energy saving programmes and equipment can pay back.
        Does the school make the most of investments?

This is a very subjective tool that can be filled out quite simply be someone that has experience
of energy management. It could be used by schools to give them an overview of the systems
and mechanisms that they may already have in place or that they may want to try and
implement.




Figure 1 Example of completed Energy Management Matrix


For more information see the Carbon Trust report, CTV037: A whole School Approach –
Management Guide
Faber Maunsell                                                                        45




What is an energy efficient school?


    An energy efficient school….

Shows Responsibility and Commitment by..
 1.   Creating an Energy Policy
 2.   Undertaking Regular Energy Walk-Rounds
 3.   Recording and Reporting collected information
 4.   Monitors occupancy, heating times and lighting
 5.   Having a policy of low carbon and energy
      efficient purchasing

                                         Uses heat efficiently, it….
                                         1. Delivers heat only when it is needed
                                         2. Checks thermostats and time clocks
                                            regularly
                                         3. Keeps all ventilation and heating
                                            systems clear and unobstructed
                                         4. Maintains boilers and insulates hot
                                            water pipes
                                         5. Has an efficient boiler



Keeps heat in/out of the building by…
 1.    Checking and maintaining insulation
 2.    Using improved glazing to stop heat transfer
 3.    Drawing blinds each evening
 4.    Regularly checking the building for damp




                                         Reduces energy from lighting by…
                                         1. Replacing failing lamps with energy
                                            efficient versions
                                         2. Labelling light switches so that lights
                                            not needed can be easily switched off
                                         3. Having a culture of switching off
                                            when not needed
                                         4. Installing automated lighting
                                            controls in common areas



Managing energy consumed in swimming pools by…
 1.   Using a pool cover
 2.   Scheduled backwashes
 3.   Maintaining correct pool and air temperatures
 4.   Using heat recovery of ventilation air
 5.   Potentially using solar water heating or combined
      heat and power boiler


For a full list of good practice energy and other sustainability actions see:
“A bursar’s guide to sustainable school operations, DfES 2007”. It can be accessed
from the Department for Children, Schools and Families www.dcsf.gov.uk
Faber Maunsell                                                                                        46




Renewable Energy
The renewable energy sources are:
    •    The Sun
    •    Wind
    •    Well managed forests (i.e. wood)
    •    Intrinsic heat of the Earth
    •    And movement of water
These resources can be harnessed by the following technologies:
    •   Solar photovoltaic panels for electricity and solar flat plate panels or evacuated tubes
        for heat collection
    •   Wind turbines at range of scales
    •   Burning wood in boilers for heat (i.e. biomass heat)
    •   Hydro turbines at a range of scales
    •   Ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling generation
The energy output from renewable technologies is dependant on the availability of renewable
resources (e.g. sun, wind) and can be impacted by site specific constraints such as over
shading, ground condition and building design. Because of this, it is not possible to find a single
renewable technology solution that can be applied to all sites. Therefore selecting the
appropriate renewable technology can be very complex.

More information on the types of renewable energy and how to select the appropriate
renewable technology can be found in the Renewable Energy Appraisal document. This report
is aimed at churches but is useful for highlighting the issues that need to be considered when
assessing the technologies that are most suitable for any given site.

It should be noted that energy efficiency improvements should be implemented before
considering renewable energy technologies. Energy efficiency improvements in most instances
provide a more cost effective way of saving CO2, and money than the renewable technologies
Faber Maunsell                                                                           47




Further information
The Church and Cathedral buildings division hold two further supporting
documents:
  • Renewable Energy Appraisal
  • Research Report on Grant Funding Availability

“A bursar’s guide to sustainable school operations, DfES 2007”.
The Department for Children, Schools and Families has lots of information and links on
Sustainable Schools. www.dcsf.gov.uk

Carbon Trust and good practice guidance documents
   • CTV037: A whole School Approach – Management Guide
   • GPG343, Good Practice Guide 2005
Carbon Trust carbon footprinting page could help to establish the basic footprint of a
school
www.carbontrust.co.uk/solutions/CarbonFootprinting/FootprintCalculators.htm

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
The DEFRA website has lots of link and information about climate change and carbon
dioxide emissions as well as other sustainability issues
www.defra.gov.uk
Faber Maunsell                                                                                       48




Offices


Reducing the carbon footprint of offices
When we begin thinking about our carbon footprints it is important to realise that we are
considering the amount and types of energy we use. Carbon dioxide is released from burning
the fossil fuels (natural gas, coal, petrol, diesel, LPG etc) required to supply us with the heat,
electrical and transport energy that we require.

Energy use is one of the main controllable overheads in office buildings. By utilising simple and
cost effective measures it is possible for an office to reduce energy bills by as much as 20%. In
order to put such measures into practice it is important to:

    •   Know where energy is currently being used on site.
    •   Understand where best to focus energy saving attention.
    •   Know what can be done internally.
    •   Understand when it will be necessary to seek outside technical assistance.


