Using the Transition Planning Inventory for Transition Planning

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Using the Transition Planning Inventory for Transition Planning Powered By Docstoc
					    Age-Appropriate Transition
    Assessment for Youth with
           Disabilities


                           Gary M. Clark, Ed.D.
                              gclark@ku.edu
Virginia Department of Education's Training and Technical Assistance Center
                   Virginia Commonwealth University
                              Richmond, VA
                             August 24, 2009
           Part 1

Overview of Age-Appropriate
   Transition Assessment
    IDEA 2004 clearly states:

The term “transition services” means a
coordinated set of activities for a child with a
disability that—
is designed to be within a results-oriented
process that is focused on improving the
academic and functional achievement of the
child with a disability to facilitate the child’s
movement from school to postschool
activities………
  IDEA 2004 clearly states:
 …transition services means a set of
    coordinated activities that
-- is based on the individual child’s
needs, taking into account the child’s
strengths, preferences, and interests.
 IDEA 2004 clearly states:

The IEP for students 16 and older (and younger
when appropriate), must have:

“..appropriate measurable postsecondary
goals based upon age-appropriate transition
assessments related to training, education,
employment, and, where appropriate,
independent living skills;”
 What does “age-appropriate” mean?
Age-appropriateness in assessment refers to the
appropriateness of
• the content of the assessment (items, interview
questions, checklist or rating scale response options,
etc.),
• the assessment environments used,
• the assessment activities used,
• the materials used, or
• the instructions or format used.
   IDEA 2004 clearly states:
For students graduating or exiting school due to
aging out:

“…a local education agency shall provide the child
with a summary of the child's academic
achievement and functional performance, which
shall include recommendations on how to assist the
child in meeting the child's postsecondary goals”
Hidden in the IDEA 2004
Regulations on Related Services it
even states:
(11) Recreation includes--
      (i) Assessment of leisure function
      (ii) Therapeutic recreation services
      (iii) Recreation programs in schools and
      community agencies; and
      (iv) Leisure education
    Assessment Considerations for
    Age-Appropriate Assessment
• Do we have a useful framework for appropriate
  planning (based on age, grade, maturity level,
  reading level, auditory comprehension, etc.)?
• Are age-appropriate “tools” available?
• Are family and students involved?
• Are other school-based personnel involved?
• What works for good planning and compliance?
• What will teachers accept?
Does IDEA 2004 specify what “acceptable”
age-appropriate assessment means?
    • Although IDEA does not define what age-
      appropriate assessment is or what is
      acceptable under the law, we have to
      consider these factors:

     --Recommended professional practice

     --Defensibility under question or challenge
Recommended Professional Practice

• Practice recommended based on evidence-based
  data
• Practice recommended based on field reports of
  successful practice (satisfaction)
• Practice recommended based on professional
  publications advocating a practice that adheres to
  logic, theory, research findings, or successful
  program models
                Defensibility
• Defensibility in an IEP meeting, a due process
  hearing, or a law suit.
• Defensibility involves appropriateness of:
assessment content focus
disability impact on participation in the
  assessment
age-appropriateness
language and culture
 What is acceptable to teachers?
Acceptable usually means that something is:
• good for students
• fits the user’s philosophy or way of doing
  things
• not complicated
• not unreasonably time-consuming
• reasonable in cost for what you get
  Comprehensive Planning Individual
   Needs Assessment Starts with the
             Questions:

• “ Whatdo we need to know for
planning?”

•“ Where can we get this
information?”
   What do we need to know for
      transition planning?
• Student’s personal interests and
  preferences
• Family preferences for student
• Self-determination knowledge and
  skills
• Cognitive strengths
• Academic strengths
     What do we need to know for
     transition planning? (cont’d.)
• Community participation and
  community living skills
• Vocational skills
• Social skills
• Physical and mental health status
• Student and family support needs
            Part 2

    Overview of Transition
Assessment Approaches: Formal
  or Commercially Available
         Instruments
    Where can we get assessment
           information?


