Human Anatomy and Physiology I (DOC) by yaofenjin

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									Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                                                                                           Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                                                                                  Cochise College




                           Bio 201 Blended Version Lecture Packet
                                      Table of Contents
         Syllabus ..........................................................................................................................................................3
                   Course schedule..............................................................................................................................8
                   Correcting tests ...............................................................................................................................9
         Unit 1 ............................................................................................................................................................11
                   Study guide ...................................................................................................................................13
                   Lecture notes .................................................................................................................................15
         Unit 2 ............................................................................................................................................................31
                   Study guide ...................................................................................................................................33
                   Histology cards .............................................................................................................................35
                   Lecture notes .................................................................................................................................37
         Unit 3 ............................................................................................................................................................65
                   Study guide ...................................................................................................................................67
                   Bone parts to know.......................................................................................................................69
                   Bone cards .....................................................................................................................................72
                   Lecture notes ................................................................................................................................ 73
         Unit 4 ..........................................................................................................................................................103
                   Study guide .................................................................................................................................105
                   Muscles to know .........................................................................................................................107
                   Muscle cards................................................................................................................................108
                   Clay manikin instructions .........................................................................................................109
                   Lecture notes ...............................................................................................................................115
         Unit 5 ..........................................................................................................................................................135
                   Study guide .................................................................................................................................137
                   Lecture notes ...............................................................................................................................139
         The End ......................................................................................................................................................174
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
                          Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                            Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                   Cochise College




                            Human Anatomy and Physiology I
                                         Blended Learning Version
Course No:    Bio 201, blended version (4 credits)                        Instructor: Kerry Henrickson
Phone:        515-5494                                                    Email:      henricksonk@cochise.edu
Office Hours: M 12:00-4:30, TWR 12:00-1:45, TW 4:30-5:00                  Office:     Science 220

Prerequisite
Completion of BIO 181 and CHM 130 or satisfactory score on department-administered proficiency exam.


Course description
The general goal of the anatomy and physiology sequence (Bio 201-202) is to provide pre-health professionals with the
necessary foundation in human anatomy and physiology to succeed in subsequent health science courses. I am interested
in students learning to apply the principals they learn, rather than in strictly memorizing information.
Exams test your understanding of the material more than your memory recall.

Objectives and goals

           Course Specific Outcomes                               Assessment
           The student will describe and explain:
           1. anatomical terminology                              1.   quiz, lab report, written exam
           2. basic concepts of biochemistry as they relate to    2.   written test
              anatomical and physiological study
           3. basic cellular structure and function               3.   lab reports, written exam, lab test
           4. tissue structure and function                       4.   lab report, lab test, written exam
           5. structure and function of integumentary             5.   quiz, lab report, written exam
              system
           6. structure and function of skeletal system           6.   reports, written test, lab test
           7. structure and function of muscular system           7.   reports, quizzes, written test, lab test
           8. structure and function of the nervous system        8.   reports, written test, lab test


Course Website
 Go to www.cochise.edu then click on Online Instruction. Select the Blackboard link and login. You should be
 automatically enrolled in this course. If you are not, contact Kerry. Please be sure you have a valid, current email listed
 under your personal preferences so Kerry can contact you!! If you do not have an email address, go to the library, get on the
 Internet and create a free account through a website such as Cochise College, Hotmail, Yahoo, etc.


Required materials
Textbook: Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, 4th ed. Saladin.
Bio 201 Course Lecture Packet, Henrickson, 2007. Available at the college bookstore.
Clicker (white electronic keypad)—Bookstore; register online following instructions with clicker and using course key on
Blackboard.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                       Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                              Cochise College


Course requirements
   1. Online participation and completion of electronic assignments. Since you will only attend BIO 201 once per
       week, the rest of your learning time will be when it’s most convenient for you.
            You will need to have access to a computer and the internet and are expected to login within 48 hours after
            your class meets face-to-face each week to check announcements and assignments.
                     You must also complete all online assignments and listen to all ilinc lectures each week (no waiting
             until end of semester—each assignment/lecture has an absolute, posted due date).
                     Remember, the time you spend doing this is the time you would have otherwise spent in lecture.
             The only difference is, you get to decide when you want to do online assignments and you can be wearing
             your pajamas while you do them! 

    2. Distribution of points. Your final grade will be based on the following weighting of scores you earn:
    Lectures exams:              45%
    Assignments  a               15%
    Lab practicals               35%
    Participationb                5%
    Total                        100%
        Assignments include your portfolios, online assignments and online weekly quizzes.
        Participation includes in-class activities, clicker quizzes in-class, etc.

    3.   Five lecture examinations, 100 points each (final exam 150 pts). The exam includes a multiple-choice section with
         somewhere between 25 and 35 multiple choice questions, as well as a short answer section (consisting of short
         essay, fill-in-the-blank, labeling illustrations, etc.). You must answer all essay questions with complete sentences
         or you will lose points. Exam 5 (final exam) is cumulative.
               I usually include about 10 points worth of bonus, short answer questions. Correct bonus answers will be
               added to your score, with the exception that you cannot earn more than 100 points on exams.
               You are allowed only ONE make-up lecture exam only if you have a legitimate, verifiable excuse. You
               must contact Kerry within 24 hours to see if you can schedule a makeup exam. If you fail to contact Kerry
               with 24 hours of the scheduled exam time, you will NOT be allowed to make up the exam.

    4.   Lecture exam test corrections. You may correct lecture exams one through four to add up to 10% of the total
         value of the exam to your original score.
               Students have until the next class after receiving their graded exam to make corrections.
               Short answer portion: A student may earn a maximum of 5 pts. if s/he correctly re-answer all missed parts
               of his/her short answer portion. If a student correctly re-answers 80% of the questions she missed, I will
               add 0.80 X 5 pts = 4 points to her grade. If another student only correctly re-answers 30% of the questions he
               missed, I will add 1.5 points (5 pts X 0.30 = 1.5) to his grade. A student may not improve his/her grade in
               excess of 100%.
               Multiple choice portion: A student may earn a maximum of 5 pts. if s/he correctly re-answer all parts of
               his/her multiple choice portion. For example, if you correctly answer 95% of the multiple choice questions
               on the take-home portion, I will multiple 5 by 0.95 to determine that you will have 4.75 added to your exam
               score.
               See the “Correcting Tests” handout in this lecture packet (p. 9) for detailed instructions.

    5.   Six mini lab practicals. Completely closed-book, though you will be allowed to check your spelling at the end of
         the bone and muscle practicals. One-half point off for each misspelling. Setting up lab practicals takes hours and
         required reserving models, slides, etc. This prevents students in other classes from accessing these items.
         Therefore, there are absolutely NO MAKE-UPS for lab practicals. Please don’t miss them!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                               Cochise College




                      REMEMBER:
         THERE ARE NO MAKE-UP LAB PRACTICALS!
    6.   Portfolio. Students will keep a three-prong, pocket portfolio of their BIO 201 assignments and labs. All papers
         must be inserted into the prongs (Do NOT put assignments in the pockets. The pockets are reserved for note
         cards only.). The portfolio will be due on exam days and each will usually be worth between 20 and 35 points. I
         will grade you on the quality of your work (e.g. thoroughness of responses, proper grammar, correct spelling,
         complete sentences, etc.).

    7.   Initials. Some portfolio items must be initialed for full credit. You must be present in class (or give your
         completed assignment to a classmate to be initialed) on the day it is due. You cannot obtain initials after the due
         date. Also, the assignment must be COMPLETELY finished with no missing answers. The point of initials is to
         ensure you completely finished the assignment in a timely fashion.

    8.   Study guides. The study guides at the beginning of each unit (which will be posted on Blackboard throughout
         the semester) cover about 85%-90% of the exam material. The remaining questions come from material in the
         textbook not covered in the study guide.

    9.   Plagiarism. Passing of another’s words (including your textbook author’s) as your own is not only dishonest and
         a violation of copyright law, it is plagiarism! If you wish to use information from your textbook to answer
         questions on assignments or exams, you must PUT THE INFORMATION IN YOUR OWN WORDS. You will
         be deducted points if you plagiarize.

    10. Clickers. We will use clickers in class on a daily basis—even on test days. You will frequently need them to take
        quizzes, as well as respond to in-class questions and surveys I pose for you. You will also take the multiple choice
        portion of your exams using clickers. Therefore, you must remember to bring your clicker to class everyday.

    11. I forgot my clicker! If you forget your clicker on the day of a quiz or test, you will be allowed, on one occasion
        only, to turn in handwritten answers sheets which Kerry will manually correct.
              If you forget your clicker on a day when we are just using them for class participation, you will not be
              allowed to submit handwritten sheets.
              You will receive points for class participation with your clicker throughout the semester and will receive a
              total number of points at semester’s end for participation.

    12. Prep quizzes. At the beginning of each class when there is not a test scheduled, you will be quizzed over the
        material to be covered that day to ensure that you read about it before coming to class. There’s a second benefit to
        frequent quizzing: the more you spread out your learning and review of material, the more likely you are to
        remember the information and retain it over time (Kerry will talk about this in class when she discusses the
        benefits of distributed practice). Consult the lecture schedule (p. 6 of this syllabus) to anticipate what chapters
        you will need to read for the coming class.
                 Prep quizzes will be multiple choice and you will take them with your clicker. Each prep quiz will be
               worth 10 points.
                 Prep quizzes will be given at the beginning of class, therefore you must be to class on time in order to
               take the quiz. There are no makeups for quizzes, even if you’re just late to class.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                               Cochise College


                   At the end of the semester, I will drop your lowest prep quiz score.

    13. Contacting Kerry. There’s no excuse for not getting in touch with Kerry when you need to. You can email her
       (henricksonk@cochise.edu) or call her (515-5494) or drop her a note under her office door (room 220), in her faculty
       mailbox, or with the science department secretary (room 212). If you do email Kerry or any other learner
       (something you can do by logging onto Blackboard and going to the “email someone” feature on the left side), you
       should always sign your name, so that everyone knows who sent the email.



Grade policy
       Grades are assigned as follows: 100-90% A; 89-80% B; 79-70% C; 69-60% D; < 59% F.


Accessing grades online
       You can also access your FINAL grades for courses online. To get your grades: 1. Go to www.cochise.edu. 2. Click
       on INFOnline. 3. Click on Student Information System and log into the secure area using your student ID (SSN)
       and pin number (mmddyy). (If your ID is invalid, contact advising at 515-5493 or Records and Registration at 515-
       5415 to reset your pin.) 4. Click on Student Services and Financial Aid; then on Student Records, and finally click
       on Final Grade. Select the proper term from the drop-down window and Display Grades. To print your grades,
       click on Print Screen.


Attendance policies
    1. Regular attendance in lecture and lab is expected. Students who miss three or more lectures, and/or labs may
       be dropped without notice. If you miss a lecture, it is your responsibility to arrange to complete laboratory
       exercises (when possible) and to obtain notes and/or supplemental material by visiting the Blackboard website,
       contacting other students or speaking to Kerry. Remember: you are part of a learning community—contact fellow
       students for help and information. Exchange phone numbers and get to know your classmates!

    2.   Students receiving VA benefits will be held to federal VA attendance requirements.

    3.   Students are allowed only one make-up lecture exam during the semester. If you know in advance you will be
         missing a test you may take it early with no penalty and it will not be considered a make-up exam. If you take an
         exam late for any reason, you must take it within one week of the scheduled time with a 10% penalty. Absolutely
         no make-ups for the lab practicals.

    4.   If you miss a lecture exam you must contact me within 24 hours of the test to request a make-up.

    5.   Portfolios and other assignments. Late work is accepted with a 10 percent penalty per class day it is late. I do not
         accept assignments more than five days late.


Miscellaneous
   1. I vigorously avoid giving incompletes. Please be present for all lab practicals and lecture exams.

    2.   If you cheat on an exam or quiz, you get a zero on the quiz/exam and you will be sent to the dean of students for
         a meeting before being allowed back into class.

    3.   No extra credit. I‘d rather have you use the time learning the material, not learning something else.

    4.   See me for extra help outside class. Please contact me; I am here to help you. If you are having problems inside or
         outside class let me know and I will try to help wherever possible.

    5.   Please be quiet and considerate of others during lecture. Making comments to others and asking them questions
         is distracting, as are cell phones. Turn off your cell phone before entering class! If your phone accidentally rings
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                             Cochise College


           during class, turn it off! Do NOT answer the phone, or leave class to answer it. This is extremely disruptive to
           other students. You can check your phone for calls/messages during breaks.
    6.     Please be on time. Students late on test days will not receive additional time to complete their exams.

      If you are a student with a disability and require auxiliary aids, services or other accommodations, please
      contact the college‘s ADA coordinator approximately three weeks in advance of registration to discuss your
      accommodation needs. Call 515-5337 for an appointment, or email the ADA Coordinator at:
      kellym@cochise.edu.


Final exam
The final exam will be Tuesday, December 12, during regular class time.
At least three possible study group members for me are (phone numbers OR emails):




SAMPLE LECTURE EXAM QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE
Which of the following is most similar to the negative feedback effect in human physiology?
A. a car that runs of out gas and stops            B. starting a bonfire with only a single match
C. a toilet tank that refills itself after a flush D. a teacher marking all the wrong answers on a student‘s exam
          E. an automatic door that opens when you approach it

The three anatomical planes are
         A. parasagittal, midsagittal and frontal       B. sagittal, frontal and transverse
C. transverse, cross and sagittal             D. cross, frontal and coronal          E. frontal, coronal and longitudinal

The ankle is _______ to the knee.
        A. deep             B. peripheral       C. superior      D. proximal        E. distal

Which of the following would be an example of the secondary structure of a protein?
        A. the appearance of an alpha-helix in insulin                B. the sequence of amino acids in lysozyme
        C. two amino acids near each other but not connected form a disulfide bond via each amino acid‘s R groups
        D. two alpha-globin and two beta-globin polypeptide chains associate to form hemoglobin

Starch and glycogen are both examples of:
         A. fatty acids                       B. long chains of carbohydrates
         C. long chains of nucleotides        D. long chains of amino acids         E. long chains of water

SHORT ANSWER
        In a dynamic physiological equilibrium, conditions fluctuate slightly around an average value called the _____________.
        What three alterations must be made to a mRNA transcript before it is allowed to leave the nucleus?
        Although DNA and RNA are both nucleic acids, they differ in several key ways. Identify three differences.
        Why are fat-soluble toxins more rapidly taken in through diffusion that water-soluble poisons?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                               Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                      Cochise College




                                                Course Schedule
   WEEK       WEEK
                                  ASSIGNED READINGS                                      DATES TO NOTE
    #          of
                         Class expectations and time management
      1         8/21     Ch. 1 – pages 12-24 only
                         Atlas A – Intro to A & P
                                                                      * Chapters 2 & 3 should be a refresher of what you have
                         Ch. 2—Review on your own*
                                                                      covered in previous classes. Therefore, we won’t cover it in
      2         8/28     Ch. 3—Cellular form & function*
                                                                      lecture. Note: there is more information in Blackboard under
                         Ch. 5 – Histology                            “Pre-requisite information” if you need help reviewing topics.
                         Ch. 5 – Histology, con’t
      3         9/4
                         Ch. 4 – Genetics & cancer
                                                                      EXAM 1 – Ch. 1, 2, 3; Portfolio #1 due (all
      4         9/11     Ch. 4 – Genetics & cancer, con’t
                                                                      portfolios are due on test day).
      5         9/18     Ch. 4 – Genetics & cancer, con’t
                         Ch. 6—Integumentary system                   Histology practical*--Remember there are NO make-
      6         9/25
                         Ch. 7 – Bone tissue                          ups for lab practicals.
                         Ch. 7 – Bone tissue
      7         10/2                                                  EXAM 2 – Ch. 4, 5; Portfolio #2 due.
                         Ch. 8—The skeletal system
      8         10/9     Ch. 7 – Bone tissue                          Bone expert group presentations
                                                                      Group 1 & 2 Bone Practical* -- *Remember there are
      9        10/16     Ch. 7 – Bone tissue
                                                                      NO make-ups for lab practicals.

     10        10/23     Ch. 9—Joints                                 Open lab time during class

                         Ch. 10—Muscular system
     11        10/30                                                  EXAM 3 – Ch. 6-8; Portfolio #3 due.
                         Ch. 11—Muscular tissue
                         Ch. 11—Muscular tissue                       Group 3 & 4 Bone Practical* -- *Remember there are
     12         11/6
                         Ch. 12 – Nervous tissue                      NO make-ups for lab practicals.
     13        11/13     Ch. 12 – Nervous tissue                      Muscle expert group presentations
                                                                      EXAM 4* – Ch. 9-11; Portfolio #4 due.
                         Ch 13 – Somatic reflexes, p. 503-509 only.
     14        11/20                                                  Groups 1 & 2 Muscle Practical* –*Remember there
                         Ch. 14 – Central Nervous System
                                                                      are NO make-ups for lab practicals.
                                                                      Groups 3 & 4 Muscle Practical* –*Remember there
                         Ch. 15 – Autonomic Nervous System
     15        11/27                                                  are NO make-ups for lab practicals.
                         Ch. 16 – Senses
                                                                      Brain and cranial nerves expert group presentations
     16         12/4     Ch. 16 – Senses                              Cranial nerves/brain lab practical

     17        12/11     Finals week                                  EXAM 5 – Ch. 12-16; Portfolio #5 due.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                               Cochise College




                                              Correcting tests
1.   Your corrected test is due the next class after you receive it. No late papers will be accepted. No exceptions.

2.   You must follow all instructions on this page exactly. If you fail to follow instructions you will not receive additional
     points. You will not be allowed a second chance to turn in your corrected test for extra points.

3.   You must fully correct both the short answer and scantron portions to receive any additional points.

4. Refer your syllabus if you can’t remember how I determine how many points to add to your exam.

5.   You can only earn a maximum of 10% of the total value for the short answer part ( = 5 pts) by correcting your short
     answer portion, with the following exceptions.
        a. You can NOT correct bonus questions nor can you receive greater than 100 pts. on your corrected test.
        b. Remember that you also will help raise your grade by retaking the scantron portion.

6.   MULTIPLE CHOICE PORTION
       a. Re-answer your multiple choice portion.
       b. On the day you turn in your written portion of your test corrections, be ready with your clicker to
       resubmit your multiple choice answers into the computer at the beginning of class
       c. We will calculate what percentage you earn on your multiple choice corrections and multiply that by 5 pts. For
           example, if you correctly answer 85% of the multiple choice questions on your retake, we will add 0.85 X 5 =
           4.25 pts to your test score.

7.   SHORT ANSWER PORTION
       a. You must TYPE all corrected answers to questions you         Sally Gomez
          missed on a separate sheet of paper.                         Exam 1 corrections
       b. Type your name and the exam number at the top of the         58. A positive feedback loop is often
          sheet.                                                           explosive and does not help maintain
       c. When typing the corrected answer, please number the              homeostasis.
                                                                       61. True. Medial means closer to the
          questions according to its number on the exam and write
                                                                           midsagittal plane; an adequate descriptor
          complete sentences, unless otherwise indicated in                when discussing the location of the nose
          instructions 7i-7iv below.                                       in relationship to the ears.
          i. Short answer questions. Type out your new answer          64. B
                                                                       67. AC
               only.                                                   72. Oxygen is an electron greedy atom,
          ii. True/False. Write the correct answer (true/false) then       compared to hydrogen. When hydrogen
               write one to two sentences explaining why your new          forms a covalent bond with oxygen, the
                                                                           shared pair of electrons between the two
               answer is the correct answer.                               atoms tend to hang out closer to the
          iii. Fill-in-the-blank. Type out the entire question and         oxygen. This causes the hydrogen to
               underline the correct word you put in the blank.            carry a partial positive charge and the
                                                                           oxygen to carry a partial negative charge.
          iv. Matching or labeling a diagram. You only need to
               provide the answer (e.g. the correct letter or number).
               You do not need to type out the entire question.
       d. Remember: you cannot correct bonus questions for more points.
       e. Staple your typed sheet to the TOP of your original exam before turning it in.

8.   Suppose you missed questions 58, 61, 64, 67 and 72 on the short answer portion. Above is an example of how your
     corrected test sheet should look when you staple it on top of your original exam.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
                          Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                    Kerry Henrickson
                                           Cochise College




                         Unit One
                           Chapters 1-3
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
                          Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                               Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                      Cochise College




                                               Exam 1 Study Guide
    1.    Don‘t forget to look at the sample questions at the end of the syllabus. They‘ll give you an idea of what caliber of
          questions will be on the test.
    2.    Consider the following organs: heart, stomach, spinal cord. Describe their position in the body using ―planes‖ of
          section, body cavity and position terms such as ―lateral.‖ Be sure you are familiar with the different body cavities.
    3.    What are the different organ systems of the body? What are the basic function(s) of each one?
    4.    The materials of the body are organized into successively more complex structures. In each case, start with a term
          on the left and compose a reasonable hierarchy that ends with the term on the right.
                 o Organelle… organ
                 o Amino acid… mitotic spindle
                 o Adenine (base)… genetic material
    5.    How can a negative feedback system maintain homeostasis? Your answer should discuss the concept of homeostasis
          and what negative feedback means.
    6.    Review on your own (see ―Pre-requisites knowledge in the Bio 201 Blackboard Website for helpful review
          materials, if needed):
               o Define ionic bond, ion, polar molecule, covalent bond. What happens when you put NaCl in water?
                   Relate this to what happens in your body.
               o What are hydrogen bonds and how do they affect the structure of water?
               o What accounts for the shape of a protein and what are the levels of organization for a protein? How does
                   the shape of a protein related to its function and what are some of the functions of proteins?
               o What is pH? Is a low pH acidic or basic? What value reflects a neutral pH? What is the pH of human
                   blood?
               o Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. Which process would your body use to
                   manufacture glycogen (long, branched chains of glucose), proteins (strings of amino acids) and DNA
                   (strings of nucleotides)? Which process would your body use to digest food or break down glycogen to
                   release sugar into the bloodstream?
               o What is a lipid and how does it differ from other classes of organic molecules? What function(s) do lipids
                   have in the body?
               o What are the defining characteristics of: carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins and lipids? What is the
                   generalized formula for each type of organic molecule? You don’t need to draw them, just recognize them if
                   you saw drawings of them on an upcoming exam… hint, hint!
               o Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic.
               o What is an enzyme? Explain the relationship between enzymes and catalysis. How do enzymes ―help‖
                   reactions?
               o What is ATP and why is it so important?
    7.    What happens when a protein is denatured? What conditions can cause denaturation?
    8.    How does the structure/composition of the plasma membrane relate to its functions? Include the lipid and the
          protein components. What types of functions do different proteins perform?
    9.    Describe the fluid mosaic model.
    10.   Define osmosis. What happens to a cell when it is exposed to a hypotonic solution? A hypertonic solution? An
          isotonic solution? Practice drawing pictures to determine outcomes. Your instructor uses pictures to determine direction of
          osmosis, and you should, too. It really does help!
    11.   Distinguish between functional (globular) and structural (fibrous) proteins.
    12.   The Na+/K+ pump is very important for all cells. Explain the job of this protein and why that function is so
          important.
    13.   What are the organelles found within a typical cell and what are their functions? How do they all work together
          to allow cells to produce proteins?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                                  Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                         Cochise College


    14. Cell A specializes in the synthesis of a protein hormone that exit the cell via exocytosis and Cell B produces lots of
        a steroid (cholesterol-based) hormone. How would you expect the relative levels of the various cellular structures
        (consider free ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, etc.) to differ, if at all, between Cell A and B?
    15. What are the fundamental differences between active and passive transport? Why does a cell require both types
        of transport?
    16. Both active and passive transport can be subdivided further. Distinguish between the different pairs of terms
        below:
               o Simple diffusion vs. facilitated diffusion
               o Channel or pore vs. carrier or transport protein
               o Primary vs. secondary active transport
               o Simple diffusion vs. osmosis

    Also, quiz yourself using your textbook
     Testing your recall, Ch., 1 (all questions), Ch. 3 (questions 1-10; 13-20).
     Testing your comprehension, Ch. 1 (question 5 only); Ch. 3 (1, 4, 5)
        You can find the answers to these questions in the comprehension tests for each chapter at the class website or at the back of
         the textbook.
        I may include some of these questions on your exam.




