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					                                                                                                                                       Topographic Times
                                                                                                                                                          Topographic, Inc. and Its Companies Volume 9, Issue 4 Fall, 2005

                                                                                                                                       The Public Land Survey System
                                                                                                                                       Contributed by Lynn Bezner                the original thirteen colonies used this    Sale of the Lands of the United States
                                                                                                                                                                                 system to describe property.                in the Territory Northwest of the River
                                                                                                                                                 In a previous article we dis-             Once the United States Federal    Ohio, and Above the Mouth of the Ken-
                                                                                                                                       cussed the history of property own-       Government was established there was        tucky River.” This act provided for the
                                                                                                                                       ership. In the early days of our coun-    a great demand to settle the open land      appointment of a Surveyor General who
                                                                                                        Address Correction Requested   try, the desire to own land or prop-      or public domain. In 1784 Thomas            would engage Deputy Surveyors. This
                                                                                                   Oklahoma City, OK 73116             erty was one of the driving forces        Jefferson was appointed chairman of a       act provided certain township interior
                                                                                                                                       for immigration to America. In or-        committee to prepare a systemized plan      corners to be marked or monumented
                                                                                                   6709 North Classen Blvd.            der to own or convey property the         to dispose of public domain where the       but not all corners. Only alternate lines
                                                                                                   Corporate Office                    property must be described in a man-      profits could be used to pay the public     were run or measured marking each
                                                                                                                                       ner that will distinguish it from all     debt. The Continental Congress on May       mile. This resulted in the exterior of
                                                                                                   Topographic, Inc.                   other land. In the original thirteen      20, 1785 passed an ordinance entitled       each 4 mile square to be marked and
                                                                                                                                       colonies and several other states this    “An Ordinance for Ascertaining the          each lot would have three corners actu-
                                                                                                                                       was done by a “metes and bounds”          Mode of Locating and Disposing of           ally marked or monumented. Also un-
                                                                                                                                       description.                              Lands in the Western Territory.” This       der the act of 1796 the lots were changed
                                                                                                                                                 The term metes refers to a      was the beginning of the Public Land        to Sections and the Sections in each
                                                                                                                                       series of distances and directions that   Survey System we see today.                 township were numbered beginning

                                     Topo Notes
                                                                                                                                       would encompass the property. The                   The 1785 ordinance provided       with Section 1 in the Northeast corner
                                                                                                                                       term bounds means the subject prop-       for the division of land into townships     and proceeding West and East alter-
                                                                                                                                       erty is bounded by another distinct       6 miles square. It stipulated the first     nately until Section 36 in the Southeast
                                                                                                                                       tract. A description such as “bounded     meridian to begin on the North bank of      corner.
                                                                                                                                       on the North by A. B. Jones farm,         the Ohio River at a point due North of                 The Acts of March 1, 1800 and
                                                                                                                                       on the East by C. D. Smith property,      the Southern Boundary of the State of       May 10, 1800 initiated the principle that
                                                                                                                                       on the South by Chicken Creek and         Pennsylvania. Each township was to be       corners regularly set by the original
                                                                                                                                       on the West by the Thompson farm”         divided into 36 lots of 1 mile square,      public land surveyor in the field were
                                                                                                                                       would be a good and complete prop-        creating a square area of 640 Acres. Lots   to be held as the true corners even
             The Oklahoma                 around the state with their            To p o g r a p h i c          Steve Banks recently
                                                                                                                                       erty description as long as there was     were numbered 1 to 36, commencing           though later surveys might show they
    City office enjoyed the be-           families and all reported a   would like to welcome the       placed 13 th out of 118
                                                                                                                                       no other tract bounded by the same        with 1 for the Southeast lot and con-       had been placed incorrectly. These acts
    ginning of Summer with a              good time. Between the        following employees to our      contestants in the Pro-
                                                                                                                                       people or features. One problem is        tinuing from South to North in each row     also initiated the important principle that
    summer swim party at Peli-            food, the wave pool, the      newest office in Granbury,      fessional Walleye Trail
                                                                                                                                       the adjoining property could come         with 36 being the Northwest lot. The        all discrepancies due to convergence of
    can Bay in Edmond, OK                 lazy river, and the slides,   Texas: Michael Brown,           fishing tournament held at
                                                                                                                                       under different ownership and it          1785 ordinance also provided that the       meridians and errors would be placed
    on June 25th. Employees               there was lots to do!         James Squires, Hallie           Bull Shoals Lake, AR, May
                                                                                                                                       would be difficult to determine pre-      geographer of the United States was to      in the North and West tiers of sections
    were in attendence from                                             Wiggins, Rick Perez, and        11-13. Steve fished with the
                                                                                                                                       vious owners or particularly the          direct the surveyors. Another ordinance     in a township. The acts also specified
                                                                               Phillip Harris. This     pros for three consecutive
                                                                                                                                       owners at the time the bounds de-         passed in 1788 did not change the sys-      that all section lines be run and marked
                                                                               office will concen-      days and caught enough fish
                                                                                                                                       scription was prepared. For this rea-     tem but made more specific require-         in the field.
                                                                               trate on land sur-       to bring home a plaque and
                                                                                                                                       son a combination “metes and              ments concerning record keeping.                       An act of March 3, 1803 pro-
                                                                               veying and drafting      $1000 worth of prizes. The
                                                                                                                                       bounds” description was used. All of                An act was passed on May 18,      vided for the disposal of lands south of
                                                                               services in this rap-    tournament will be televised

