Marcia Tate Strategies in the Classroom by yaofenjin

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									Brain Strategies to
Differentiate the
Classroom


        The neuroscience of the brain and
         the cognitive science of learning
         Introductions

 Shawn Abbate
 MS, NBCT
 20 years
 Lead Teacher
 GATE Coordinator
 Nerd
         Goals for the Session
Goals:                                     Your Goals:
~Give you a basic understanding
of the brain
~Give you some applications of
brain information for your classroom
~Give you specific strategies to utilize
cognitive science to improve student
achievement
~ Create a plan of your own as a result
of being here today.
 The Brain
So why does information from the
neurosciences and cognitive science
matter?

IT HAS BEEN A CURIOSITY FOR
MUCH OF HUMAN HISTORY!
Yesterday’s thinking…..
Phrenology – 1840s and 50s

         An early practice at the end of
         the 19th century that claimed
         to be able to identify mental
         capacity and character by
         feeling the bumps of the skull.
Today’s Neuroscience
SPECT Scans
PET Scans
MRI and fMRI
It is possible to see the mind at work!
BRAIN BASICS
             Brain 101
1. An adult brain weighs 2 to 4 pounds.
2. The brain is comprised of at least 60% fat.
3. Every heart beat provides 25% of the blood and oxygen to your
     brain.
4.   The hippocampus encodes new information and initiates
     learning and memory.
5.   You have millions of brain cells (called neurons) that increase in
     number with exposure to complex and novel environments.
6.   Neurons communicate with each other chemically, in a process
     referred to as a synapse.
7.   The more synaptic connections, the greater your brain reserve.
8.   Brain reserve is thought to delay the onset of diseases such as
     Alzheimer’s Disease.
   Communication of Neurons




Dendrites grow when we think.
New pathways increase
intelligence.
         The Brain Is Shaped and
         Developed throughout Life
 It has plasticity. There is no finite
  capacity or limitation.
 Environmental input across one’s
  lifespan, beginning at conception
  shapes the brain.
 There is no critical period of brain
  development, unless one considers
  life itself to be the measure.
 Environmental input into a brain can
  make a difference with respect to the
  health of that brain.
Three factors critical to a brain
enriching environment:
1. physical activity
2. socialization
3. mental stimulation
         # 1 Physical Activity and
         Movement



Why?
 Humans are mobile throughout their life
 Movement provides stimulus and helps neuron
  systems develop
 Having students stand up, sit down, jump, or
  clap as they review activates procedural memory
          Why Should I Include
          Movement in My Lessons?
 Movement is fundamental to the very existence of the brain. In fact, only an
   organism that moves from place to place even needs a brain.
 The entire front half of the brain is devoted to organizing action, both
   physical and mental.
 “Higher” brain functions have evolved from movement and still depend on
   it.
 Movement is crucial to every brain function, including memory, emotion,
   language, and learning.
 The ability to mimic is movement based.
 Physical activity forces oxygen and glucose to the brain.
        How?

 Students pick an energizing partner across
  the room. Provide opportunities for partners
  to meet.
 Stand up for yes!
 Role play stories, order of operations,
  historical events, scientific concepts.
 Musical pair share
        #2 Socialization
        Brainstorming and Discussion
Why?
 Humans are social
 Silence is not natural
 Talking leads to breathing
 Brainstorming improves
  comprehension and leads to higher
  order thinking
      Research Rationale

 Students remember 90% of what they
  say or discuss.
 Learning increases when students have
  a chance to talk about it in their own
  words.
 Brainstorming activates prior
  knowledge.
 Formulating questions is realistic and
  leads to better thinking skills.
       How?
 DOVE Discussions - Defer judgment, One
  idea at a time, Variety of ideas, and Energy
  on task
 No Opt Out Discussion: Costa’s Level of
  Questioning, Socratic Seminar
 Pair/Share – Give One and Get One, Cornell
  Notes, quick writes, problem solutions,
  explain a concept
     Brain Snacks