Top actions for energy saving
                            Action                              Completed?          Savings
Install daylight sensors (photocell controls) to switch off                      20% of lighting
lighting near windows on brighter days.                                             costs
Replacement tungsten lamps and old Fluorescent tubes
with energy efficient lamps to reduce energy and
                                                                                      75% of
maintenance costs.
                                                                                     tungsten
                                                                                  lighting costs
Switch to Compact Fluorescent Lamps and T5 fluorescent
tubes.
Set a ‘dead band’ between heating and air conditioning
control temperatures to avoid them operating at the same                         10% of heating
time.                                                                             and cooling
                  o                o
    • Heat to 19 C and cool to 24 C.                                                 costs
    • Regularly ensure that thermostats are set correctly.
Turn off unnecessary equipment during the day and
                                                                                  5% of energy
especially out of hours to reduce heat build-up and
                                                                                     costs
unnecessary electrical costs.
Check insulation levels and increase wherever practical to                        5% of energy
reduce heating and cooling requirements.                                             costs
Complete a regular walk round of your office and complete
                                                                                 5% of heating
energy saving checklist - check time, temperature settings
                                                                                    costs
and switch things off.
Create an ongoing regular energy saving routine – see plan                       This will help to
below                                                                             achieve those
                                                                                   listed above.
  Faber Maunsell                                                                                                                                  49




  Where is energy consumed in a typical office?
  Energy use in an office is typically expended upon heating, lighting, office equipment, air
  conditioning and hot water. The following chart offers an example of an energy use breakdown
  within a typical naturally ventilated (non air conditioned) office.

                                   Energy Consumption from a Type 2 Good Practice Office

                                                   Other electricity
                                                         3%
                                                                            Computer Room
                                            Catering electricity
                                                                                 0%
                                                   2%

                                                                                                   Gas/oil heating and hot
                        Office Equipment                                                                    water
                               15%                                                                          59%




                                       Lighting
                                         17%

                      Humidification
                          0%



                           Fans, pumps and
                               controls
                                  3%                                    Catering Gas
                                                   Cooling                  0%
                                                    1%


           The chart above shows the energy consumption of a naturally ventilated 2 office

  In general the main areas of energy consumption in an office are:
      1. Air Conditioning – greatest energy requirement (where an office has air conditioning)
                      nd
      2. Heating – 2 greatest energy requirement in an air conditioned office space
      3. Office equipment – Computers, printers, photocopiers, personal small power
      4. Lighting – roughly the same as office equipment, depends on office.
      5. Hot Water – smallest energy requirement


  Comparing the energy consumed in an office
  Benchmarks are defined by investigating the actual energy consumption of a range of sites.
  This information is then compiled to indicate the energy consumed as a Normalised
  Performance Indicator (NPI). Typically this is the annual energy consumption per square metre
                          2
  of floor area (kWh/m per year) and will represent buildings that are average performers
  (Typical Practice), the top 10% or performers (Good Practice) and those using too much energy
  (Poor Practice). The table below shows the energy benchmarks for the four types of office
  building.

Energy benchmarks (kWh/m²) for good and typical performing offices by type
                    Type 1                                   Type 2                               Type 3                           Type 4

             Fossil                                  Fossil
                             Electricity                               Electricity     Electricity     Electricity      Electricity    Electricity
              Fuel                                    Fuel

Good
              79                       33              79                  54               97             128               114            234
Practice

Typical
              151                      54             151                  85               178            226               210            358
Practice

  Table 1 Good practice and typical energy use indices examples for the four office types
Faber Maunsell                                                                                        50




When considering if an office’s energy consumption and costs are reasonable the aim should
                                                                     2
be to meet an energy consumption per treated floor area (kWh/m ) figure that is equivalent too
(or even better than) the good practice figure for your office type.

For more information on benchmarks and office types see ECG019, this document is listed in
the Further Links section at the end of the document. ECG019 is due for updating and may
underestimate the contribution of I.T. equipment to the overall energy consumption. This should
be kept in mind when using this document for reference.




A plan for reducing the carbon footprint
Managing the emissions from an office may focus more on how energy is used rather than how
energy efficient the equipment is. Offices generally function as part of or perhaps the whole of a
building and are heated, have hot water supplied, cooled and lit by central systems that may be
more difficult to change.

The aim of this section is to help you establish a plan for an energy saving routine to reduce the
carbon footprint of the office.

Implementing a plan and making progress will be dependent on the following actions being
undertaken:

    •   Nominating someone to be an energy champion
    •   Understanding the energy consumption of the office – recording energy
        consumption, monthly, quarterly or annually. There may be problems doing this as the
        office may be a part of a larger building with other tenants. In this case you will need to
        work with the landlord or facilities managers to try and work out your energy
        consumption. Actual meter readings are best. For more information on reading meters
        please see appendix.
    •   Creating a carbon footprint
    •   Undertaking regular energy walk-rounds of the office
    •   Creating awareness campaigns to engage staff
    •   And reporting progress to engage senior management and maintain support



Understand the energy saving opportunities
A successful programme to reduce the carbon footprint of an office needs to focus on the five
main categories of energy consumption listed in the above section and it should consider the
following energy saving opportunities for each:

    •   Maintenance – Proper maintenance of equipment can ensure efficient operation
        maximising the output of the energy consumed
    •   Control - Switching off equipment when not in use,
    •   Replacement/Refurbishment – Energy saving systems should be considered
        whenever a system is replaced or a building is being refurbished, there may be an
        alternative for the same cost or for a small extra investment that will produce noticeable
        energy savings.


The following page has an example of what an energy saving routine would
look like.
   Faber Maunsell                                                                                       51




   An example plan
   Below is a flow chart illustrating a potential plan for how you can begin a process of identifying
   and tackling energy saving opportunities.

                                 Nominate someone to take
                               responsibility of energy and CO2




Create Carbon Footprint and                    Create meter reading schedule
           compare                                     and record book



                              Undertake energy walk-round –
                                    take meter reading




     A list of actions that will reduce              A low carbon replacement list -
       emissions – actions could be                   when will equipment be replaced
      undertaken during housekeeping                   and would an energy efficient
      or part of an awareness campaign                     options cost extra?




