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The Teaching of Foreign Languages in European Primary Schools

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 12

									          The Teaching of Foreign Languages in European Primary Schools


                                                                   Euroconference

INTRODUCTION
The overall aim of this series of Euroconferences was to establish a research network consisting mainly of young
researchers to identify and carry out research in high priority areas of primary foreign language teaching and learning
(PFLTL) and to foster ongoing exchange of information and experience in order to improve an understanding of the
factors that stimulate successful and sustainable implementation of PFLTL.


Summary of the 3 euroconferences
A summary of the aims and outcomes are presented below for each of the 3 Euroconferences; further details are
provided in the supporting documentation, see Publications below.
1. Report on first event
   Aims
    1. To examine the current state of the art of PFLTL in member states; this included key plenary presentations (see
       Annex 1)
    2. To develop Research Training Resource Packs in areas of key scientific importance in the substantive areas
    3. To run specialist Research Training Workshops involving young researchers from different member states and
       to develop an agenda for research
    4. To establish research networks, via Research Special Interest Groups SIGs), for ongoing exchange of
       information and the updating of all participants over the three year period of funding.

   Outcomes
   In relation to the aims listed above, the principal outcomes are summarised as follows:
    §    An analysis of PFLTL across members states (Austria, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Scotland, Spain,
         Cyprus) is reported in the Proceedings of Euroconference 1 and in Euroconference Newsletter 2 (see
         Publications below)
    §    5 Research Training Resource Packs were developed and workshops run for participants (see Publications
         below)
    §    Research Special Interest Groups – most linked to the research training workshops provided - were established
         in key areas; see 3 below.
    §    A Euroconference Newsletter (editors P. Rea-Dickins & K. Karavas-Doukas) and a Website
         (http://www.warwick.ac.uk/celte/euroconferences) were established for purposes of exchange of information
         across the young researchers and for dissemination (see below).


2. Report on second event
   Aims
    1.   To develop Research Training Resource Packs in areas of key scientific importance in the substantive areas not
         addressed in Euroconference 1 (see Publications below)
    2.   Linked to 1. above, to provide specialist Research Training Workshops to support the ongoing work of the
         Research SIGs; and to initiate debate in ‘new’ areas via plenary presentations
         (see Annex 1)
    3.   To provide the opportunity for the exchange of information and findings within and across the Research SIGs
    4.   To support the research SIGs in the intervening periods between the Euroconferences.

   . Outcomes
     In relation to the aims listed above, the following were developed:
    § 6 Research Training Resource Packs (see Publications below) were developed and research training
         workshops were run for participants by the authors of the Resource Packs
                                                                                                                          1
    §   Research SIGs presented the findings from their research; see reports in Euroconference Newsletter 2 and
        outcomes from event 3 (see 3 below)
    §   Euroconference Newsletter 2 was circulated; the Website updates and an email list was established for
        purposes of exchange of information across the young researchers and for dissemination (see below).


3. Report on third event
   The third and final event built on and drew together the findings of the work initiated and undertaken since
   Euroconference 1 (1997, University of Warwick) and had a different and distinct orientation. The structured
   research training elements provided in Euroconferences 1 and 2, for which 11 extensive Research Training Resource
   Packs were specifically developed (see Publications below), were replaced by opportunities for the Research SIGs
   to work on the ‘conclusions’ from their collaborative research. The aims of Euroconference 3 are summarised as
   follows:
    1. To provide opportunities for the Research Special Interest Groups (SIGs) to collate and review their research
        findings over the three year period
    2. To provide a forum for the exchange and critical appraisal of the research SIGs findings
    3. To arrive at some conclusions in relation to the different areas of research represented by the SIGs.
   With this primary aim in mind, international specialists from the European research community in the areas
   represented by the SIGs were invited to (i) critique the work of the research SIGs and to work with them towards a
   synthesis of their findings, and (ii) act as Discussant during the plenary research SIG presentations (see Annex 1).
   As with Euroconference 1 and 2, plenary speakers were invited, on the basis of addressing key themes not
   previously covered in the previous events or to highlight enduring challenges for quality provision in primary
   foreign language teaching and learning, see Annex 1.
   KEY FINDINGS FROM RESEARCH SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS
   3.1 Second Language Acquisition at Primary School
   This group (co-ordinated by Dr Alex Housen) focused on the interlanguage development of children of primary
   school age and in particular on the acquisition of a second / foreign language by young learners in different socio-
   educational contexts. Their research was conducted in schools in five different school-based sites, with data
   presented from three of these: Bologna, Varese, and Culham. The Discussant for this group was Dr Florence Myles
   of the University of Southampton, England.