                                                                                                                                       Inside theTimes...
                                                                                                                                                                                 1796 entitled “An Act Providing for the     the State of Tennessee and the appoint-
                                                                               idly growing area of     this fall on The Outdoor
                                                                               Texas. We are glad       Channel. Congratulations!
                                                                               you are here!
                                                                                                                                                                                 Satellite Recovery and GPS                  Topo Notes

                                                                                                                                       Public Land Survey System                 Safety First by Evergreen                   Calendar, Birthdays and
                                                                                                                                                                                 Consulting Company                          Anniversaries
    Employees and family members enjoy the wave pool at Pelican Bay.

4     Topo Times        ♦   Fall, 2005
The Public Land Survey
 System Continued...
                                                                                          Satellite Recovery with GPS                                                                                                           Safety First
    ment of a Surveyor General with the same functions as those of the                  Several Topographic employees like to mix busi-         his Magellan SporTrak Map GPS receiver, Tom was able                   Contributed by Charles Smith
    Surveyor General Northwest of the Ohio River.                             ness with pleasure on occasion. Some use their own GPS            to park within a half mile of the indicated location of the            Evergreen Consulting Company
              An act of March 26, 1804 was administrative only, provid-       receivers to assist in hunting and fishing expeditions. Some      satellite. Using the compass function of his GPS, he walked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       This quarter field employees will have completed training in H2S,
    ing that the authority of the Surveyor General prevailed over all         use their knowledge of surveying and map-reading to help          through the mesquite brush, closing in on the coordinates.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Respiratory Protection, Personal Protection Equipment, Lifting/
    Public Domain North of the Ohio River and East of the Mississippi         in travel and personal projects. Tom Miller, GIS Project          As he walked out of the thick mesquite into a clearing,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Back Safety and Discrimination/Harassment. “Myths and Facts”
    River. This act also provided that land could be sold in full sections,   Manager in OKC, recently discovered a new past time us-           Tom looked up and there was the satellite. The parachute
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       taken from Top Health newsletter.
    half sections or quarter sections.                                        ing his handheld GPS receiver – satellite recovery!               cord was tangled in the branches of a mesquite tree about
              Congress passed an act on February 11, 1805 which speci-                  First, here is a little background information.         six feet off the ground.
    fied that all public land surveys be up to the same relative status of    Space Data Corporation, in Chandler, AZ, launches com-                       “It was a real thrill to find this first satellite. Until
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Healthful Myth Busters
    completion. The survey of some of the lands which were under pre-         munication satellites using weather balloons from several         you make that first find something in the back of your mind                    Shedding extra pounds is easy...burn more calories than
    vious acts had not been completed and this act prompted their             locations in the Midwest. These satellites float at an eleva-     tells you that this whole thing is a hoax or that someone              you take in. Try keeping count of the calories you consume for a
    completion. This act also stipulated the method of dividing sections      tion of approximately 100,000 feet for several days, trans-       else has already found it or you have the wrong coordi-                day. You might be surprised.
    into quarter sections.                                                    mitting signals that provide wireless services for industrial,    nates or something,” Tom                                               Myth: Eating grapefruit burns fat.
              An act passed on March 3, 1811 applied to lands in Louisi-      business and consumer users in locations and geographies          related from his experience.                                           Fact: No food can burn away fat, either in its natural state or in a
    ana. It authorized deputy surveyors to survey tracts adjacent to any      that are not served or are poorly served by existing wire-        After finding the SOG, the                                             pill.
    river, lake, creek, bayou or watercourse to be 58 poles (957.00’)         less providers. Once the satellite has moved out of its use-      next step is to return the sat-
    frontage and 465 poles (7672.58’) in depth. This permitted more           ful range or has reached the end of its battery life, a signal    ellite for payment or what                                             Myth: Electric muscle stimulators trim fat.
    parcels to have frontage on the water than the regular public land        detaches the satellite from the balloon and it floats back to     could be called a bounty.                                              Fact: Study after study says no, and the FDA has labeled these
    pattern would allow.                                                      earth on a parachute.                                             The cash payment is not                                                infomercial mainstays “vanity-type quackery.”
              An act passed by congress on April 25, 1812 created the                   This is where Tom’s adventure begins. The SOG           substantial but it at least
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Myth: Fasting can lead to permanent weight loss.
    General Land Office in the Treasury Department with the Chief             (Satellite On Ground) transmits a GPS signal back to its          covers the expenses of driv-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Fact: Fasting almost never results in sustainable weight loss. After
    Officer called the Commissioner of the General Land Office. This          base. The general coordinates for these SOGs are then             ing to the remote locations.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       initial loss of water and minerals, you do lose body fat, but you
    act gave the Commissioner authority to oversee all aspects of sub-        posted on an internet web site. Tom and other GPS hunters         The real prize is in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       also lose muscle. Then your body’s energy production slows down,
    dividing public lands. Since the Commissioner of the General Land         request specific SOGs to search for and are given the exact       search and the adventure of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       slowing the rate of fat loss.
    Office was established, the general system has remained the same          coordinates. Then, the search is on.                              getting out and enjoying
    but instructions or procedures for handling specific circumstances                  Tom’s first SOG was located near Wichita Falls,         some sites you might not                                               Myth: Removing cellulite requires special treatment.
    have been issued.                                                         TX. After receiving the coordinates via the web site, Tom         otherwise see.                                                         Fact: Special creams, brushes, lotions, or high-tech massages won’t
              The survey of Oklahoma was begun in 1870 and completed                                                  plotted the location on   This was not Tom’s first ex- Tom Miller shows the location he          permanently get rid of cellulite, a non-medical term referring to
    in 1900. This survey was begun at the initial point which is a 14" X                                              a USGS 7.5’ quad-         perience with GPS by any navigated to in order to find the SOG.        dimpled skin. Try good old-fashioned diet and exercise.
    14" X 5’ sandstone near Davis, Oklahoma. A line was run North on                                                  rangle map. This          means. Having worked in processing and mapping GPS
    a true meridian, now referred to as the Indian Meridian. All town-                                                helped to identify        data since 1993 at Topographic, he has also been an avid               Myth: Losing weight rapidly at the beginning of a fad diet is proof
    ships east of this line were numbered and designated as East of the                                               roads and terrain fea-    geocacher since 2001. Geocaching is an international sport             it works.
    Indian Meridian (E.I.M.) and those west are designated as West of                                                  tures in the area. He    where participants use GPS to search for caches hidden by              Fact: The rate of weight loss at the beginning of any diet is usually
    the Indian Meridian (W.I.M.). Range lines are numbered in sequence                                                 then drove from          others. The coordinates of these caches are posted on a                faster. That’s because the body stores of fat and the carbohydrate
    and designated as North or South of this initial point.                                                           Oklahoma City to          web site ( for anyone to use. For                   glycogen, which contain water, are being depleted. You’re losing
              The panhandle of Oklahoma is based on the Cimarron                                                      about 9 miles south-      Tom and many of Topographic’s employees, GPS, map-                     water weight.
    Meridian, established in 1881, along the western most line of the                                                 east of Wichita Falls.    ping and surveying are not just their jobs, it is what they            There’s always time for safety.
    Oklahoma panhandle. All land in Cimarron, Texas, and Beaver Coun-                                                 Next, navigating with     love to do.
    ties are referenced as East of the Cimarron Meridian (E.C.M.).