• Formal (standardized) and/or
  commercially available assessments
• Informal (non-standardized)
  assessments
   Clarifying the Difference Between
   Formal and Informal Assessment
• Formal or Standardized Assessment refers to
  instruments or approaches that have
  demonstrated validity and reliability data in
  measuring or assessing traits, interests,
  preferences, skill performance, or behavior.
  Norms may be featured.
• Validity and reliability data are reported in
  correlation coefficients in the manual ranging
  from .00 (no validity, no reliability) to 1.00
  (perfect validity, perfect reliability)
  Clarifying the Difference Between
  Formal and Informal Assessment
• Informal or nonstandardized assessment refers
  to instruments, approaches, or activities that are
  not based on any attempt to demonstrate validity
  or reliability, nor would they ever include norms.
• Informal assessment is used as a subjective,
  intuitive, or clinical judgment of a selected trait,
  interest, preference, skill performance, or
  behavior.
    Types of Standardized or
Commercially Available Assessments

  Academic achievement tests
  Intellectual functioning assessment
  Adaptive behavior scales
  Aptitude tests
  Interest inventories
  Personality scales
  Types of Available Assessments
             (cont’d.)
 Quality of life scales
 Prevocational/ employability scales
 Vocational skills scales
 Self-determination scales
 Transition planning assessments
  (preferences, interests, and needs)
    Age-appropriate Transition Planning
      Assessments--Selected Examples
 AIR Self-Determination Scale, high school
 Ansell-Casey Life Skills Assessment-III, ages 8-25
 Arc’s Self-Determination Scale, Grades 9-12
 BRIGANCE® Employability Skills Inventory, Grades
  5-12
 BRIGANCE® Life Skills Inventory, Grades 7-12
 Enderle-Severson Transition Rating Scales (ESTR-R
  and ESTR-III), ages 14-21
      Transition Assessment Scales,
                (cont’d.)
 LCCE Performance & Knowledge Batteries, ages 12-
  19 (middle and high school)
 Responsibility and Independence Scale for
  Adolescents, ages 12-19
 Transition Skills Inventory (TSI), high school
 Transition Behavior Scale (2/e) (TBS), Grades 11-12
 Transition Planning Inventory (TPI), Grades 8-12
    AIR Self-Determination Scale

• Has a parent, teacher and student version
• Web-based and free
• Available online at:
  http://education.ou.edu/zarrow/
         Ansell-Casey Life Skills

•   Web-based and free
•   English and Spanish versions
•   Youth and caregiver forms
•   Scored for you
•   Can obtain class summaries
•   Available from www.caseylifeskills.org
   Arc’s Self-Determination Scale

• Adolescent version
• Web-based and free
• Must use the procedural manual to score (see
  www.beachcenter.org/education.../self-
  determination.aspx)
• Available online at:
  http://education.ou.edu/zarrow/ or
  www.beachcenter.org/.../beach_resource_detail
  _page.aspx?
     BRIGANCE® Life Skills Inventory
 Target population: Grades 7-12; Reading grade
  levels, 2-8
 Over 1400 items across subscales of Speaking and
  Listening, Functional Writing, Words on Common
  Signs and Warning Labels, Telephone Skills, Money
  and Finance, Food, Clothing, Health, Travel and
  Transportation
 May be administered individually or in groups, oral
  or written
 Contains supplemental rating scales in the areas of
  speaking skills, listening skills, health practices and
  attitudes, self concept, and auto safety
   BRIGANCE® Employability Skills
           Inventory
 Target population, Grades 5-12; requires reading or
  listening comprehension of high school level material
 Approximately 1,400 items across six areas: Career
  Awareness and Understanding, Job Seeking and
  Knowledge, Reading Skills, Speaking and Listening
  Skills, Pre-employment Writing, and Math Skills and
  Concepts
 Supplemental rating scales provided
      Enderle-Severson Transition
             Rating Scales
 ESTR-J designed for mild disabilities of any age
 ESTR--III designed for moderate to severe and multiple
  disability groups of any age
 Rating scales format, completed by school and parent
  jointly or separately
 47 items rated on a two point scale (Yes, performs skill
  independently or consistently; No, does not perform
  skills or does not perform skills independently or
  consistently
   Enderle-Severson Transition Rating
             Scales, cont’d.
 A worksheet for indicating student preferences and interests
  across the five subscale areas
 Subscales include:
 Employment
 Home Living
 Recreation and Leisure
 Community Participation
 Post Secondary Education
 Enderle-Severson Transition Rating
           Scales, cont’d.
 Scores provided on each subscale and a Total
  Performance Score (percentage of Yes ratings)
 ESTR-III provides item response options
  indicating “Yes, with supports”
 No estimation of completion time in manual
           Life-Centered Career Education
          Competency Assessment Batteries
 Curriculum-based assessment related to LCCE
  Curriculum, organized into 3 major components:
  Occupational Guidance and Preparation, Personal-
  Social, and Daily Living
 Knowledge Battery contains 200 multiple-choice
  items covering 20 of the 22 LCCE competency
  areas
 Performance Battery contains 105 open-ended or
  actual performance tasks related to 21 of the 22
  LCCE competency areas
Life-Centered Career Education Competency
        Assessment Batteries, cont’d.