                              Create awareness campaigns –
                              encourage others to help manage
                                  the way energy is used.




                             Report on the progress made:
                                 •    Newsletters.
                                 •    To cathedral management.
                                 •    Notice boards.




                              Create an energy policy – Set a
                                target for reduction of energy
                              consumption or to increase energy
                                      saving behaviour




   Energy saving work in offices is well documented with many supporting documents provided.
   This document has taken the basic structure of implementing an energy saving routine whilst
   giving some background information on where energy is consumed in an office. Development of
   an energy saving routine can use build on this information and utilise the links, documents and
   resources listed in the next section.
Faber Maunsell                                                                              52




Further links:


Useful reference documents
    •   CTV007: Office Based companies – Maximising energy savings in an
        office environment
    •   CTG001: Creating an awareness campaign – Energy awareness in your
        business
    •   GG256 - Green Officiency: Running a cost effective environmentally
        aware office
    •   ECG019: Energy use in offices


Websites
    •   www.carbontrust.co.uk
    •   www.envirowise.gov.uk
    •   www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bulk_purchasing.bus_purchasing#co
        mapp - Energy Star website is a U.S. government based standard with lots of
        information on office equipment
    •   www.sust-it.net – This is an independent site covering the energy consumption and
        other details of I.T. equipment
Faber Maunsell                                                                                    53




Appendices


Reading a meter
Frequency of meter readings and data collection
Keeping an accurate record of Meter Readings is an important part of managing energy
consumption.

It is recommended that meter readings should be taken at intervals (monthly, quarterly or
annually at least) by everyone, incumbent clergy in their home, church wardens, office
managers and anyone else responsible for a building. This information is going to be required
to continue the progression of Shrinking the Footprint.

The following tables are an example of how meter data can be collated. Energy champions are
encouraged to develop tables based on their own data collection needs:

Weekly Electricity/Gas Meter Readings
      Month                                                         This example table shows
                                                                    how you can collect the
  Week 1                                                            energy consumption from
                   Present          Previous         Diferrence     several meters on the
                                                                    same        sheet.      By
Meter 1                                                             subtracting the present
Meter 2                                                             from the previous you can
Meter 3                                                             establish the difference or
Meter 4
                                                                    the energy consumption
                                                                    from that period.
Meter 5
                                          Total                     It is recommended that
                                                                    gas and electric readings
Repeat above table as needed                                        are kept separate.


Monthly Consumption Data
Site                                                 This table demonstrates how you can
Location                                             compile the energy consumption figures
Month
                                                     from a given period. Meter numbers 1 – 5
                                                     relates to the table above.
Total Electricity/Gas Consumption
                                                     In this table you will insert the energy
                                                     consumption figures for each meter.
Meter 1                                        kwh

Meter 2                                        kwh

Meter 3                                        kwh

Meter 4                                        kwh

Meter 5                                        kwh



Other useful information to be recorded
Gas conversion factor               cost                p/kWh
Faber Maunsell                                                                                                               54




Reading energy meters

It is important to be able to identify the different types of energy meters to ensure that accurate
readings are taken. Below the meters are split into their types and guidance on how to read
them is given.
N.B. all meters will have a unique identity that should appear on your bill. This is usually a ten digit number located on
the meter. This number is different for gas and electricity meters.
Gas             =        Meter Point Reference Number (MPRN)
Electricity     =        Meter Point Administration Number (MPAN)




Electricity meters
The type of meters used will vary from premise to premise. The meter will either be analogue of
digital and will generally fall into one of three categories of electricity metering;
     • Standard meters,
     • Variable rate meters,
     • Prepayment meters.


Electricity analogue (single and dual rate)

     • To read an analogue single or
       dual rate meter, simply write down
       the numbers shown from left to
       right.
   • On a dial meter (see blue
       diagram) the dials rotate anti
       clockwise and clockwise.
       Therefore you should the
       numbers on each dial and read in
       the appropriate direction.
   • Make sure to write down any
       zeros, including any at the start of
       the reading. Ignore any red
       figures or the red dial.
   • Make a note of the two sets of
       numbers and observe the meter
       for rate 1 or rate 2.
   • To find out how many units you
       have used since your last reading,
       subtract the previous reading from
       the new one.
NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost per
kWh charged.
Faber Maunsell                                                                              55




Electricity digital (single and dual rate)

    •  To read a single or dual rate
       digital meter, simply write down
       the numbers shown from left to
       right as they appear. The digital
       display may require you to press a
       button to activate or the display
       may cycle through a series of
       numbers automatically.
   • Make sure you write down any
       zeros, including any at the start of
       the reading. Ignore any red
       figures.
   • A dual rate metre will normally
       give an indication, something like
       “R1 or R2”, of which rate is being
       displayed.
   • To find out how many units you
       have used since your last reading,
       subtract the previous reading(s)
       from the new one – for dual rate
       meters add both figures together
       to get the total.
NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost per
kWh charged.


N.B. Definition, kilowatt-hour (kWh): The amount of energy used by a load of one kilowatt
over the period of one hour
Faber Maunsell                                                                                    56




Gas meter types
The type of meters used will vary from premise to premise. The meter will either be analogue of
digital and will generally fall into one of two categories of gas metering;
     • Credit meters
     • Prepayment meters

The following table explains the key differences between both:




Gas analogue

    •  To read an analogue meter,
       simply write down the numbers
       shown from left to right.
   • Make sure you write down any
       zeros, including any at the start of
       the reading. Ignore any red
       figures.
   • Note the units of measurement
                                          3
       used by the meter – cubic feet (ft )
                             3
       or cubic metres (m )
   • To find out how many units you
       have used since your last reading,
       subtract the previous reading(s)
       from the new one
   • Convert units into kWh by using
       the information printed on your
       gas bill or gas supplier website.
NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost per
kWh charged.



