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APUSH Chapter 9 Worksheet by keralaguest


									                          APUSH CHAPTER 9 WORKSHEET

                           Section 1: Government and Markets

A. Introduction.
   1. The Fourteenth Congress.
       a. It was made up overwhelmingly of:
       b. It reversed many of the positions taken by:
       c. Examples.
          (1) It chartered:
          (2) It enacted:
          (3) It debated building:
       d. Republicans had (as late as 1811) viewed such programs as:
       e. Republicans had (by 1815) come to accept it as:
       f. What had the War of 1812 demonstrated about the United States?
          (1) It was unable to coordinate:
          (2) Its reliance on foreign trade made the US:
          (3) It must abandon Jefferson’s:
          (4) It must encourage national independence through:
B. The American System: the Bank of the United States.
   1. Henry Clay the Nationalist.
       a. He retained in the post-war Congress:
       b. He headed the drive for:
       c. He advocated what three things in the American System?
          (1) Protective:
          (2) Internal:
          (3) National:
       d. He called these what?
       e. He argued that the American System would foster.
          (1) National economic:
          (2) Sectional:
       f. He said that the result of this growth and interdependence was:
   2. The Second Bank of the United States.
       a. It was chartered by Congress in:
       b. It was headquartered in:
       c. It could establish branches:
       d. The Federal Government.
          (1) It agreed to deposit its funds in:
          (2) It agreed to accept the Bank’s:
          (3) It agreed to buy 1/5 of the Bank’s:
          (4) It was more powerful that the Bank rejected as unconstitutional in:
       e. What convinced Republicans in favor of a National Bank?
          (1) The nation needed a national:
          (2) The nation needed a centralized control of:
       f. What were the alternative banks?
          (1) What would they issue?
          (2) What would inflated money do to the postwar economy?
   3. Congress charters the Second Bank of the United States.
      a. Was the constitutionality of a national bank discussed?
      b. What was the Bank empowered to be?
      c. What were the notes issued by the Bank?
      d. What could the Bank regulate?
C. The American System: Tariffs and Internal Improvements.
   1. The first overtly protective tariff in:
      a. It was shepherded thru the House by:
      b. It raised tariffs an average of:
      c. It gave protection to the nation’s:
      d. It did so at the expense of:
      e. It’s way was prepared by:
          (1) Americans couldn’t depend on:
          (2) Congress encouraged:
      f. It was strongly supported in:
      g. It got enough support to pass from the:
      h. It established once and for all the principle of:
   2. Internal improvements: federal money for roads and canals to encourage trade.
      a. It had a harder time winning:
      b. It was encouraged by the wartime British blockade that hampered coastal:
      c. It made Americans dependent on obsolete interior:
      d. It caused a desire for an efficient:
          (1) Some wanted a National Road linking:
          (2) Some wanted a inland canal system linking:
          (3) Some wanted a federal turnpike linking:
      e. It was of doubtful:
      f. It was supported partially by Presidents:
      g. It was believed more required a constitutional:
   3. Internal improvements: the states.
      a. It reflected the designs of the most ambitious:
      b. It’s most spectacular accomplishment:
      c. It was challenged by Pennsylvania’s and Ohio’s:
      d. It built most of the:
      e. It supported even greater:
      f. Its commitment to a transportation network produced the:
      g. It provided the funding that attracted:
D. Markets and the Law.
   1. Introduction.
      a. The American Revolution replaced British courts with:
          (1) They were based on English:
          (2) They made legal action accessible to most:
      b. Most of the disputes generated by the transition to a market society ended up:
c. The courts removed social conflicts from the public arena and into:
d. The result was the promotion of.
   (1) Entrepreneurial use of private:
   (2) The sanctity of:
   (3) The right to do business shielded from neighborhood:
   (4) The right to do business shielded from the tumult of:
e. The central character was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court:
   (1) He presided over the Court from:
   (2) He used the Court as a conservative hedge against:
   (3) He protected the independence of:
   (4) He created the court’s right of:
   (5) He encouraged:
   (6) He strengthened:
   (7) He did this at the expense of:
f. Protecting contracts and charters from state legislatures.
   (1) Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1816).
       (a) Dartmouth defended it royal charter of:
       (b) Dartmouth defended its charter from the:
       (c) Republicans wanted to change it from a bastion of Federalism to:
       (d) Dartmouth was defended by alumnus:
       (e) Marshall’s decision:
       (f) This decision also protected all business ventures that had:
       (g) These corporate charters had been granted by:
       (h) Now these charters (once granted) could not be regulated by:
       (i) Thus, corporate charters acquired the legal status of:
       (j) And they were beyond the reach of:
   (2) McCulloch v. Maryland (1816).
       (a) The state of Maryland had Jeffersonian doubts about the constitutionality
       (b) Maryland tried to do what to the Bank?
       (c) What had the Bank done about it?
       (d) Marshall decided in favor of:
       (e) Marshall cited the Constitution’s granting to the federal government of:
       (f) That these “implied powers” included the power to establish:
       (g) Marshall denied Maryland’s right to tax:
       (h) “The power to tax implies the power to:
       (i) Marshall’s most explicit blow against:
       (j) Marshall insisted that the federal government was not dependent on:
       (k) Many Southerners believed that the Founders had intended:
   (3) Gibbons v. Ogden (1824).
       (a) Marshall breaks a New York state-granted:
       (b) He argued that the monopoly interfered with federal jurisdiction over:
       (c) This decision empowered the federal government over:
       (d) Just like:
          (e) This decision encouraged:
          (f) Marshall supported the:
          (g) Marshall assumed that a natural link existed between the federal
              government and a:
   g. State Courts.
      (1) They worked profound transformations of: American law.
      (2) They gave businessmen the right to do business even when they inflicted damage
      (3) They ruled that businessmen had the right to develop property for:
      (4) They decided that railroads could build despite townspeople’s:
      (5) They ruled that “private injury and personal damage” must be:
      (6) They ruled that business uses of private property demanded:

                       Section 2: The Transportation Revolution

A. Introduction.
   1. Dramatic improvements in transportation.
       a. They tied old communities:
       b. They penetrated previously isolated:
       c. They made the transition to a market economy physically:
B. Transportation in 1815.
   1. The United States was a: rural nation.
       a. Transportation was primitive to:
       b. Americans despaired of doing business on a:
       c. Transportation west of the Appalachians:
       d. Western farmers moved their downstream to:
       e. Moving goods into the western settlements:
       f. Famous keelboatman:
       g. Transport costs:
       h. The result was that trans-Appalachian settlements remained:
       i. The main port for western products in 1815:
C. Improvements: Road and Rivers.
   1. Roads.
       a. Linked the Potomac River and the Ohio River:
       b. Pennsylvania links Philadelphia and the Ohio River with:
       c. What did roads do?
       d. What was the problem?
   2. The steamboat.
       a. It opened the West to commercial:
       b. It was invented by:
       c. Its first successful version:
       d. It reached Louisville, Kentucky in:
       e. It made two-way traffic on the Mississippi River:
       f. It made the West a busy:
D. Improvements: Canals and Railroads.
   1. The Erie Canal (aka “Clinton’s Ditch”)
      a. It was built by New York governor:
      b. It provided a water route between the Northwest and:
      c. It lowered the cost of transporting farm produce:
      d. It was an immense:
      e. It encouraged other states to join the canal:
          (1) 1817 canal mileage:
          (2) 1840 canal mileage:
   2. Railroads.
      a. What developed in the 1840s in the United States?
      b. A national system was a continuous:
      c. It created massive links between:
      d. Railroads rendered canals:
E. Time and Money.
   1. What did the Transportation Revolution reduced?
   2. Examples of the Transportation Revolution:
   3. What did the price moving goods drop from 1815 to 1860?
   4. Improvements in speed.
      a. 1840s travel time.
          (1) Cincinnati to New York:
      b. 1852 travel time.
          (1) Cincinnati to New York:
   5. These improvements in speed and economy made what possible?
   6. The Market Revolution.
      a. Made possible in the 1840s by:
      b. Foreign trade:
          (1) 1815 Business.
              (a) US exports:
              (b) US imports:
          (2) 1860 Business.
              (a) US exports:
              (b) US imports:
      c. American market activity that involved other nations.
          (1) Before 1815, US exports involved:
          (2) By 1830, US exports involved:
      d. Reason for this change.
          (1) After 1815, the US developed self-sustaining:
          (2) The great engine of American economic growth.
              (a) It is no longer the old colonial relationship with:
              (b) It is now a burgeoning:
F. Markets and Regions.
   1. The Market Revolution.
      a. What was the political purpose of Henry Clay’s American System:
       b. Had the Market Revolution accomplished that by 1840?
       c. What had it produced? Greater results within regions than between them.
          (1) Example: New England’s market economy strengthened.
          (2) Example: The Erie Canal’s trade, until 1840, was mostly within New York.
       d. Therefore, the Market Revolution (before 1840) was more a:
       e. What turned the economy into a Market Revolution?
       f. What became the favored passage west for eastern commodities?
       g. What was the result for the Ohio-Mississippi River System?
          (1) The amount of goods it carried vastly:
          (2) The increase was (after 1840) a:
          (3) The new national market between the West and the East was excluding: the

          Section 3: From Yeoman to Businessman: The Rural North and West

A. Shaping the Northern Landscape.
B. The Transformation of Rural Outwork.
C. Farmers as Consumers.
D. The Northwest: Southern Migrants.
   1. Southerners moving north of the Ohio River.
      a. They moved into territory that:
      b. They objected to slavery because it blocked:
E. The Northwest: Northern Migrants.
   1. The standard harvesting tool of the 1830s:
   2. It was replaced by the:
   3. John Chapman, aka:
F. Households.
   1. The Market Revolution.
      a. It transformed 18th century:
      b. Between 1800 and 1850:
G. Neighborhoods: The Landscape of Privacy.