                                       Good luck and don’t panic!
                                     The Universe is a friendly place!
                                                   
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                       Cochise College




                         Welcome to Bio 201, blended learning style!
                                        Instructor: Kerry Henrickson


Introduction
F2F lecture

Why the blended format?
• Convenience for students
• Better performance than students in face-to-face (f2f) classes
   – Pew Grant study
       • Fairfield University, second-year biology (88% vs. 79% on exam questions)
       • University of Massachusetts, Amherst, intro biology (73% vs. 61% on exams)
• Increases student activity and interactivity inside and outside the classroom
• Promotes a stronger learning community
• Continuous assessment and feedback
• Use technology to our advantage and face-to-face to our advantage



What do I need for Bio 201?
• Lecture packet
   – by next class; no exceptions!
• Textbook
• Clicker
   – Registered before next class
• Computer and internet access
   – Including an email account
       • by next class; no exceptions!
• Three-prong, two pocket folder
• Other items
   – 3X5 note cards
   – Colored pencils (not required, but a very good idea)
• Adequate study time each week



How much time is enough?
• 4 credits = _______ hours per week
    –   study groups
    –   Don’t procrastinate!
         • Weekly quizzes will help prevent procrastination
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                          Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                 Cochise College


         • Massed practice vs. distributed practice…

What are the advantages of distributed practice?
• Opportunity for review and reinforcement
• Better retention of information
• Longer retention of information


How should I prepare for tests?
•   5 exams, 6 lab practicals
•   Think about an activity/sport in which you have competed in the past
     – How did you prepare for that tournament/ race/challenge/ presentation?


What’s the best approach for studying?
• That depends on you!
• Bio 201 first assignment
    –   Find out what kind of learner you are at www.vark-learn.com !
    –   Due for initials next class




What else do I need to know about class?
• Expect to actively learn
   – Three modalities for learning
   – Hands-on discovery, drawing, clay
                                     sculpting, prep-work before lecture
•
•   The learning pyramid
     – We tend to comprehend:

    –   10% of what we READ
    –   20% of what we HEAR
    –   30% of what we SEE
    –   50% of what we both HEAR and SEE
    –   70% of what we SAY
    –   90% of what we both SAY and DO
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                          Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                 Cochise College




What else do I need to know about class?
• Test corrections
• Syllabus Exploration--also due next class
    –   Register into Kerry’s Bio 201 blackboard website (http://solo.cochise.edu/)
    –   Follow the instructions in the syllabus exploration for what to do next on Blackboard




Anything else before we get started?
• Humor helps!


• Get to know each other
    –   Exchange phone numbers with three other students (see syllabus exploration)




What is anatomy and physiology?
• Anatomy= study of _______________
• Physiology= study of ______________
• Both can be studied at many levels (from organismal to microscopic)
    –   Studying together allows for greater understanding
         • The two go hand in hand, but which came first?




What is the structural hierarchy of the body?
•   From simple to complex:
     – Chemical level: sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles
     – Cells
     – Tissues
     – Organs
     – Organ systems
     – Organism
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                             Cochise College


What are the 11 organ systems?
•   Integumentary
•   Muscular
•   Skeletal
•   Circulatory
•   Lymphatic
•   Respiratory
•   Urinary
•   Digestive
•   Reproductive
•   Nervous
•   Endocrine




How are body systems interdependent?
• Homeostasis maintains stability
    –   Internal set points maintained
• Stable, though not static
• Negative feedback loops promote homeostasis
    –   Nearly all feedback loops in the body are negative feedback loops




What are negative feedback loops?
•   Response to problem state in the reverse or opposite direction
     – If you’re hot
         • Sweating, vasodilation
     – If you’re cold
         • Shivering, vasoconstriction




What are positive feedback loops?
• Rare, explosive
• Response to problem state is in the same direction
    –   Heightens problem state instead of dissipating it
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                             Cochise College




• Childbirth
    –Pressure on cervix stimulates pituitary gland
      • P. gland releases oxytocin
   – Contractions promoted
• Others: orgasm, fever, blood clotting




What are some anatomical terms for position/location?
•   Anatomical position: left is right and right is left!
•   Position descriptions
     – Supine, prone
     – Ventral, dorsal
     – Anterior, posterior
     – Superior, inferior
     – Medial, lateral
     – Proximal, distal
     – Superficial, deep
•   You can review this online, too!



What organelles do I have to know?
    •    Plasma membrane
    •    Nucleus
    •    Nucleolus
    •    Nuclear envelope
    •    Cytoplasm (and cytosol)



    •    Cytoskeleton
         –    Microtubules
         –    Microfilaments
         –    Intermediate filaments
    •    Ribosomes

    •    Endoplasmic reticulum
         –    Rough
         –    Smooth
    •    Golgi apparatus
    •    Lysosome
    •    Peroxisomes
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                             Cochise College



    •    Microvilli
    •    Cilia
    •    Flagellum
    •    Centriole
    •    Mitochondria




Anatomical position and terms
Online lecture

What are some anatomical terms for position/location?
•   Anatomical position: left is right and right is left!
•   Position descriptions

    – Supine, prone


    – Ventral, dorsal


    – Anterior, posterior


    – Superior, inferior


    – Medial, lateral


    – Proximal, distal


    – Superficial, deep



What are the anatomical planes?
• Sagittal
    –   Midsagittal
    –   Parasagittal
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                           Kerry Henrickson
                                                                  Cochise College




What are the anatomical planes?
• Frontal


What are the anatomical planes?
• Transverse


What are the body cavities?
•   Dorsal body cavity
     – Cranial cavity: cranium and stuff inside
     – Vertebral cavity: vertebral column and stuff inside


What are the body cavities?
• Ventral body cavity
    –   Diaphragm divides thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
         • Thoracic: mediastinum divides left from right



What kinds of membranes line cavities?
• Meninges: lines brain and spinal cord




What kinds of membranes line cavities?
• Serous membrane: no outside opening
   – Inner: visceral layer

    – Outer: parietal layer

    – In between: cavity filled with serous fluid

         •   Thoracic: pleurae and pericardium

         •   Abdominopelvic: peritoneum
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                               Cochise College




What kinds of membranes line cavities?
• Mucous membrane: outside opening
  – Examples?




Proteins
Online lecture (review of concepts you should already know)


What are proteins?
•   Polymer of amino acids
•   Amino acid
     – 20
     – -NH2 and COOH groups
     – Differ by R group
     – Glycine (simplest)
        •R=H
     – Often amphiphilic

•   Peptides
     – Chain of aa
     – Peptide bonds
     – Polypeptide >15
     – Oligopeptide < 15
     – Protein > 100



What are the levels of protein structure?
•   Primary
     – aa sequence




• Secondary
    –   Alpha helix
    –   Beta sheet (pleats)
    –   random
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                       Cochise College



• Tertiary
    –   Folding/coiling
    –   Interactions of R groups
    –   Globular proteins
    –   Structural proteins

• Quaternary
    –   >2 polypeptides




Protein properties
Online lecture (review of concepts you should already know)




What are some properties of proteins?
• Conformation changes
   – Voltage
   – Hormone binding

•   Denaturation
     – Heat, pH

•   Functions
     – Structure
     – Communication
     – Membrane transport
     – Catalysis
     – Recognition/protection
     – Movement
     – Cell adhesion



What are enzymes and how do they work?
• Enzymes: proteins which speed up (catalyze) reactions but aren‘t part of reaction
   – One enzyme molecule can be used many times
• Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                           Kerry Henrickson
                                                                  Cochise College


What is an enzymatic pathway?
• Series of steps and enzymes which make final product
A                 B        C            Final




The Plasma Membrane
Online Lecture (review of concepts you should already know)

What is the plasma Membrane (PM)?
• Functions
    –   Barrier: all substances must cross to enter
    –   Gatekeeper
    –   Supports/gives shape to cell
    –   Provides mechanisms for communication with other cells




What is the PM made of?
•   Phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded in it
•   Bilayer
     – Polar heads (phosphate groups)
     – Non-polar tails (neutral acids)
•   Membrane proteins
    – Fluid-mosaic theory
•   Cholesterol for support
     – Keeps the membrane fluid-like



What is the PM made of?
• What can enter the phospholipid bilayer?
    –   The bilayer limits what crosses unaided
• Therefore, the PM is selectively permeable
• So how would other things get in the cell?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                             Kerry Henrickson
                                                                    Cochise College


What are membrane proteins?
• Integral membrane proteins
    –   embedded in the membrane
    –   Transmembrane: bridges entire width of PM
    –   Peripheral proteins: associated with PM but not in it




What are membrane proteins?
•   Most are glycoproteins
    – Glycocalyx: sugar coating on extracellular side of PM
•   Functions of transmembrane proteins:
     – Transport            cell-to-cell linkage
     – Recognition          receptors
     – Enzymes              cytoskeleton attachment




How does protein activity relate to structure?
• Recall: proteins are strings of amino acids
    –   Function determined by tertiary and quaternary structure
• Review: what determines the amino acid sequence?




What classes of proteins are there?
• Fibrous (structural) proteins
    –   Long, rigid, rod-like
    –   Lend structure in/outside of cell
         • Extracellular matrix (out): collagen
         • Cytoskeletal proteins (in)
    –   Not very soluble (good thing!)




What classes of proteins are there?
• Globular (functional) proteins
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                 Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                        Cochise College


     –   Soluble
          • Polar groups out, non-polar in
     –   Compact globs
     –   Have active site (pocket-like)




Cell Biology
F2F lecture



Did you know?
•   The largest cell in the human body is the ovum, or egg cell. It is about 1/180 inch in diameter.
•   The smallest cell in the human body is the sperm.
•   It takes about 175,000 sperm cells to weigh as much as a single egg cell.
•   300 million cells die in the human body every minute.
•   The human body contains about 50 trillion cells




What are cells?
• Building blocks of our body
• Our understanding of cells began with the light microscope (invented ~1670)
• 200 years of observations lead to the Cell Theory (~1838)




What is membrane transport?
•   Concentration gradients
     – Recall: solvent + solute = solution
     – In cells, [Extracellular]  [intracellular]
     – What directions will solutes move?
•   Diffusion: movement down gradient
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                               Cochise College


What types of membrane transport exist?
•   Passive transport
     – No energy needed
     – High to low
• Active transport
   – Energy required
   – Low to high (against gradient)
• Sugars, ions and amino acids move via passive or active (depending on concentration gradient)
• Bulk transport
   – For proteins
   – Via membrane vesicles
• membrane movie




What kinds of passive transport exist?
• Simple diffusion
    –   For small, lipid-soluble substances
• Osmosis
    –   Water movement via diffusion
    –   Happens whenever difference in concentration across PM
    –   Note: water often moves because solutes can’t
         • Because PM is only semi-permeable
         • osmosis movie
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                             Cochise College


What do you think will happen?




What is osmosis?
•   Water concentration depends on number of solutes in it
    –   Hypertonic



    –   Isotonic



    –   Hypotonic



•   Water moves down its concentration gradient until osmolarity is equal
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                               Cochise College


What do you think will happen?


                                              10%
                                             glucose




           20% glucose                 Distilled water             10% glucose




What is facilitated passive diffusion?
• Protein-assisted diffusion
    –   Transporters or carriers
         • Amino acids, glucose
    –   Channels (AKA “pores”)
         • Most are gated (usually closed)
             – Ligand-regulated
             – Voltage-regulated
         • E.g. Nerve cells




What is active transport?
•   Movement of solute against gradient
    – Can you think of examples of where this might happen in your body?
•   Requires energy b/c moving against gradient
     – From ATP
•   Proteins sometimes called “pumps”
     – Primary active transport: Na+/K+ pump (an antiport)
     – Secondary active transport (indirect ATP consumption)
        • Glucose hitches a ride with Na+ (depends on concentration established by Na+/K+ pump)
        • A symport; still active b/c ATP consumed (indirectly)
     – active transport movie
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                          Kerry Henrickson
                                                                 Cochise College


What does the Na+/K+ pump do?
•   Maintains resting potential (membrane potential) for cell
    – Higher K+ in
    – Higher Na+ out
    – Na/K pump animation
•   Maintains charge difference across PM
•   30 to 50% of all ATP in cell used for this pump
     – Used to keep you warm in winter




What is bulk transport?
• Macromolecular transport
    –   If particle too big to cross PM via proteins
    –   Exocytosis
    –   Endocytosis
• Packaged in vesicle
         • Pinocytosis: small
         • Phagocytosis: big
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                   Kerry Henrickson
                                          Cochise College




                         Unit Two
                          Chapters 4-5
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
                          Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                         Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                Cochise College




                                           Exam 2 Study Guide
  1.    Describe and be able to identify the different types of epithelia, connective tissue, muscle tissue and nerve tissue
        you made note cards for in lab. What are one or two general functions of each? Can you identify one or two places
        where each tissue type could be found in the body?
  2.    Identify the main characteristics of epithelial vs. connective tissue vs. muscle tissue.
  3.    What are some functions of the epithelia? The connective tissue? Muscle and nerve tissue?
  4.    In what general types of tissue would you find the following cells: fibrocyte, osteocyte, adipocyte, chrondroblast,
        striated muscle fiber, non-striated muscle fiber, erythrocyte, leukocyte?
  5.    What two components make up connective tissue? How would the structure and function of connective tissue
        change if you added more matrix? More fibrous proteins? What if the fibrous matrix had more collagen than
        elastin? More elastin than collagen?
  6.    What is the difference between a ―blast‖ and a ―cyte‖?
  7.    What are osteons, canaliculi and Haversian canals?
  8.    What are the axon, soma and dendrite? In which direction does information flow through these structures?
  9.    Where are the apical and basal sides if an epithelial cell? Under a layer of epithelial cells is the __________
        _________ (two words). Underneath this structure you will always find some kind of __________ tissue.
  10.   What is an intercalated disc and what is its function? In what type of tissue would you find one?
  11.   Distinguish between the parietal and visceral layers of a serous membrane. Where are the following serous
        membranes found: pericardium, pleural, peritoneum?
  12.   What is the major difference between mucous and serous membranes?
  13.   Connective tissue is very diverse. Explain why different types of connective tissue are considered ―connective
        tissue.‖ In other words, what defining characteristics do all connective tissues share?
  14.   What is the difference between a tight junction, a desmosome and a gap junction?
  15.   What are the similarities and differences between the three types of muscle tissue?
  16.   How do the shapes of cells (e.g. squamous vs. columnar epithelial, etc.) relate to their function? If you were asked to
        design a cell with a particular function (choose a few and quiz yourself), what shape (form) would it have?
  17.   Explain what it means to say that one strand of DNA is complementary to the other strand. How does this feature
        assist in DNA synthesis?
  18.   Why is DNA replication called semi-conservative? Describe the DNA replication process, including the roles of
        helicase and DNA polymerase.
  19.   Describe the structure of DNA, including what makes up the backbone and what makes up the interior.
  20.   A, T, C and G are very particular about whom they pair with. Describe this relationship. Given this relationship, if
        the DNA of a crayfish were 32% A, what percentage of C would it have. Be careful; this takes a little thought. Work
        it through and consider how much of all four bases would have to be present to total 100%.
  21.    What kinds of bonds hold together the bases on the interior of DNA?
  22.   Describe the general process of how a cell starts with DNA and ends with a protein. What two major step define
        this process? What happens in each of these steps? Be sure to identify and explain the roles of helicase, RNA
        polymerase, introns, exons, rRNA, tRNA, mRNA.
  23.   What is the genetic code and what is a codon? What is the start codon and what amino acid does it code for?
  24.   Identify the two types of DNA mutations. Which is more damaging to production of a protein? Why?
  25.   What are the three stages of the cell cycle? What happens in each of these phases?
  26.   What three parts make up interphase? What happens in each of parts?
  27.   Identify at least three key differences between DNA and RNA.
  28.   Describe in general terms the process of mitosis, identifying and explaining all four stages (PMAT). Did you include
        the following terms? Nuclear envelope, centrosomes (or centrioles), spindles, nucleolus, chromatin, chromosomes,
        sister chromatids, centromeres, kinetichores, metaphase plate.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                               Cochise College


  29. Why is mitosis called nuclear division?
  30. Describe cytokinesis. Why is this called cytoplasmic division?
  31. Distinguish between a duplicated and an unduplicated chromosome. How many sister chromatids in an
      unduplicated chromosome? In a duplicated chromosome?
  32. What is a centromere? What is the relationship between the number of centromeres in a cell and the number of
      chromosomes?
  33. What is the difference between a haploid and a diploid cell? How many chromosomes are in a human diploid cell?
      Haploid cell?
  34. Can you define the following terms: genotype, phenotype, heterozygote, homozygote dominant, homozygote
      recessive, carrier, allele, locus, gene, genome, Punnett square, multiple alleles, polygenic trait, pleiotropy, complete
      dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance.
  35. What is an autosome? What does it mean to say that Huntington‘s disease an autosomal dominant disease (define
      both underlined terms).
  36. Give an example of diseases or traits which fit each of the three types of dominance discussed in class.
  37. A dominant trait is not necessarily the most common trait. Explain this statement and provide at least two examples
      of human traits/diseases which demonstrate this point.
  38. What are the five steps to solving a genetics problem? If you were given a genetics problem on the test, could you
      show all the steps for solving the problem so that you would receive full credit?
  39. Describe the difference between a dominant disease and a recessive disease.
  40. Other diseases show incomplete dominance or are sex-linked. For the diseases listed below, identify 1) their pattern
      of inheritance (sex-linked, etc.) and 2) some general characteristics about the disease: hemophilia, sickle-cell trait,
      familial hypercholesterolemia, muscular dystrophy.
  41. What are amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
  42. What is the most common cancer in the world? In the US? Which cancers rank second and third in the US?
  43. What is cancer? Distinguish between malignant and benign tumors. Define metastasis.
  44. Explain how mutations of telomerase and cell cycle regulators can cause cancer. Include such terms as tumor-
      suppressor gene, proto-oncogenes, and oncogenes.
  45. Can a single mutation give rise to cancer? Why or why not?
  46. Distinguish between a mutagen and a carcinogen? What are some examples of carcinogens discussed in class?
  47. Is cancer curable? If yes, what is most important for curing the disease?
  48. What are the seven warning signs of cancer? Know these for the test and for your own health and safety!
  49. What are the following exams for and how (very generally) are each performed: Sigmoidoscopy, BSE, TSE,
      mammography, Pap test.

   Also, quiz yourself using your textbook
    Testing your recall, Ch. 4 (2-6, 9, 11, 13, 17), Ch. 5 (1-2, 4-5, 7-9; 11, 13-15, 17-18, 20).
    Testing your comprehension, Ch. 4 (question 4); Ch. 5 (questions 1, 4, 5).
 Can you identify which phase of mitosis each cell is in, as well as how many chromosomes and chromatids are present?




            Good luck and don’t panic! The Universe is still a friendly place!                                      
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                             Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                    Cochise College




                                                   Histology Cards
Initials due on cards on ______________________________                                                Place cards in portfolio #2.

Size                3” by 5” OR     4” X 6”

  These cards will be your study tools for the histology practical. If you aren‘t able to complete your drawings
        during class, use the websites listed in your lecture notes or at the pictures in your lab manual.

You should still look at all tissues under the microscope since this is how you will identify tissues
                                         on the lab practical.
On the front
        Draw a circle on the card, then, using colored pencils, draw the tissue type inside the circle. Put the appropriate
        information where indicated on the card. You are required to label all useful landmarks (e.g. collagen fiber,
        lacuna, elastin fiber, apical side, basal side, etc.) which are listed on the next page.




On the back
                     Identify the tissue type, its function and at least three (where applicable) places in the body where it is
                     found.

                               Tissue Type:



                               Function(s):




                               Location(s):
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                           Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                  Cochise College




                              Tissues and landmarks to identify
Please note that you must identify tissues by their full name on the lab practical. For example, if you wrote “simple
squamous,” instead of “simple squamous epithelium,” your answer would be incorrect.