   The key issues from the groups are summarised as follows.

A. SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Findings: lexical analysis:
    ·   The Bologna and Varese children have comparable – low – levels of lexical richness and diversity.
    ·   Children in the Culham school reveal significantly higher levels of lexical richness and diversity, although this
        is still significantly lower than that of native speakers.
Findings: grammatical analysis:
1. Qualitative Interlanguage Analysis
    · The Bologna learners predominantly reflect the pre-basic variety stage of development (Perdue 1993): no
        inflectional morphology, some verbless utterances, fixed non-syntactic word-order (or dependent on L1).
    · Most of the learners in the Varese European school are also in the pre-basic variety stage. Some are at the
        basic variety stage, with some consistent use of a limited set of grammatical morphemes, especially noun
        morphology
    · Some of the Culham children are at the basic variety stage; most are at the post basic variety stage, revealing
        different levels of grammaticalisation – functional grammatical morphology and syntax. In terms of formal
        accuracy their production is not native-like.
    · The free interlanguage production of the Italian learners in all contexts reveals features and stages of
        development also observed for older learners in both naturalistic and structured learning contexts.
2. Quantitative Grammatical Analysis
     · The Bologna and Varese learners show comparable levels of morphologal richness but the Varese learners are
        morphologically more accurate.
     · The Bologna and Varese children reveal similar – low levels – in terms of syntactic complexity.
The Culham children outperform both Varese and Bologna groups on all measures of grammatical competence,
although their grammatical production is still not native-like.



                                                                                                                            2
Conclusions
    ·    After around 250 hours of instruction in the foreign language, most primary school children are willing and
         able to produce oral narrative discourse, using a variety of strategies.
    ·    Although all 3 contexts allow for substantial L2 learning, differences in socio-educational contexts clearly
         affect rate and outcome of foreign language learning.

         Ø   The ‘traditional’ primary schools in Bologna and the European schools in Varese and Culham provide
             increased opportunities for foreign language learning.

    ·    Differences between Bologna and Varese are less pronounced than those between Varese and Culham, in spite
         of the similarity in foreign language teaching regime between Varese and Culham versus Bologna.

         Ø   Outcomes in foreign language learning are determined not only by the foreign language teaching
             programme but also by the interaction between the foreign language teaching programme and the socio-
             educational context in which it is implemented.

    ·    The different outcomes in the 3 contexts reflect different stages of acquisition as described in the literature on
         adult spontaneous and instructed SLA.

         Ø   Similar (universal?) psycholinguistic mechanisms of language acquisition probably operate in foreign
             language learning in primary schools as in other types and contexts of language acquisition.

B. IMPLICATIONS
The implications for future research, policy and for teaching were summarised by the group as follows:

Teaching
    ·    A better knowledge of the processes underlying second language acquisition enables teachers to tune
         classroom activities to the needs of learners and language learning opportunities. This has implications for:

             §    Assessment and expectations (standards?)
             §    Syllabus construction and implementation
             §    Selection of teaching materials
             §    Focus-on-form activities
             §    Error correction and feedback

    ·    Non-native speaker teachers to be made aware of their own interlanguage
    ·    Teachers to be made aware of the relationships existing between type of learning task and the quality and
         quantity of L2 production.
Policy
    ·    Include SLA research as a basic component of teacher initial and in-service training
    ·    Set realistic curriculum aims and objectives
    ·    Provide for extra-classroom learning opportunities
    ·    Provide occasions for children to use the L2 in response to real communicative pressures and needs.
    ·    Encourage knowledge exchanges between teachers of second and foreign languages.