 Completion time for each complete battery is 2.5-4
  hours
 Knowledge Battery is standardized with norms
 Designed for grades 7-12, students with mild
  cognitive disabilities, moderate-severe learning
  disabilities, and mild-moderate behavior disorders
   Responsibility and Independence Scale
              for Adolescents
 Ages 12-20, mild disabilities or students at risk
 Subscales: Domestic Skills, Money Management,
  Citizenship, Personal Planning, Transportation Skills,
  Career Development, Self-Management, Social
  Maturity, and Social Communication
 Scaled scores and percentile ranks based on norm
  groups
 Administration time, 30-45 minutes
     Transition Behavior Scale
                  (2nd ed.)

 Designed for any disability group, ages 14
  through postsecondary age; mild to severe
  levels of disability
 Two versions (Student self-report version
  and School version completed by one or
  more teachers
 Subscales include Work-Related Behaviors,
  Interpersonal Relations, Social/Community
  Expectations
 Transition Behavior Scales (2nd ed.),
             cont’d.
 6-point rating scale
 Estimated completion time is 15-20
  minutes
 Scores in percentile ranks are based on
  national norms
   Transition Planning Inventory
 (Updated and Computer Versions)
 Designed for any disability group, grades 8-12;
  mild to moderate levels of disability
 Updated Version (print version) is
  complemented by the Computer Version
 9 subscales include Employment, Further
  Education and Training, Daily Living, Leisure,
  Community Participation, Health, Self-
  Determination, Communication, and Inter-
  personal Relationships
Transition Planning Inventory (UV
         and CV) cont’d.
• 46 items repeated with adjusted language
  across three forms: Student, Home, and School
• Items reflect knowledge or skills competencies
  that are rated on a scale of 0-5 as to the extent
  of agreement or disagreement with the
  competency statements for a student.
• Student form has 15 open-ended items eliciting
  open expression of interests, preferences, and
  goals in a variety of areas.
   Transition Planning Inventory
       (UV and CV) cont’d.
• There is a brief section in the Student and Home
  forms requesting preferences and interests related to
  likely or preferred post school settings (employment,
  postsecondary education and training, and living
  arrangements).
• A Profile and Further Recommendations form
  accompanies the three respondent forms to serve as a
  summary/comparison document for agreement across
  raters and to identify gaps or discrepancies in the
  information obtained.
 Transition Planning Inventory (UV
          and CV) cont’d.
• Administration of either version of the TPI may be
  self-administration, guided self-administration, or oral
  administration.
• The Administration and Resource Guide provides:
  --Guide to administration options
  --Interpretation guidelines and case studies
  --Appendices with special resources, including blackline
  masters of items and their descriptions, translations of the TPI
  in Spanish, Chinese, Japanese & Korean, a modified version of
  the TPI for students with severe cognitive/communication
  problems, and a set of over 500 sample IEP goals keyed to
  the 46 items
Transition Planning Inventory (UV
         and CV) cont’d.
• Computer Version presents items one per
  screen and users may print out a Profile form
  showing each item scores across raters with
  mean scores for each item and/or a form
  showing the rank order of items by the means
  across raters.
• TPI kits are accompanied by two supplements:
  Informal Assessments for Transition Planning
  Case Studies in Assessment for Transition Planning
       Transition Skills Inventory
• Curriculum-based assessment embedded in NEXT
  S.T.E.P.: Student Transition and Educational
  Planning
• Self-evaluation tool for planning, with parallel forms
  completed by a teacher and
  parent/guardian/advocate
• 76 items over four major areas: Personal Life, Jobs,
  Education and Training, and Independent Living
        Part 3

Overview of Transition
Assessment Approaches:
Informal Activities and
   Instrument Types
         Types of Non-standardized or
            Informal Assessments
•   Interviews and surveys
   Behavioral observation
   Situational assessments
   Rating scales
   Curriculum-based assessments
   Person-centered planning procedures
   Environmental or ecological assessments
   Medical appraisals
                  Interviews