Epithelial Tissue
  Simple squamous epithelium
  Simple cuboidal epithelium
  Simple columnar epithelium
                                                    Identify an individual cell on your card.
  Stratified squamous epithelium
                                                    Identify apical side, basal side, basement membrane and
  Stratified cuboidal epithelium                       nucleus for at least one cell on each card.
  Stratified columnar epithelium                   Also identify if applicable: cilia, goblet cell
  Pseudostratified epithelium
  Transitional epithelium




Connective Tissue
  Areolar connective tissue
  Adipose connective tissue
  Reticular connective tissue                       Label fibroblast/cyte or adipocyte, collagen bundles,
  Dense regular connective tissue                      elastin fibers.
  Dense irregular connective tissue

   Hyaline cartilage
                                     Label chondrocytes, lacuna.
   Elastic cartilage
                                     Label if seen:perichondrium, elastic fibers, collagen bundles.
   Fibrocartilage

   Compact (osseous) bone                   Label where applicable:: osteocytes, lacuna, canaliculi, lamella,
   Spongy (cancellous) bone                    Haversian canal, osteon, trabecula, bone marrow.

   Blood                Label erythrocyte, leukocyte.




Muscle Tissue
  Skeletal muscle
                                   Label where applicable: striation, nucleus (nuclei), intercalated
  Smooth muscle                      discs, myocyte (muscle fiber).
  Cardiac muscle



Nervous Tissue
  Neuron                   Label where applicable: axon, soma, dendrite, neuron, glial cell.
  Glial cell
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                            Kerry Henrickson
                                                                   Cochise College



Epithelial Tissue
Online lecture

What does epithelial tissue do?
• Protection/barrier: skin, respiratory tract
• Absorption: small intestine
• Secretion: kidney, glands
• Filtration: kidney


What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
•   Cellularity: cell rich
     – Tight and adhering junctions hold together
        • Adhering: AKA desmosomes


•   Avascular: no space for blood vessels
     – Vessels found in underlying connective tissue




What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
•   Polarity
     – Basal side supported by CT via basement membrane
     – Apical (lumenal) side faces out
        • Search for opening when looking for epithelial cells!
        • Site of secretion or with cilia/microvilli
        • Two types of secretion
             – Exocrine
                » Release into lumen or outside via goblet cell
             – Endocrine
                » Ductless, secretes into blood
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                             Kerry Henrickson
                                                                    Cochise College


What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
• Rapid cell division
    –   Need to regenerate
    –   Constant stress




What are the types of epithelial tissue?
•   Two ways to classify
     – Number of layers
        • Simple
        • Stratified (apical vs.basal)
     – Shape (refers to apical side if stratified)
        • Squamous
        • Cuboidal
        • Columnar




What are the types of epithelial tissue?
•   Other (non-standard types)
     – Pseudostratified--always ciliated
        • secrete mucus, cilia sweeps it
     – Transitional
        • Stretches from cuboidal to squamous
        • Only in bladder




What functions does simple epithelial tissue perform?
• Simple: absorption, secretion, diffusion
   – Simple squamous: diffusion, blood vessels, serous membranes
   – Simple cuboidal or columnar:
      • Absorption (microvilli), secretion
      • Line digestive tract, kidneys
• Pseudostratified
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                Kerry Henrickson
                                                                       Cochise College


What functions does stratified epithelial tissue perform?
• Stratified: protection
   – Skin, mouth, esophagus, anus, vagina
   – Basal side: regeneration
   – Apical side: die and sloughed off
   – Naming of stratified tissues




Connective Tissue: an introduction
Online lecture


What does connective tissue do?
•   Determined by cell and matrix types
•   Connects/binds tissues together
     – Glues tissues into organs;
     – Binds together bones (ligaments), muscles to bones (tendons)
     – Binds together damaged tissue (scar tissue)




What does connective tissue do?
•   Supports/protects
     – Organ capsules anchor them in place
     – Bones protect and support
•   Cushions/insulates
     – Within organ: loose connective tissue cushions (e.g. skin)
     – Adipocytes insulate/cushion around organs




What does connective tissue do?
• Stores/transports nutrients
    –   Adipocytes: fatty acids
    –   Bone marrow: blood cell precursor
    –   Bone: Ca2+
    –   Blood: transports nutrients
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                             Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                    Cochise College




What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
• Cell poor
    –   Immature cells: “blast”
         • Fibroblast, osteoblast, chondroblast
         • Mature: “cyte”
• Matrix rich
    –   Components outside cell
    –   Extracellular matrix (ECM)




What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
• Vascularized
    –   exceptions:
         • Cartilage: avascular
         • Ligaments/tendons: poorly vascularized



What are the matrix components?
• Gel component
    –   Polysaccharides attached to protein core (proteoglycans)
         • Net negative charge
             – Attracts Na+ and water
             – Becomes hydrated and swells: jello-like
         • Sponge-like with spaces
         • Function: resists compression, creates pores/spaces for nutrients and cells to move through



What are the matrix components?
• Fibrous component
    –   Collagen: structural protein
         • Most abundant (~25% of total)
             – 20+ collagen genes
         • Many collagens together = fibrils
         • Many fibrils = bundles (visible under microscope)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                               Cochise College


What are the matrix components?
• Fibrous component
    –   Elastin: elastic fiber
         • Thread-like, long
         • Form cross-linked filaments
         • Stretch/recoil



What combos of gel + matrix are there?
• Vary ratios to create different ECM
    –   Elastin > collagen creates what?
    –   Collagen > elastin creates what?
    –   Gel > fibrous creates what?




Types of Connective Tissue
Online lecture

What types of connective tissue are there?
• Connective tissue proper: largest group
    –   Loose and dense
    –   All but bone, blood, cartilage
    –   Made of fibroblasts/cytes




What types of loose CT are there?
• Areolar CT
    –   Loose arrangement of fibrous proteins
    –   Higher gel component
    –   Under epithelium, around blood vessels
         • Site for diffusion
         • Loose for leukocytes to move


What types of loose CT are there?
•   Adipose CT
     – Sparse areolar matrix, most matrix with fat globules
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                              Kerry Henrickson
                                                                     Cochise College


    – Adipocytes (from fibroblasts): do not divide
         • Subcutaneous tissue
         • Store neutral fats
         • Insulates and stores nutrients: need rich blood supply
    – Fat and CVD



What types of loose CT are there?
• Reticular CT
    –   Areolar with fine meshwork of collagen fibrils
    –   Sieve for lymphoidal tissues (e.g. spleen)




What types of dense CT are there?
• Dense regular CT
   – High collagen, strong
   – Tendons, ligaments
   – Resists stretching in longitudinal plane
   – Poorly vascularized
   – Looks like smooth muscle w/o nuclei




What types of dense CT are there?
• Dense irregular CT
   – Lots of collagen, not parallel
   – Allows tension in many planes
   – Organ/joint capsules, dermis of skin, around aorta
• Dense elastic CT
   – Don’t need to I.D.
• All remaining CTs have lacunae (except blood)




What is cartilage?
• No blood supply or nerves (limits thickness)
• Perichondrium surrounds
    –   Layer of dense irregular CT with many vessels
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                  Kerry Henrickson
                                                                         Cochise College


What types of cartilage are there?
•   Hyaline: white, glassy, gristle: most abundant
    – Firm support w/sponginess (40% collagen)
    – Trachea, nose tip, costal cartilage, ends of long bones




What types of cartilage are there?
• Elastic: more elastin
    –   Strong, but stretches
    –   External ear, epiglottis




What types of cartilage are there?
•   Fibrocartilage: less firm than hyaline, more compressible
     – Where need compression and strength
     – Linker between hyaline and dense regular CT
        • Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, knee discs (menisci)
        • Chondrocyte in lacunae often between rows of collagen
        • Collagen in wavy, parallel bundles




What is bone?
• Like cartilage (lacunae with osteocytes)
• Spongy (cancellous) or compact (osseous)
• Collagen-rich matrix and mineralized matrix (Ca2+ salts)
• Matrix limits diffusion so special blood vessel arrangement
• Osteon with central blood vessel, canaliculi between lacunae


What does cancellous (spongy) bone look like?
• Trabeculae = spicules of bone
• Marrow with adipocytes surrounds
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                          Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                 Cochise College


What is blood?
• RBC and WBC in fluid matrix (plasma)
    –   Matrix only visible/solid during clotting
• Will discuss in detail in 202

Muscle and Nervous Tissue
Online lecture


What do muscles do?
• Contraction (shorten)
• Has specialization to allow function
    –   Cell rich
    –   Well vascularized
    –   Elongated cells: muscle cells (AKA fibers) with cytoskeletal proteins for contraction
• Three types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac



What is skeletal muscle?
• Voluntary control, moves our skeleton
•   Attaches to bones or skeleton via tendons
•   Elongated, multinucleated cells
•   Striated: highly organized cytoskeletal proteins (myofilaments)
•   Muscle organ: nerves, CT packs muscle fibers into bundles




What it cardiac muscle?
• Muscle of heart: involuntary control
• Contractions produce heart beat and pump blood
• Branched, uninucleated, striated cells
•   Connected via intercalated discs
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                           Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                  Cochise College


What is smooth muscle?
• Walls of internal organs: involuntary control
• Produce slow, sustained contractions
•   Slender, uninucleated, no visible striations
     – Looks like a tendon, but nuclei more prominent




What is nervous tissue?
• Two cell components: neurons and glial cells
•   Neurons: specialized to send/receive information
     – Three regions: dendrites, soma (integrate), axon
•   Glial cells: support neurons, smaller
     – Many different types




Where on the Internet can I quiz myself?
• Class website
• Lumen: http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/Histo/frames/histo_frames.html
• Others you find by entering ―histology slides‖ in Google search engine
    –   Go to www. google.com




Histology
F2F Lecture

First things first…
• Histology note cards
• Bring your digital camera, if you want!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                             Cochise College


What characteristics describe epithelial tissue?




What characteristics describe connective tissue?




What characteristics describe muscle tissue?




What characteristics describe nervous tissue?




Where on the Internet can I quiz myself?
• Recall distributed practice!
• Class website
•   http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/Histo/frames/histo_frames.html
• Others you find by entering “histology slides” in Google search engine
    –   Go to www. google.com
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                             Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                    Cochise College



DNA vs. RNA
A Review of Concepts
Online Lecture

Where is genetic material located?
•   Within the nucleus: dispersed as chromatin
    – Thin, threadlike
•   Chromatin contains
     – DNA + histone proteins
     – Chromatin condenses to visible chromosomes at cell division
     – chromosome packaging
     – http://www.biostudio.com/demo_freeman_dna_coiling.htm




What are chromosomes?
•   Chromosomes contain our genes, 46 total (23 pairs)
     – Function of genes: recipe for creating proteins via RNA intermediate
        • genes direct making of RNA
     – RNA directs the formation of proteins
        • 3 types of RNA: mRNA (messenger), rRNA (ribosomal) and tRNA (transfer)




What are genes for?
• Which genes used in cell determines:
    –   What proteins are made which determines:
         • Cell function




What is the structure of DNA?
•   Nucleotide: building block of DNA
    – Recall: nucleotide w/ three components
        • Base (nitrogen-containing ring structure)
        • Sugar (deoxyribose)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                               Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                      Cochise College


         • Phosphate
    – Four bases found in DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine (A, C, T, G)
    – Nucloetides form nucleic acids




What is the structure of DNA?
•   DNA is double-stranded helix
•   Phosphate-sugar backbone
•   Bases on inside
     – Bonded with hydrogen
     – G-C (three H-bonds)
     – A-T (two H-bonds)
     – http://www.pwc.k12.nf.ca/wadey/biotech/dna1.swf




How does DNA structure aid replication?
•   Why replicate?
•   Two complementary strands form a double helix
     – Complements needed for DNA synthesis
        • Semiconservative replication
        • Helicase unwinds
        • DNA polymerase matches bases
        • http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAreplication.html

     – DNA “sense” (coding) strand used for protein synthesis




Why make RNA?
•   To serve as template for making protein
•   DNA sequences are copied into RNA
•   DNA vs. RNA
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                     Kerry Henrickson
                                                                            Cochise College


How is RNA different from DNA?
• Length of gene vs. length of chromosome
• Ribose vs. deoxyribose
• Single-stranded
• Uracil instead of thymine



Protein Synthesis
A Review
Online lecture


How is protein synthesized?

•   Central Dogma:
•   DNA                  mRNA                  protein
       transcription                 translation
        in nucleus                  in cytoplasm




What is the first step?
• Stage one: Transcription
    –   Helicase unwinds DNA and RNA polymerase reads one gene’s worth
    –   Makes single-stranded RNA
         • Pairs A to U (not T)
    –   Alterations to mRNA
         • 5’ cap; 3’ poly-A tail; introns removed, exons glued together
    –   mRNA leaves nucleus




What is the second step?
• Stage two: Translation
    –   Read (translate) message into sequence of amino acids = proteins
    –   mRNA is translated on the “ribosome”
    –   Ribosome is protein and rRNA
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                     Kerry Henrickson
                                                            Cochise College


What specifically happens during translation?
•   mRNA binds to ribosome
•   Translation starts at start codon AUG (= methionine)
•   tRNA molecule with correct aa has matching anticodon
     – Anticodon pairs with codon
•   Peptide bonds formed
•   Stops at stop codon
     – Note: stop codon does not code for an aa
•   Secondary and tertiary protein structure forms




Can you recap that?
• Give it a try with a study partner!
• DNA (sense or coding strand)
• mRNA
• tRNA anticodons
• Amino acids
• Polypeptide




What happens if there’s a copying mistake?
• Mutations!
  – An error in copying DNA from DNA
      • Or in making RNA from DNA (see coming slides)


• Original:
    – THE BIG FLY HAD ONE RED EYE.

• Point mutation:
    – THE BIT FLY HAD ONE RED EYE.

• Frame shift mutation:
•     Addition:
         • THE BIT GFL YHA DON ERE DEY E.
•        Deletion of G in BIG:
         • THE BIF LYH ADO NER EDE YE.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                             Cochise College




• Which is more dangerous?
•   mutations movie




Why do some proteins leave the cell and some stay?
• If made on free ribosome: stay in cell
• If made on rough ER
    –   Exported out of cell
    –   Signal sequence (~19 aa’s long) at beginning of mRNA directs ribosome to rough ER
    –   Golgi apparatus packages for final export




Cell Cycle and Mitosis
A Review
Online lecture


Why divide?
•   For growth/replacement
     – Asexual reproduction = mitosis
         • Occurs in somatic cells
         • Produces two identical daughter cells
•   For reproduction
     – Sexual reproduction = meiosis
         • Occurs in gametes
         • Produces four unique daughter cells
             – Each with half of the total genetic complement
             – Fusion of sperm and egg restores full genetic makeup



What is the cell cycle?
•   Life history of a cell
     – Repeating (usually) cycle of 3 major phases:
•   Interphase
     – G1, S, G2
•   Mitosis
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                               Cochise College


•   Cytokinesis
•   Not all cells continue through cycle
    – Cycle time varies depending on environment and cell type
    – Skin/blood rapidly, connective tissue on demand; liver yearly, neurons never!




What happens during interphase?
•   G1 or gap 1
     – Cells grow
     – Organelles/cell components increase
•   S
    – DNA synthesis: chromatin duplicated
    – Sister chromatids attached at centromere
•   G2 or gap 2
     – Prepare for mitosis
     – Centrioles replicate




What happens during cell division?
•   Stage one: mitosis
     – Nuclear division
     – Must first duplicate DNA (during what phase __________________?) then divide it up between two cells
        • Separation of sister chromatids
            – Duplicated vs. unduplicated chromosomes
•   Stage two: cytokinesis
     – Equal division of cytoplasmic contents (cytoplasmic division)




What are the four stages of mitosis?
•   Prophase
     – Chromatin condenses to chromosomes
        • Now visible
     – Nuclear envelope disappears
     – Spindle fibers appear, elongate and attach to sister chromatids at kinetochores
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                         Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                Cochise College


    – Nucleolus disappears
    – Centrosomes begin migrating to opposite poles




What are the four stages of mitosis?
•   Metaphase
    – Spindle fibers lengthen/shorten to pull chromosomes to midline of cell
    – Chromosomes aligned at metaphase plate




What are the four stages of mitosis?
•   Anaphase
     – Separation of sister chromatids
     – Sister chromatids move to opposite poles
        • Once separated they are chromosomes again
     – Spindle fibers shorten to cause the move
        • By removing tubulin




What are the four stages of mitosis?
•   Telophase
     – Reverse of prophase
     – Chromosomes relax to chromatin
     – Nuclear envelope reforms
     – Nucleolus reappears
     – Spindle fibers disappear
     – Centrosomes disappear
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                               Cochise College


What is cytokinesis?
•   Immediately after telophase
•   Contractile ring forms at cell midline
•   “pinching” closes off daughter cells from each other




Human Genetics
F2F Lecture


What are alleles?
•   Alternative forms of a gene
     – Eye color, height, freckles, widow’s peak
•   Dominant: when paired with a recessive, dominant allele is the one expressed physically
     – Note: dominant does NOT mean most common!
        • Huntington Disease is a dominant disease, but only 1 in 20,000 get it
     – Use capital letter (recessive: use lower case)
•   Recessive: not expressed when paired w/ dom.
     – Only way to express is if two recessives paired together
•   Multiple alleles: more than two




What is a diploid cell?
•   Contains paired chromosomes
     – One set from Mom (23 chromosomes)
     – One set from Dad (23 chromosomes)
     – All somatic cells are diploid
•   Haploid: set of unpaired chromosomes
    – One set of 23 from mom (or dad)
    – Ovum and sperm are haploid




What’s the difference between genotype and phenotype?
•   Genotype: paired alleles which create genetic makeup of individual
     – Can also refer to combination of all genes for an individual
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                              Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                     Cochise College


    – RR = homozygote dominant
    – Ww = heterozygote (also called a carrier)
    – ss = homozygote recessive
•   Phenotype: the physical appearance of an individual
     – phenotype is dependent on the underlying genotype



How many genes influence a phenotype?
•   Recall: central dogma
•   Exceptions:
     – Polygenic inheritance
        • Eye, skin color
     – Pleiotropy
        • Sickle cell trait
        • Marfan syndrome




What types of dominance are there?
•   Complete
•   Incomplete
     – Heterozygote is intermediate between two homozygous conditions
        • dominant allele can not completely mask recessive allele
        • Straight, wavy or curly hair in humans
        • Familial hypercholesterolemia
        • Sickle cell anemia
•   Codominance
     – Heterozygote displays phenotype of both alleles equally
        • Human blood types



What is a Punnett square?
•   And who the heck was Punnett?!
•   Use to determine what genotype offspring will have based on parental genotype
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                               Cochise College




How do I solve a genetics problem?
•     Code the alleles and identify which is dominant/recessive
•     Determine parental (or given) genotypes
•     Determine parental (or given) gametes
•     Draw Punnett square
•     Re-read problem to be sure you are answering the question correctly.




Practice problem
•     In humans, having a widow’s peak (W) is dominant to having a continuous hairline (w)
•     First: class survey for widow’s peaks
•     If a man who is heterozygous for a widow’s peak marries a woman with a continuous hairline, what are
      the chances their child will have a continuous hairline?




Practice problem
•   Show what kind of offspring would result by crossing a parent homozygous for widow’s peak (W) and
    freckles (F) with a parent who is homozygous for continuous hairline (w) and no freckles (f)
•   Remember to follow the steps for solving a genetics problem!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                          Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                 Cochise College




What about sex-linked disorders?
• Genes located on sex chromosomes
• Traced via pedigrees
• Often passed grandfather to grandson



How do I code sex-linked traits?
•   X-linked (most)
     – Y-linked diseases less common
•   To indicate sex linkage we use this system:
                                                   Color blindness
                                                  XB = normal vision
                                                  Xb = color blindness
•   Males with color-blindness are much more common. Why?




Practice problem
• If a man with normal vision marries a woman who is a carrier for color-blindness.
• What are the chances the couple will have a color-blind CHILD?
• What are the chances the couple will have a color-blind DAUGHTER?
• What are the chances the couple will have a daughter who is a carrier (define and discuss)?




How do we test for genetic conditions?
• Adult screening
• Prenatal screening
    –   Amniocentesis: 15-17 weeks
         • Tests can take as long as four weeks to culture
            – 40 tests available
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                       Kerry Henrickson
                                                              Cochise College




How do we test for genetic conditions?
    –   Chorionic villus sampling:
         • 5 to 12 weeks
         • Immediate testing
         • Greater risk of miscarriage




Stem Cells
Online Lecture

What are stem cells?
• First, compare with somatic cells:
   – ~50 divisions, then senescence or sometimes apoptosis
   – Why?




So what are stem cells?
• Stem cells: endless division
    –   Ability to differentiate
    –   give rise to two different cell types




How do they divide endlessly?
  – Telomeres: TTAGG repeat >1,000 times
     • Recall: somatic cells divide only ~50 times
     • Stem cells have telomerase to repair telomeres




What types of stem cells exist?
    –   Totipotent
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                             Cochise College




    –   Pluripotent




    –   Multipotent




What types of stem cells exist?
    –   Unipotent: not a stem cell!
         • Also known as a somatic cell




The Biology of Cancer
F2F Lecture


First things first…
• Don’t forget that you may be asked questions about the microscope on the upcoming histology lab
   practical!