Provide opportunities to:
   reflect on learning
   provide movement
   anchor learning
   check on understanding
          How do you use
 Brain
 Snack!   brainstorming and discussion
          in your room?
Give One and Get One
List 3 ways you can use
 discussion.
Get up and move.
Share and collect ideas
         #3 Mental Stimulation
         The brain benefits from a novel and
         complex environment

What is novelty?
 Construct unique and individualized meaning of the
  structure or concept.
 Recreate or innovate old systems and ideas.
 Create a means of expressing understanding of
  subject matter creatively AND with a higher level in a
  new, unusual, or unique way.
 Incorporate original interpretations of existing
  information by utilizing personal views and interests.
               Novelty
                            Examples:
                             Debate an issue
                             Editorialize an opinion
                             Make a choice or decision
Skills:                      Tally research results
   prioritize
   explain the main idea    Interview a person
   resolve the conflict     Prepare an investigative report
   ask questions
   predict                  Use raw materials to solve a
   hypothesize               problem
   state your opinion
                             Prepare a scrapbook or
                              collection
                             Accommodate a new viewpoint
                             Create an original interpretation
     Novelty in Your Classroom

      Think about the unit you are teaching now.
      List 3 choices you could offer students for
       novelty.
               1.
               2.
Brain
               3.
Snack!
        Turn to the person next to you and share your
         ideas.
    “LEARNING IS
     THE BRAIN’S
PRIMARY FUNCTION…”
             Frank Smith, Insult to Intelligence
            Why don’t we like to think?
              Ask the Cognitive Scientist

   The mind is not designed for thinking.
   People are naturally curious but
    curiosity is fragile.
   Thinking requires the knowledge of
    facts.
   Factual learning improves memory.




Source: Why Don’t Students Like School?, Daniel Willingham
            How Thinking Works

                                 attention        Working Memory
       Environment                               awareness and thinking

                                             learning         remembering


                                     Long-Term Memory
                                     factual knowledge and
                                     procedural knowledge



Source: Why Don’t Students Like School?, Daniel Willingham
  Learning is a two-step process:

• Making meaning through
  pattern seeking and
  chunking

    • Developing a mental program
      for using what we understand
      and wiring it into long-term
      memory
            Nine Cognitive Principles for
            the Classroom
1. People are curious but they are not naturally good thinkers.
2. Factual knowledge proceeds skill.
3. Memory is the residue of thought.
4. We understand new things in the context of what we know.
5. Proficiency requires practice.
6. Cognition is fundamentally different early and late in training.
7. Children are more alike than different in terms of learning.
8. Intelligence can be changed through hard work.
9. Teaching, like any complex cognitive skill, must be practiced
  to be improved.

Source: Why Don’t Students Like School?, Daniel Willingham
            Implications for the Classroom
 Think of content as answers. Spend time
    explaining the questions.                       content
   Factual knowledge is critical so always ask
    the question, “What do I want students to
    think about?”
   Identify key concepts and practice them
    over time.
   Let lesson content, not student differences,
    drive decisions about teaching.
   Always talk about success and failure in
    terms of effort, not ability.



Source: Why Don’t Students Like School?, Daniel Willingham
        #4
        Differentiate
        the Classroom
 Offer extension menus and extra credit enrichment
  opportunities to get students to read. Factual knowledge
  is key!
 Use Levels of Questions/Kaplan Icons to help students
  acquire shallow AND deep knowledge.
 Allow students choice or use for discussion to differentiate
  instruction.
 Tier assignments to accommodate the working memory.
      Differentiation Means
      Choices
 Keep the focus on content.
 What do you want students to
  learn?
 Teacher choice AND student
  choice
Student Choice in the
Classroom
 Extension menus
 Independent study
 Project design

              Content


  depth      complexity   novelty/product
      Teacher Choice

   Unit design
   Levels of questions
   Discussion strategies


                  Content

Unit design   Levels of questions   Discussion strategies
         Depth and Complexity

 Provides rigorous thinking opportunities for all students.
 Offers students a chance to “think about” content.
 Creates thinking patterns and connections to help the
  brain to recall and utilize knowledge.
                                     Depth & Complexity Icon Chart