SLA Research
    ·    Foreign language learning in primary schools represent a rich area of study for SLA research
    ·    Any comprehensive theory of SLA must be able to account for foreign language learning in primary school
         contexts.
    ·    Primary school learning contexts should be included in any discussion of the age factor in SLA
    ·    The foreign / second language distinction is better conceptualised as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy.
    ·    Narrative retelling tasks are a valid elicitation tool in L2 research.


   3.2 Pre School Foreing Language Learning
   This group established itself during Euroconference 2. Whilst within the general specialism of SLA its focus was on
   acquisition in pre-school years. Research SIG members reported on their findings (which are part of a wider
   research project directed by H. Wode, University of Kiel). The research of this group focused around 1) how much
   English children acquire in a pre-school environment before they enter primary school; and 2) which data collection
   tools are most appropriate to gather this information and to test children’s linguistic competence. The Discussant for
   this research SIG was also Dr Florence Myles of the University of Southampton, England.
                                                                                                                              3
A. SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The preliminary findings are summarised as follows:

    ·    The children enjoy the contact with the new language
    ·    Within 2 to 3 months, everyday activities can be carried out through the medium of the L2
    ·    The children’s receptive L2 competence tends to be superior to their productive capacity
    ·    The children quickly learn formula and the basic vocabulary needed for their routine activities within the pre-
         school
    ·    The children start using the L2 spontaneously by including short L2 phrases within their German utterances,
         i.e. code-switching
    ·    A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation was observed
    ·    Already at the age of 3, all the phonological transfer patterns observed in older foreign language learners are
         fully in place.



B. IMPLICATIONS
The implications for future research, policy and for teaching are summarised as follows.

Research
    ·    More longitudinal study of children’s L2 development
    ·    Investigate L1 competence; the context in which words are introduced; the impact of specific interventions;
         and sociolinguistic factors (e.g. age, gender)

Policy
    ·    Training of teachers
    ·    Introduction of bilingual pre-school initiatives at a national level

Praxis
    ·    Use the results from research findings to feed back into pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning
    ·    Take account of the research finding that some semantic fields are mastered / secure earlier than others.


   3.3 Cultural Awareness

   This group was set up during Euroconference 1 and worked as a tight knit group through the period of funding under
   the coordination of Anastasia-Sissy Gika for the first 2 years and in the final year by Dr Angelika Kubanek-German.
   The objectives of this group were as follows:

    1.   to explore the concepts of cultural awareness and intercultural competence in relation to primary foreign
         language teaching in the research literature from an interdisciplinary perspective and to summarise the most
         influential ideas
    2.   to analyse relevant research projects in different EU countries and to examine the role of culture / cultural
         awareness in national schemes
    3.   to carry out small scale studies aimed at better understanding what ‘culture’ means to children and to get
         children, student-teachers and in-service teachers involved in activities which would facilitate their
         sensitisation to new cultures and to summarise the findings
    4.   to design and pilot a set of guidelines in support of primary foreign language teachers so as to incorporate
         ‘cultural’ teaching
    5.   to synthesise the findings from 1-4 above with a view to developing guidelines / a manual for prospective
         primary school teachers of foreign languages.

   Dr Joaquin-Diaz Corralejo was the Discussant for this group.




                                                                                                                           4
SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Within the context of early modern foreign language learning, the challenges for research, policy and practice are
summarised as follows:

Research
To present flexible material:
    · that orientates the teachers in their choice of approaches and procedures
    · that develops their awareness of children’s thinking and of a more child-oriented way of teaching
    · to develop some ‘new’ procedures for classroom observation in future research and tools of interpretation

Policy
To reconsider the acceptance of English as a dominant language when it is taught as a lingua franca which prevents
integrating cultural and intercultural dimensions:
     · to encourage the development of plurilingualism
     · to promote language diversity in foreign language conferences
     · to train foreign language teachers in primary schools in the area of the cultural dimensions of language
          learning

Praxis
    ·  To make teachers aware that the cultural dimension is not an isolated element but a general education
       dimension
    · To encourage schools to develop their own language philosophy through projects to be awarded, as an
       example, a European ‘prix d’excellence’
To promote multicultural ‘happenings’ involving parents and neighbourhood.