• A structured interview is more than just two
  people talking. It is structured question-
  asking for a predetermined purpose. It does
  allow for probing unanticipated responses or
  for clarification.
• An unstructured interview may be planned,
  partially planned, or completely spontaneous.
  Although it is usually conversational, it is still
  an opportunity for purposeful question-asking.
   Strategies for an Interviewer
• Come prepared with a set of questions on a
  form or some notes for targeting questions
  for a structured interview.
• Be flexible. Follow up on specific
  questions, getting clarification as needed;
  return to list of questions.
• Conduct interview in person, if possible.
   Strategies for an Interviewer
• Make the purpose of any structured
  interview clear.
• Provide the person a copy of the questions
  before the interview, if possible, especially
  if some require recall of specific facts or
  events.
Strategies for an Interviewer
• Write down enough information during the
  interview so you can remember the person’s
  responses. Complete notes later. Use tape
  recorder only with permission.
• Avoid leading the person to answer a
  certain way or inserting personal biases.
• Allow sufficient response time to permit
  person to respond fully.
A survey or questionnaire is
structured question-asking in a
written format. It assumes
sufficient reading and writing
ability to respond to survey
questions.
  Survey Development Strategies
• Have a clear purpose in mind for the survey.
• Develop a pool of questions.
• Revise questions to make sure they are clear,
  direct, and simple to read.
• Provide limited writing response formats
  when possible (i.e., Yes/No, Sometimes).
 Survey Development Strategies
• Have two or more colleagues read the draft
  and critique it for clarity and intent.
• Revise the draft as needed and try it out
  with 8-10 persons from the intended survey
  population .
• Revise as necessary and prepare the final
  version.
          Behavior Observations

“You  can observe an awful lot just
  by watching.”

Yogi Berra
Bartlett, 1994, P. 754
Behavior observations as an
informal approach may be highly
subjective, but can be useful
when behaviors are documented
and verified as reliable.
   Strategies for Developing Systematic
    Behavioral Observation Protocols
• Behaviors must be observed and recorded by
  one or more observers.
• Behaviors observed must be measurable
  (frequency, duration, or intensity).
• Behaviors must be precisely defined as
  discrete behaviors.
   Strategies for Developing Behavioral
      Observation Protocols, cont’d.

• Select a measurement system (e.g., event
  recording, duration recording, or interval
  recording).
• Decide when and where the observation(s) will
  take place, how many observations will be
  done, and who will act as observer(s).
  Strategies for Developing Behavioral
     Observation Protocols, cont’d.
• Select a data-recording system (e.g., narrative,
  tally sheet forms, timing sheet forms,
  audio/video recording, wrist counters,
  stopwatches, etc.).
• Select a data-reporting system (charts or
  graphs).
Situational assessment is the
arrangement of conditions or the
use of existing conditions to
assess desired behaviors.
     Strategies for Conducting
      Situational Assessments
1. Consider using situational assessment to
   collect data on a variety of behaviors
   (learning, working, social, or leisure
   environment).
2. Develop the situational environment to
   strive for authentic assessment.
3. Make it more motivating for students than
   tests, surveys, interviews, etc.
   Strategies for Conducting
Situational Assessments, cont’d.
3. Make it ongoing for a period of time to
   increase reliability of assessment data.
4. Plan situations carefully and monitor the
   situational environments frequently.
   Strategies for Conducting
Situational Assessments, cont’d.
5. Try to minimize time involvement for
   student and staff.
6. Remember that the presence of an
   observer or evaluator in the situational
   assessment can change the environment.
Rating scales try to quantify
performance, behaviors,
characteristics, beliefs, attitudes,
or opinions that indicate some
level or degree of assessment in
relation to a formal rubric or
predetermined standard.
        Strategies for Developing
              Rating Scales
1. Develop items that contain objective, behavioral
   statements that do not reflect value judgments,
   outdated priorities, or gender or cultural bias.
2. Keep items unidimensional (avoid multiple
   behaviors, characteristics, etc.)
3. Ensure clear and logical distinctions in the rank
   ordering of the levels within the scaling for the
   items.
4. Maintain the same scaling format for all items,
   if possible.
   Strategies for Developing Rating
            Scales, cont’d.
5. Use a scale with at least four points on it.
6. Evaluate a newly developed scale by having two
   or more colleagues review it for clarity and
   agreement of item content and scaling.
7. Pilot the scale on at least 10 students.
Curriculum-based assessment
attempts to measure educational
attainment based on student
progress in the local school
curriculum or a single teacher’s
instructional program. It is
criterion-referenced rather than
norm-referenced.
    Curriculum-Based Assessment
Advantages:
1. CBA permits direct assessment of instruction
   from a specific curriculum
2. Assessment activities may be individualized or
   used with groups.
3. Results have immediate relevance for
   instruction and determining modifications of
   instruction and/or accommodations.
    Curriculum-Based Assessment
Disadvantages:
1. It is difficult to develop valid and reliable
   curriculum assessments.
2. CBA within the general education
   curriculum may or may not be appropriate
   and useful.
3. Creating partnerships for CBA with general
   educators may be difficult.
Person-centered planning is a
group process beginning with
structured question-asking that
provides immediate planning
implications. It is flexible in
question-asking and clarifying
responses.
    Strategies for Conducting Person-
            Centered Planning
1. Make and keep the focus of the group on the
   one person for whom planning is needed.
2. Have a structure but make the process flexible
   and dynamic.
3. Make sure the facilitator is not only
   comfortable with the PCP process, but skilled.
   Strategies for Conducting Person-
       Centered Planning, cont’d.
4. Be alert to different assessment perceptions of
   group members and use reliability checks on
   summative information.
5. Use a colleague to record information that
   emerges from the group so the facilitator can
   concentrate on keeping the group focused.
6. Involve the student and family as much as
   possible in both the assessment and the
   planning components.
Environmental assessments focus
on the setting(s) in which a
student is expected to perform
and identify the specific
expectations/demands of the
setting for that student.
     Environmental Assessments
Advantages:
1. Permit an assessment of a variety of
   environmental expectations and conditions for
   an individual
2. Permit a matching of environmental demands
   with individual preferences, strengths, and
   needs.
       Environmental Assessments
Disadvantages:
1. Time-consuming process
2. Require skilled environmental assessment
   personnel
3. Require both structured and individual features
   in the assessment protocol
       Medical/Health Appraisals
Advantages:
1. Provide health information that could keep
   student from harm as well as help in
   maintaining health and/or preventing problems
2. Permit better communication with parents and
   health professionals in IEP planning for health
   monitoring and accommodations
3. Inform planning and decision-making process
   for employment, postsecondary education and
   training, and independent living
       Medical/Health Appraisals