    Birthdays                                                                 Holidays & Safety Meetings                                                                                   The Topographic             Company Anniversaries
August:                     September:              October:                                                                                                                               Times is a quarterly
                                                                                                                                                                                           publication of              Bill Allen           17 Years        Tom Howell             20 Years
Jack Fick               7 Trey Chappell 12          Amy Nelson            2   Safety Mtg - Pampa           August 17                                                                       Topographic, Inc.
Sharon Keating         13 Ricardo Perez 26          Curt Carlson         12   Safety Mtg - Midland         August 22                                6709 North Classen Boulevard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Dean Crockett        10 Years        Bill Norman              1 Year
Ted Brown              16 Jerry Tijerina 28         Eligio Ochoa         12   Labor Day                    September 5 Offices Closed              Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73116           We welcome your             Michele Dyson        13 Years        Eric Seitsinger         2 Years
Steve Banks            19                           Pat Fox              23                                                                         405-843-4847 800-654-3219              comments and                Dale Dyson            2 Years        Julio Silva            12 Years
                                                                              Columbus Day                 October 10                                         questions. Send all
Lance Mathis           19                           Dale Dyson           25                                                                                                                                            Iuri Galis            5 Years        Jesse Sparks            2 Years
                                                                              Safety Mtg - Pampa           October 19                                             correspondence Attn:
Jarrod Molloy          21                           Klint Buckner        26                                                                                                                                            Darren Gee           16 Years        Kevin Whinery          14 Years
                                                                              Safety Mtg - Woodward        October 24                                                                      Kate Burch, Marketing
Diane Waters           24                           Virgil Rogers        27                                                                                                                and PR Coordinator,         Ralph Heatly         25 Years        Sheri Worthington        1 Year
                                                                              Safety Mtg - OKC             October 25                             All brands and product names are the
Becky Bogle            25                           Rick Lunday          28   Safety Mtg - McAlester       October 26                             trademarks of their respective           inbox
Michele Dyson          25                           Rocky Arnold         29                                                                       companies.                     
                                                                              Halloween                    October 31

2     Topo Times      ♦   Fall, 2005                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Topo Times      ♦   Fall, 2005   3

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