   3.4 Teacher Development and Assessment
   This research SIG was also established as a group at Euroconference 1 – coordinated by Francesca Gattullo - but its
   composition reduced to two members over the funding period. Its focus was on the challenges of formative (as
   opposed to summative proficiency) assessment and with classroom embedded assessment:

    ·    as an ongoing multi-phase process carried out on a daily basis through teacher-pupil interaction
    ·    concerned with feedback to learners for their ‘immediate action’
    ·    focused on modifying teaching activities in order to improve learning processes and results.

   The Discussant for this group was Dr Pauline Rea-Dickins, formerly of the University of Warwick (now at the
   University of Bristol).


A. SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Synthesis of Findings
In the classrooms in the study, a higher proportion of some assessment actions at the expense of others was found:
Teachers tend to concentrate on:
     · Questioning of a restricted type
     · Correcting
     · Judging
     · Marking

At the expense of:

    ·    Detailed feedback to individual learners
    ·    Meta-cognitive questions
    ·    Encouragement to children in self- and peer-assessment




                                                                                                                         5
B. KEY ISSUES
     1.   Formative assessment needs to be discussed and investigated within the wider framework of classroom
          teaching and learning
     2.   Appropriate theoretical concepts (implies a move away from the psychometric paradigm of proficiency testing)
          and research instruments need to be developed and refined to reflect the fact that:
                   “Assessment is not confined to ‘clean’ and ‘structured’ events isolated from the
                   ‘dirty’ and ‘chaotic’ everyday classroom work.
     3.   Classroom assessment is an integral part of the language teaching and learning curriculum
          Ø   It is therefore not appropriate to separate linguistic aspects from general educational issues
          Ø   Portfolio and self-assessment procedures play a fundamental role in language learning, i.e. in addition to
              any contributions they might make to ‘proficiency’ testing
     4.   Teachers’ representations of assessment as:
          Ø   The means of getting a picture of students’ level of knowledge, skills, etc. in order to modify their
              teaching and/or take action for improvement of children’s learning
          Ø   Means of encouraging children’s progress
     5.   Teaching and learning, classroom assessment ‘can’ be high stakes:
          Ø   In terms of the impact this might have on children’s understanding of assessment: teachers can use it to
              label students, to promote learning, to develop autonomy, encourage collaboration with peers and so forth
     6.   Why is classroom assessment frequently referred to as ‘alternative’ assessment? What is it alternative to?!

C. IMPLICATIONS
These were summarised by the group as follows:

Research Issues
1. What theoretical framework(s), methodology, instruments and units of analysis are need to research and investigate
classroom assessment?
     · ‘micro-sociology’ of classroom assessment and learning? (= the study of how assessment of young children is
        carried out in classrooms, and with what possible consequences for children’s understanding of schooling and
        the development of their learning in particular subject areas which includes language learning)
     · case study approach or quantitative large scale study?
     · Is triangulation (researchers, teachers, learners) necessary?
     · Classroom observation; post-observation discussions with teachers, interviews with teachers, as important
        research procedures in this area of classroom assessment
     · Is discourse analysis an appropriate tool to explore assessment in terms of interaction (this links to more
        recent, i.e. post-Euroconference, research by Rea-Dickins (2000, 2001; see also McNamara 2002 in which this
        is seen as an important tool in ‘assessment research’)
     · Can we classify observed assessment in terms of Actions – Episodes – Incidents thereby ‘going beyond’ the
        deceptively simple sequence of Initiation – Response – Feedback (IRF) in order to capture the multi-faceted
        complexity of teacher-pupil interaction?

2. What relevance do the traditional concepts of reliability and validity have for classroom embedded assessment? How
do we ‘assure’ quality in the area of formative assessment? What are the criteria?

3. To what extent and in what ways is informal assessment shaped by:
    · the social dimension of schooling?
    · teacher-pupil power relationships?
    · interaction models that teachers enact in their everyday work?