How common is cancer?
• 4 M/yr get cancer worldwide
• World: #1 stomach cancer
• US: #1 prostate cancer
   – #2 breast cancer
   – #3 lung cancer
   – #4 colorectal cancer
   – Tobacco and poor diet are leading causes of terminal cancers!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                           Kerry Henrickson
                                                                  Cochise College


What is cancer?
• Cancer primer
• Uncontrolled or unusual cell growth
   – Anaplasia, hyperplasia, metastasis
   – Called a tumor or neoplasm
   – Usually involves angiogenesis
• Benign
• Malignant
   – Metastasis




How do genetics cause cancer?
• Loss of regulation of cell cycle:
    –   Telomeres: TTAGG repeat >1,000 times
         • Recall: somatic cells divide only ~50 times
         • Cancer cells have telomerase to repair telomeres



How do genetics cause cancer?
•   Loss of regulation of cell cycle:
     – Cell cycle normally controlled by proteins
        • Regulatory genes produce regulatory proteins
             – These control expression of structural proteins
        • Some regulatory genes influence nearby cells
             – Secrete growth factors or growth inhibitors




What are the two types of regulatory genes?
• Proto-oncogenes: promote cell growth
   – Oncogenes: mutated proto-oncogenes
      • Some make cell growth/division faster
      • Others damage proteins which inhibit growth
   – Cancer: only if several oncogenes (4-6) present!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                             Cochise College


• Tumor-suppressor genes: repress cell growth
    – Contribute to cancer if they become damaged
    – p53 gene prevents damaged cells from dividing
       • If damaged: cancer of cervix, colon, lung, skin, bladder, breast




How are cancers classified?
• By embryonic tissue origin

• Carcinomas: endo/ectodermic origin
    – Colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin

• Leukemias/lymphomas (9% of all cancers)
    – Hematopoietic tissue
    – Leukemia = single cells
    – Lymphoma = tissue mass

• Sarcomas: mesodermal C.T.
    – <1% of all cancers
    – Bone, fat, cartilage

• Let’s look at a few more<




What external agents cause cancer?
•   Mutagens
    – Not all mutagens are carcinogens
    – But all carcinogens are mutagens
•   Carcinogens
     – Cause carcinogenesis
     – Genes
     – Viruses, bacteria (15% of cancers)
        • Human papillomavirus (HPV): cervix
        • hepatitis B: liver
        • HIV: Kaposi’s sarcoma
        • Epstein Barr: Hodgkin’ and non-Hodkin’s lymphoma
        • H. pylori: stomach
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                  Kerry Henrickson
                                                                         Cochise College


What other carcinogens are there?
•   Chemicals in environment
     – Initiators
     – Promoters: increase potency of other carcinogens
     – coal tar, soot, asbestos, benzene, pesticides<
•   Tobacco: most lethal carcinogen
     – 30% of all cancer deaths
     – Compare: industrial pollution is only 2%




What other carcinogens are there?
•   Radiation: 2% of all deaths
     – radon gas, cellular phones, appliances, electrical power lines
     – Sun: 80% of all skin cancer
•   Dietary factors and alcohol consumption
     – Involved in up to 30% of all cancer




Is cancer curable?
•   YES!
     – Early detection is essential
     – Could cure up to 75% with early detection
•   1 in 3 will get cancer
     – Poor people have more cancer
•   Up to 90% of cancers are preventable




What are the seven warning signs of cancer?
•   These could be on the next test!
•   Change in bowel or bladder habits
•   A sore that does not heal
•   Unusual bleeding or discharge
•   Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
•   Indigestion of difficulty swallowing
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                        Kerry Henrickson
                                                               Cochise College


•   Obvious change in wart/mole
•   Nagging cough or hoarseness




How do we test for cancer?
•   Colorectal cancer
     – Sigmoidoscopy, stool blood test, digital rectal exam
•   Ovarian/uterine cancer
     – Pap test, pelvic exam
•   Breast cancer
     – BSE, mammography
•   Prostate
     – prostate specific antigen test
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
                          Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                    Kerry Henrickson
                                           Cochise College




                         Unit Three
                           Chapters 6-8
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
                          Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                      Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                             Cochise College




                                          Exam 3 Study Guide
Study topics and questions
1. Do anti-microbial soaps work under ―normal‖ washing circumstances? Why or why not? What is/are better
     alternative(s) to anti-microbial (or anti-bacterial) soaps?
2. Identify the five layers of the epidermis. Which layer is missing in skin with hair?
3. Distinguish between the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. What types of cells and tissue(s) are found in each? Are
     all three regions considered part of the skin?
4. Explain why/how skin is important in vitamin D production and in preventing folate destruction. Why would you
     want to produce vitamin D and why would you want to prevent the loss of folate?
5. Define the following terms: keratinocytes, melanocytes, basal cell carcinoma (where does it occur), squamous cell
     carcinoma (location?), melanoma (location?), Langerhans cells, Merkel disks, erythema, jaundice, bronzing, pallor,
     albinism, hematoma, hemangiomas.
6. What is the rule of nines?
7. Describe how the skin repairs itself. Include the terms inflammation, granulation and regeneration.
8. Distinguish between first-, second-, and third-degree burns. Why is fluid loss such a danger for severe burns?
9. What causes stretch marks and how can they be effectively treated?
10. What are arrector pilli and what is their function? What kind of tissue are they made of? Would that mean they are
     under voluntary control or not?
11. Distinguish between merocrine and apocrine glands. In what areas of the body are each found?
12. What‘s the difference between spongy and compact bone? Where are each generally found in the body? Do both
     contain red bone marrow or not?
13. Identify and define the following parts of a typical long bone: diaphysis, epiphysis, endosteum, periosteum, nutrient
     vessel, osteon, Haversian canal, Volkmann‘s canal, canaliculi, lacuna, medullary cavity, epiphyseal plate, epiphyseal
     line, lamellae, trabeculae, yellow bone marrow, red bone marrow..
14. What are sesamoid bones and give a couple examples of them.
15. Tell me everything you know about the four types of bone cells: osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts.
16. Describe how canaliculi form.
17. What chemicals make up the organic and inorganic parts of bone? Which part lends tensile strength and which parts
     resists compression?
18. What two chemicals do osteoclasts use to break down bone? Which chemical breaks down which part of the bone?
19. Identify the two types of osteogenesis and describe each. What type(s) of bone are formed by each process? Be
     particularly comfortable with describing endochondral ossification. Did you include such terms as hypertrophy,
     chondrocyte, periosteal bud and bone collar?
20. What is the diploe and how does it help you avoid brain damage?
21. What are fontanels and why are they so important?
22. Distinguish between primary and secondary spinal curvatures and describe when and why each form.
23. Distinguish between appositional and interstitial growth. How does interstitial growth occur? What are the different
     zones of cells involved in interstitial growth?
24. Why have interstitial growth? Why have oppostional growth?
25. Once you‘re full grown, are your bones static? Why or why not? How does this relate to the concept of bone
     remodeling?
26. What is Wolf‘s law and how does it apply to bone remodeling?
27. Why is bone remodeling so important?
28. What roles do calcitonin and parathyroid hormone play in the body?
29. What are the stages bone goes through during the healing process?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                             Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                                    Cochise College


30. Distinguish between the types of fractures discussed in class and the treatment options used. Why is traction
     sometimes necessary?
31. What possible complications can happen if calcium levels in the blood diverge from homeostasis?
32. At what age is calcium deposition most important for preventing osteoporosis later in life?
33. What is osteoporosis, who is most likely to get it, what causes it, what are the symptoms and how is it treated?
34. Explain how soda pop may cause osteoporosis.
35. What is fosamax, what does it do and what is it used to treat?


    Also, quiz yourself using your textbook:
     Testing your recall, Ch. 6 (8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20); Ch. 7 (1, 3, 8, 12, 14-17, 19, 20); Ch. 8 (1-8, 10-13, 15, 19).
            o Note: You can find the answers to these questions in Appendix B of your textbook.
     Testing your comprehension, Ch. 6 (5); Ch 7 (all), Ch. 8 (all)
            o Note: You can find the answers to these questions in the comprehension tests for each chapter at the class website.




                            Good luck and don’t panic!
                    The Universe is, as always, a friendly place! 
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                            Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                   Cochise College




                                    Bones and bone parts to know
Group 1: Skull
                                                       Occipital bone
 Parietal bones
                                                           Foramen magnum
 Frontal bone                                             Occipital condyles
       Suproaorbital foramen (supraorbital notch)
                                                       Maxillae
 Temporal bones                                          Palantine process
     Squamous portion                                       Infraorbital foramen
     Mastoid portion
        Mastoid process                               Mandible
        External acoustic meatus (auditory canal)        Condyler process (mandibular condyle)
        Mandibular fossa (condylar fossa)                Coronoid process
        Zygomatic process                                Ramus of mandible
     Petrous portion                                         Mandibular foramen
        Jugular foramen                                  Body of mandible
        Carotid canal (opens into carotid foramen)             Mental foramen
           Foramen lacerum
                                                       Orbit (a structure made up of several bones)
           



 Zygomatic bones                                          Orbital foramen (optic foramen)
     Temporal process (forms zygomatic arch with          Superior orbital fissure
      temporal bones)                                         Inferior orbital fissure
   Nasal bones                                        Skull sutures
                                                           Sagittal
 Lacrimal bones
                                                           Occipitomastoid
       Nasolacrimal duct
                                                           Coronal
 Sphenoid bone                                               Lambdoid
     Sella turcica (hypophyseal fossa)
                                                       Paranasal sinuses (not visible, but where you get sinus
     Foramen rotundum
                                                         infections):
      Foramen ovale
                                                            Frontal
 Ethmoid bone                                              Ethmoid
     Middle Turbinates (nasal conchae)                     Sphenoid
     Crista galli                                            Maxillary
     Cribriform plate (olfactory foramina located
                                                         Hyoid bone (see text and articulated skeleton)
       here)
                                                       Fetal Skull
   Inferior nasal concha (inferior turbinate)             Frontal fontanel (anterior fontanel)
                                                           Occipital fontanel (posterior)
   Vomer bone
                                                           Anterior lateral fontanels (sphenoid fontanels)
 Palantine bones                                          Posterior lateral fontanels (mastoid fontanels)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                                       Cochise College
Group 2: Vertebrae and ribs                                 Group 3: Upper appendicular skeleton
 Vertebral column                                           Left vs. right for major appendicular bones
     Curvatures                                             Shoulder
          Cervical, lumbar, thoracic, sacral                    Clavicle
 Parts of vertebra                                                   Medial (sternal) end
     Body                                                            Lateral (acromial) end
     Arch
     Vertebral foramen                                            Scapula
     Dorsal spine (spinous process)                                 Supraspinous fossa
     Transverse processes                                           Spine (of the scapula)
     Articular processes (facets)                                   Infraspinous fossa
     Intervertebral discs                                           Suprascapular notch (scapular notch)
     Intervertebral foramen                                         Coracoid process
 Cervical vertebrae (7)                                             Acromion process
     Transverse foramen                                             Glenoid cavity
     Atlas (C1) (―yes‖)                                             Subscapular fossa
     Axis (C2) (―no‖)
     Odontoid process (dens)                                Arm and Hand
     Vertebra prominens (only C7 has)                           Humerus
 Thoracic vertebrae (12)                                           Proximal head
     Demifacets (rib facets)                                       Greater tubercle
 Lumbar vertebrae (5)                                              Lesser tubercle
 Sacral vertebrae (5)                                              Shaft
     Fused in adults = sacrum                                      Distal head
          Sacral foramina                                              Medial epicondyle
 Coccygeal vertebrae (4)                                               Trochlea
     Fused in adults = coccyx                                          Capitulum
 What is a herniated disc?                                             Lateral epicondyle
     Include discussion of nucleus pulposus and                    Olecranon fossa
         annulus fibrosus
                                                                   Ulna
 Rib cage                                                           Proximal head
     Sternum                                                           Coronoid process
         Manubrium                                                     Trochlear notch
         Gladiolus (body)                                              Olecranon process
         Xiphoid process                                            Shaft
         Suprasternal notch (jugular notch)                         Distal head
         Sternal angle (at 2nd intercostal space)                      Ulnar styloid process
     Ribs (12 pairs)
         Costal cartilages, intercostal spaces                    Radius
         True ribs (vertebrosternal) 7 pair                         Proximal head
         False ribs (vertebrochondral) 4 pair                       Radial tuberosity
            Floating ribs (vertebral) the last 2 pair of            Shaft
              false ribs                                             Distal head
                                                                      Radial styloid process

                                                                   Carpals (8)
                                                                   Metacarpals (5)
                                                                   Phalanges (14)
                                                                     Proximal
                                                                     Middle (not on thumb)
                                                                     Distal
                                                             What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                 Kerry Henrickson
                                                                                        Cochise College


Group 4: Lower appendicular skeleton                   Tibia
 Left vs. right for major appendicular bones            Lateral tibial condyle
 Pelvic bone (Os coxa)                                  Medial tibial condyle
     Ilium                                              Tibial tuberosity
          Iliac crest                                   Shaft
          Anterior superior iliac spine                 Medial malleolus
          Posterior superior iliac spine
          Greater sciatic notch                       Fibula
                                                         Proximal head
        Ischium                                         Shaft
          Lesser sciatic notch                          Distal head
          Ischial spine                                 Lateral malleolus
          Ischial tuberosity
          Ramus (ischial ramus)                       Tarsals (7)
                                                         Talus
        Pubis (pubic bone)                              Calcaneus
          Pubic crest
          Pubic symphysis                             Metatarsals (5)
          Superior ramus of pubic
          Inferior ramus                              Phalanges (14)
          Acetabulum                                    Proximal
          Obturator foramen                             Middle (except great toe)
          Male vs. female pelvis                        Distal

   Leg and foot                                   What are ACL tears and menisci damage?
     Femur                                          Go to ―Knee injuries‖ under Health Topics
         Head (proximal head)
         Neck
         Greater trochanter                    For Research Questions
         Lesser trochanter                         Go to www.medlineplus.gov and click on “Health
         Shaft
                                                     Topics” to search for information.
         Lateral femoral condyle
         Medial femoral condyle
                                                Quiz yourself
        Patella                                     At the class website or at www.getbodysmart.com
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                                Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                              Cochise College



                                                           Bone Cards

Initials due on cards ______________________________                                                      Place cards in portfolio #3.

Size:              4” by 6” OR      5” X 8”

 These cards will be your study tools for the bone practical. If you aren‘t able to complete your cards during class, look at
        the websites listed in your lecture notes or at the pictures in your lab manual in order to finish your cards.


     You should physically handle all bones during lab time since
       hands-on testing will be the format of the lab practical.
On the front
        Paste a photocopy of a bone or draw a picture of the bone. If there are labels already on the photocopy, white
        them out and label them with your own letters (A, B, C, etc.). You should label all parts you are expected to
        know. Refer to the “Bones to Know” list in this lecture packet.



                                              A
                                         B                                                    C




On the back
                     Identify the parts of the bone you labeled. Note: In this example, not all parts of scapula were labeled. You
                     should label all parts you are expected to know.


                                   Scapula:

                                   A: Acromion process

                                   B: spine of scapula

                                   C: Suprapinous fossa (above), infraspinous process (below)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                            Cochise College



Integumentary system:
F2F lecture

Did you know?
• A fingernail takes about 6 months to grow from base to tip.
• A human being loses an average of 40 to 100 strands of hair a day.
• Each square inch of human skin consists of 20 feet of blood vessels.
• Every square inch of the human body has an average of 32 million bacteria on it.
• Humans shed about 600,000 particles of skin every hour - about 1.5 pounds a year. By 70 years of age, an
  average person will have lost 105 pounds of skin.




What is the integumentary system?
•   Largest organ in the body
•   Integumentary = “covering”
•   Why is skin called an organ?
•   Components:
     – Skin (cutaneous membrane) and epidermal derivatives (glands, hairs, hair follicles, nails)




What are the regions of the skin?
•   Epidermis and dermis
     – Epidermis: keratinized squamous epithelium
     – Dermis: areolar and dense irregular CT
•   Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer): loose CT (areolar and adipose)
    – Not technically skin




What does the skin do?
•   Communication: sensory receptors
•   Site of waste secretion: sweat
•   Protection: serves as physical barrier against
     – Abrasion, water loss, microorganisms, UV damage
     – Anti-microbial soaps (acid mantle, CDC study)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                          Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                        Cochise College


What does the skin do?
• Body temperature regulation
   – Hot: vasodilation, sweat
   – Cold: vasoconstriction, goose bumps


• Metabolic function:
    – vitamin D synthesis
       • Made from cholesterol
       • Important for Ca2+ absorption in small intestine
    – Prevents folate destruction (reproductive fitness protection)




What does the hypodermis do?
• Allows skin to move freely, shock absorber, insulates against heat loss
• Not present everywhere
    –   E.g. none on shin




What types of cells are in the epidermis?
• Keratinocytes: make keratin
   – Structural protein, type of intermediate filament (tough)
      • Hydrophobic!
   – Desmosomes hold keratinocytes together, attach them to basement membrane
      • Connections required for skin integrity
      • What happens without them?




What types of cells are in the epidermis?
• Melanocytes
  – Spider-like pigment cells, make/secrete melanin
  – Keratinocytes endocytose pigment and concentrate on sunny side
  – Melanin absorbs UV, protects basale layer from damage
      • Sunlight increases melanin production
  – If cancerous: melanoma
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                   Cochise College




What about the dermis?
• Strong, flexible
• Mostly dense irregular CT
• With fibroblasts, wandering defense cells
• Highly vascularized: control body heat, nourish epidermis
• Large component of sensory receptors




What are some common skin-related conditions?
•   Erythema
•   Jaundice
•   Bronzing
•   Pallor
•   Albinism
•   Hematoma
•   Hemangiomas—if you have them, you’ve had them your entire life!




How does the skin repair itself?
•   Two repair processes (see Ch. 5)
     – Fibrosis: production of fibrous CT (scar)
     – Regeneration: replacement of damaged tissue with same tissue type
     – Both repair processes occur in skin
     – Scars = fibroblasts




Skin cancer: carcinomas
•   Basal cell c. vs. squamous cell vs. malignant melanoma
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                   Cochise College




•   Warning signs of melanoma
    – A: asymmetric shape
    – B: border that is irregular/diffuse
    – C: color that is pearly or multicolored
    – D: diameter larger than 5mm




The Layers of the Epidermis
Online Lecture



How many types of skin are there?
•   Two types
     – Thin skin
        • Most parts of the body
        • All but stratum lucidum (total = four layers)
        • 75-150 µm thick




How many types of skin are there?
  – Thick skin
     • Palms & soles
     • Includes stratum lucidum (total = five layers)
     • 400-600 75-150 µm thick


Let’s look at the layers of the epidermis…
• Stratum basale
    – Closest to blood supply
    – Regenerative layer
    – keratinocytes
    – Contains melanocytes
    – Cancers include _________________________ and ____________________________________



•   Stratum spinosum
     – Still some division
     – Cancer is called _____________________________
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                      Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                    Cochise College




•   Stratum granulosum
     – Organelles disintegrate  granules



•   Stratum lucidum
     – Only present in __________________________________



•   Stratum corneum
     – Packed keratin




So, what are all the cells found in the epidermis?
•   Keratinocytes = most common
•   Melanocytes
•   Langerhans (dendritic) cells
•   Merkel (tactile) discs




The Dermis
Online lecture

What’s the purpose of the dermis?
•   Blood supply
•   Sensory perception
•   Structural integrity




What two layers make up the dermis?
• Papillary layer
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                 Cochise College


     – Areolar CT
     – Fingerprints
     – Open spaces for ____________________

•   Reticular layer
     – Dense irregular CT
     – Collagen fibers in all directions to __________________________




What else is found in the dermis?
•   Hair follicle
    – Note: epidermis dips down here
•   Sweat glands (more later)
•   Blood vessels
•   Nerves
•   Arrector pili muscle




What are arrector pili?
•   Small, smooth muscles
•   One per each hair on your body
•   Goose bumps




Skin Derivatives
Online lecture

What are some examples of skin derivatives?
•   Hair, hair follicles
•   Sebaceous glands
•   Sweat glands
•   Nails
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                          Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                        Cochise College


What do I need to know about hair?
• Three zones of keratinized cells

    – Bulb: where hair originates in dermis
       • Nerves surround
    – Root
       • Remainder of hair in follicle
    – Shaft




What do I need to know about hair?
• Three layers to hair
   – Medulla
      • Core of loosely arranged cells and air space
   – Cortex
      • Densely packed keratinized cells
   – Cuticle
      • One layer of scaly cells




What do I need to know about hair?
• Arrector pili: smooth muscle




What are nails?
• Modified epidermis
  – Hard, keratinized layers on a nail bed of epidermal cells
  – Three parts
      • Root (embedded in skin)
          – Root contains nail matrix (stratum basale)
      • Body
      • Free edge
  – Cyanotic: nail beds bluish
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                   Cochise College



What are sweat glands?
•   Sweat (sudoriferous) glands
     – 3-4 M/person
     – Insensible sweat




What are sweat glands?
• Two types: merocrine and apocrine
• Merocrine (AKA eccrine)
   – Most common
      • all but nipples, axillary and external genitalia
   – Secretes via exocytosis on apical side
   – Sweat is blood filtrate
   – Sympathetic nervous system




What are sweat glands?
• Apocrine: axillary and groin areas
   – Larger glands, type of eccrine
   – Ducts empty into hair follicles
      • Secrete sweat, fatty acids and proteins
      • Bacterial break down of fatty acids causes odor
   – Mammary: modified sweat gland
   – Ceruminous: secrete wax
      • Only in auditory canal




What are sebaceous glands?
•   Holocrine glands: excrete broken down cell
    – Sebaceous glands: oil-producing glands of scalp
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                 Cochise College




Have you started studying for the bone
              practical?

    1. Make your flash cards to help you study. Students from past 201 classes will tell you the bone
       practical is a challenge.
    2. Please note that you will be required to turn in these flash cards with your portfolio. You
       must make your own flash card to receive credit.
    3. Study a little every day between now and the practical.
    4. Have your friends and family quiz you with the flash cards.
    5. Get together with study groups and go over the bones!




