Cuba Sassafras Havilar Aleena Robinson Amanda Shepard Jason Sweet • Food Exports: Sassafras • Religion: Aleena • Education: Amanda • Criminal Justice: Jason Food Exports • 1959- Fidel Castro takes over power of Cuba • 1960- President Eisenhower implemented an embargo of goods to Cuba • 1959-1989- 85% of Cuba’s trade is with the Soviet Union Food Exports • 1959-Under Agrarian Reform Law: land was distributed to 200,000 peasant families and 70% of the latifundi lands were transferred to state control. • Main Objectives were: 1)Meet the food requirements of the population 2)To generate export earnings 3)To provide raw materials for industry 4)To eradicate poverty and unsanitary conditions in the countryside Food Exports • 1972-1991- Half of Cuba’s international trade is through CMEA (Council of Econ. Assistance) an alternative market system which was based on fair, basically equal, trading terms among socialist economies. • The CMEA handled 63 percent of Cuba’s sugar, 72 percent of its nickel 95 percent of its citrus and tropical fruit exports. • The CMEA provided 63 percent of Cuba’s imported food, 86 percent of imported primary goods and 75 percent of manufactured goods. • 1989- Fall of Soviet Union left Cuba with virtually no trading partners Food Exports • Special Period in the Time of Peace= Depravation during time of embargo • 1993- the First National Conference on Organic Agriculture was held with 100 Cuban and 40 international delegates in attendance. • 2000- President Clinton signed the Trade Sanctions Reform and Export enhancement Act reauthorizing the direct commercial export of food via cash transactions for the U.S. to Cuba, but not from Cuba. Religion • During Batista’s rule of Cuba: 25% of population was agnostic, only 10% active members of a church • When Castro took control the number of Catholic schools was reduced from 759 to 200. • 1976 Cuban Constitution states Cuba is socialist. Article 54- religion can be practiced with respect to the Revolution Religion • 1992- Castro proclaimed Cuba “lay” rather than atheist • 1997- Number of priests in Cuba increased from 28 to 268 • 1998- Pope John Paul II visits Cuba Catedral de San Cristobal Religion Built by the Jesuits in 1748- completed in 1787, after their expulsion Catedral de la Habana ^ Constructed by the Jesuits in 1748- completed after their expulsion Manista.blogs.com, Theodora.com Religion • Today’s estimates of religion in Cuba 49% = Agnostic 45%= Actively religious 6%= Atheist Education • Before the revolution- Over a quarter of the people were illiterate and received no education. • After the revolution- A literacy campaign mobilized by Castro sent over 200,000 volunteers and teachers into rural areas to provide everyone with education. Education • The literacy rate is now 99.8% • Compared with other Latin American countries- enrollment for primary schools is the highest in the region, achievement scores are the highest, sometimes by 2 standard deviations Education Educational strategies that contribute to success: 1) Universal access to basic education adult education, vocational education, labor education 2) Focus on rural education Schools located in isolated rural areas 3) Ongoing professional development of teachers Accountability, active in community, required applied research Education 4) System wide accountability (The system is assessed at all levels: the nation, the province, the municipality, the school, and the teachers) 5) Focus on social cohesion • Values Education • Group responsibility over individualism 6) Competition that promotes self-improvement • Promotes competition between classrooms and schools rather than individuals Criminal Justice First Post-Revolution Justice 1. Characterized by the informal "peoples' court” 2. Largely informal system that focused on laymen as actors in the court 3. Judges, Prosecutors, Attorneys, Jurists all done by untrained laymen with other jobs Second Period of Justice 1. Characterized by reorganization of administration 2. Also had a new Cuban Constitution Criminal Justice Third Period of Justice 1. Creation of law collectives who served as formal attorneys to ensure proper defense 2. Advent of the first formal post-revolutionary court system with trained judges, prosecutors, and attorneys Criminal Justice • Latest Period of Justice • 1.Decriminalization of many political offenses 2. Created alternatives to prison time and reduced many penalties for crimes 3. Allowed for more foreign investment and the use of foreign currency Criminal Justice • Differences from United States Courts: 1. Fines reflect a person's income, paid in terms of quotas. Quotas reflect relative income for individuals 2. The right to remain silent is more guaranteed. Personal admissions of guilt cannot be used in court 3. Cuba utilizes the Inquisitorial Model of investigations. Evidence is fully collected before an individual is charged with a crime. THE END!