Gas digital

    •  To read an analogue meter,
       simply write down the numbers
       shown from left to right.
   • Make sure you write down any
       zeros, including any at the start of
       the reading. Ignore any red
       figures or any figures after a
       decimal point.
   • Note the units of measurement
                                          3
       used by the meter – cubic feet (ft )
                             3
       or cubic metres (m )
   • To find out how many units you
       have used since your last reading,
       subtract the previous reading(s)
       from the new one
   • Convert units into kWh by using
       the information printed on your
       gas bill or gas supplier website.
NOTE: refer to you bill for the cost per
kWh charged.



For further information on reading a meter please contact your energy
supplier or visit their website.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                   57




Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment in
Cathedrals and Churches
Continuing to make progress on energy and carbon saving requires a move towards energy
efficient or low carbon equipment and plant. The aim of this document is to reduce carbon
emissions through enabling lower carbon options to be selected as part of the
replacement/maintenance process. This document lists;
    •   the principles of purchasing,
    •   Organisations providing information on buildings, energy using plant and
        efficient operation
    •   Replacement/Maintenance Options – table of guidance


Guidance on principles of purchasing
Below are a set of questions that everyone should ask before deciding to buy a product or
service.

What do we buy and how much carbon does it emit?
We need to think about the things that we buy and generally how much energy or fuel they use
and therefore the carbon they are responsible for emitting. If we are uncertain about this we
need to start to look into where we might find information about this.

What can suppliers provide in terms of information about carbon emissions and running
costs?
We need to start the process of asking suppliers to provide details of the energy use and
carbon emissions of equipment and services. We also need to think about how we might start
the process of making this a requirement in the future for those who supply us.

In terms of carbon efficiency, what does good practice look like?
We need to begin to identify where information about good practice in terms of energy or
carbon efficiency can be found. For example the Government’s Enhanced Capital Allowance
Scheme (ECA) website provides criteria for good carbon performance for a range of plant and
equipment. We need to aim to be able to compare our buying options with good practice.

What factors do we currently consider when making our buying choice?
Once we have the key information, we need to start to take energy use in operation and
associated running costs into account as part of the buying decision. We might want to
establish for example a payback period of 3 or 5 years whereby the lower carbon option could
be chosen. We might want to consider also establishing criteria which will aim to only procure
equipment or services that performs well compared with good practice, if costs are comparable.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                     58




Organisations providing information on buildings, energy using plant and
energy/carbon efficient operation
In order for this to be done the individual or organisation wishing to replace/maintain plat or
equipment must be able to identify what is most efficient. There are several organisations
working within the UK, Europe and internationally that provide updated lists of products and
other tools to evaluate the energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of purchases.

The following list has been compiled to provide you with further sources of information on
energy efficiency. It contains reliable links to organisations that offer further information on
energy efficiency, energy efficient suppliers and the latest energy saving ideas:



General advice on energy reduction and carbon dioxide emission
The Carbon Trust – www.carbontrust.co.uk
The Carbon Trust is a government funded not for profit organisation
that via the website or a free phone number can provide guidance and
resources to help reduce energy and carbon emissions. It will help
business, the public sector and charitable organisations on all aspects
of carbon management and energy reduction.


Historic buildings.
English Heritage – www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.18525
This link takes to a section of the English Heritage website that provides links to advice on
climate change and the historic environment and on the implications of adaptive responses and
mitigation, including policies on renewable and low carbon energy.


Products for the office and other commercial buildings – includes boilers, air
conditioning, catering and lighting
Enhanced Capital Allowance – www.eca.gov.uk/etl
When thinking about purchasing energy consuming
equipment the first place to look is the Enhanced Capital
Allowance (ECA) website. This web site has been
produced by the Carbon Trust, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
(DEFRA) and the Inland Revenue, to provide information about energy efficient products. The
ECA Scheme enables businesses to claim 100% first year capital allowances on investments in
energy saving technologies and products and provides the Energy Technology List that
provides detailed information on the products that meet those eligibility criteria.

Eurovent Certification scheme – www.eurovent-certification.com
Eurovent Certification tests and confirms the performance ratings of air-
conditioning and refrigeration products according to European and
International Standards. The objective is to build up customer confidence by
levelling the competitive playing field for all manufacturers and by increasing
the integrity and accuracy of the industrial performance ratings

The certification programme covers products that provide; air conditioning,
refrigeration for    air, refrigeration for products, warming for air.

Seasonal Efficiency Database United Kingdom (SEDBUK) - www.sedbuk.com
SEDBUK was developed under the Government's Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme
with the co-operation of boiler manufacturers, and provides a basis for fair comparison of the
energy performance of different boilers.
Faber Maunsell                                                                                           59




Products for the home, kitchen, office and other commercial buildings.
Energy Star – www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bulk_purchasing.bus_purchasing#comapp
ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and the U.S. Department of Energy that awards the Energy Star rating to products
that perform to specific energy consumption criteria. The Energy Star website
product and purchasing page has a range of commercial and residential
product categories including Commercial Appliances, Commercial Food Service,
Commercial Heating & Cooling, Construction Products, Electronics, Office
Products, Residential Appliances, Residential Heating & Cooling and Residential Lighting. The site has
approved product lists for each product category and also some tools to help calculate potential
savings - this is a US tool so it can only be used as a guide to the energy efficient option.