                          Section 4: The Industrial Revolution

A. Factory Towns: The Rhode Island System.
   1. Introduction.
      a. Political opinions.
          (1) The Jeffersonians wanted America to always remain:
          (2) The Federalists argued that America must produce their own:
      b. The American textile industry.
          (1) It originated in:
          (2) It was powered by:
          (3) It was invented in Britain in 1769 by:
          (4) It was transplanted to New England by: Samuel Slater.
              (a) He was a British:
              (b) He left Britain and came to:
              (c) He built the first American:
              (d) He built it in 1790 in:
      c. The Rhode Island System (The Family System).
          (1) It consisted of factory villages built in the:
          (2) It employed entire:
          (3) It involved process of producing:
B. Factory Towns: The Waltham System.
   1. This originated in a second act of:
      a. The Bostonian: Francis Cabot Lowell.
          (1) He toured in 1811 English:
          (2) He was disgusted with the squalor of the English:
          (3) He built his first mill in:
          (4) He expanded in:
   2. The Waltham System.
      a. It differed from the Rhode Island System.
          (1) They were heavily:
          (2) They were fully:
          (3) They turned raw cotton into finished:
          (4) They employed young, single, country:
              (a) They were housed in company:
              (b) They lived by enforced rules:
              (c) They became independent, wage-earning:
C. Urban Businessmen.
   1. What did the Market Revolution hit with particular force?
   2. The richest men were:
D. Metropolitan Industrialization.
   1. The rise of New York City’s ready-made clothing trade.
      a. In 1815 only the wealthy wore: tailor-made clothing.
      b. What made ready-made clothing affordable?
          (1) The availability of cheap manufactured:
          (2) The availability of cheap:
          (3) The creation of the southern and western:
      c. What did this transform New York City into? The center of a national market
          for ready-made clothes.
          (1) Negro cottons:
          (2) Dungarees and work shirts for:
          (3) Inexpensive clothing for:
          (4) Fancy ready-made clothing:
      d. Women in the clothing trade workforce in 1860.
          (1) Number of women in manufacturing jobs:
          (2) Percentage of women:
          (3) Percentage working in the clothing trade: 67%.
                     Section 5: The Market Revolution in the South

A. Introduction.
   1. Post-War of 1812 and the Southern cotton belt: it expanded dramatically.
       a. Reasons why.
          (1) The resumption of international:
          (2) The revival of British textile:
          (3) The emergence of American:
          (4) The enlargement of the cotton belt across former:
       b. The growth of the cotton kingdom.
          (1) In 1834, the new states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana produce:
          (2) In 1859, they produce:
B. The Organization of Slave Labor.
   1. Slaves were organized toward two objectives.
       a. To maximize:
       b. To reinforce the dominance of:
   2. What crop was well-suited to slave labor?
   3. New York landscape architect and author of famous book about Texas:
C. Paternalism.
   1. Slave labor after 1820: more systematic and more humane.
   2. Labor discipline by Southern slave owners.
       a. They supervised work:
       b. They tried to substitute gang labor for the:
       c. They corrected slaves whose work was:
       d. They tried to present Southern slavery as:
       e. They improved the slaves’:
       f. They forbade:
       g. They asked for off for slaves:
   3. US slave population: 1810 to 1860.
       a. 1810:
       b. 1860:
D. Yeoman and Planters.
   1. The Market Revolution had commercialized southern:
   2. But fewer white Southerners were enjoying the:
   3. Results.
       a. An unequal distribution of:
       b. The creation of a dual:
          (1) At the center of commercial life:
          (2) On the fringes:
E. Yeoman and the Market.
F. A Balance Sheet: The Plantation and Southern Development.
   1. A dangerous fault line in:
       a. The plantation owners.
       b. The yeomanry.
2. The concentration of wealth in planters hands had:
   a. Most whites remained only marginally related to the:
   b. The South remained a poor market for:
      (1) The North.
          (a) Their demand for products fueled an economic:
          (b) They were creating self-sustaining economic:
          (c) Their Market Revolution produced commercial agriculture, specialized
              labor and technological:
      (2) The South.
          (a) It remained a poor market for:
          (b) It supplied slaves with:
          (c) Its planters and their families got their products from:
          (d) It continued to:
          (e) It simply produced more:
3. Southern technological advances.
   a. Eli Whitney’s:
   b. The cotton:
   c. Cotton was a labor-intensive crop that discouraged:
   d. Southern state governments spent little on:
   e. Southerners built few:
   f. How much Southern money stayed up north:

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