Disadvantages:
1. May lead to unanticipated medical evaluations
   for families
2. May require specialized health professionals to
   administer or interpret some assessments or
   data
3. Health conditions may change, requiring
   periodic appraisals
           Part 4

Using Resources in Informal
 Assessments for Transition
        Planning
      Iowa Transition Assessment
                Model


http://www.transitionassessment.northcentralrrc.org/
     Assess for Success: A
  Practitioner’s Handbook on
Transition Assessment (2nd ed.)


  Sitlington, Neubert, Begun, Lombard,
             & Leconte, 2007
               Corwin Press
    Bottom Line Reminders for
       Informal Assessment
• Informal assessments can differ in
  appropriateness. Choose carefully.
• Informal assessments that go into more depth to
  get specific information are more likely to
  provide more reliable results than more general
  informal assessments.
• Get confirmation of data whenever there is any
  question about accuracy or defensibility.
Conclusion/Wrap Up
     (Finally!)
 Virginia Assessment Challenges?
• Administrators still may not be fully supportive
  of the concept of transition services, including
  assessment.
• Teachers lack knowledge and understanding of
  assessment for transition planning and tying
  assessment to goals and monitoring criteria.
• Schools still not sure whose responsibility
  transition assessment is.
• Many teachers are not convinced the
  assessment efforts will lead to appropriate
  services.
              Guiding Principles
•   start early                • community-based
•   comprehensive              • interagency
•   balance ideal v. real        cooperation
•   student participation      • timing
•   family involvement         • capacity-building
•   diversity considerations   • ranking of needs
•   supports/services          • valuable for every
                                 student
  Key Points in Assessment
• Process must look at the “whole student,”
  across academic and functional achievement,
  using age-appropriate instruments. Indicator
  13 in state monitoring looks at these basic
  compliance issues.

• Use or develop a system that works for you
  but is in compliance (legally) and defensible
  (educationally and legally).
   Key Points in Assessment,
           cont’d.
• Interpret what you obtain from formal and
  informal assessments in light of what the
  student, parent(s), and the school have agreed
  upon for postsecondary outcome goals.

• Resources are available--use them.

• Effective planning comes out of good
  assessment.
      Overriding Theme
The more we know about the receiving
 settings and the student’s
 competence to deal with these
 settings,

the more likely we can increase the
  student’s chances for success.
Doing quality
transition age-
appropriate
assessment and
planning takes
new learning
for everyone.

				
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