                                             Depth                Icon              Definition                          Example
                                                                               What vocabulary terms are              Tools Jargon Icons
                                                                               specific to the content or                  Acronyms
                                          Language of                                 discipline?                      Special phrases



                Using Icons              the Discipline

                                             Details
                                                                            What are the defining features or
                                                                             characteristics? Find examples
                                                                            and evidence to support opinions
                                                                                       and ideas.
                                                                                                                         Terms Slang
                                                                                                                        Abbreviations
                                                                                                                             Parts
                                                                                                                            Factors
                                                                                                                           Attributes
                                                                                                                           Variables



                A Layered
                                                                                                                     Distinguishing Traits
                                                                             What elements reoccur? What is              Predictability
                                                                            the sequence or order of events?               Repetition
                                            Patterns                         Make predictions based on past
                                                                                        events.




                Approach
                                                                              What information is unclear,               Missing Parts
                                                                               missing, or unavailable?                Incomplete Ideas
                                         Unanswered                           What evidence do you need?                 Discrepancies
                                          Questions                          What has not yet been proven?            Unresolved issues
                                                                                                                           Ambiguity
                                                                              What structure underlies this                Structure
                                                                              subject? What guidelines or                     Order


                to Learning                   Rules
                                                                               regulations affect it? What
                                                                            hierarchy or ordering principle is
                                                                                        at work?


                                                                             Note factors (Social Economic,
                                                                                                                            Reasons
                                                                                                                         Organization
                                                                                                                          Explanation
                                                                                                                         Classification
                                                                                                                         “Because…”
                                                                                                                           Influence
                                                                            Political, Geographic) that cause          Forces Direction
                                             Trends                         events to occur. Identify patterns         Course of Action
                                                                                   of change over time                Compare, Contrast
                                                                                                                         and Forecast
                                                                                What moral principles are                Values Morals
                                                                              involved in this subject? What              Pro and Con
                                                                                controversies exist? What            Bias Discrimination
                                             Ethics                          arguments could emerge from a                 Prejudice
                                                                                   study of this topic?                      Judging
                                                                                                                      Differing Opinions

Thanks to the work of Dr. Sandra                                                                                         Point of View
                                                                                                                       Right and Wrong
                                                                                                                             Wisdom

Kaplan, use of iconic thinking is                                           What theory or general statement
                                                                             applies to these ideas? How do
                                                                               these ideas relate to broad
                                                                                                                  Draw conclusions based on
                                                                                                                            evidence
                                                                                                                     Make generalizations
                                           Big Ideas                           concepts such as change,                   Summarize
becoming more common in California                                           systems, chaos vs. order, etc?
                                                                                 What is the main idea?
                                                                                                                              Theory
                                                                                                                            Principle
                                                                                                                           Main Idea

GATE classrooms.                          Across the
                                                                            Relate the area of study to other
                                                                             subjects within, between, and
                                                                                   across disciplines.
                                                                                                                            Connect
                                                                                                                           Associate
                                                                                                                            Integrate
                                          Disciplines                                                                      Lind Ideas
                                                                                                                    Cross-Curricular study
                                                                            How are elements related in terms      Connecting points in time

Her icons are available at               Changes over
                                            Time
                                                                             of the past, present, and future?
                                                                            How and why do things change?
                                                                                  What doesn’t change?
                                                                                                                   Examining a time period
                                                                                                                    Compare and Contrast



jtayloreducation.com.                      Different
                                                                                How would others see the
                                                                                  situation differently?
                                                                                                                 Different roles and knowledge
                                                                                                                      Opposing viewpoints
                                         Perspectives

                                     Based upon the work of Sandra Kaplan
               Tiered Vocabulary Menu
Level 1 Practice words in context
   Fill-in-the-blank
   Graphic organizers
   Find examples in magazines, newspapers, books

Level 2 Develop understanding of words
   Create a worksheet, word search, or vocabulary quiz. Write your clues or definitions in your
    own words.
   Create Power Point with words and definitions in your own words.
   Draw a picture or symbol for each word and explain its relationship to vocabulary word it
    represents.