                               Don’t delay!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                   Cochise College




                 Start studying NOW!!!
Bones--General Anatomy
Online lecture

What makes up the skeletal system?
• Bones
• Cartilage
    –   Embryonic framework for bones
• Ligaments



What do bones do for me?
•   Also called osseous tissue
•   Support
•   Protection
•   Movement
•   Blood formation
•   Electrolyte balance
•   Detoxifies heavy metals




How are bones classified?
• Long bones: longer than wide
   – appendicular regions
• Short bones: equal in length and width
   – Carpals and tarsals
• Flat bones: very thin
   – Cranium, ribs, sternum, scapula
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                    Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                  Cochise College




How are bones classified?
•   Irregular: unusual shape
     – Vertebrae, sphenoid, ethmoid
•   Sesamoid: develop between ligaments/muscles
     – patella

Bone categories by location
• Axial skeleton:
    –   long axis of body:
          • skull, vertebral column, ribs
• Appendicular skeleton:
    –   limbs, shoulder and pelvis




What are some bone features?
• Diaphysis: shaft

• Epiphysis: head at each end
    –   Articular cartilage attaches here




What are some bone features?
• Periosteum: sheath which covers bone
    –   Out fibrous collagen layer
    –   Inner osteogenic layer: bone-forming cells here
    –   Nutrient foramina: blood vessel holes
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                           Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                         Cochise College


What are some bone features?
•   Endosteum: inner surface of bone
     – Reticular CT and osteoclasts and osteoblasts


•   Epiphyseal plate: hyaline cartilage
     – Separates diaphysis and epiphysis
        • Point of elongation
        • Hyaline cartilage becomes bone
     – Becomes epiphyseal line

What is bone marrow?
•   Soft tissue
     – Between spongy bone trabeculae
     – Medullary cavity of long bones



•   Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue)
     – Hemopoietic tissue
     – Children: all medullary cavities
     – Adults: only in pectoral and pelvis girdles, skull, proximal heads of humerus and femur




What is bone marrow?
•   Yellow bone marrow
     – Mostly adipocytes
     – Replaces red bone marrow in most medullary cavities in adults
     – Can become hemopoietic in emergency
     – Old age: yellow marrow replaced with gelatinous bone marrow




Bone Tissue and Types of Bone Cells
Online lecture


Review: what makes up CT?
•   Cells (blast, cyte)
•   Matrix
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                      Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                    Cochise College




What are the four types of bone cells?
• Osteoblasts: bone-forming cells
   – Synthesize matrix; mineralize bone
   – Non-mitotic
   – Found in endosteum, inner layer periosteum
   – Secrete collagen which becomes encrusted w/ calcium phosphate




What are the four types of bone cells?
• Osteocytes: former osteoblasts
   – Trapped in matrix (lacunae)
   – Canaliculi connect cells
      • Communicate, feed, etc. via gap junctions
      • Send info to osteoblasts about mechanical stress




What are the four types of bone cells?
• Osteoclasts: bone-dissolving cells
   – Develop from bone marrow cells
   – Very large cells b/c several marrow cells fuse
   – Live in resorption bays
   – Secrete acid phosphatase (digest collagen) and HCl (digest minerals)




What’s in the bone matrix?
• Organic and inorganic matter
   – 1/3 organic by weight

•   Organic: includes collagen, glycoproteins, proteoglycans
     – Resists tension and bending
     – Remove and bone is brittle

•   Inorganic: 85% hydroxyapatite
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                       Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                     Cochise College


    – A calcium-phosphate salt
    – Resists compression
    – Remove via vinegar: bone is rubbery




What types of bone are there?
•   Review!
     – Osseous                  Cancellous
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                    Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                  Cochise College


What are the parts of osseous tissue?
•   Lamellae: “tree rings” of laid down matrix
     – Connected to other osteocytes via canaliculi
     – canaliculi pass nutrients and wastes
     – anastamoses

•   Haversian canal

•   Osteon: one “tree stump”

•   Volkmann (perforating) canal
     – Horizontal canal connecting to Haversian canals




What are the parts of cancellous tissue?
•   Trabeculae: rods, plates, spines
     – Develop along lines of stress
•   Spaces filled with bone marrow
•   Add strength with minimal weight




Bone development
Online lecture

How do bones form and develop?
•   Ossification: bone formation
     – Also called osteogenesis

•   Two types of osteogenesis
     – Intramembranous ossification
        • Bones form according to CT membrane template
     – Endochondral ossification
        • Bone appears within cartilage and replaces it
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                            Cochise College




What is intramembranous ossification?
•   Formation of flat bones: ~ week 8 of development
•   Three stages
     – 1: ossification centers form
        • Develop inside a membrane template of bone which mesenchymal cells made
        • Mesenchymal cells in center condense, differentiate into osteoblasts




What is intramembranous ossification?
    –   2: osteoblasts create trabeculae
         • Secrete soft, collagenous matrix: osteoid tissue
         • Calcium phosphate deposited and bone hardens
         • Forming trabeculae become spongy bone (diploe)
         • Osteoblasts trapped in lacunae: osteocytes




What is intramembranous ossification?
    –   3: formation of compact bone
         • Outermost trabeculae continue to calcify, filling in spaces
         • Compact bone and periosteum form




How does the skull change after birth?
• Flat bones in skull fuse
• Via sutures:
    –   a fibrous CT joint between skull bones
• Joints incomplete at birth: fontanels
         • “soft spots”
         • Why?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                               Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                             Cochise College


When do fontanels disappear?
• Frontal (anterior) fontanel: 18-24 mos.
• Others close within first year
    –   Sphenoidal (anterior lateral): ~ 3 mos.
    –   Mastoidal (posterior lateral): ~ 2-12 mos.
    –   Occipital (posterior): 2 mos.




How does spine shape change?
•   Newborn: C-shaped
•   Primary curvature: formed in fetus
•   Secondary curvature: formed after birth
     – Cervical: when crawling
     – Lumbar: when walking




What is endochondral ossification?
•   Most bones formed this way
    – Vertebrae, axillary, pelvis, etc.
    – AKA: cartilage replacement




•   Overview:
    – Mesenchyme becomes hyaline cartilage
       • ~ week 6 of development
    – Hyaline serves as template for ossification
       • Cartilage broken down
       • Calcified to make bone




What are the steps for endochondral ossification?
•   Step 1: bone collar forms
     – Late in 2nd month of development
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                             Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                           Cochise College


    – Blood vessels invading perichondrium and forming a periosteum triggers event
    – Osteoblasts differentiate in periosteum
         • Form layer of compact bone: bone collar




What are the steps for endochondral ossification?
•   Step 2: chondrocytes swell (hypertrophy)
     – Signals mineralization of matrix
        • Switch from collagen II to X
     – Collar cuts off circulation to chondrocytes = death
        • Matrix deteriorates (cavitation)
        • Serves as splint/support
     – Cavity forms (primary marrow site)
        • Vacated lacunae and calcified cartilage matrix (temporary)




What are the steps for endochondral ossification?
•   Step 3: periosteal bud forms
     – Month 3 of development
     – Cavity invaded by blood vessels, hematopoietic cells, nerves, osteoblasts, osteoclasts = periosteal bud
     – osteoblasts form primary ossification center
        • Deposit osteoid matrix over calcified cartilage
        • Forms spongy bone: ossification spreads towards epiphysis




What are the steps for endochondral ossification?
•   Step 4: Medullary cavity forms
     – Osteoclasts degrade spongy bone
     – Secondary ossification centers: at heads, ~ at birth

•   Step 5: spongy bone develops at heads
     – Blood vessels invade head
     – Development proceeds similar to process in bone shaft
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                           Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                         Cochise College



Bone Remodeling
F2f lecture

How do bones grow after birth?
•   Elongation at epiphyseal plate
     – Called interstitial growth
     – Cartilage organizes in zones
        • On epiphyseal side: new cartilage added
        • On diaphysis side: osteoblasts invade and produce bone


•   Also some appositional growth
     – Increase in diameter on outside of bone




How does interstitial growth happen?
•    Histological studies reveal steps
–            Five zones of cartilagenous/osseous cells
•    Cartilage moves from diaphysis to epiphysis
•    Bone follows




How do endochondral ossification and interstitial growth differ?
• Make a table of similarities and differences:
                   Endo.                 Interst.

Start w/cartilage?

Bone collar?

Hypertrophy?

Matrix changes?

Cell death?

Periosteal bud?

Bone formation?



• What would happen to the shape of bone if only interstitial growth occurred?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                          Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                        Cochise College




How does appositional growth happen?
•   Balance between growth on outside and reabsorption on inside
     – Helps maintain proper bone shape during elongation
     – Without it: bones long, thin, but unable to withstand weight
     – Osteoclasts in endosteum dissolve bone
        • Expand medullary cavity toward epiphyses
        • This keeps proportions correct
     – Osteoblasts in periosteum produce new bone on outside
     – appositional growth animation




What controls epiphyseal plate?
• Hormones in childhood
  – Growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis and cell growth
  – Thyroid hormone stimulates osteoblasts and cell metabolism


• Sex hormones at puberty
    – Estrogen/testosterone stimulate mitosis of chondroblasts = growth spurt
         • make bone formation outpace cartilage growth
         • Epiphyseal line forms (women = 18; men = 21)




Bone Repair
F2F lecture

How does the body repair fractures?
• Takes two to three months
   – Similar to steps of skin repair
   – Hematoma, inflammation appear
   – Fibrocartilagenous callus forms: splints the bone
      • Similar to granulation step
   – Bony callus forms: osteoblasts produce new bone
   – Remodeling of spongy bone into original shape
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                 Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                               Cochise College


What kinds of fractures are there?
• Closed (simple): clean break, within skin
• Compound (open): protrudes through skin
• Impacted: broken bones forced together
• Spiral: twisted (sports)
• Greenstick: children, twist but don’t break
• Comminuted: shatters into fragments
   – Often in elderly




How do you treat fractures?
• Closed reduction
    –   Manipulation into place without surgery
    –   Open reduction: surgical exposure, use of screws, pins, etc.
• Immobilize
    –   Cast or traction




Why do bones remodel?
Online lecture

Are bones static in adults?
•   No! Even as adults bone is constantly remodeled
    – Response to stresses, maintains bone integrity
        • Wolf’s Law
    – Osteoclasts and osteoblasts in balance = healthy bone
        • Out of balance = disease
           – Can you think of an example?




How is bone homeostasis maintained?
• Recall: bone remodeling always occurring
    –   5-7% of bone mass recycled weekly
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                   Cochise College


         • Head of femur turns over every 5-6 mos.
              – Shaft takes longer
         • Use determines rate of replacement
         • At both endosteal and periosteal surfaces




What happens during remodeling?
• Bone dissolved, followed by deposition
• Osteoclasts secrete?
    –   Excavate a tunnel, releasing calcium
• Osteoblasts enter tunnel and secrete matrix
    –   Matrix mineralizes




Why remodel?
• Allows body to respond to changes in stress/use
    –   New bone deposition where stress strongest
         • Muscles pulling on bone can cause stress
         • Weight-bearing exercise also can
• Repairs microscopic fracture lines




What controls remodeling?
•   Calcium levels in blood monitored
     – Calcium needed for nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood clotting, exocytosis




What controls remodeling?
•   Thyroid and parathyroid hormones
     – Thyroid: calcitonin if blood calcium high
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                 Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                               Cochise College


         • Stimulates osteoblasts, inhibits osteoclasts


    – Parathyroid: PTH (parathyroid hormone) if blood calcium low
         • Stimulates osteoclasts, inhibits osteoblasts, reduce urinary Ca loss
         • Stimulates calcitriol synthesis (encourages intestines to absorb calcium)




What if calcium is out of balance?
•   Hypocalcemia: too little
    – Vit. D deficiency, diarrhea, thyroid tumor, underactive parathyroid
    – Excessive excitation of nerves
    – Tetanus (esp. carpopedal spasm)
    – Laryngospasm: leads to suffocation

•   Hypercalcemia: too much (rare)
    – Less excitable nerves, muscles
    – Muscle weakness, sluggish reflexes
    – Cardiac arrest possible




Osteoporosis
Online lecture


What is osteoporosis?
• Loss of bone mass
   – Bones become brittle, high fracture risk
       • Hip, wrist, vertebrae
   – Involves cancellous bone




Who gets it and why?
  – Anyone can get it
  – Most common in elderly women (esp. Caucasian)
      • Why?
      • Bone loss begins around age 35
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                  Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                Cochise College


    – Onset: menopause
         • Or andropause
         • HRT?



How is it prevented and treated?
• Prevention:
   – build maximal bone mass in childhood/teen years!
      • Consume calcium
      • Avoid soda pops with phosphoric acid!
   – maintain bone mass between 25 and 40
• Drugs: fosomax encourages osteoblasts
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                           Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                         Cochise College




                     Have you made those bone flash cards yet?




                              A more important question:


                         Are you using them?!



                                 Study, study, study.
                             The practical is coming up!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                   Cochise College




                         Unit Four
                           Chapters 9-11
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                       Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                     Cochise College




                                            Exam 4 Study Guide
Study topics and questions
 1. Define the following terms: diarthrotic, synarthrotic, aphiarthrotic, synovial joint, fibrous joint, cartilaginous joint,
      synostoses, gomphoses. Can you give examples of each of these?
 2. Now define these terms: suture, synovial fluid, articular cartilage, meniscus, tendon, ligament, bursa, bursitis,
      tendon sheath.
 3. Determine which of the following joints are monoaxial, which are diaxial and which are multiaxial: ball-and-socket,
      saddle, hinge, pivot.
 4. Be sure you can distinguish between the following terms: prone/supine, abduct/adduct,
      extension/hyperextension/flexion, elevation/depression, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, protraction/retraction.
 5. Compare the following pairs of joints. In each pair, which is the more stable joint? Explain why. Hip (coxal) joint vs.
      shoulder (humeroscapular joint); knee vs. elbow joint.
 6. Describe the relationship between joint stability and joint mobility (range of motion).
 7. What is the difference between a strain and a sprain? Why would you expect to have a strain and/or sprain
      accompany a dislocation?
 8. What is arthritis? How do osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis differ from one another?
 9. Distinguish between the following: open vs. closed fracture; open vs. closed reduction.
 10. Know the location and action of all muscles on the list I gave you. Be able to identify them on models.
 11. What (be specific) is carpal tunnel syndrome (p. 380)?
 12. How are muscles classified in terms of shape? Which type is the strongest?
 13. Define these terms: synergist, antagonist, agonist, antagonistic pair, fixator and give an example of each. Explain
      why a muscle can be both an agonist and an antagonist.
 14. Distinguish between origin and insertion.
 15. Define: epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, fascicle, tendon, apneurosis, tendon.
 16. What two ways can a muscle attach to a bone? Give examples of each.
 17. Define these terms and explain their relationships/functions to one another (where appropriate): myofilaments,
      thick filament, thin filament, elastic filament, myosin, actin, titin, sarcolemma, T tubules, sarcoplasm, myofibril,
      myosin head, troponin, tropomyosin, glycogen, myoglobin, sarcoplasmic reticulum, terminal cisternae, triad,
      contractile protein, regulatory protein, A band, I band, Z disc, H zone, M line, striation, sarcomere.
 18. If you were given a drawing of muscle striation (something similar to fig. 12.2 and 12.4a) could you identify the A
      band, I band, Z disc, H zone, M line, sarcomere?
 19. Define these terms and explain their relationships/functions to one another (where appropriate): neuromuscular
      junction, synaptic knob, synaptic cleft, motor end plate, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), motor unit, synaptic
      vesicle, acetylcholinesterase, resting membrane potential, polarized, hyperpolarized, action potential, excitation,
      depolarization, sliding filament theory, ligand-regulated gate.
 20. Explain the steps of the excitation-contraction coupling theory (p. 429-433). Be able to identify and list them in order
      from memory. What are: cross bridge attachment, power stroke, cocking.
 21. Explain how troponin, tropomyosin and calcium control muscle contraction.
 22. What is the purpose of acetylcholine in muscle contraction?
 23. Describe the sliding filament theory. Why does it have that particular name?
 24. What is muscle tone and why is it important? Explain the relationship between length and tension of a muscle (p.
      433-435).
 25. What are threshold, latent period and twitch?
 26. What are rigor mortis and treppe?
 27. What two ways can you increase strength of whole muscle contraction (p. 436-438)?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                             Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                           Cochise College


 28. Compare/contrast the following pairs of terms: incomplete and complete tetanus, isometric and isotonic
      contraction, slow- and fast-twitch muscles.
 29. Identify all sources of ATP a muscle uses. When would it use each source and why? (p. 439-441).
 30. Define these terms and explain their importance to muscle contraction: ATP, ADP, Pi, creatinine phosphate,
      creatinine kinase, myokinase, glycogen-lactic acid system.
 31. What is oxygen debt?
 32. How are smooth muscle organelles and myofilaments arranged?
 33. Define the following terms as they relate to smooth muscles: dense body, multiunit smooth muscle, single-unit
      (visceral) smooth muscle, varicosity, calmodulin, smooth muscle tone, peristalsis.
 34. Compare/contrast skeletal muscle contraction with smooth muscle contraction by looking at the events which
      happen within individual myocytes of each type of muscle.
 35. For lab practical: know location, name and three actions (unless less than three are listed). For those muscles with an
      asterisk (*) next to them, you must also know their origin and insertion points.
             o Sample practical questions:
                      A. What muscle(s) help you smile and whistle? How about blink?
                      B. What happens if you contract your right sternocleidomastoid?
                      C. If you abduct your arm. What muscle is the agonist? Which would be the antagonist?
                      D. Which muscle is the prime mover of arm (not forearm) flexion?

    Also, quiz yourself using your textbook:
     Testing your recall, Ch. 10 (1-2, 4-9, 11-14, 18-20); Ch. 11 (all).
            o Note: You can find the answers to these questions in Appendix B of your textbook.
     Testing your comprehension, Ch. 10 (questions 2, 3); Ch. 11 (questions 1, 2, 4, 5).
            o Note: You can find the answers to these questions in the comprehension tests for each chapter at the class website.
     I will very likely include some of these questions on your exam.



                                Good luck and don’t panic!
                           You already know what the universe is!
                                           
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                 Cochise College




                                          Muscles to know
            * You must know the specific origin and insertion for any muscle with an asterisk next to it.


Group 1
 Frontalis                                                   Group 3
 *Orbicularis oculi                                           *Triceps brachii
 *Orbicularis oris                                            *Biceps brachii
 *Zygomaticus—major only                                      Brachialis
 Levator palpebrae superioris (not pictured)                  Brachioradialis
 *Masseter                                                    Extensors of the lower arm—they share a
 *Sternocleidomastoid                                              common area of origin and a common area of
 Scalenes                                                          insertion (know general area, not specific
 *Deltoid                                                          locations)
 *Pectoralis major                                            Flexors of the lower arm—they share a common
 External intercostals                                             area of origin and a common area of insertion
 Internal intercostals                                             (know general area, not specific locations)
 Diaphragm                                                    Iliopsoas
 *Trapezius (p. 357)                                          Adductors
 Levator scapulae                                                *Magnus
                                                                  *Longus
                                                               *Supinator
Group 2                                                        *Pronator teres
 Rectus abdominis
 External oblique                                            Group 4
 Internal oblique                                             Quadriceps
 Transversus abdominis                                           *Rectus femoris
 Latissimus dorsi                                                *Vastus lateralis
 Rotator cuff                                                    *Vastus medialis
    *Subscapularis (medial rotation of upper arm)                *Vastus intermedius
    *Supraspinatus                                            Tensor fasciae latae
    *Infraspinatus                                               Iliotibial tract (also called band)
    *Teres minor                                              Hamstrings
 Erector spinae                                                  *Biceps femoris
 Quadratus lumborum                                              *Semitendinosus
 *Gluteus maximus                                                *Semimembranosus
 *Gluteus medius                                              Fibularis longus (peroneus longus)
                                                               Tibialis anterior
                                                               Extensor digitorum longus
                                                               Triceps surae
                                                                  *Gastrocnemius
                                                                  *Soleus
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                            Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                          Cochise College



                                                    Muscle Cards
Place cards in portfolio #2.

Size:               3‖ by 5‖ OR    4‖ X 6‖

These cards will be a study tool for the muscle practical. If you aren‘t able to complete your drawings during class, look at
 the websites listed in your lecture notes or at the pictures in your lab manual in order to finish your cards. You can use
     your computer program (such as Microsoft Word) to type up your cards if you don‘t want to hand print them.


    You should examine all muscle models during lab since these
           models will be included on the lab practical.
On the front
        Write the name of the muscle.




                                          *Subscapularis



On the back
                     Identify the specific origin and specific insertion for muscles only if there is an asterisk next to their
                     name on the muscles to know list. Then, for all muscles list three actions (or fewer if there aren‘t three
                     listed) for the muscle.




                               Origin:       subscapular fossa of scapula

                               Insertion: greater tuburcle of humerus

                               Action(s): medially rotates humerus
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                   Cochise College


Adapted from a handout by Thomas Lehman, Morgan Community College
Clay Muscle Molding

INTRODUCTION

The Zahourek Maniken™ models are designed for you to develop a 3-dimensional understanding of
the muscles and related anatomical structures. During the course of this lab, you and your lab
partner will be creating the muscles listed below. As all these muscles could not be fashioned during
a 2-hour period, you will be offered times outside of lab to come in and work on your model. The
instructor will set deadlines for when the muscles need to be completed. You will show your model
to the instructor, being prepared to explain each muscle (its name, attachments, and action).

Be mindful of the tools available to you. The first is your own body. Do not hesitate to compare the
model and atlas images to your own body. As you perform the movement of the intended muscle on
your own body, the muscle will hopefully become more ‗real‘ to you and assist you to better
understand this system. There are also Maniken™ atlases, listing all the muscles in the body, their
attachments, and their actions. You also have your textbook. Use whatever resources you need.

MATERIALS

1. Maniken™ model. Each 2-person team will be assigned a skeletal model. It is composed of six
   parts: torso and head (left and right halves), upper extremities, and lower extremities. Take some
   time to become familiar with the skeletal components of each part. Study the bony protrusions
   that will be important for muscle attachment. Each model also comes with a base for it to stand
   upon. There will be a place in the lab for you to keep your model during the semester.
2. Tools. There are some clay-working tools that will be available to you. All of the tools will be kept
   in one central location for you to retrieve from while you work.
3. Clay. There will be terra cotta-colored clay available for you to create your muscles. This clay will
   not dry out, but it may need to be kneaded somewhat to soften it before building the muscles.
   There will be some bone-colored clay available, for when you need to create fascias and fat pads
   underneath or around certain muscles. You may wish to wear a smock or laboratory coat during
   lab, as the terra cotta color may stain certain fabrics.
4. Atlases. There is a 5-volume atlas available in the lab for you to use. Other references may also be
   available.

EXERCISE

1. Receive a Maniken™ model for your 2-person team. Obtain clay-working tools (wire tool and
   wood tool), as well as some terra cotta clay. Retrieve one of the atlases (it doesn‘t matter which at
   this time). Take a few moments to become familiar with the skeletal model; the bones and their
   processes. Compare the structures to your own body. Look through the atlas and learn how it is
   laid out. There is an index of muscles in the front of each atlas. For each muscle, the points of
   attachment and action are represented. With a marker and a piece of masking tape, name your
   model (place the label on the base).
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                   Cochise College


Adapted from a handout by Thomas Lehman, Morgan Community College
Clay Muscle Molding

2. The instructor will take a few minutes to review some of the skeletal anatomy of the models with
   you, as well as certain directional terms (i.e. anterior/posterior).