Standards for building fabric and operational efficiency – Commercial and Domestic.
Building Regulations – www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/buildingregulations
The Communities and Local Government website publishes the most up to
date versions of the building regulations. Part L2A and 2B refer to the
conservation of fuel and power in non domestic dwellings and provide a
minimum standard for the building fabric. Significant developments have
been made in this area over recent years with improvement now certain to be driven by the EU
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Best Practice is currently closely linked to the
Building Regulations and the criteria set out in the BRE environmental assessment method. This
may change as the EPBD comes begins to be implemented.



Domestic Buildings. – guidance for making your home energy efficient
English Heritage – www.climatechangeandyourhome.org.uk/live/
Climate Change and Your Home is an interactive web portal designed specifically to help those
who own or manage houses built of traditional construction understand more about the
potential impacts of climate change and ways to save energy. It is sponsored by Eon.

Energy Saving Trust – www.energysavingtrust.org.uk
The Energy Saving Trust is a non-profit organisation that provides free impartial advice tailored
to the home owner. The site includes information about how to save energy in the home and
community and also from purchasing energy saving products.
                                                                Faber Maunsell                                                                                                          60




        Replacement/Maintenance of plant and equipment in Cathedrals and Churches – technical guidance table
        The tables on the following pages go into more detail on the technical issues around some of the key replacement/maintenance areas to ensure lower
        carbon operation of a church or cathedral.

replace/maintain     Energy Saving Action                         Why?                                           How?                                       More information



A routine of energy saving
                                                 Having the church heated to the correct     Use thermostatic controls to keep the church       NOTE
                                                 temperature can protect against damp        heated to a lower temperature of 8-10oC,           These are the suggested temperatures for a
                                                 ingression as well as reduce energy         increase to 16-18oC when due to be occupied.       larger church that takes time to heat up and is
                                                 wastage and emissions.                                                                         in frequent use.

       /            Temperature monitoring       Where a church is in frequent use
                                                 requiring areas to be heated to a level
                                                                                                                                                Guidance documents
                                                                                                                                                • New Work in Places of Worship, English
                                                 suitable for occupation then it may be                                                           Heritage, 2003. Available from website.
                                                 more efficient to keep the church heated                                                       • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of
                                                 to a lower temperature which is increased                                                        Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing.
                                                 when due to be occupied.

                                                 Managing energy consumption allows you                                                         Guidance documents
                                                 to do the following:                        •   Nominate a person responsible for energy       • CTV023 Practical Energy Management,
                                                                                                 and carbon dioxide emissions                     Carbon Trust, 2007. Available from website.
                                                 • Understand where and how energy is        •   Read meters                                    • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of
       /              Energy Management          being used
                                                 • Identify areas where you can reduce
                                                                                             •   Collect information                              Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing.
                                                                                             •   Undertake energy walk rounds
                                                 energy consumption and save money           •   Report on performance
                                                 • Confirm whether energy-saving
                                                 measures are working

Heating
replace/maintain     Energy Saving Action                         Why?                                           How?                                       More information
                                                 Insulating pipes can reduce heat energy     Wrap hot/cold pipes and joints in insulating       Costs
                    Insulate hot water pipes,    loss from the pipe by 70%. This can save    sleeves.                                           Insulating will cost between £10 and £40 per
                                                 around 5% of the heating bill, depending                                                       meter.
       /            include valves and joints    on the pipe length involved                 Pipe insulation is cheap and easy to fit. But
                                                                                             professional help may be required for larger
                                                                                             pipe runs and difficult to reach areas.

                                                 Windows transfer heat from surface to       Below are a list of ways to reduce the heat loss   Technical
                    Improve glazing thermal
       /                 performance
                                                 surface well. This means that during the
                                                 winter heat will pass out of a building
                                                                                             from a window with the rating for heat
                                                                                             transferral (U Value) The lower the figure the
                                                                                                                                                The use of double glazing or secondary glazing
                                                                                                                                                will not be appropriate for many historic
                                                         Faber Maunsell                                                                                                                 61




                                        quicker through a window than through a           better the insulation properties.                    buildings. The will affect the appearance, have
                                        wall. This leads to heat loss, condensation       At dusk close:                                       a high cost and produce low energy savings. It
                                        and draughts.                                          •     Shutters - ~ 3.0 W/m2/oC                  is also worth noting that English Heritage
                                                                                               •     Curtains – 3.6 W/m2/ oC                   states “No historic window can reach the U-
                                        Energy savings will vary depending on the         Install:                                             values recommended in Part L (i.e. 2.0 – 2.2
                                                                                                                                                   2
                                        type of window and the action taken to                 •     Thermally lined curtains – unknown        W/m deg C)”.
                                        improve the thermal performance.                             but better (lower) than above
                                                                                               •     Secondary Glazing (where                  Guidance documents
                                             •     Single glazed windows are rated                   appropriate) ~2.9-3.4 W/m2/ oC            • Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings,
                                                   at 4.8 W/m2/ oC                             •     Double Glazed low emissivity (where         English Heritage, 2008. Available from
                                             •     Double glazed windows are                         appropriate) 2.0 W/m2/ oC                   website.
                                                   rated at ~ 2.8 W/m2/ oC                                                                     • CTV014 - Building fabric technology
                                                                                                                                                 overview, Carbon Trust, 2007. Available
                                                                                                                                                 from website.
                                                                                                                                               • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of
                                                                                                                                                 Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing

                                        Correct control of heat delivery can reduce       Speak with your boiler/heating engineer during       Guidance documents
                                        the energy use by 5 – 25% per year.               its next service.                                    • CTG02 - Heating control technology guide,
                                                                                          • Does it have controls already fitted?                Carbon Trust, 2006. Available from website.
                                        Controls can only produce savings when            • Are they used?                                     • GIL124 - Heating Fact Sheet, Carbon Trust,
                                        the user understands them and is                  • If there are no controls could you building          2005. Available from website
                                        confident in their use.                               benefit from better controls for the boiler?     • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of
                                                                                                                                                 Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing.
                                                                                          Ask about installing the following options:
                                                                                          • Internal temperature controls allow the
  Boiler       Install/Improve boiler
                                                                                            correct temperature in each room.
                                                                                          • External temperature compensation could
                       controls
 controls                                                                                   be installed to ensure the boiler is regulated
                                                                                            according to external temperatures (more
                                                                                            heat on colder days and less when milder).
                                                                                          • Boiler sequence controllers ensure that the
                                                                                            boilers are operating at optimum efficiency.
                                                                                          • Optimum start/stop controllers. These
                                                                                            controls ensure that the boilers are switched
                                                                                            on for the minimum amount of time before
                                                                                            and after the building is occupied ensuring
                                                                                            that the building is at the right temperature.

                                        New boilers typically achieve efficiencies        Speak with boiler/heating engineer and assess        Technical
                                        of 80%. Condensing gas and oil boilers            performance of current boiler.                       Ensure that quotes contain information that
                                        can exceed 90%.                                                                                        describes the size of the boiler to be installed,
                                                                                          If over 15 years old consider it as a priority for   the efficiency of the boiler, warranty details,
                                                                                          near future – ear mark funds. Replace when           boiler controls, thermostatic controls, potential
In efficient      Replace Boiler        It is likely that a boiler over 15 years old is
                                        not very efficient and is due for
                                                                                          appropriate                                          servicing costs and details of how the
                                                                                                                                               contractor has tried to reduce the energy
 or poorly                              replacement. Savings of between 5 and             If the boiler is regularly failing and needing       consumption required.
                                        20% could be achieved                             constant attention then it may be cost effective
 operating                                                                                to replace.                                          More information on boilers can be found at the
                                                          Faber Maunsell                                                                                                                62




                                                                                                                                                   •Enhanced Capital Allowance website.
  boilers                                                                                If boiler needs replacing ensure that a high               See Energy Technology List
                                                                                         efficiency boiler is specified.                           •SEDBUK website

                                                                                         Ask three professional boiler/heating engineers      Guidance documents
                                                                                         to provide a quote.                                  • Heating your Church, Council for the Care
                                                                                                                                                 of Churches, 1996. Church House
                                                                                                                                                 Publishing. P 95 and 98-p99
                                                                                                                                              • GPG381 - Energy efficient boilers and heat
                                                                                                                                                 distribution systems, choosing the best for
                                                                                                                                                 your site, Carbon Trust, 2005. Available
                                                                                                                                                 from website
                                                                                                                                              • New Work in Places of Worship, English
                                                                                                                                                 Heritage, 2003. Available from website.

                                          Installing zone control valves to reduce the   Zoning of central heating systems will allow for     NOTE
               Consider zoning the        heat used in unoccupied areas can              better control of heat delivery. Creating zones      This is of particular use to large sites that are
     /           heating system
                                          produce savings if 5 – 10%                     allow only the specific areas of the building to
                                                                                         be heated as it is required.
                                                                                                                                              centrally heated with areas used at different
                                                                                                                                              times (i.e. cathedrals and churches with halls
                                                                                                                                              or offices attached).

                                          Insulation acts as a blanket, trapping heat    Insulation in a church building may not be           NOTE
                                          within a building. Savings of up to 20%        straight forward or even appropriate. Buildings      Insulation work can attract funding from various
                                          could be achieved in some buildings.           built after 1930 will most likely fall into the      different areas. Contract your local council,
                                                                                         easier to insulate category but advice should        Utility company, or even ask the insulation
                                                                                         always be sought before undertaking any work.        installer. You may be able to dramatically
                                                                                                                                              reduce the cost of insulation work by utilising
                                                                                         Insulation is relatively simple work.                Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT).
                                                                                              •     It can be simply laid over the floor of
              Insulate your roof, walls                                                             the loft, between and then over the       If undertaking this work you should also
                      or floors                                                                     joists if they are visible.               consider lagging your pipes at the same time
Insulation                                                                                    •     It can be pumped in between the
                                                                                                    cavities in the appropriate walls.
                                                                                                                                              for optimum efficiency and to prevent freezing.

                                                                                              •     It can be laid in sheets against walls    Guidance documents
                                                                                                    or ceilings with a new wall covering      • Energy Efficiency in Traditional Buildings,
                                                                                                    overlaid.                                   English Heritage, 2008. Available from
                                                                                                                                                website.
                                                                                         A professional installer should undertake work       • CTV014 - Building fabric technology
                                                                                         unless otherwise agreed.                               overview, Carbon Trust, 2007. Available
                                                                                                                                                from website.
                                                                                                                                              • Heating your Church, Council for the Care of
                                                                                                                                                Churches, 1996. Church House Publishing.