Level 3 Create an original composition
   Alone or with a friend, write a short script appropriate for students.
   Write a riddle for each word.
   Write a friendly letter using the words.
   Write an advertisement.
   Make a political or “comics”-styled cartoon book.
   Design a board game or a computer game using all of the words in correct context.

                           Choose a different product this week!
      Layered Curriculum Units

Divides learning process based on cognitive
  science
A. Factual knowledge
B. Practice and think about content
C. Higher levels of thinking
         LAYERED CURRICULUM                                        TM




A teaching model that divides the learning process into
   three layers based on the complexity of the student’s
   thought process




 Source: Differentiating the High School Classroom, Kathie F. Nunley
Nunley Model

Asks students at each level to:
 C Layer: Gather information
 B Layer: Apply or manipulate that
  information
 A Layer: Critically evaluate an issue
             Costa’s Levels of Questions

 Level 1: The answer can be found in the text (either
  directly or indirectly). Facts about what has been heard or
  read.
 Level 2: The answer can be inferred from the text. This
  type of question, although more abstract and involves
  examination, analysis, causes of details.
 Level 3: Answer goes beyond text. This type of question
  is abstract, and may not pertain to text. These questions
  ask that judgments be made from information. They also
  give opinions about issues, judge the validity of the ideas
  or other products and justify opinions and ideas.
     Brain            Let’s Try It Out
     Snack!




Worksheet for Designing Curriculum Unit
1. What BASIC new knowledge do I need them
   to know/learn?
2. How can they apply this new information?
3. What debatable issue in the real world deals
   with this topic?
Source: Differentiating the High School Classroom, Kathie F. Nunley
         Conclusions

 The brain grows and intelligence increases in
  complex and novel thinking environments
 The brain needs movement and socialization
 Factual knowledge proceeds the ability for
  complex thinking
 Differentiate to accommodate content
  knowledge levels and provide opportunity for
  complex novelty
        Teaching Techniques in Your
        Packet
 Movement
 Discussion
 Depth and complexity icons
 Content frames
 Pathway to Learning
 Layered Curriculum
 D&C Novel Project Design Model
 Tate Strategies
“A journey of a thousand
    miles begins with a
       single step.”
     ~ Confucius ~
   How?

 Create a “personal pictionary”
 Brochures, posters
 Storyboard a math word problem
 Draw a picture to review or summarize content
 Use stick figures to illustrate information about
  a person or groups of people
          Drawing and Artwork
Why?
 Drawing figures helps improve
  comprehension
 Visualization helps to teach
  vocabulary
 Art enrichment increases gains, self-
  discipline, work ethic, and teamwork
 Thinking in art precedes
  improvement in thinking in other
  areas.
       Field Trips

Why?
 Aristotle and Socrates used field trips
 Experience outside the classroom provides significant
  gains
 Connects learning to real life
 Connects content to reality
            How?
 Cyber-trips, virtual field trips, web quests
   Google: virtual field trips, www.field-guides.com, www,tramline.com,
     antwrp.gsfc.
 Library
 Park
 Campus simulations (mock elections, debates, plays,
  museums)
 Walk around community and create real-world math
  problems and submit to National Math Trail Web site
         Games

Why?
 Jeopardy engages the brain
 Creating games with content
  provides connections
 Brain mechanisms during
  games are just as cognitive as
  math seat work
 Humans need play
      How?

 Board games to review content
 Jeopardy to create questions and recall content
 Use Concentration to teach vocabulary
 Ball Toss discussions or review
 Who Am I? with historical or literary figures
 BINGO vocabulary
         Graphic Organizers, Semantic
         Maps, Word Webs
                                               organizers



                                 bubble maps   flow charts   storyboards
Why?
 Improves reading comprehension if done before reading
 Integrates visual and verbal
 Helps students make connections
 Facilitates memory and content area achievement
    How?

 KWL – access prior knowledge and
  summarize content
 Word web brainstorm to increase vocabulary
  meaning
 Story Maps
 Cause and Effect Flowchart
 Venn Diagram to compare/contrast ideas
       Humor

Why?
 Laughter increases alertness and memory
 Positive experiences improve memory and
  performance
 Humor and laughter reduce stress
 Group laughter builds community
  relationships
       How?

