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Social Policy In Turkey

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					Social Policy In Turkey
    Demographics

•   Population: 77,804,122 (2010)
•   Age structure:
          -0-14 years: 26.6% (10,707,793/ Male and 10,226,999/Female)
          -15-64 years: 67.1% (male 26,741,332/female 26,162,757)
          -65 years and over: 6.3% (male 2,259,422/female 2,687,245)
•   Population growth rate: 1.235% (2011 est.)


        Year          Population          Rank           Percent          Date of
                      growth rate                        Change         Information

         2008             1.01             126                           2008 est.

         2009             1.31             102            29.70 %        2009 est.

         2010             1.27              97            -3.05 %        2010 est.

         2011             1.24              96            -2.36 %         2011 est.
•   Birth rate:
           -17.93 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
•   Death rate:
           -6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
•   Mortality rate
           -Total: 23.94 deaths/1,000 live births
           -Male: 25 deaths/1,000 live births
           -Female: 22.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
•   Life expectancy at birth:
           -Total Population: 72.5 years
           -Male: 70.61 years
           -Female: 74.49 years (2011 est.)
•   Ethnic groups
           -Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)
•   Religions
           -Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians, Jews)
•   Urban population:
           -70% of total population (2010)
•   Net migration rate:
           -0.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
•   Literacy
           -Total population: 87.4%
           -Male: 95.3%
           -Female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
    GDP

•   GDP (purchasing power parity):
•   $958.3 billion (2010 est.)
•   country comparison to the world: 17
•   $893.1 billion (2009 est.)
•   $937.1 billion (2008 est.)
•   GDP - per capita (PPP):
•   $12,300 (2010 est.)
•   country comparison to the world: 94
•   GDP - composition by sector:
•   agriculture: 8.8%
•   industry: 25.7%
•   services: 65.5% (2010 est.)
•   Labor force:
•   24.73 million
•   country comparison to the world: 24
•   Unemployment rate:
•   12.4% (2010 est.)
                                   Social Security


          The social security system in Turkey is composed of three different major
    organizations;
•   Social Insurance Institution (SSK)
•   Pension Fund for Civil Servants (Emekli Sandığı)
•   Social Security Institution for the Self-employed (Bağ-Kur)

    Social Security Schemes
     – Old Age,
     – Invalidity,
     – Survivorship,
     – Work Accident and occupational diseases,
     – Health Care,
     – Unemployment (Executed by Iskur),
     – Non-contributory payments
    Premium Rates



         INSURANCE
         BRANCHES                    Employed   Employer       TOTAL        Government

 Invalidity, old age,                                                            Gov.
 survivorship                          9%          11%          20%         Contribution in
                                                                            the amount of
Short Term Insurance                                                          1/4* Total
Branches                                -       1% -6,5 %     1% -6,5%       contributions
(employment injuries, occupational                                              actually
diseases, sickness, maternity)
                                                                               collected
Universal Health Insurance             5%        7,50%         12,50%          annually.
Unemployment                           1%          2%            3%              1%

TOTAL                                  14%      %19,5 - %25   33,5% - 39%
Old Age



Scope        Employed, self employed, civil servants


Conditions   Age : 65
             (gradually increasing from 58 for woman
             and 60 for man as of 2036)

             Contribution period : contributory period of
             9000 days for civil servants and self
             employed; 7200 days for workers

Benefits     Old age pension, lump sum payment
    Special conditions for entitlement to old age pension (I)


•   Workers who had already lost 60% of their working capacity before they started
    working (who were invalid at the date they began working) are entitled to receive old
    age pension if they have completed
•    15 years of insured work and payed invalidity, old age and survivors insurance
    premiums for 3960 days.
•      50 % to 59 % of their working capacity before they started working (who were
    invalid at the date they began working) are entitled to receive old age pension if they
    have completed 16 years of insured work and payed invalidity, old age and survivors
    insurance premiums for 4320 days.
•     40% to 49% of their working capacity before they started working (who were invalid
    at the date they began working) are entitled to receive old age pension if they have
    completed 18 years of insured work and payed invalidity, old age and survivors
    insurance premiums for 4680 days.
    Special conditions for entitlement to old age pension (II)


