cuba by niusheng11



Sassafras Havilar
Aleena Robinson
Amanda Shepard
  Jason Sweet
•   Food Exports: Sassafras
•   Religion: Aleena
•   Education: Amanda
•   Criminal Justice: Jason
Food Exports

• 1959- Fidel Castro takes over power of Cuba
• 1960- President Eisenhower implemented an
  embargo of goods to Cuba
• 1959-1989- 85% of Cuba’s trade is with the
  Soviet Union
Food Exports

• 1959-Under Agrarian Reform Law: land was
  distributed to 200,000 peasant families and 70%
  of the latifundi lands were transferred to state
• Main Objectives were: 1)Meet the food
  requirements of the population 2)To generate
  export earnings 3)To provide raw materials for
  industry 4)To eradicate poverty and unsanitary
  conditions in the countryside
 Food Exports
• 1972-1991- Half of Cuba’s international trade is
  through CMEA (Council of Econ. Assistance) an
  alternative market system which was based on
  fair, basically equal, trading terms among
  socialist economies.
• The CMEA handled 63 percent of Cuba’s sugar,
  72 percent of its nickel 95 percent of its citrus and
  tropical fruit exports.
• The CMEA provided 63 percent of Cuba’s
  imported food, 86 percent of imported primary
  goods and 75 percent of manufactured goods.
• 1989- Fall of Soviet Union left Cuba with virtually
  no trading partners
Food Exports

• Special Period in the Time of Peace=
  Depravation during time of embargo
• 1993- the First National Conference on
  Organic Agriculture was held with 100 Cuban
  and 40 international delegates in attendance.
• 2000- President Clinton signed the Trade
  Sanctions Reform and Export enhancement
  Act reauthorizing the direct commercial
  export of food via cash transactions for the
  U.S. to Cuba, but not from Cuba.

• During Batista’s rule of Cuba: 25% of population
  was agnostic, only 10% active members of a
• When Castro took control the number of Catholic
  schools was reduced from 759 to 200.
• 1976 Cuban Constitution states Cuba is
  socialist. Article 54- religion can be practiced
  with respect to the Revolution

• 1992- Castro proclaimed Cuba “lay” rather
  than atheist
• 1997- Number of priests in Cuba
  increased from 28 to 268
• 1998- Pope John Paul II visits Cuba
                                 Catedral de San Cristobal
  Religion                       Built by the Jesuits in 1748-
                                 completed in 1787, after their expulsion

Catedral de la Habana ^
Constructed by the Jesuits in 1748- completed after their
  expulsion                            ,

• Today’s estimates of religion in Cuba
   49% = Agnostic
   45%= Actively religious
   6%= Atheist

• Before the revolution- Over a quarter of
  the people were illiterate and received no
• After the revolution- A literacy campaign
  mobilized by Castro sent over 200,000
  volunteers and teachers into rural areas to
  provide everyone with education.

• The literacy rate is now 99.8%

• Compared with other Latin American
  countries- enrollment for primary schools
  is the highest in the region, achievement
  scores are the highest, sometimes by 2
  standard deviations

  Educational strategies that contribute to
   1) Universal access to basic education
     adult education, vocational education, labor
   2) Focus on rural education
     Schools located in isolated rural areas
   3) Ongoing professional development of
     Accountability, active in community, required
      applied research

  4) System wide accountability
      (The system is assessed at all levels: the
      nation, the province, the municipality, the
      school, and the teachers)
  5) Focus on social cohesion
      • Values Education
      • Group responsibility over individualism
   6) Competition that promotes self-improvement
      •   Promotes competition between classrooms and schools
          rather than individuals
Criminal Justice

    First Post-Revolution Justice
    1. Characterized by the informal "peoples' court”
    2. Largely informal system that focused on laymen as
     actors in the court
    3. Judges, Prosecutors, Attorneys, Jurists all done by
     untrained laymen with other jobs
    Second Period of Justice
    1. Characterized by reorganization of administration
    2. Also had a new Cuban Constitution
Criminal Justice

       Third Period of Justice
       1. Creation of law collectives who served as formal
          attorneys to ensure proper defense
       2. Advent of the first formal post-revolutionary court
          system with trained judges, prosecutors, and
Criminal Justice

 • Latest Period of Justice
   • 1.Decriminalization of many political offenses
    2. Created alternatives to prison time and reduced
     many penalties for crimes
    3. Allowed for more foreign investment and the use
     of foreign currency
Criminal Justice

• Differences from United States Courts:
   1. Fines reflect a person's income, paid in
    terms of quotas. Quotas reflect relative
    income for individuals
   2. The right to remain silent is more
    guaranteed. Personal admissions of guilt
    cannot be used in court
   3. Cuba utilizes the Inquisitorial Model of
    investigations. Evidence is fully collected
    before an individual is charged with a crime.

To top