3. The instructor will demonstrate how to build the first four muscles on your list. Follow along as
   these are shown to you. Use the steps involved when building all the muscles on your list. Some
   of the muscles will be assembled on the right side and some on the left side. You will choose one
   side as ―Side 1‖ and the other as ―Side 2‖ (which is up to you).

4. Steps to building muscles.
   a. Find the muscle in the atlas. Determine where the muscle is on your own body.
   b. Determine the attachments of the muscle on the skeleton. You may use a pencil (NO pens!)
      to mark the attachments.
   c. Shape the clay into the appropriate muscle and attach it.
   d. Create striations in the muscle, using the wire tool. This will show the action of the muscle.

5. When instructed to do so, continue building the next muscles on your list. Since you will not be
   able to complete all the muscles during the lab period, make a note of where you leave off, then
   come back during assigned times to complete the list. The instructor will inform you as to how
   you will be tested on the construction of the muscles on your model.

6. You will need to identify the structures that you build to the instructor. There are checkpoints
   located throughout this list; you must correctly assemble and identify these structures before
   proceeding.

7. At the end of each session, clean and return your tools. Clean your hands and your work area.
   Place your model in the appropriate location for storage. The models must NEVER leave the lab.

8. After final grading of models, you will be instructed on the steps involved in dismantling and
   cleaning your models (try to keep different colors of clay separate). Pictures will be taken of the
   students with their completed models.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                       Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                     Cochise College


Adapted from a handout by Thomas Lehman, Morgan Community College
Clay Muscle Molding


MUSCLE CHECKLIST
                              <Checkpoint #1—Head> initials: _______________
              <Siide 1>
               <S de 1>
1.   Orbicularis oris. This sphincter will surround the mouth.
      Closes the lips.
2.   Masseter. Build a bone-colored pad of cheek fat to hold this muscle up.
      Elevates and protracts the mandible.
3.   Zygomaticus major. This larger muscle is located inferior to the minor.
      Elevates the corner of the mouth (smiling and laughing).
4.   Orbicularis oculi. Build this muscle as two pieces; the sphincter and the inner lids.
      Closes the eyes.

                            <Checkpoint #2—Neck> initials: _______________
             <Siide 2>
              <S de 2>
5. Sternocleidomastoid. Build this muscle from one piece of clay, then fork the inferior-most end to
      create the two attachments.
    Flexes the neck and laterally rotates the head away from the muscle.
             <Siide 1>
              <S de 1>
6. Pectoralis minor. Make sure this inserts onto ribs and not muscles.
    Depresses and protracts scapula.

                            <Checkpoint #3—Back> initials: _______________
            <Siide 1>
            <S de 1>
7. Trapezius. Be careful not to crush this clay into underlying muscles.
    Elevates clavicle, adducts scapula, extends neck.

                         <Checkpoint #4—Shoulder>        initials: _______________
              <Siide 2>
               <S de 2>
The next four muscles comprise the “rotator cuff,” which stabilizes the shoulder joint. This is the joint
that is most often injured by baseball pitchers.
8. Supraspinatus. Do not ―mash‖ this muscle into the underlying bolt.
     Abducts the arm.
9. Infraspinatus. See above comment.
     Adducts and rotates arm laterally.
10. Teres minor. Be careful with the insertion of this muscle (differs from the major).
     Adducts, extends, and rotates arm laterally.
11. Subscapularis.
     Rotates arm medially.
12. Pectoralis major. Make each of three components separately, but build them from the same sheet
       of clay (in order to maintain consistent thickness). Note how the tendons overlap each other as
       they attach to the humerus.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                      Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                    Cochise College


        Flex, adduct, and rotates arm medially.
Adapted from a handout by Thomas Lehman, Morgan Community College
Clay Muscle Molding



                             <Checkpoint #5—Arm> due: _______________
              <Siide 1>
              <S de 1>
13. Triceps brachii. Assemble each of the three parts of this muscle from different pieces of clay.
       Note how this muscle is an antagonist of the brachialis.
     Extends the forearm.
14. Biceps brachii. Assemble each belly from different pieces of clay (build tendons and clay and
       wrap a belly (like a hotdog bun) around it). This muscle lays over the brachialis.
     Flexes the forearm (and supinates).
              <Siide 2>
              <S de 2>
15. Deltoid. Build the three components of this muscle from different pieces of clay (all the same
       thickness). Be careful in placing this muscle, as it will cover up a number of deeper muscles
       that you have built.
     Abducts, flexes, extends, and medially or laterally rotates the arm.

                               <Checkpoint #6—Thigh> initials: _______________
            <Siide 1>
             <S de 1>
16. Adductor longus.
17. Adductor magnus.
     Adducts thigh (weakly flexes and laterally rotates).

The next four muscles make up the Quadriceps femoris, all sharing the same attachment across the
patella to the tibial tuberosity. Build the four to attach to the patella (you may need to build a
bigger patella with bone-colored clay), then continue to the tibial tuberosity as the patellar
ligament.
18. Vastus intermedius.
     Extends the leg.
19. Vastus medialis. Make a cigar-shaped piece of clay, then slice it lengthwise, to create this muscle
       and the Vastus lateralis (this way, both will be of equal thickness).
     Extends the leg.
20. Vastus lateralis.
     Extends the leg.
21. Rectus femoris. Note that this is the only one of the four Q.f. muscles that crosses two joints.
     Extends the leg and flexes the thigh.

The next three muscles make up the Hamstrings.
22. Semimembraneosus. Build this muscle as a flat sheet that will show underneath the next muscle.
     Flexes the leg and extends the thigh.
23. Semitendinosus. Build this muscle as a thin rope lying over the previous muscle.
     Flexes the leg and extends the thigh.
24. Biceps femoris.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                    Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                  Cochise College


        Flexes the leg and extends the thigh.

Adapted from a handout by Thomas Lehman, Morgan Community College
Clay Muscle Molding

                               <Checkpoint #7—Leg>       initials: _______________
             <Siide 2>
             <S de 2>
25. Gluteus maximus. Build this muscle differently from the atlas. The ilio-tibial tract (build this
       with bone-colored clay) runs parallel to the femur. The gluteus maximus inserts into this tract.
       There are two other gluteal muscles (minimis and medius), but we will only assemble this one.
     Extends, abducts, and laterally rotates the thigh.
26. Soleus. Build this muscle as a flat sheet.
     Plantar flexes the foot.
27. Gastrocnemius. Cut a long piece of clay lengthwise to create two equal bellies for this V-shaped
       muscle.
     Plantar flexes the foot and flexes the leg.

                                             <End of Checkpoints>

Review your muscles. Study other Manikens. Be able to identify the muscles and describe their
actions.
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                            Cochise College



Types of Joints
What are joints?
• Where two or more ____ meet (articulate)



How are joints classified?
• Two ways:
• Type of movement
   – Diarthrosis: freely movable
   – Amphiarthrosis: slightly moveable
   – Synarthrosis: little or no movement



How are joints classified?
• Structure
   – Fibrous
   – Cartilagenous
   – Bony
   – Synovial




What are fibrous joints?
• Collagen fibers join bones
   – No joint cavity; made of fibrous CT
   – Usually synarthrotic
• Types
   – Sutures: skull (become bone in middle age)
   – Gomphoses: teeth (periodontal ligament holds tooth in place)
   – Syndesmoses: short ligaments bind two bones
      • Radius and ulna; tibia and fibula




What are cartilagenous joints?
• Cartilage binds two bones
   – No joint cavity
   – Usually amphiarthrotic
• Types
   – Synchrondroses: hyaline cartilage joins
      • Epiphyseal plate, costal cartilage (to sternum)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                             Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                           Cochise College


    – Symphyses: fibrocartilage joins
         •   Pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints




What are bony joints?
• AKA synostoses
• Two bones, once separate, now fused
   – Frontal bone, mandible, epiphyseal line



What are synovial joints?
• Joint cavity between two bones
   – Synovial fluid fills space
       • albumin + hyaluronic acid
   – always diarthrotic
       • Shoulder, knee, elbow, hip




More about synovial joints
What are the features of a synovial joint?
• Basic features
   – Joint (articular) cavity: contains slippery fluid
      • Articular capsule and cartilage bind cavity
   – Two capsule layers
      • Outer fibrous CT capsule, continuous w/periosteum
      • Inner synovial membrane: areolar CT which secretes fluid




What are some other features of synovial joints?
• Meniscus: pad of cartilage
   – Continuous with synovial membrane: Shock absorber
• Tendon: dense, regular CT
   – Attaches muscle to bone
• Ligament: dense, regular CT
   – Attaches bone to bone
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                       Cochise College


What are some other features of synovial joints?
• Bursa: fibrous sac with synovial fluid
   – Between adjacent muscles
   – or where tendon passes over bone
   – Tendon sheaths: elongated bursa wrapped around tendon
   – hands and feet




What types of synovial joints are there?
• Classify as mono-, bi- or multiaxial




What types of synovial joints are there?
• Plane/gliding: flat or slightly curved articular surface
   – Carpals




•   Ball-and-socket: most moveable type
     – Glenoid and coxal joints (multiaxial)




• Hinge: uniaxial
    – Elbow, knee, finger/toe




•   Pivot: monoaxial
     – Atlas-axis (say no); radioulnar




• Saddle: concave/convex surfaces
    – Biaxial; only one is joint at base of thumb (trapeziometacarpal joint)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                              Cochise College


•   Condyloid: rounded articular surface, biaxial
     – Metacarpophalangeal joints (base of fingers)




How do you describe joint movement?
•   Important to use correct terms
•   Need to know to describe muscle actions!!!




•   Flexion, extension, hyperextension




•   Decrease vs. increase angle




•   Abduction, adduction
    Take away vs. add to




•   Elevation, depression
    Move superiorly vs. inferiorly




•   Protraction, retraction



•   Circumduction




•   Supination, pronation




•   Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                       Cochise College




Joint Stability
How stable are joints?
• Depends on type
   – Monoaxial: most stable
   – Multiaxial: least stable
   – Synarthrotic: strongest
   – Diarthrotic and synovial: weakest




What is the relationship between mobility and strength?
• Inverse!
• Strength det’d by:
       • # of ligaments,
       • tendon tension (via skeletal muscle),
       • presence of menisci




What about ball-and-socket joints?
• Hip and shoulder joints
  – Which is more stable and why?




Hip vs. Shoulder
•   Hip: deep socket, many ligaments, less mobility




Hip vs. Shoulder
• Shoulder: shallow socket, fewer ligaments, tendons of rotator cuff are primary stabilizers
   – Most mobile joint in body, most frequent dislocation




What about hinge joints?
• Elbow and knee
   – Which is more stable?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                          Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                        Cochise College




Elbow vs. Knee
• Elbow: humerus w/ulna (deep trochlear notch)
   – Many ligaments



Elbow vs. Knee
• Knee: complex joint
   – Three joints in one (including patella)
   – Femur fits loosely w/tibia, fibula
   – Menisci and ligaments/tendons stabilize




Joint Disorders
What are some joint problems?
• Strain: overstretching tendon/muscle

•   Sprain: tearing tendon/ligament
     – Partial tear: will heal slowly

    – Complete tear: surgery (arthroscopy)




•   Dislocation: displacement of bone
     – Sprain usually accompanies
     – Reduce (set) same as bones




What are some joint problems?
• Bursitis/tendinitis: inflammation of bursa or tendon sheath
   – Repetitive motion triggers; pain, swelling


•   Cartilage injury: knee is common
     – Tear meniscus; need surgery to avoid arthritis
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                       Cochise College




What is arthritis?
•   Inflammation of joints



•   Two types
     – Osteoarthritis is most common
        • Articular cartilage wears away
        • Progressive, degenerative
        • Common in elderly:
            – morning stiffness,
            – grating joints (crepitus),
            – restricted movement




    – Rheumatoid arthritis
         •   Autoimmune disease
         •   Inflammation of synovial membranes degrades articular cartilage
         •   Degenerated joint ossifies (ankylosis): no mobility
         •   Surgery to replace




The muscular system:
An introduction
What is it?
•   Collection of ~600 skeletal muscles
     – Also many smooth muscles and heart tissue
•   Myology: study of muscle
•   Myo-, mys-, sarco- all refer to muscle




What do muscles do for me?
• Move you and your internal organs
• Provide stability
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                            Cochise College


• Maintain posture
• Control body openings/passages
• Produce body heat (~85% of it)




What are the parts of a muscle?
• Watch animation on your CD
•   Muscle cell = muscle fiber
    – long (up to 30 cm)
•   Epimysium:
•   Perimysium and fascicles
     – Fascicle = group of muscle fibers
        • Deep vs. superficial
• Endomysium
• CT sheaths = for blood vessels and nerves




What are the characteristics of muscle tissue?
• Excitability: ability to receive/respond to stimuli
   – Receive neurotransmitter (e.g. acetylcholine)
   – Response: contract
• Contractility: ability to shorten
• Extensibility: ability to be stretched/extended
• Elasticity: ability to recoil




Where do muscles attach to bone?
• Attached in a minimum of two places
   – Insertion: point which moves toward immovable bone
   – Origin: point of insertion at immovable bone
      • Limbs: usually origin is proximal to insertion
   – Also it (or its tendon) MUST cross a joint between the origin and insertion!
      • If a muscle (or its tendon) didn’t, what would happen?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                               Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                             Cochise College


How do muscles attach to bone?
•   Direct (fleshy) attachment
     – epimysium fused to periosteum or perichondrium




How do muscles attach to bone?
• Indirect attachment
   – Collagen fibers of epimysium become tendon
   – Tendon merges with periosteum
   – Much more common
   – Aponeurosis: sheetlike tendon connection
       • Scalp, abdomen, lumbar, hand, foot




How do muscles move together?
•   Agonist (prime mover)
     – Synergist helps
•   Antagonist: Opposes prime mover
•   Antagonistic pair: act on opposite side of joint
•   Fixator: e.g. to scapula so biceps move radius and not scapula




The muscular system: cellular anatomy
What special features are found in muscle fibers?
•   Multiple nuclei: fusion of many myoblasts
    – Satellite cells nearby
•   Sarcolemma
•   Sarcoplasm
     – Many glycosomes (with glycogen)
     – Lots of myoglobin
        • Stores oxygen like hemoglobin
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                       Cochise College


What special features are found in muscle fibers?
•   Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR): releases calcium
•   Myofibrils: many in each myocyte
    – long, contractile elements, parallel to myocyte length
        • Contains many myofilaments




How do muscles contract?
• First, look at anatomy of myofilaments
• Appears as a striation pattern
•   Sliding filament animation




What creates the striations?
• Alternating A (dark) and I (light) bands
• A band
   – H zone: light zone in middle
   – M line
   – Only visible when muscle relaxed
• I band
   – Z disc: dark line in middle
• Sarcomere = distance between two Z disks




What three myofilaments are found in myofibrils?
• Thick filaments: myosin
    –   Extends the length of A band
    –   Looks like golf club with two heads (cross bridges)




What three myofilaments are found in myofibrils?
•   Thin filaments: actin
        • Extend across I band, partially into A band
             – Anchored to Z disk
        • G actin subunit is binding site for myosin head
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                        Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                      Cochise College


    – Tropomysin lines actin grooves
         • Troponin bound to tropomysin; binds calcium




What three myofilaments are found in myofibrils?
• Elastic filaments: titin (AKA connectin)
    –   Strong recoil, found in center of thick filament
         • Anchor thick filament to Z disc




What do all these proteins do?
• Contractile proteins
    –   Myosin and actin
    –   Workhorses



• Regulatory proteins
    –   Tropomysin and troponin
    –   Control when contraction happens
    –   Based on calcium availability




What determines calcium availability?
•   Sarcoplasmic reticulum
     – Smooth ER, forming parallel tubules
        • Tubules surround each myofibril
        • Stores calcium, releases it when NERVE demands it
•   Terminial cisternae: perpendicular ER tubules
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                  Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                Cochise College


What determines calcium availability?
• T tubules: at A band-I band junction
   – Extension of sarcolemma
   – Extends as tubule through paired terminal cisternae
      • Forms triad
   – Transmits nerve signal deep into myocyte
      • Stimulates calcium release from sarcoplasmic ret.




So how do all these parts make muscles contract?
• Sliding filament theory
    –   Time for that CD!
• Result: thin filaments slide along thick filaments causing contraction




The muscular system: The neuromuscular junction
How do nerves “tell” muscles to contract?
• Via action potentials
   – Changes in electrical charge across sarcoplasm
   – Stimulates calcium release


• Called Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    – First, we need to know more about neuromuscular junctions and action potentials




Where do nerve and muscle touch?
•   Neuromuscular junction
    – Motor neuron stimulates skeletal muscle
    – Axon divides to form numerous neuromuscular junctions
       • One neuromuscular junction per muscle fiber
       • Motor unit = all myocytes innervated by one nerve (20-1,000)
          – More motor units = finer control
       • Muscles have > 1 motor unit to prevent fatigue
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                       Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                     Cochise College


Where do nerve and muscle touch?
•   Synaptic cleft separates muscle fiber from nerve
     – 60-100 nm space
     – Synaptic knob (end of axon)
     – Motor end plate (depression in muscle fiber)



If nerve and muscle don’t touch, how do they communicate?
• Nerve impulse reaches axon
    – Voltage-regulated calcium gates open, cause
    – Synaptic vesicles to be exocytosized
       • Release acetylcholine (ACh)
       • ACh traverses synaptic cleft
• ACh receptors on myocyte bind Ach
    – Stimulates opening of calcium gates
    – Action potential propagates down T tubules
       • Calcium released to stimulate contraction




What is a polarized cell?
• All cells are polarized (resting potential)
   – Differential charge across PM
   – High K+ inside, high Na+ outside
   – Also DNA, RNA high negative charge
• Overall, inside of cell is neg., outside pos.




What are action potentials?
1. Depolarization
    – When ACh binds to ACh receptors, Na+ sensitive gates open
       • Inflow of Na+ changes charge (voltage) difference across membrane




What are action potentials?
2. Propagation
    –   action potential spreads across sarcolemma
    –   Opens voltage-sensitive Ca2+ gates
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                    Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                  Cochise College




What are action potentials?
3. Repolarization
    – K+ gates open to reestablish charge
    – Refractory period: time its takes to reestablish charge




How does a cell return to its resting state?
•   After several rounds of depolarization, too much Na+ on inside
•   Na+/K+ pumps
    – Export 3 Na+ and import 2 K+




Meanwhile, back at the synaptic cleft…
• Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) destroys
    –   any ACh still in synaptic cleft
    –   Prevents continual stimulation




TO REVIEW:
What happens during excitation-contraction coupling?
Excitation
•    Action potential travels along sarcolemma and down T tubules
•    Action potential reaches triad
   –    causes terminal cisternae to release calcium into sarcoplasm
•    Calcium bind to troponin, moves tropomyosin out of the way



What happens during excitation-contraction coupling?
•     Contraction
•    Myosin heads attach to actin and pull thin filaments toward H line
    • Attachment, power stroke, reattachment, cocking
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                   Cochise College


•       Relaxation
•    Within 30 ms, calcium removed
    •   via ATP-driven calcium pump
•    At same time AChE degrades ACh
•    Tropomyosin blockage reestablished
    • cross bridge activity ceases




The muscular system:
dynamics and energy requirements
What makes a contraction strong?
•   Length-tension relationship
     – Too little = ___________ contraction
     – Too much overlap = contraction ___________
•   Optimal overlap allows for greatest contraction
     – CNS maintains constant, partial contraction: tonus (muscle tone)




How do whole muscles work?
• Threshold: minimum voltage for contraction
• Stimulate a nerve or a myocyte:
   – Latent-period: delay before contraction (for excitation, etc.)
   – Higher voltage does not produce stronger contraction




So how do muscles contract at varying strengths?
• Recruitment
   – Multiple motor unit summation
• Temporal summation
   – Produces treppe (staircase phenomenon)
   – If enough stimuli fast enough, produces incomplete tetanus
   – Why?
       • Stimuli too rapid to clear calcium between contractions?
       • Heat released causes enzymes to work more efficiently (e.g. warm-up exercises)?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                       Cochise College




What happens if muscle stimulated too much?
• Individual contractions fuse to smooth contraction
    –   Complete tetanus
    –   Different than the disease tetanus
         • This blocks glycine (an inhibitor) release




Where do muscles get the ATP needed to contract?
• Anaerobic fermentation
   – Pro: don’t need oxygen to make ATP
   – Cons: only makes a little ATP and produces lactic acid
• Aerobic respiration
   – Pro: much greater ATP yield
   – Con: requires oxygen




How much ATP do muscles need?
•   Yes, if you only want to shorten your muscle by about 1%
•   Cycle repeated until desired shortening reached
     – Usually this is about 30 to 35%
     – Note: always some myosin heads attached
        • Prevents thin filament from sliding back
•   Cycle stops if SR pumps calcium back out of sarcoplasm
     – Also stops if no more ATP




What if there’s no ATP?
• Rigor mortis
   – Starts at 3 to 4 hrs after death
   – Peaks at 12 hours
   – Dissipates over next 48 to 60 hrs
• Calcium no longer pumped out
   – Myosin stays stuck to actin
   – ATP runs out shortly after person stops breathing
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                              Cochise College


    – No ATP means myosin heads can’t detach
    – Rigor mortis disappears as muscle proteins break down
    – Related to liver mortis




When do muscles use each ATP-generating path?
•   Immediate demand (e.g. quick sprint, ~10 secs)
     – Myoglobin supplies oxygen
     – Phosphate groups donated to ADP from:
        • Another ADP (myokinase orchestrates this)
        • Creatinine phosphate (creatinine kinase directs)




When do muscles use each ATP-generating path?
•   Short-term (as phosphate borrowing runs out)
     – Shift to anaerobic while awaiting oxygen
     – Glycogen-lactic acid system
     – 30-40 seconds of energy




What happens after 40 secs?
•   Long-term energy
     – Oxygen delivery catches up with demands
     – Aerobic respiration supported