Future Research Agenda
1.   Analyse and trace the effectiveness of primary teacher training courses in areas of assessment
2.   Identify in more detail the ‘profile’ of the primary foreign language learner
3.   (in the context of several European countries) Establish a workable syllabus for the teaching of English and other
     foreign languages in primary schools
4.   Problematise the issues surrounding mixed paradigms for the assurance of ‘quality’ in classroom assessment and
     language proficiency (achievement) testing
5.   Instead of importing traditional ‘testing’ practices into the classroom: investigate how teachers understand, interpret
     and implement classroom assessment as a basis for introducing and negotiating with them more valid ways of
                                                                                                                               6
    supporting language learning through formative assessment practices.

Praxis
1. Assessment actions should provide guidance to teachers on the appropriacy for young primary language learners to
have opportunities to:
    · rehearse language
    · engage with a teacher’s questions and in sustained interactions with their teacher and peers


   3.3 Teachers’ Perceptions of their Needs
   This group investigated through a survey questionnaire primary teachers’ perceptions of their needs. It had the most
   difficulty in co-ordinating its activities although its coordinator (J-C LeBihan) was able to provide some structure
   through his own doctoral research. The Discussant for this group was Dr Louise Dabene. This group identified as a
   priority far stronger provision for both initial and in-service teacher training with an explicit focus on issues of
   primary foreign language learning and teaching.

   SUMMARY OF MACRO ISSUES
   The teaching of foreign languages to younger children in an increasing number of different contexts in Europe (as
   indeed elsewhere) raises a number of issues and challenges. The research and reports from the Research Special
   Interest Groups, the Euroconference workshops and other discussion opportunities within these meetings, raised
   both micro and macro issues. The following represent some of the key macro issues and challenges for sustainable
   and effective foreign language learning in primary schools.

   1. Second Language Acquisition
   · Include SLA in initial and in-service training, e.g. a common core in the training of the language teacher
   · More longitudinal studies of children’s L2 development under different conditions (e.g. see 5 below). For
      example:
      - what can pre-school and primary school data tell us about SLA and the notion of critical age? Is there a
          critical age for acquisition and phonological and morphosyntactic systems?
      - Are the processes similar / different in L1 and acquisition of L2?
      - Does the ability for phonological differentiation disappear? Reappear? And about the ability to acquire new
          sounds later on: and this is a difference between adults and children ?
      - What exactly makes the difference between adults and young SLA ? (i.e. an unresolved debate). Are the
          underlying mechanisms similar or different? e.g. is this Universal Grammar available to all learners, and to
          L1 and L2 acquisition?
   · Gathering data as early as possible will provide some insights for these main debates and only in this way will
      we know whether the processes are fundamentally the same or different
   · Recognition that the needs, i.e. the driving force behind SLA, is never the same as when learning a FL and this
      also differs in terms of motivation and attitudes of the L2 young language learning and adult L2 language
      learning.

   2. Testing & Assessment
   · Maintain a distinction between summative assessment of attainment and formative assessment; and strengthen
      the latter embedded within the flow of instruction
   · Evaluate the extent to which the summative assessment mechanisms reflect the purposes for the teaching and
      learning of foreign languages in the primary school
   · Cultural awareness is not reducible to an inventory of items in the way of functions, notions, or syntactic forms.
      If we want teachers to teach and to include the cultural awareness element then perhaps assessment of this
      domain might be a motivator
   · Should children be formally assessed in the primary school? If yes, at which stage? Is it desirable to formally
      evaluate children’s achievement in the early years of foreign language learning?

   3. Teacher Education
   · Significant amounts of money are implied for the training and/or re-training of teachers for teaching foreign
      languages at primary level; this is costly. Are the returns worth it ?
   · Specialist vs. generalist training vs. native speaker for primary foreign language teaching
   · Importance of content-based learning and using generalists to draw links with foreign language learning, e.g. the
      development of cross-curricula capacity in teacher education and for language learning
   · Develop teacher self-awareness of their own cultural biographies
   · Learning a foreign language should be a core component in initial teacher training for all primary school
      teachers
   · Increase greater co-ordination in schools across teachers of different foreign languages.