                                          Fans can help to distribute heat to the        Speak with boiler/heating engineer and assess        NOTE
Heating is                                appropriate areas especially in high ceiling
                                          buildings like churches. Convection
                                                                                         current performance of heating system.               Care should be given to the noise created by a
                                                                                                                                              fan convector.
on room or     Destratification fans
                                          Savings can be as much as 20%
                                                                                         Try to assess potential areas where heat may
                                                                                         be directed and also areas that may suffer from      Guidance documents
building is                               depending on each site.                        draughts.                                            • Heating your Church, Council for the Care
                                                                                                                                                 of Churches 1996 Church House
                                                               Faber Maunsell                                                                                                               63




                                                                                                                                                        Publishing. P 95 and 98-p99
  still cold                                                                                                                                        •   GPG381 - Energy efficient boilers and heat
                                                                                                                                                        distribution systems, choosing the best for
                                                                                                                                                        your site, Carbon Trust, 2005. Available
                                                                                                                                                        from website
                                                                                                                                                    •   New Work in Places of Worship, English
                                                                                                                                                        Heritage, 2003. Available from website.

Lighting
replace/maintain    Energy Saving Action                         Why?                                                How?                                       More information
                                               Very often, individual lights are controlled     Trial and error, try the switches and label them    NOTE
                                               from banks of switches. Correctly labelled       in common language that will be understood          This is a simple not cost action. Labels do get
Light switch       Ensure the light switches   switches allow the user to ensure that only                                                          damaged and need replacing so these should
                     are correctly labelled    the correct lighting is utilised and switch                                                          be checked as part of a walk-round or
   labels                                      off lighting when there is sufficient daylight                                                       maintenance programme.
                                               or the area is not longer being occupied

                                               To keep installation costs low a single          Install pull cord or other switches to enable       Costs
                                               switch may often operate banks of lights –       improved control of individual light fittings or    Less than £99 per individual switch
                                               this means that working spaces are often         groups of light fittings
  Improve           Install new switches to
                      ensure lights can be
                                               lit on an “all or nothing” basis.                                                                    Guidance documents
                                                                                                                                                    • CTV021 – Technology Overview Lighting
   control             controlled properly                                                                                                          • GIL154 – How to refurbish your lighting
                                                                                                                                                    • Additionally information can be found on
                                                                                                                                                       the English Heritage website on


                                               Little thought is given to areas that are        Fit photocells to switch off interior lights when   Technical
                                               used regularly and for short periods of          daylight is adequate.                               Seek professional advice – consideration
                                               time (corridors, locker rooms, toilets etc).                                                         should be given to the typical occupation of an
                                                                                                Fit passive, infrared presence detectors to         area and the potential savings that can be
   Install            Use photocell or         Also people may not consider turning off         allow automatic control in areas that are not in    made
                   occupancy detectors to      lights when there is adequate daylight           permanent use.
 automatic          automatically switch                                                                                                            NOTE
                                                                                                                                                    Consider Health and Safety and avoid dark
  control                  lights
                                                                                                                                                    entrances or exits.

                                                                                                                                                    Costs
                                                                                                                                                    Less than £1,000

                                               External lights frequently operate on a          Check outside light time clocks, ensure they        NOTE
                                               time clock over night as a security feature.     are correct.                                        This is a simple not cost action, check time
                                               Commonly time clocks do not get adjusted                                                             clocks routinely.
  External         Ensure outside lights are   and lights operate during daylight hours.        Using automatic controls like infrared presence
                     controlled properly                                                        detectors or photocells will ensure lights are      Technical
  control                                                                                       only operating at night and when there is           Occupancy detectors could be a better security
                                                                                                someone in the area.                                feature then leaving a night on all night. Assess
                                                                                                                                                    need on a site by site basis.
                                                           Faber Maunsell                                                                                                             64




                                                                                                                                            Costs
                                                                                                                                            Less than £1,000

                                           Compact Fluorescent Lamps are 3-4 times         Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk     Technical
                                           more efficient than traditional tungsten        round or as part of Calendar of Care.            • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of
                                           filament lamps and they last eight times                                                           50 lumens per watt, maximum will be around
                                           longer and reduce maintenance costs due         Purchase new lamps to replace Tungsten bulbs       85
                                           to less frequent replacement.                   upon failure.                                    • Lamps should have an economic life of
Tungsten          Install compact
              fluorescent light bulbs      Tungsten have an Efficacy of 12
                                                                                                                                              around 8,000 hours but 12,000 hours is not
                                                                                                                                              uncommon
 lamps                (CFLs)               lumens/Watt and a standard life of 1,000
                                           hours.
                                                                                                                                            • CFLs have a lower Colour Rendering Index
                                                                                                                                              than Tungsten lamps and emit a slightly
                                                                                                                                              different colour light.

                                                                                                                                            Costs
                                                                                                                                            Less than £5 per individual lamp (bulb)

                                           Tungsten Halogen lamps have a low               Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk     Technical
                                           Efficacy (18 lumens/Watt) and                   round or as part of Calendar of Care. Consider   • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of
                                           comparatively low economic life (2,000 –        modern lighting alternatives throughout the        50 lumens per watt, maximum will be around
                                           8,000 hours).                                   church.                                            100
                                                                                                                                            • Lamps have an economic life of between 50
                                           LEDs are about 90% more energy-efficient        Professional guidance maybe required when          and 100,000 hours. Care should be taken
Tungsten     Upon failure, install Light   than the standard incandescent bulb, and        replacing lamp fitting to accommodate newer        when purchasing cheaper LEDs as the
             Emitting Diodes (LEDs),       about twice as efficient as Compact             more efficient lamps. Work could be                equipment used to drive (light) the LEDs
Halogen       CFLs or at least replace     Fluorescent Light bulbs.                        undertaken as part of a lighting refit.            may be of a lower quality therefore reducing
               with Energy Saving                                                                                                             the economic life.
Dichroic        Tungsten Halogen
                                           It is now possible to purchase Tungsten         If LEDs or too expensive then CFLs should be     • LEDs have a Colour Rendering Index of ~
                                           Halogen spots with longer economic life         considered. At the least new Energy Saving
spot light         alternatives.           spans and higher Efficacy.                      Tungsten Halogen lamps should be specified
                                                                                                                                              85, roughly the same as CFLs.
                                                                                                                                            • LEDs can have a superior quality of light.
                                                                                           upon failure.                                      This is dictated by the quality of the lamp
                                                                                                                                              and the driver (control gear).
                                                                                                                                            • Tungsten Halogen energy savers will have a
                                                                                                                                              longer economic life and higher light output
                                                                                                                                              in lumens.