Why do muscles fatigue?
• Different from psychological fatigue!
   – Run out of glucose and glycogen
   – ATP shortage slows Na/K pumps
       • Resting potential not maintained
   – Release of K+ to interstitial fluid lowers membrane potential and excitability
   – Motor nerves use up acetylcholine
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                             Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                           Cochise College




Why do I keep breathing heavy after I stop running?
• Oxygen debt
   – Convert lactic acid to pyruvic acid
      • Most converted back to glucose
   – Replacing oxygen reserves (myoglobin, hemoglobin, etc.)
   – Replenish creatinine phosphate and AMP to ATPs




What are slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers?
•   Slow twitch
     – Small, AKA red fibers, long twitches
     – More mitochondria, myoglobin, capillaries
        • Why? More oxygen consumption and aerobic respiration
     – Postural muscles of back, soleus




What are slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers?
• Fast twitch
    –   Large, AKA white fibers, short twitches
         • Many creatinine, glycogen-lactic acid pathways
    –   Gastrocnemius




Adapting to exercise
•   Muscle fibers add filaments, not more myocytes (hypertrophy)
•   Red muscle adds more mitochondria, myoglobin
•   Heart hypertrophies




Smooth and cardiac muscle
What’s so special about cardiac muscle?
• Recall characteristics
• Does not require nerve stimulus for contraction
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                       Cochise College


    –   Pacemaker
    –   Autrorhythmic
• Aerobic respiration



What makes smooth muscle so smooth?
•   Lack striation, Z discs, T tubules
     – Calcium comes from interstitial fluid
•   Fusiform shape
     – Actin filaments anchored to dense body
     – Myosin filaments in between actin filaments
•   Can undergo mitosis




What kinds of smooth muscles are there?
•   Multi-unit
    – Muscle fibers structurally independent of one another
    – Arrector pili, larger arteries, pulmonary airways, iris
•   Single-unit (visceral muscle)
     – All cells contract as a unit, joined by gap junctions
     – Contract like a single cell
     – Most smooth muscle in body




How are smooth muscles stimulated?
• Can contract without nerve stimulus
   – Hormones, carbon dioxide levels, low pH, lack of oxygen, stretch reflex
• Also has ANS innervation
   – Varicosities: synaptic vesicles secreted
   – Nerve fiber passes among several myocytes = diffuse junctions
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                             Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                           Cochise College


How do smooth muscles contract?
• Calcium gates on PM
   – Voltage-regulated
   – Ligand-regulated (hormones)
   – mechanically-regulated (stretch): peristalsis


• No troponin; calmodulin instead
    – Calcium binds to calmodulin
    – Long latent period, slow contraction and slow relaxation
         • Latch-bridge mechanism keeps myosin heads bound, prolongs contraction
         • E.g. vasomotor tone
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                  Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                Cochise College




                                   Unit Five
                                              Chapters 12,
                                              13 (p. 503-508),
                         14   (parts outlined in questions 2 and 3 of study guide 5),
                                                  15, 16
Bio 201 Lecture Packet   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                 Cochise College
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                 Cochise College



                                            Exam 5 Study Guide
Study topics and questions
 1. Brain quiz and exam 5 both: Identify the 12 cranial nerves (by name and number both) and each nerve‘s function.
 2. Brain quiz and exam 5 both: Identify the following brain regions and their functions: hindbrain, midbrain,
     forebrain, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum, substantia nigra, reticular formation, thalamus, hypothalamus,
     cerebrum (frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes), corpus callosum, basal nuclei, limbic system,
     hippocampus, amygdala, Wernicke‘s area, memory, emotions, cerebral lateralization.
 3. How is the nervous system organized? Discuss the divisions from CNS/PNS all the way down to
     sympathetic/parasympathetic. Which is responsible for the fight or flight response? The feed or breed response?
 4. Identify the four types of glial cells found in the CNS and the duties of each.
 5. Compare/contrast oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in terms of location, function and anatomy.
 6. Identify the location and function of each part of a neuron, including Nissl bodies, axon hillock, axon collateral,
     axon terminal and terminal branch.
 7. Compare/contrast the following pairs of terms: nuclei/ganglion, tract/nerve, unmyelinated/myelinated,
     potential/current, graded/action potential, excitatory/inhibitory, depolarize/hyperpolarize, temporal/spatial
     summation.
 8. What are nodes of Ranvier, what purpose do they serve, how do they relate to salutatory conduction and why are
     they found at very regular intervals?
 9. Distinguish between uni-, bi- and multipolar neurons. Which is most common and where would you find each in
     the body?
 10. Distinguish between afferent, efferent and interneurons. Which is most common and where would you find each in
     the body?
 11. What does it mean when a cell is at resting potential? Give an explanation which includes more than just the mV
     charge.
 12. What happens to make a cell polarized? Depolarized? Hyperpolarized?
 13. Distinguish between repolarization and the return to resting potential (polarization).
 14. Explain why Na+/K+ pumps help maintain, but do not create, the resting potential of the cell.
 15. Describe the process which generates graded and action potentials. Look at Figure 12.11a. Be sure you can correlate
     each event you just described with the appropriate location on this graph. This will very probably be on the test!
 16. What specific changes in ion concentration depolarize a cell and hyperpolarize a cell. Relate these two terms to
     excitatory and inhibitory post synaptic potentials.
 17. Explain why action potentials travel in only one direction down the axon, using refractory periods as the basis of
     your explanation.
 18. What is a cholinergic synapse?
 19. How are neurotransmitters ―cleared out‖ of the synaptic cleft? Give three ways.
 20. Define the following types of circuits and identify where they would most likely be found in the nervous system:
     diverging, converging, reverberating, parallel after-discharge.
 21. Explain why you pull your hand away from a hot stove even before you consciously feel sensations of heat.
 22. What is a dermatome?
 23. What are the defining features of a motor reflex?
 24. Distinguish between stretch reflex, flexor reflex and crossed extensor reflex. Give an example of each.
 25. What is the difference between a motor reflex and a visceral reflex?
 26. Identify some of the activities which the sympathetic nervous system controls and some of the activities the
     parasympathetic controls.
 27. Why are the adrenal glands discussed in the same chapter as the autonomic nervous system?
 28. What is the enteric nervous system?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                            Cochise College


 29. Explain the difference between the following terms: cholinergic fiber vs. adrenergic fiber; cholinergic receptor vs.
     adrenergic receptor; alpha-adrenergic receptor vs. beta-adrenergic receptor; nicotinic recptors vs. muscarinic
     receptors.
 30. What is dual innervation? Is it always necessary to have dual innervation? Can you think of an example where dual
     innervation isn‘t necessary?
 31. Distinguish between these terms: receptor/sense organ, phasic/tonic receptor, fast/slow pain receptors,
     pitch/loudness, conduction/sensorineuronal deafness, otitis media/otosclerosis, diplopia/strabismus,
     hyperopia/presbyopia/myopia,astigmatism, rods/cones, rhodopsin/photopsin, cis-/trans-retinal,
 32. What are transducers and what do they create?
 33. Identify three ways nerves can code for varying intensity of stimuli.
 34. Define these terms: chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nociceptors, mechanoceptors, photoceptors, interoceptors,
     proprioceptors, exteroceptors.
 35. What are unencapsulated nerve endings and what types of sensations do they detect? What are Merkel discs?
 36. What are encapsulated nerve ending and what types of sensations do they detect? What are Pacinian, Ruffini and
     Meissner corpuscles?
 37. How does IcyHot work?
 38. What is referred pain and how does it happen?
 39. How do opioids and endogenous opioids work?
 40. Which type of papillae protects us from eating poisonous food?
 41. What are the five taste sensations and how is it that we perceive them (how do we taste)?
 42. Compare the process by which we taste a food with how we smell the same food.
 43. Be able to identify/label the sensory parts and their functions for sight, hearing, taste, equilibrium and smell.
 44. Understand and be able to explain how we perceive sounds. Be sure to include such things as the basilar
     membrane, stereocilia, tectorial membrane, etc.
 45. How does the brain know it‘s hearing a high pitched sound versus a low-pitched one? How does it know how loud
     a sound is?
 46. What are otoliths? Explain how they help you perceive motion.
 47. Explain how your semicircular ducts help you maintain your balance.
 48. How do your eyes dilate?
 49. Explain the relationship between photoreceptor cells (are they neurons?), bipolar cells and ganglion cells.
 50. What is the dark current and how does it relate to bleaching?
 51. Why does it take your eyes time to adjust to bright light after you walk out of a dark movie theater?
 52. Why bother having both rods and cones?
 53. Explain hemidecussation and how it controls what visual information reaches each hemisphere of the brain.
 54. Compare decussation with hemidecussation.
 55. Explain how the hippocampus relates to memory and how the amygdala relates to emotions.

    Also, quiz yourself using your textbook:
     Testing your recall, Ch. 12 (1-4, 6-18); Ch. 13 (4, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18), Ch. 14 (11, 17-20), Ch. 15 (1, 2, 7, 10-13, 15, 17)
          Ch. 16 (1-8, 10-14, 20).
     Testing your comprehension, Ch. 12 (1, 2, 3, 5);Ch .14 (4); Ch. 16 (2-5) .


                                     Good luck and don’t panic!
                         It’s the end of the semester and the universe is—
                                        well, never mind! 
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                  Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                Cochise College



Nerve physiology
First things first…
• Brain and cranial nerves lab practical
    –   See questions 2 and 3 on study guide 5




The nervous system:
What does it do?
• Sensory perception of stimuli
• Integration                                                                   Nervous System
• Motor output
    –   Muscles or glands
                                                                     Central N.S            Peripheral N.S.



How is it organized?                                                               Motor N.S.               Sensory N.S.
• Central nervous system (CNS)
   – Brain and spinal cord
   – Integrating/command center
                                                                      Somatic                   Autonomic
• Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
   – Nerves extending from brain/spinal cord
      • Links body parts to CNS
                                                                                Sympathetic NS        Parasympathetic NS
   – Spinal nerves: messages to and from spinal cord
   – Cranial nerves: messages to and from brain
   – Split into subdivisions




What are the PNS subdivisions?
•   Sensory (afferent) division
     – Information from sensory receptors to CNS
     – Somatic afferent fibers: from skin, skeletal muscle, joints
     – Visceral afferent fibers: from viscera
•   Motor (efferent) division
    – From CNS to effector organs, muscles, glands
    – Divided into two main parts
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                   Cochise College


What are the PNS motor subdivisions?
• Somatic (voluntary) nervous system
    – CNS to skeletal muscles
• Autonomic (involuntary) nervous system
    – CNS regulates smooth muscles
    – Two subdivisions
         • Sympathetic nervous system: fight or flight
         • Parasympathetic nervous system: feed or breed




What types of cells are found in the nervous system?
•   Neurons: excitable cells
•   Neuroglia: supporting cells (AKA glial cells)
    – Ten times more common than neurons
    – Four in CNS
    – Two in PNS




What glial cells are in the CNS?
• Astrocytes: most abundant
   – Support/brace neurons
   – exchange with capillaries
   – guide migrating young neurons
   – Clean up K+, neurotransmitters
• Microglia: functions as clean-up
   – Substitute for immune system




What glial cells are in the CNS?
• Ependymal cells:
   – Line central cavities of brain, spinal cord
   – Form permeable barrier for CSF
   – Produce CSF
• Oligodendrocytes:
   – Form myelin sheaths
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                   Cochise College




What glial cells are in the PNS?
•   Satellite cells: surround neuron somas
     – Function unknown
•   Schwann cells: form myelin sheaths
     – Essential for PNS nerve cell regeneration




Why do PNS neurons regenerate?
•   Myelin sheaths form regeneration tube
    – Direct new axon into place
    – CNS neurons don’t regenerate




What about neurons?
•   Long-living
•   Amitotic
     – Except olfactory and hippocampus (memory) neurons
•   V. high metabolic rate
•   Bundles of arm-like processes
     – Tracts in CNS
     – Nerves in PNS




What are a neuron’s parts?
•   Cell parts
     – Soma: all organelles but centrioles
         • Nissle bodies (rough ER)
         • Nuclei = cluster of cell bodies in skull/cord
         • Ganglia = cluster of cell bodies in PNS




What are a neuron’s parts?
    –   Dendrites
    –   Axon
         • Axon hillock
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                       Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                     Cochise College


         • Axon collaterals (rare, right angle)
         • Terminal branches
         • Synaptic knob, axonal terminals
         • Axoplasm
         • Axolemma




Myelin sheaths
What are myelin sheaths?
•   Protein-lipid filled cytoplasm of Schwann cells
     – Neurilemma: outermost part w/nucleus and cytoplasm
     – Myelin sheath: inner layers of PM
•   Protects/insulates axon (never dendrites)
     – Allow for rapid transmission of action potential




What are myelin sheaths?
•   Nodes of Ranvier: gaps between adjacent Schwann cells
•   Oligodendrocytes serve same purpose in CNS
     – White matter: areas of myelinated (primary fiber tracts)
     – Gray matter: nerve cell bodies (unmyelinated)




What kinds of neurons are there?
• Classify by function or structure
• Structure
   – Multipolar neurons
      • Most common (99%)
      • Three or more processes
      • Many dendrites, some no axon
   – Bipolar neurons
      • Retina, olfactory mucosa
   – Unipolar
      • One process; divides into proximal and distal branches (both are considered axons)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                            Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                          Cochise College


What kinds of neurons are there?
•   Function
     – Sensory (afferent) neurons
        • Conduct toward CNS from skin, internal organs
        • Usually unipolar; soma located outside CNS
        • More on sensory receptors in special senses lecture


    – Motor (efferent) neurons
         • Conduct away from CNS; multipolar
         • Cell bodies in CNS


    – Interneurons (association neurons)
         • Between sensory and motor neurons; multipolar
         • Usually entirely in CNS; 99% of all your neurons




Nerve physiology:
Action potentials
What does it mean when a neuron “fires”?
• Firing = excitability = action potential = nerve impulse
• Recall resting potential of all cells
   – High K+ in; high Na+ out
   – Cell is polarized
   – Cell overall neg. charge inside due to molecules like proteins, RNA, DNA
       • Charge measured in millivolts
       • Potential = difference in charge across PM
       • Current = flow of charge (ions) from one point to another




What lets ions move across the PM?
•   Membrane ion channels (proteins)
    – Passive (leakage): always open
    – Active (gated): usually either opened or closed depending on type of gate
       • Chemically-gated: ligand-gated
           – E.g. ACh ion gate
       • Voltage-gated: open/close in response to change in potential




What causes resting potential in the first place?
•   Membrane permeability
    – K+ permeable, but not Na+ permeable
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                      Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                    Cochise College


         • Creates membrane potential
         • K+ leave cell but Na+ can’t enter
            Result: overall neg. charge inside cell
              –
    – Na+/K+ pump maintains but does not create resting potential
       • Always a lot of K+ leaking out and a little Na+ leaking in




What is depolarization?
• Reduction in membrane potential
   – Less difference between in- and outside of cell
   – i.e cells becomes less negative (-70 mV to -50 mV)
   – Cell can also temporarily become positive
   – Excitatory event


• Hyperpolarization
    – Cell becomes more negative than normal
    – e.g. -70 mV to -90 mV
    – Inhibitory event




What are local potentials?
• Short-lived, local changes in membrane potential
• Can depolarize or hyperpolarize cell
• Ligand-regulated
• Graded = magnitude varies w/strength of stimulus
   – Stronger stimulus = greater voltage change, longer travel of current
   – Caused when ion gates open due to stimulus




What happens during an action potential?
•     Follow on graph
•     Sodium ions arrive at axon hillock
    •     Depolarizes membrane
•     Threshold reached (-55 mV)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                 Cochise College


What happens during an action potential?

•  Voltage-regulated Na+ (fast) gates open
  • Slow voltage-regulated K+ gates also open
  •  Depolarization begins
• Propagation of signal



What happens during an action potential?
5. Na+ gates close (inactivate) above 0 mV
       - voltage peaks around 35 mV
       - fully depolarized
6. At voltage peak, K+ gates are finally fully open
       - repolarization begins at K+ flows out
   – How is this different from resting potential?




What happens during an action potential?
7. K+ gates closer more slowly than Na+ gates
        - result: more K+ out than Na+ in
        - overshoot = hyperpolarization
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/channel.html




What happens after an action potential?
•   Refractory period: few millisecs
     – Time during which can’t stimulate neuron a second time
     – Happens until recovery of resting potential

•   Two stages
     – Absolute refractory period
        • No new action potential possible


    – Relative refractory period
         • Can trigger new action potential if stimulus is very strong
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                 Cochise College



Nerve physiology: graded vs. action potential
F2F Lecture
What causes changes in membrane potential?
•   Any change in membrane permeability to an ion
•   Any change in ion concentrations on the two sides of the membrane
•   Either causes one of two types of signals
     – Graded potentials
        • Short-distance signals
     – Action potentials
        • Long-distance signals




What are local potentials?
•   Short-lived, local changes in membrane potential
•   Can depolarize or hyperpolarize cell
•   Ligand-regulated
•   Graded = magnitude varies w/strength of stimulus
     – Stronger stimulus = greater voltage change, longer travel of current
     – Caused when ion gates open due to stimulus




What are local potentials?
• Examples
   – Energy (heat, light) open ion gates: generator potential (more in later chapters)
   – Neurotransmitter opens gates: postsynaptic potential
• Dissipate rapidly (decremental)
   – Due to leaky PM, Na+ in immediately balanced by K+ out
   – Most charge is quickly lost through membranes




What are action potentials?
•   Only occur where high concentration of voltage-regulated gates
     – e.g. axon hillock (trigger zone)
     – If not enough gates for large voltage change, then potential is local only
•   A local potential can cause an action potential
     – Must be strong enough when it hits trigger zone
     – Proximity to axon hillock matters
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                          Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                        Cochise College



What are the characteristics of an action potential?
•   All-or-none response
     – Stronger stimulus doesn’t produce stronger action potential
     – If not enough charge change at hillock, nothing happens
         • Local potential dies out
•   Nondecremental
•   Irreversible: can’t stop it once it starts
     – By comparison, local potentials are reversible




What happens after an action potential?
• Refractory period: few millisecs
   – Time during which can’t stimulate neuron a second time
   – Happens until recovery of resting potential
• Two stages
   – Absolute refractory period
      • No new action potential possible
   – Relative refractory period
      • Can trigger new action potential if stimulus is very strong




How do action potentials travel down the axon?
•   Nerve signal = traveling wave of excitation produced by action potentials
•   Unmyelinated sheaths
     – Slower transmission
     – Action potential must open all gates between hillock and synaptic knob
        • Called continuous conduction




How do action potentials travel down the axon?
• Myelinated sheaths
    –   Many times faster transmission
    –   Action potential skips from one node of Ranvier to the next
         • Called saltatory conduction
         • http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/actionp.html
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                              Cochise College


What else influences speed of action potential?
•   Axon diameter
     – The larger the diameter, the faster the speed of transmission
     – Less resistance to current flow with larger diameter




What happens if myelination is lost?
•   Multiple sclerosis
    – Autoimmune disease
    – Usually young adults
    – Blindness, problems controlling muscles
        • Ultimately paralysis
    – Immune system attacks myelin sheaths and nerve fibers
        • Scar tissue (scleroses) replaces some damaged cells
        • Other now unmyelinated axons sprout Na+ channels
            – Accounts for sporadic nature of disease?




Neurotransmitters
What happens when the nerve signal reaches the synaptic knob?
•   First some terminology
     – Synapse: junction between two neurons
         • Use neurotransmitters
             – Allows for integration/evaluation of information
     – Presynaptic neuron
         • Can synapse with next neurons dendrites, soma or axon
     – Postsynaptic neuron
     – Synaptic cleft




What are neurotransmitters?
•   Chemicals which cross synaptic cleft
     – Communicate with postsynaptic neuron
•   Over 100 known neurotransmitters
     – ACh, serotonin, glutamate, aspartate, glycine, GABA, NE, dopamine, histamine
•   Excitatory or inhibitory
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                        Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                      Cochise College


How do other neurotransmitters work?
•   ACh and some others are ionotropic
     – Alters membrane potential
•   Rest are metabotropic
     – Use secondary messenger (e.g. cyclic AMP) to alter postsynaptic cell metabolism
     – Neurotransmitter activates cAMP production
     – For example<




How does a nerve signal stop?
•   Neurotransmitters usually bind for only about 1 msec
    – Then detaches, then reattaches, then detaches<
•   If no new neurotransmitter available, stimulus stops
     – This can happen one of three ways
         • Diffusion
         • Destruction (e.g. AChE)
            – http://www.microvet.arizona.edu/Courses/MIC420/lecture_notes/clostridia/clostridia_neurotox/

               movie/botulinum_movie.html
         • Reuptake
            – Cocaine
                  http://www.wnet.org/closetohome/animation/coca-anim2-main.html
                   »


            – SSRIs
            – http://www.paxil.com/flash/depression.swf




How do SSRIs work?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                        Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                      Cochise College


How do neurons integrate multiple signals?
• Like a democracy: count the votes!
• Mechanisms neurons use to process, store and retrieve information
• Postsynaptic potentials
   – Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
      • Na+ flows in an cancels some of neg. charge
      • Glutamate, aspartate
   – Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
      • Increases neg. charge
      • Neurotransmitter opens Cl- gates into cell
      • Glycine, GABA
   – ACh, NE can be either EPSPs or IPSPs




How do neurons integrate multiple signals?
• Summation: adding up postsynaptic potentials
   – Sum determines if fire or not
   – Need about 30 EPSPs to reach threshold
• Temporal summation: new EPSPs arrive before decay of previous EPSP
   – Summation exceeds threshold
• Spatial summation: several different synapses all emit EPSPs
   – Enough Na+ enters to reach threshold




What are neuronal circuits?
• Pathways among neurons
• Diverging circuits
   – Large scale muscle contraction
• Converging circuits
   – Good for incoming sensory information to converge in one part of brain
• Reverberating circuit
   – Promotes inhalation (when reverberation stops, you exhale)
• Parallel after-charge circuit
   – Seeing light bulb image after closing eyes
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                 Cochise College




                          Have you started studying
                         the brain and cranial nerves
                                 for the quiz?