                                                                                                                          7
   4. Curriculum
   · Importance of developing cross-curricula capacity within schools in order to ‘give recognition’ to foreign
      language learning
   · Role of generalist teacher should not be devalued as she/he will have knowledge of multicultural classes
   · Within the context of the language teaching and learning curriculum, cultural awareness is highlighted as an area
      of particular need; as is that of developing formative assessment
   · Strengthen learner cultural sensitivity and intercultural awareness. Why is it important for children?
      - multicultural societies
      - develop the concept of Citizenship and cultural pluralism – the sooner the better
      - influx of information and exposure of these ‘new’ data which is constantly changing and children need to be
          supported to understand this pluralism
      - co-existence of language and culture: linguistic teaching cannot be successful without understanding of
          culture and development of intercultural awareness
   · The primary school child brings a wealth of experience and knowledge to the language learning context; the
      child should not be considered as a tabula rasa as s/he has developed a range of competencies and learning skills
      (and is continuing to develop these) in the first / mother tongue; children have views about culture: they have
      different knowledge and experience(s) of culture.

   5. Contexts and Conditions for Successful Foreign Language Learning
   · There is massive variation within and across member states not only in relation to considerations of starting age,
      amount of time allotted in the curriculum, who does the teaching, and the purposes for teaching a foreign
      language but also in terms of whether a country or region is by and large monolingual or bi- or tri-lingual.
   · Sustainable foreign language teaching and learning is dependent on the inter-relationships between a variety of
      factors such as: starting age, time spent in learning the foreign language, exposure to the foreign language
      outside of class contact time, the classroom as a social context for language learning, parental support
   · There is a case to be made for starting foreign language teaching earlier but the success of this is dependent on
      the context and the conditions prevailing for the support of teaching and learning (e.g. teacher competencies,
      learning materials available, and linguistic homogeneity or heterogeneity)
   · The learning context can be defined as a strong motivation
   · Differences in contexts need to be recognised: very different experience and conditions from learning English as
      a third language in the Basque country than learning French as a second language in the UK context
   · What images or models are provided right at the beginning of foreign language learning experiences, e.g.
      national versus linguistic identities; socio-economic considerations.

   General
   · Danger of espousing a technicist model of innovation in the primary foreign language teaching and learning
     context given the crucial importance of a holistic approach to understanding children
   · Importance to have a holistic perspective in research endeavours and the need to be informed about the
     emotional space occupied by the languages taught in primary schools e.g. Catalan vs. Spanish, Basque vs.
     Spanish, Russian vs. English in Poland and other ex-central European countries.
   · Pluralism: dominance of English is a danger which might prevent integrating the cultural and intercultural
     dimension of foreign language teaching.




Identification :                                The Teaching and Learning of Foreign Languages in
                                                European Primary Schools and Evaluation of Innovation
Scientist in charge :                           Dr Pauline Rea-Dickins
Address :                                       Graduate School of Education
                                                University of Bristol
                                                35 Berkeley Square
                                                Bristol BS8 1JA
Tel. :                                          +44 (0)117 928 7031
Fax :                                           +44(0)117 925 1537
E-mail :                                        P.Rea-Dickins@bristol.ac.uk
Contractor :                                    University of Warwick
Contract n° :                                   ERBFMMACT 960087



                                                                                                                          8
Publications:-

Copies of the following publications produced within the Euroconference Project may be obtained from:

Dr P. Rea-Dickins
Graduate School of Education
University of Bristol
35 Berkeley Square
Bristol BS8 1JA
England
Email: P.Rea-Dickins@bristol.ac.uk

1. EUROCONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
The Teaching of Foreign Languages in European Primary Schools: Evaluating Innovation and Establishing
Research Priorities. Proceedings from Euroconference 1.
Compiled by K. Karavas-Doukas & P. Rea-Dickins.

2. NEWSLETTERS, P. Rea-Dickins & K. Karavas-Doukas (eds.)
    · Euroconference Newsletter, Issue 1 (1997)
    · Euroconference Newsletter, Issue 2 (1998)
    · Euroconference Newsletter, Issue 1 (1999)

3. RESEARCH TRAINING PACKS:
   Prepared for Euroconference 1
    · Assessment Systems, Test Design & Development
      P. McKay, P. Rea-Dickins, & M. Kobayashi
    · Second Language Acquisition
      N. Spada
    · Learning Strategies & Autonomy
      S. Rixon & A-M. Pinter
    · Curriculum Implementation & Evaluation
      K. Karavas-Doukas & M. Reid
    · Classroom Observation
      R. Mitchell