                                           Tungsten Halogen Floodlights are very           Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk     Technical
                                           expensive to run. They have an Efficacy         round or as part of Calendar of Care.            • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of
                                           generally < 20 lumens/Watt and a life                                                              60 lumens per watt, maximum will be around
 Internal                                  span of around 2,000 hours.                     Check whether Tungsten Halogen lighting is
                                                                                           switched on for long periods of time.
                                                                                                                                              80
                                                                                                                                            • Lamps have an economic life of between
             Replace internal Tungsten
Tungsten     Halogen Floodlights with      Some alternatives lamps can use the
                                           same light fitting helping to reduce            Budget to replace Tungsten Halogen lighting
                                                                                                                                              8,000 and 40,000 hours.
                                                                                                                                            • They have a Colour Rendering Index of ~ 65
              Metal Halide or compact
 Halogen        fluorescent lamps
                                           replacement costs.                              with Metal Halide lamps and fittings. Obtain
                                                                                           quotes from contractors and gain approval
                                                                                                                                              – 85 and a colour appearance of 3,000 –
                                                                                                                                              6,000K
Floodlight                                 Metal Halide discharge lamps have a
                                           superior quality of light and use 1/3 to ¼ of
                                                                                           before undertaking work.
                                                                                                                                            Professional Guidance should be sought
                                           the energy of an equivalent Tungsten                                                             before larger light refits are undertaken
                                           Halogen lamp.
                                                       Faber Maunsell                                                                                                              65




                                                                                                                                          NOTE
                                                                                                                                          Tungsten Halogen flood lighting are ideally
                                                                                                                                          suited to intermittent use (e.g. security lighting
                                                                                                                                          controlled by presence detectors.) Care should
                                                                                                                                          be taken to reduce the running hours of these
                                                                                                                                          lamps

                                        New slim line high frequency controlled      Assess lighting and lamps during energy walk         Technical
                                        fluorescent lamps with triphosphor           round or as part of Calendar of Care.                • Lamps should be able to provide a minimum
                                        coatings are approximately 35% more                                                                 Efficacy of 80 lumens per watt
                                        efficient                                    Plan to replace all older Fluorescent tubes (T12     • Lamps have an economic life of 8,000 to
                                                                                     andT8) with switch start ballasts with new T5
Fluorescent    Replace fluorescent
               lamps new slim line
                                                                                     tubes with High Frequency electronic starters.
                                                                                                                                            16,000 hours


   lamps        lamps and fittings                                                   Replacement will require new lamps and fittings
                                                                                                                                          NOTE
                                                                                                                                          There may be a high cost when replacing
                                                                                     and therefore a qualified electrical or lighting     fittings and lamps. Payback on this investment
                                                                                     contractor.                                          will depend on the number of lamps and fittings
                                                                                                                                          and how many hours a week the lighting is in
                                                                                                                                          use.

                                        Tungsten Halogen Floodlights are very        Tungsten Halogen flood lighting are ideally          Technical, High Pressure Sodium
                                        expensive to run. They have an Efficacy      suited to intermittent use (e.g. security lighting   • Lamps should provide a minimum Efficacy of
                                        generally < 20 lumens/Watt and a life        controlled by presence detectors.)                     80 lumens per watt.
                                        span of around 2,000 hours.                                                                       • Lamps have an economic life of between
                                                                                     Check whether Tungsten Halogen lighting is             12,000 and 50,000 hours.
                                        Some alternatives lamps can use the          switched on for long periods of time.                • They have lower quality of light with a Colour
                                        same light fitting helping to reduce                                                                Rendering Index of ~ 65 and a colour
 External         Replace External
                                        replacement costs.                           Replace lamps that are not used for security
                                                                                     lighting to Metal Halide or High Pressure
                                                                                                                                            appearance of around 2,000K

Tungsten         Tungsten Halogen
               Floodlights with Metal
                                        Metal Halide or High Pressure Sodium
                                        discharge lamps have a superior quality of
                                                                                     Sodium discharge lamps.                              Guidance documents
                                                                                                                                          • CTV021 – Technology Overview Lighting
 Halogen      Halide or High Pressure   light and use 1/3 to ¼ of the energy of an
                                        equivalent Tungsten Halogen lamp.
                                                                                     Replacement will require new lamps and fittings
                                                                                     and therefore a qualified electrical or lighting
                                                                                                                                          • GIL154 – How to refurbish your lighting
                      Sodium                                                                                                              • Additionally information can be found on
Floodlight                                                                           contractor.                                             the English Heritage website on

                                                                                                                                          NOTE
                                                                                                                                          Tungsten Halogen flood lighting are ideally
                                                                                                                                          suited to intermittent use (e.g. security lighting
                                                                                                                                          controlled by presence detectors.) Care should
                                                                                                                                          be taken to reduce the running hours of these
                                                                                                                                          lamps

				
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