cuba by niusheng11

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 19

									    Cuba


Sassafras Havilar
Aleena Robinson
Amanda Shepard
  Jason Sweet
•   Food Exports: Sassafras
•   Religion: Aleena
•   Education: Amanda
•   Criminal Justice: Jason
Food Exports

• 1959- Fidel Castro takes over power of Cuba
• 1960- President Eisenhower implemented an
  embargo of goods to Cuba
• 1959-1989- 85% of Cuba’s trade is with the
  Soviet Union
Food Exports

• 1959-Under Agrarian Reform Law: land was
  distributed to 200,000 peasant families and 70%
  of the latifundi lands were transferred to state
  control.
• Main Objectives were: 1)Meet the food
  requirements of the population 2)To generate
  export earnings 3)To provide raw materials for
  industry 4)To eradicate poverty and unsanitary
  conditions in the countryside
 Food Exports
• 1972-1991- Half of Cuba’s international trade is
  through CMEA (Council of Econ. Assistance) an
  alternative market system which was based on
  fair, basically equal, trading terms among
  socialist economies.
• The CMEA handled 63 percent of Cuba’s sugar,
  72 percent of its nickel 95 percent of its citrus and
  tropical fruit exports.
• The CMEA provided 63 percent of Cuba’s
  imported food, 86 percent of imported primary
  goods and 75 percent of manufactured goods.
• 1989- Fall of Soviet Union left Cuba with virtually
  no trading partners
Food Exports

• Special Period in the Time of Peace=
  Depravation during time of embargo
• 1993- the First National Conference on
  Organic Agriculture was held with 100 Cuban
  and 40 international delegates in attendance.
• 2000- President Clinton signed the Trade
  Sanctions Reform and Export enhancement
  Act reauthorizing the direct commercial
  export of food via cash transactions for the
  U.S. to Cuba, but not from Cuba.
Religion

• During Batista’s rule of Cuba: 25% of population
  was agnostic, only 10% active members of a
  church
• When Castro took control the number of Catholic
  schools was reduced from 759 to 200.
• 1976 Cuban Constitution states Cuba is
  socialist. Article 54- religion can be practiced
  with respect to the Revolution
Religion

• 1992- Castro proclaimed Cuba “lay” rather
  than atheist
• 1997- Number of priests in Cuba
  increased from 28 to 268
• 1998- Pope John Paul II visits Cuba
                                 Catedral de San Cristobal
  Religion                       Built by the Jesuits in 1748-
                                 completed in 1787, after their expulsion




Catedral de la Habana ^
Constructed by the Jesuits in 1748- completed after their
  expulsion                                      Manista.blogs.com, Theodora.com
Religion


• Today’s estimates of religion in Cuba
   49% = Agnostic
   45%= Actively religious
   6%= Atheist
Education

• Before the revolution- Over a quarter of
  the people were illiterate and received no
  education.
• After the revolution- A literacy campaign
  mobilized by Castro sent over 200,000
  volunteers and teachers into rural areas to
  provide everyone with education.
Education

• The literacy rate is now 99.8%

• Compared with other Latin American
  countries- enrollment for primary schools
  is the highest in the region, achievement
  scores are the highest, sometimes by 2
  standard deviations
Education

  Educational strategies that contribute to
    success:
   1) Universal access to basic education
     adult education, vocational education, labor
      education
   2) Focus on rural education
     Schools located in isolated rural areas
   3) Ongoing professional development of
    teachers
     Accountability, active in community, required
      applied research
Education

  4) System wide accountability
      (The system is assessed at all levels: the
      nation, the province, the municipality, the
      school, and the teachers)
  5) Focus on social cohesion
      • Values Education
      • Group responsibility over individualism
   6) Competition that promotes self-improvement
      •   Promotes competition between classrooms and schools
          rather than individuals
Criminal Justice

    First Post-Revolution Justice
    1. Characterized by the informal "peoples' court”
    2. Largely informal system that focused on laymen as
     actors in the court
    3. Judges, Prosecutors, Attorneys, Jurists all done by
     untrained laymen with other jobs
    Second Period of Justice
    1. Characterized by reorganization of administration
    2. Also had a new Cuban Constitution
Criminal Justice

       Third Period of Justice
       1. Creation of law collectives who served as formal
          attorneys to ensure proper defense
       2. Advent of the first formal post-revolutionary court
          system with trained judges, prosecutors, and
          attorneys
Criminal Justice


 • Latest Period of Justice
   • 1.Decriminalization of many political offenses
    2. Created alternatives to prison time and reduced
     many penalties for crimes
    3. Allowed for more foreign investment and the use
     of foreign currency
Criminal Justice

• Differences from United States Courts:
   1. Fines reflect a person's income, paid in
    terms of quotas. Quotas reflect relative
    income for individuals
   2. The right to remain silent is more
    guaranteed. Personal admissions of guilt
    cannot be used in court
   3. Cuba utilizes the Inquisitorial Model of
    investigations. Evidence is fully collected
    before an individual is charged with a crime.
THE END!

								
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