   Prepared for Euroconference 2
    · Alternances, Interactions, et Apprentissages
      V. Castellotti & D. Moore
    · Evaluation & Assessment in Modern Languages in the Primary School
      P. Rea-Dickins
    · Formation des Enseignants (Teacher Development): Developper un profil d’enseignant europeen en articulant recherché
      et formation (Develop a European Teacher Profile by articulating research
      and teacher development)
      C. Foerster & D-L. Simon
    · L’Eveil au Language (Language Awareness)
      D. Moore, with V. Castellotti
    · Second Language Acquisition
      F. Leconte
      Eveil aux Aspects Culturels (Cultural Awareness)
      G. Paganini, with M. Molinie

4. RESEARCH SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP REPORTS
    · Pre-school Foreign Language Learning (part I: Phonology)
      H. Wode, A. Daniel, K. Lauer, C. Leibing, T. Maibaum
    · Pre-school Foreign Language Learning (part 2: The Lexicon)
      H. Wode, A. Daniel, K. Lauer, C. Leibing, T. Maibaum
    · Pre-school Foreign Language Learning Activities in Austria: a pilot study
      R. Zangl & A. Gappmayr


                                                                                                                    9
·   Cultural Awareness within the Context of Early Modern Foreign Language Learning: Teacher Development Manual
     Kubanek-German, P. Driscoll, N. Blanc, A-S Gika & J. Jones
·   Interlanguage Development in Primary Schools – the acquisition of a second / foreign language by young learners in
    different socio-educational contexts
     I.Castro, A. Housen, A. Kern, E. Moussouri, G. Pallotti, A. Potolia, C. Sabatier & A. Sougari
·   Assessment and Teacher Development : English Portfolios in the Greek Primary School
     C. Tsagari
·   Assessment and Teacher Development : Italian Case Study
     F. Gattullo

5. OTHER PUBLICATIONS BY TMR FUNDED SCHOLARS (incomplete listing)
    · Gattullo, F. 2000. Formative Assessment in ELT Primary (elementary) Classrooms : an Italian Case
      Study. Language Testing, Vol. 17(4) : 278-288.
    · Torras Cherta, M., Tragant, E. & Garcia Bermejo, M. 1997. Croyances Populaires sur
      L’Apprentissage Precoce d’une Langue Etrangere. AILE, No 10.
    · Tragant, E. et al.September 1999. Motivation and Learning Strategies in the Spanish School Context.
      University of Barcelona : Mimeo.
    · Zangl, R. 2000. Monitoring Language Skills in Austrian Primary (elementary) Schools : a case
      study. Language Testing, Vol. 17(4) :250-260.

6. OTHER PAPERS PREPARED FOR THE EUROCONFERENCES
    · Cambra Gine, M. 1998. Les Methodes de Recherche en Didactique des Langues a L’Ecole Primaire :
      une approche qualitative
    · Candelier, M. 1998. Reflexions a propos d’un Bilan des Recherches Portant sur L’Enseignement Pre-
      Secondaire des Langues en Contexte Europeen
    · Doye, P. 1998. The Intercultural Dimension of Foreign Language Education in the Primary School
    · Manrique de Lara, S. 1999. Primary ELT in the Basque Country
    · Johnstone, R. 1999. Gauging Progress and Attainments in Modern Languages at Primary School
    · Karavas-Doukas, K. 1998. The Competence Based System of Initial Teacher Training in the UK.
    · Karavas-Doukas, K. 1999. Primary Foreign Language Teacher Education : Implications from
      Research and the Series of Euroconferences
    · Zarate, G. 1999. The Construction of a Multi-national Identity : Adult Words, Children’s Awareness
      (La Construction d’une Identite Plurinationale : Paroles d’Adultes, Conscience d’Enfants).

