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									   Fissures (deep grooves)
divide the cerebrum into lobes

  Frontal lobe                                                           Parietal lobe




                                                         Somatosensory
         Frontal                                         association
         association                             Taste   area
         area

                                                           Reading


                                            Hearing            Visual
                               Speech                          association
                                                               area
                                   Auditory
                       Smell       association
                                   area
                                                             Vision



   Temporal lobe                                                             Occipital lobe
              If Christopher is in a car accident and due to
                   brain damage loses his sight, which lobe of
                   the brain were probably damaged?


When you go to the refrigerator and reach for a
  carton of milk, which lobes of the brain are
  you using?

              When you are listening to music on earphones,
                which lobe of the brain are you using?


  When an Olympic gymnast does a flip on the
    balance beam, which lobes of the brain is she
    using?
Regions of the Brain
 Cerebral hemispheres              Brain stem
 Diencephalon                      Cerebellum

    Surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves
    (sulci) purpose: to increase surface area




                                                   Figure 7.12b
  Specialized Areas of the
    Cerebrum

 Somatic sensory area – receives
 impulses from areas of the cerebrum
Interpretation the body’s sensory to
Broca’s area – involved in our ability
 receptors (audio, visual, olfactory, and
   Speech/language region
speak
 taste)



                                      Figure 7.13c
Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex




Primary motor area – sends impulses to
skeletal muscles                  Figure 7.14
Layers of the
  Cerebrum

   Gray matter
    › Outer layer
    › Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies
    White matter
    › Fiber tracts inside the gray matter
    › Example: corpus callosum connects
      hemispheres                             Figure 7.13a
Diencephalon
 Sits on top of the brain stem
 Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres



                         •Thalamus
                         •Hypothalamus
                         •Epithalamus
Thalamus


 Surrounds the third ventricle
 The relay station for sensory impulses
 Transfers impulses to the correct part of
  the cortex for localization and
  interpretation
 Hypothalamus
 Under the thalamus
 Important autonomic
  nervous system center
    › Helps regulate body
      temperature
    › Controls water balance
    › Regulates metabolism
 An important part of the limbic system
  (emotions)
 The pituitary gland is attached to the
  hypothalamus
Epithalamus
 Forms the roof of the third ventricle
 Houses the pineal body (an endocrine
  gland)
 Includes the choroid plexus – forms
  cerebrospinal fluid
    Brain Stem

 Attaches to the
  spinal cord
 Parts of the brain
  stem
    › Midbrain
    › Pons
    › Medulla oblongata
Midbrain
 Mostly composed of
  tracts of nerve fibers
 Has two bulging fiber
  tracts –
  cerebral peduncles
 Has four rounded
  protrusions –
  corpora quadrigemina
    › Reflex centers for vision
     and hearing
Pons
 The bulging center part of the brain stem
 Mostly composed of fiber tracts
 Includes nuclei involved in the control of
  breathing
Medulla Oblongata
   The lowest part of the brain stem
   Merges into the spinal cord
   Contains important control centers
     › Heart rate control
     › Blood pressure regulation
     › Breathing
     › Swallowing
     › Vomiting

								
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