 Incorporate cartoons, riddles, and
  jokes which reinforce learning
 Students can design cartoons or
  humorous stories that demonstrate
  understanding
 Cooperative groups write and
  solve content related riddles
 Provide feedback with a humorous
  device (clapper, horn, bubbles)
      Manipulatives, Experiments,
      Labs, and Models
Why?
 Brain activity and hands are so interrelated
  numerous theories explain the connection
 Each body movement stimulates brain function
 Hands-on activities energize students
       How?



 Students can use tiles, blocks, or rods to
  demonstrate understanding of math concepts
 Students use hands to show agreement,
  disagreement or level of understanding (vocabulary
  inventory)
 Students construct models to demonstrate
  understanding
        Mnemonic Devices

Why?
 Provide powerful tools to
  recall information
 Activate neuro-links essential
  to memory
 Create links between new
  information and information
  already stored
               How?

 Give examples and have students create
  their own slogans or phrases to help them
  remember information.
 Students create acronyms to help recall
  content.
 Create rhymes, acronyms, or acrostics to
  help reinforce and teach important
  concepts.

http://www.audiblox2000.com/learning_disabilities/arcostics.htm
Reflection

 Summarize the strategies that help
  students to make connections.

12 Word Summary and A-B Partner Teach
        # 11 Music, Rhythm, Rhyme
        and Rap
Why?
 Music activates emotion and long-
  term memory
 Music synchronizes neural networks
  which increase the brain’s ability to
  reason, think creatively and solve
  math problems
 Music from the baroque period
  appears to increase memory and
  test taking skills
          How?

 Music and lyrics to teach content
 Musical recall with a meet and match
  pair share.
 Cooperative groups create raps,
  rhymes or songs to recall information.
 Sing the quadratic equation
 Students write cinquains (1 word, 2, 3,
  4 and back to 1 word poems) that
  symbolize content understanding
     Reflection


 How can I integrate
 music and movement
 into my lesson plans?

     Quickwrite and
    Think-Pair-Share
        Role Plays, Drama,
        Pantomimes and Charades
Why?
 Role play makes learning fun,
  increases creativity, and gives
  learners more choice
 Provides an opportunity to organize
  information
 Increases meaning, motivation, and
  facilitates the transfer of knowledge
           How?

 Students create a dramatic presentation
  of an event
 Students create commercial espousing a
  point of view or particular concept
 Create vocabulary cards and have
  students play a game of charades pulling
  the cards.
      Storytelling

 Stories link items to be remembered resulting in
  greater recall
 Engage students and stimulates interest
 Provide a script to tie information to in our
  memory
 Storying can be used to recall long lists of
  information that should be memorized in a
  specific order
       How?

 Students create stories
  demonstrating and recalling the
  steps in a multi-step process.
 Use The Story of the Algebraic
  Equation to help students
  understand how to solve algebraic
  equations
 Use fiction and non-fiction stories
  which provide examples of skills or
  ideas being taught.
         Work Study and Internships

Why?
 Business links share
  resources, expectations, and
  visions
 Work experiences make
  education relevant
 Actual experiences create
  neural networks
 Career academies reduce
  dropout rates
How?

Career
 presentations
Community
 service
Simulations
ROP
        Writing and Journals

Why?
 Writing down ideas is the best way to
  recall information
 Writing and note taking helps
  students organize ideas, improves
  comprehension, and memory
 Students success is dependent on
  their ability to become an attentive
  listener, an articulate speaker, a
  clear writer, and a critical readers
         How?

 Write daily.
 Use Quickwrites/Warm-ups
    Have students write synonyms and antonyms for vocabulary
     words
    Respond to text
    Brainstorm ideas
    Explain problems or concepts

 Teach writing process and encourage revision. Publish
  writing.
 Give many opportunities to write for a variety of
  purposes.
Reflection

 How can you use Tate Strategies in your
  classroom?

              Quickwrite
           Musical Pair Share
“A journey of a thousand
    miles begins with a
       single step.”
     ~ Confucius ~

								
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