PROGRAMME OF EVENTS

Event n°1 :                          Event n°2 :                          Event n°3 :

Euroconferences on the Teaching a    Euroconferences on the Teaching a Euroconferences on the Teaching
Learning of Foreign Languages in     Learning of Foreign Languages in and Learning of Foreign
European Primary Schools:            European Primary Schools           Languages in European Primary
Evaluation of Innovation &                                              Schools
                                                    th          st
Establishing Research Priorities     September 27 – October 1
                                                                                       th         st
                                     L’Ecole Normale Superieure         September 26 – October 1 1999
              th
April 20 – 24 1997                   de Fontenay / Saint-Cloud (France) Gipuzkoako Irakasle
University of Warwick                                                   Unibertsitate Eskola (San
(England)                            Local organiser:                   Sebastian, Basque Country)
                                     Prof. D. Coste
Local organisers:                                                       Local organiser:
Drs P. Rea-Dickins &                                                    Dr L. Lecuona
 K. Karavas-Doukas
         TMR Home Page                             CORDIS                       Programme Home Pages




                                                                                                                 10
PLENARY & INVITED SPEAKERS                                       ANNEX 1

For titles of the presentations and workshops, see Programme for each event.

EUROCONFERENCE 1
Prof. N. Spada              University of Toronto, Canada (formerly of McGill, Montreal)
Prof. Mattheou              University of Athens, Greece
Dr P. McKay                 Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Dr K. Sundin                University of Uppsala, Sweden

EUROCONFERENCE 2
Dr P. Edelenbos             University of Groningen, Holland
Dr M. Cambra Gine           University of Barcelona, Spain
Dr M. Candelier             University Rene Descartes - Paris V, France
Prof. P. Doye               Technisch Universitate Braunschweig, Germany

EUROCONFERENCE 3
Dr J. Diaz-Corralejo       Universidad Compultense de Madrid
Professor R. Johnstone     University of Stirling, Scotland
Diana Lindsay        The Basque Country
Sara Manrique              CIM Uzkuntzak-Idiomas, The Basque Country
Dr K. Sundin               University of Uppsala, Sweden
Dr E. Whitehead            DGXII, European Commission, Brussels
Professor G. Zarate        France

DISCUSSANTS FOR RESEARCH SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS (EUROCONFERENCE 3)
Dr J. Diaz-Corralejo        Universidad Compultense de Madrid, Spain
Dr L. Dabene                France
Dr Florence Myles           University of Southampton, England
Dr P. Rea-Dickins           University of Bristol (formerly University of Warwick), England




                                                                                              11
RESEARCH SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP                           ANNEX 2

SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AT PRIMARY SCHOOL
Isabel Castro Moore        Portugal
Alex Housen                Belgium       Coordinator
Astrid Kern                Italy/Germany
Evangelia Moussouri        Greece/France
Gabriele Pallotti          Italy
Annie Potolia              Italy
Cecile Sabatier            France
Areti Sougari              Greece
Elsa Tragant               Spain (unable to attend Euroconference 3)

Dr Florence Myles, University of Southampton was the Discussant for this group.

PRE-SCHOOL FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING
Martine Jago                        England     (Coordinator 1996-97 then lost contact)
Kristin Lauer                       Germany     Coordinator 1997-9
Christine Leibing                   Germany
Angelika Daniel                     Germany
Renate Zangle                       Austria

Dr Florence Myles, University of Southampton was the Discussant for this group.

CULTURAL AWARENESS

Claudine Barthelheimer              France
Nathalie Blanc             France
Patricia Driscoll               England
Martine-Anne Jago               England (1997-98)
Severine Journee-Behra          France
Angelika Kubanek-German    Germany     Coordinator 1997-9
Anastasia Sissy Gika            Greece        Coordinator 1996-7

Dr Joaquin-Diaz Corralejo was the Discussant for this group.

TEACHER DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT
Francesca Gatullo                   Italy       Coordinator
Constance Tsagari                   Greece

The Discussant for this group was Dr Pauline Rea-Dickins, University of Bristol (formerly of
the University of Warwick)

TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THEIR NEEDS
Jean-Claude Le-Bihan             France Coordinator
Angels Campa Guillem             Spain
Maria Luisa Gracia Bermejo Spain
Merce Oliva Bartolome            Spain
Francisco Polvora                Portugal
Mercedes Lopez de Blas           Spain
Dianne Roussell                  France (non TMR funded)

The Discussant for this group was Dr L. Dabene.




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