•   The age limit for mine workers, working regularly or alternately in mines registered by
    the Ministry for minimum 20 years, is 55 years of age. Mine workers must complete
    minimum 7200 premium days.
•    Those who have completed 55 years of age and are medically determined to be
    permaturely aged are entitled to receive old age pension in case they fulfill the other
    requirements.
•   Total working periods of female workers who have a disabled child are increased by
    0,25. Also, this period is deducted from the age limit.
Invalidity



Scope        Employed, self employed, civil servants

Conditions   minimum 60% loss of working capacity or
             earning capacity after entry into the
             insurance system.

             Contribution period: Minimum 10 years of
             insured employment and 1800 premimum
             days.

             10 years of insured employment is not
             sought for those who need constant care by
             others.

             For the self employed, no premium debts
             including UHI premiums
Benefits     Invalidity pension
Survivorship
Personal Scope    Turkish citizens residing in Turkey,
                  Persons employed in Turkey and transferred to abroad for
                  business and their dependants,
                  Refugees and stateless persons,
                  Foreigners residing in Turkey and not covered by insurance
                  according to the Legislation of another country
Conditions       Contribution: Minimum 30 contributory period of days the scheme
                 in preceding year and not having contribution related dept to the
                 Institution in preceding 60 days

                 Exemptions From Conditions:
                 Children under 18
                 Delivery of urgent health services
                 Treatment of communicable diseases
                 Work Accidents and occupational diseases
                 Protective health services to prevent addiction to harmful
                 substances (such as smoking etc.)
                 Maternity
                 The persons in the need of medical care from another person
                 In case of disaster, war and lock – out
    Unemployment benefits in Turkey


•   Legally employed workers are eligible for unemployment benefits in Turkey. These
    include foreign workers, so long as they have been working and living in Turkey
    legally and are at least 18 years old.
•   Contributions to unemployment funds are 1 % of employees´ earnings and 2 % of
    their employers´ payrolls. A worker is eligible to receive benefits after 600 days of
    contributions in the preceding 3 years of employment.
•   The minimum benefit payment is 50 % of a worker´s average daily earnings
    (calculated from the 4 months prior to unemployment), and cannot be higher than
    minimum wage for that worker´s industry. Benefits may be paid for up to 1,080 days,
    depending on the unemployed person´s number of contributions.
    Disability benefits

•   Turkish social security provides for both temporary and permanent disability benefits
    for those who are injured at work. This coverage extends to all full-time employees,
    and does not require a minimum qualifying period. Contributions to the system are
    paid entirely by employers, who pay between 1.5 % and 7 % of the value of their
    payrolls. Exact contributions are based on the risk of injury – corporate firms
    contribute less than industrial contractors.
•   Temporary benefits are paid in the amount of either 2/3 or ½ (if hospitalization was
    required) of an employee´s daily earnings.
•   Permanent disability benefits are calculated from the estimated “loss of working
    capacity“ (this is determined by the Social Insurance Institution based on the injury).
    For partial disability, if this “loss of working capacity“ is between 10 and 25 %,
    benefits may be paid as a lump sum.
•   Survivors of workers killed on the job are awarded a pension roughly 35 % of the
    deceased employee´s minimum monthly earnings, in addition to a lump sum to cover
    funeral costs.
•   Eligible survivors include: a spouse, children under 18 (20 if in pre-university, 25 if in
    university), a disabled son older than 18, an unmarried (divorced, widowed etc.)
    daughter of any age who is not receiving social security benefits of her own, and
    dependent parents.
    Maternity benefits

•   Pregnant women are eligible to receive 2/3 of their average daily earnings for 8
    weeks preceding and following childbirth. In addition, they are eligible for lump-sum
    pregnancy, childbirth and nursing benefits.

				
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posted:8/27/2011
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