                               Study, study, study.

                   The quiz is just around the corner!
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                       Cochise College



Central Nervous System—
The brain and spinal cord
What are the brain’s major parts?
•Forebrain
       –Cerebrum
              •Lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
       –Diencephalon
              •Thalamus
              •Hypothalamus
•Midbrain
•Hindbrain
       –Pons
       –Cerebellum
       –Medulla oblongata




How is the brain protected?
•Meninges
         –Dura mater
         –Arachnoid mater
                   •Subarachnoid space and CSF
         –Pia mater




How is the brain protected?
•Cerebral Spinal Fluid
•Buoyancy, protection, chemical stability
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                 Cochise College




What are some general features of the brain?
•Gray matter
•White matter
•Hemispheres
•Gyri (gyrus = singular)
•Sulci (sulcus = singular)
•Corpus callosum




What are the functions of the parts of the brain?
•You’ll get to tell each other in expert groups!




What are the major parts of the spinal cord?
•Meninges
         –Dura mater
                   •Epidural space
         –Arachnoid mater
                   •Subarachnoid space filled with CSF
         –Pia mater




What are the major parts of the spinal cord?
•Gray Matter
      –Dorsal horn
      –Ventral horn
      –Lateral horn—sympathetic N.S.

•White matter
         –Myelin & tracts

•Spinal nerves
         –Dorsal root - sensory
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                       Cochise College


         –Ventral root - motor



What are spinal tracts?
•Review: what is a tract?
•Ascending tracts
       –Sensory up to brain
•Descending tracts
       –Motor down to body
•Decussation




Peripheral nervous system--
somatic nervous division
Did you know?
• There are 45 miles of nerves in the skin of a human being.
Which part are we studying?

                Nervous System



     Central N.S              Peripheral N.S.



                   Sensory N.S.               Motor N.S.



      Somatic                     Autonomic



                Sympathetic NS          Parasympathetic NS




What are dermatomes?
•   Region of skin innervated by one spinal nerve
•   These overlap
     – Can help determine which nerve was severed
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                 Cochise College


What is a reflex?
•   Quick, involuntary, stereotyped responses to stimulation
     – Both muscles and glands can respond
•   Characteristics
     – Quick (few if any interneurons)
     – Require stimulation
     – Involuntary
     – Stereotyped and predictable
•   reflex arc movie




How do reflexes work?
• Via reflex arc (for somatic reflexes)
• Signals follow particular path
   – Somatic receptors (skin, muscle, tendon)
       • Muscle spindle fibers, Golgi tendon bodies
   – Afferent nerve fibers (to spinal cord)
   – Interneurons (not all reflex arcs have)
   – Efferent nerve fibers: from spinal cord to skeletal muscles
   – Skeletal muscles: perform action




What is the stretch reflex?
•   Stretching of muscles causes increased tension (tonus)
     – This maintains position of muscle
•   Mostly controlled by brain, but part is spinal controlled
    – Spinal more pronounced in strong stimulation
       • Tendon reflex




What is the flexor reflex?
•   AKA withdrawal reflex
     – Quick contraction of flexor muscles and relaxation of extensors
•   Accompanied by the crossed extensor reflex
     – Maintains balance during flexor reflex
     – contraction of contralateral extensors and flexors
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                           Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                         Cochise College


What are nerve plexuses (plexi)?
• 31 pairs of spinal nerve arise from cord
• : from thoracic Thoracic (intercostal) nerves vertebrae and are not plexuses
• Cervical plexus: neck/chest, some shoulder muscles
    – Especially diaphragm (phrenic nerves)
       • 3,4,5—keep the diaphragm alive
• Brachial plexus: upper arms, some neck/shoulder




What are nerve plexuses (plexi)?
• Lumbar plexus
    –   Serves lower abdominopelvic region and anterior thigh
• Sacral/coccygeal plexus
    –   Serves buttocks, posterior thigh, almost all leg and foot




Peripheral nervous system--autonomic nervous division
What does the ANS do?
• AKA the visceral motor system
• Unconsciously controls/modulates basic body functions (homeostasis)
   – Body temperature
   – Digestion
   – Heart rate
   – Metabolism
   – Breathing
   – Defecation/urination
   – Pupil diameter




What parts make up the SNS?
• SNS nerves arise from thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord
   – Often called the thoracolumbar division
• Adrenal glands closely associated
   – Adrenal medulla is modified sympathetic ganglion
   – Secrete
      • E (epinephrine, AKA adrenaline)
      • NE (norepinephrine, AKA noradrenaline)
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                            Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                          Cochise College


What parts make up the PNS?
• PNS nerves arise from brain and sacral regions of spinal cord
   – Often called the craniosacral division
   – Leave brainstem by four cranial nerves
      • Oculomotor (III), glossopharyngeal (IX), facial (VII) and vagus (X)




What is the enteric nervous system?
• Plexus (net) of about 100 M neurons in wall of digestive tract
   – Regulates motility, secretion
• Both SNS and PNS help regulate
• Still fairly independent, however



What are adrenergic receptors?
• Two types of receptor cells
   – Alpha- () adrenergic receptors
      • Usually NE excites
   – Beta- () adrenergic receptors
      • Usually NE inhibits
      • Beta-blockers such as propranolol<



What’s an example of the difference between  and ?
• NE binds to
  – -adrenergic receptors in blood vessels --> vasoconstriction and thus _____________
  – -adrenergic receptors in heart and skeletal muscle --> dilate these blood vessels and thus
     ________________
      • Also relaxes bronchioles, which thus _____________




What is dual innervation?
• Viscera have both SNS and PNS
   – Can be antagonistic or cooperative


•   Antagonistic effects
     – E.g. SNS speeds heart, but PNS slows it
     – SNS dilates pupil, PNS constricts it
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                          Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                        Cochise College




•   Cooperative effects
     – Both act on different effectors for common goal
        • PNS stimulates serous cells to make watery secretion
        • SNS stimulates mucous cells to make mucus
        • Need both for proper saliva




Is dual innervation always necessary?
• No!
• One part of ANS can have opposite effects all by itself
• Many cells only have SNS fibers
    – Arector pilli, suderiferous glands, many blood vessels, adrenal medulla
    – Blood vessels: vasomotor tone
        • Partial contraction all the time
        • Drop in firing frequency --> dilation
        • Increase --> constriction




What controls the ANS?
• Cerebral cortex
   – Limbic system connects conscious thoughts with hypothalamus
• Hypothalamus
   – Major controller of visceral motor system
      • Hunger, thirst, temp reg., emotions, etc.




What controls the ANS?
• Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
   – House cranial nerve nuclei so controls
      • Pupil constriction (oculomotor nerve)
      • Lacrimal, salivary, nasal secretion (facial nerve)
      • Salivation, bp (glossopharyngeal nerve)
      • Thoracic and abdominal viscera (vagus nerve)
• Spinal cord
   – Defecation and micturition
   – Can also consciously inhibit
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                            Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                          Cochise College




Special Senses
•It is estimated that your nose accounts for 80-90% of your ability to taste the foods you eat.
What are sensory receptors?
•Receptor: structure which detects a stimulus
         –i.e. nerve endings
•Sense organs: nerve endings + tissues (CT, muscular, epithelial)
         –Tissues enhance/moderate response to stimulus




What are a receptor’s properties?
•Transducer: converts energy to another type of energy
         –e.g. light into electro-chemical energy
•This creates receptor potential
         –May cause release of neurotransmitter
         –Creates sensation if this cell is a neuron and it fires to CNS
•Sensation: conscious awareness of stimulus




What kinds of information do receptors transmit?
•Intensity: encoded three ways
       –Firing frequency
       –More nerve fibers recruited to fire
       –Weak stimuli activate only most sensitive fibers
•Duration: how neuron firing changes over time
       –Phasic receptors: fast adaptation
•lamellated corpuscles
       –Tonic receptors: slow adaptation
•Proprioceptors
       –All can adapt over time
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                  Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                Cochise College


What kinds of receptors are there?
•By modality
      –Chemoreceptors
      –Thermoreceptors
      –Nociceptors
      –Mechanoceptors
      –Photoceptors


•By stimulus origin
         –Interoceptors: internal organs
         –Proprioceptors: body position/movement
         –Exteroceptors: sense external stimulus



General senses
What kinds of receptors make up the general senses?
•Unencapsulated nerve endings: sensory dendrites, no CT cover
         –Free nerve endings: warm, cold receptors and nociceptors
         –Merkel (tactile) discs: tonic receptors for light touch




Where are they located?
      –Hair receptors: dendrites wrapped around base of hair


•Encapsulated nerve endings: CT encloses (or glial cells surround)
         –Most are mechanoreceptors (touch, pressure, stretch)
         –Meissner (tactile) corpuscles: in skin for light touch
         –Pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles: deep pressure, stretch, vibration, tickle
•Schwann cells around nerve fiber
•Deep dermis, some viscera




What kinds of receptors make up the general senses?
      –Ruffini corpuscles: heavy touch, pressure, stretching of skin, joint movement
•Dermis, ligaments, tendons, joint capsules
      –Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                       Cochise College




What about pain receptors?
•Damages tissues secrete bradykinin (protein)
         –Stimulates nociceptors
•Fast (first) pain receptors: sharp, stabbing
         –Myelinated axons
•Slow (second) pain: dull, diffuse pain
         –unmyelinated
•So why does IcyHot make my muscles stop aching for a while?




What is referred pain?
•Referred pain: viscera pain misinterpreted as coming from superficial location
         –Heart shares spinal interneuron with arm/shoulder skin
–Brain assumes information is from skin since this is injured more often




What causes differences in pain intensity?
•Frequency of nociceptor firing
•CNS has analgesic mechanisms
       –Endogenous opioids
              •Enkephalins (200 times as potent as opium, morphine, heroin)
              •Endorphins
–Secreted by CNS, pituitary
       •Blocks pain transmission in brain by stopping transmission at dorsal horn
       •prevents first-order neurons from producing substance P (thus, no pain information transferred)




Chemical senses
What’s on our tongues?
•Sensory receptors (taste buds) located in bumps
         –Filiform papillae: small, most prevalent
                   •But no taste buds (cat’s rough tongue)
         –Fungiform papillae: about three taste buds each
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                    Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                  Cochise College


                   •All over, but especially sides and tip
         –Vallate papillae: V at rear of tongue, large
                   •7-12, each with about 250 taste buds




What are taste buds?
•Cluster of 40-60 cells
         –Taste cells: with taste hairs (microvilli)
•Receptors for taste molecules
•These are epithelial cells—synapse with neuron
         –Basal cells: replace taste cells every 7-10 days
         –Supporting cells: between taste cells but no sensory function




How do we taste?
•Taste molecules dissolve in saliva
         –Dissolve across PM directly (salty, sour)
         –or bind to membrane protein, activate G protein
         –Either way, neurotransmitter secreted to neuron
•Five taste sensations: All sensed over entire tongue
         –Salty: electrolytes
         –Sour: acid (citrus fruits)
         –Sweet
         –Bitter: alkaloids, spoiled foods
         –Umami: amino acids (MSG)
                   •MSG = salt of glutamic acid




What’s up our noses?
•Olfactory mucosa: patch of epithelium
         –In roof of nasal cavity
•Olfactory cells: neurons
         –With cilia called olfactory hairs
         –Replaced mitotically via basal cells




How do we smell?
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                            Cochise College


•Molecules binds to olfactory hair receptor
         –Receptors adapt rapidly
•Via synaptic inhibition in brain’s olfactory bulbs
         –Activates secondary messenger
         –Opens Na+ gates and cause receptor potential
•Impulses go directly to cerebral cortex
         –Bypass thalamus
         –Smelling animation




Sense organs:
Hearing
What’s up with our ears?
•Let’s us hear and keep our balance
         –Hearing: transduce vibrating air molecules to electro-chemical messages
         –Equilibrium: sense of motion/balance
•Transduce mechanical displacement information to electrochemical messages




What is sound?
•Audible vibration of molecules
•Pitch (treble/bass)
         –Frequency of sound
         –Measured in Hz
•Loudness
         –Intensity/amplification of vibration
         –Measure in decibels




What are the parts of the ear?
•External ear
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                        Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                      Cochise College


         –Pinna (auricle)
         –External auditory meatus
•Middle ear
         –Tympanic membrane
         –Eustachian tube
         –Auditory ossicles
                   •Malleus (hammer)
                   •Incus   (anvil)
                   •Stapes (stirrup)




What are the parts of the ear?
•Inner ear
         –Bony Oval window (at stapes)
         –labyrinth
                   •Membranous labyrinth lines it
                   •Perilymph lies in between
                   •Vestibule (with equil. organs)




What are the parts of the ear?
•Inner ear, con’t
       –Cochlea: hearing organ
               •Scala vestibuli (top)
                       –Starts near oval window
                       –Bottom is vestibular membrane
               •Scala tympani (bottom)
                       –Ends at round window
                       –Top is basilar membrane
               •Helicotrema: connects tympani and vestibuli




What are the parts of the ear?
•Inner ear, con’t
•Cochlear duct (scala media)
         –Top is vest. memb.
         –Bottom is basilar memb.
         –Filled with endolymph
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                   Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                 Cochise College


•Organ of Corti
         –Hair cells
                      stereocilia (some embedded in tect. memb.
                   •With
               •Synapse with neurons
         –Supporting cells
               •Tectorial membrane above them




How do we hear?
•Sound reaches tympanic membrane
       –Concentrates sound wave energy
       •18 times more area than oval window
              –Thus auditory ossicles can transfer sound to liquid medium effectively
•Vibrates oval window
•This eventually vibrates basilar membrane (where hair cells are)



How does this happen?
•Stapes pushes on perilymph of scala vestibuli
         –This pushes vest. memb. down
         –Which pushes on endolymph
         –Which pushes down basilar membrane
         –This puts pressure on perilymph of scali tympani




How does this happen?
•Stereocilia move against tectorial membrane
         –Tip link (transmembrane protein) pulls open K+ channel of nearby stereocilia
         –Stimulates neurotransmitter release to nearby sensory dendrites



How does the brain distinguish pitch/loudness?
•Loud sounds: more vigorous vibrations of organ of Corti
•Frequency (pitch): basilar membrane with stiff collagen fibers
       –Different lengths
       –At proximal (basal) end, stiff
•Detects high-frequency (treble)
•Nearest to oval window
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                       Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                     Cochise College


         –At distal (apical) end, long, flexible
•Detects low-frequency (bass)
•Near cochlear apex




What is deafness?
•Conduction deafness: usually reversible
         –Hampering of sound conduction
         –Wax blockage
         –Ruptured tympanic membrane
         –Otitis media
         –Otosclerosis (hardening of ear)
•Common in older people
•Overgrowth of bone tissue fused stapes to oval window
•Sensorineuronal deafness: usually not reversible
         –Damage to neuronal structures (hair cells, cochlear nerve, etc.)


How do we keep our balance?
•Vestibular apparatus
         –three semicircular ducts
•Detect angular acceleration
         –Saccule (anterior) and Utricle (posterior) chambers
         –Detect static equilibrium and linear acceleration



What are the saccule and utricle?
•Each have hair cells called macula
       –Macula sacculi lie vertically
       –Macula utriculi lie horizontally
       –With stereocilia embedded in otolithic membrane
       –Otolithic membrane weighted with otoliths
•Calicum-carbonate/protein granules
•Also inertia of “heavy” otoliths allows movement detection



What are the semicircular ducts?
•Each in an osseous semicircular canal
       –Anterior and posterior perpendicular to each other
       –Lateral duct is at 30-degree angle from horizontal
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                   Cochise College


•Filled with endolymph
•Each duct opens to utricle
         –Also have ampulla sac at one end
                   •Hair cells in ampulla = crista ampulla w/stereocilia
                   •Gelatinous cupula surrounds crista ampulla
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                            Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                          Cochise College



Sense organs:
Seeing
How do we see?
•Perception of light
–Light: electromagnetic radiation
–Causes photochemical reaction in sensory cells




•Anatomy
–Eyebrows
–Palpebrae (eyelids)
         •Corners: lateral and medial commissures
                   –Conjunctiva: covers inside of eyelid and outside of eyeball
         •Secretes mucous to prevent drying (creates bloodshot eyes)
–Lacrimal apparatus: w/lacrimal gland
         •Fluid collects in lacrimal caruncle and dumps into lacrimal canal




What muscles move the eyes?
•Six extrinsic eye muscles
         –Rectus muscles
         •Superior, inferior, lateral, medial rectus
                   –Oblique muscles
         •Superior (depresses), inferior (elevates) oblique
         •Both also move eyeball laterally
         •Superior oblique passes through cartilagenous trochlea
•Diplopia: double vision
       –Two eyes not exactly coordinated (muscles)
•Strabismus: lateral or medial deviation of an eye




What parts make up the eye?
•Tunics (three)
•Optical apparatus
         –Admits/focuses light
•Neural apparatus
         –Retina and optic nerve
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                              Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                            Cochise College




What are the tunics?
•Tunica fibrosa (outermost)
      –Sclera (white of eye):Dense, collagenous CT
      –Cornea
•Tunica vasculosa (AKA uvea)
      –Choroid: many vessels, pigmented, tissue behind retina
      –Ciliary body: muscular ring around lens
      –Iris: adjustable diaphragm which controls pupil size
               •Posterior pigment epithelium: blocks stray light from reaching retina
               •Anterior border layer: pigmented chromatophores
                       –Black, brown, hazel
                       –Lack of = light reflects off posterior pigment epithelium for green, blue
•Tunica interna: the retina




What is the optical apparatus?
•Cornea
•Aqueous humor
       –Ciliary body makes this serous fluid
       –Secretes into posterior chamber
       –Through pupil to anterior chamber
       –Venous sinus of sclera (Canal of Schlemm) reabsorbs
•Lens
       –Suspensory ligaments hold in place
       –Relaxation of ligaments causes lens to _______
•Vitreous body: transparent jelly behind lens




What is the neural apparatus?
•Retina
       –Cup-like outgrowth of telencephalon
              •Technically a part of the brain
              •Attached at optic disc and ora serrata (anterior margin)
              •Vitreous body pushes retina against eyeball rear
                     –Macula lutea: patch of sensory cells
              •Fovea centralis: high density of cones
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                               Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                             Cochise College


                   •Optic   disc: point of entry/exit for nerve fibers and vessels
         –Blind spot
         –Cover     right eye and look at X, move back and forth
•Optic nerve




How does the pupil dilate?
•Pupillary constrictor: circular smooth muscle
•Pupillary dilator: smooth muscle radiating like wheel spokes
•Changes in size happen when
         –Change in light intensity



What does the lens do?
•Refraction
         –Bending of light rays
         –Cornea does more bending than lens does
         –Lens fine tunes image



What are common lens problems?
•Presbyopia
         –Lens loses flexibility
•Hyperopia: far-sighted
         –Eyeball too short
•Myopia: near-sighted
         –Eyeball too long
•Astigmatism
         –Misshapened cornea



What happens on the retina?
•Pigment epithelium: most posterior layer of retina
      –Absorbs light
•Above this are three retinal layers
      –Photoreceptor cells (not neurons)
              •Cones: 6.5 M
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                         Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                       Cochise College


                   •Rods:130 M—rhodopsin pigment
                •Converge on limited number of bipolar cells
         –Bipolar cells: first-order neurons
                •Synapse with ganglion cells
         –Ganglion cells: second-order neurons
                •Axons form optic nerve
                •Detect contrast between center and edge of its receptive field




What visual pigments are found in rods and cones?
•Rods
         –Rhodopsin: two parts (moieties)
         •Opsin protein
         •Retinal: vitamin A derivative
•Cones
         –Photopsin: same two parts
                   •Except opsin has slightly different AA sequence
         –Three types: red, blue, green




How do visual pigments help me see?
•Photochemical reaction of rhodopsin
         –Cis-retinal: in the dark
•Purple color
         –Trans-retinal: after absorbs photon
•Bleaching: changing to trans-retinal form
•Loses purple color and dissociates from opsin
•Transported to pigment epithelium then restored to cis-retinal
         –Takesabout 5 minutes to regenerate 50%
         –Why you “go blind” walking out of the movie theater after a matinee!




How is bleaching converted to a neuronal signal?
•Dark current: resting rod cells send constant signal
       –Via open Na+ gates
•These kept open as long as rhodopsin inactive (cis-retinal)
•Glutamate (inhibitor) secretion to bipolar neuron continues and bipolar not allowed to fire
       –In light: rhodopsin activated by loss of trans-retinal
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                            Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                          Cochise College


•Produces cGMP molecules which close Na+ gates
•Glutamate secretion ceases, thus causing bipolar neuron to fire to brain
•About 600 rods converge on one bipolar neuron!


Why do I have both rods and cones?
•Duplicity theory
         –One cell can’t have both high sensitivity and high resolution
         –Many rods converge on one bipolar neuron
                   •Great for detecting tiniest amount of light
                   •Terrible at details because too large an area covered by one bipolar neuron




Why do I have both rods and cones?
     –Fovea centralis: 4,000 cones, no rods
     •Why best focus is in middle of field of vision
     •Cones very small so good resolution
     •Each cone synapses with only one bipolar neuron which synapses with only one ganglion cell




How do cones detect different colors?
•Each cone type detects one wavelength better than others
         –E.g. red cones detect large spectrum of light
                   •But only cones to respond to red light
•Color-blindness
         –Red-green (lacking red or green cones)



What is stereopsis?
•Depth perception
       –Two eyes see slightly different images
       –Overlap allows for depth perception
•Compare with panoramic vision




How does optical information reach the brain?
•Bipolar cells to ganglion cells
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                                                                    Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                                                                  Cochise College


•Axons form optic nerve
         –Exit at optic foramen
         –Part of axons cross at optic chiasm
                   •Called hemidecussation
                   •Objects in left visual field
                               on right half of each retina (medial side of left eye, lateral side of right eye) are
                           –fall
                           picked up by right cerebral hemisphere
                   •Allows right brain to “see” what’s happening on opposite side of body where it has motor
                   control
Bio 201 Lecture Packet                                     Kerry Henrickson
Fall 2006                                                   Cochise College




                          Congratulations on finishing
                             your last 201 lecture!



                                    
                         Best of luck on your final exam
                           and have a great vacation!

								
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