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					                    UAE University
                 Faculty of Engineering
                 Graduation project II


  Refinery Wastewater Treatment
              Plant
Advisors:
            Dr. Mohamed Abdul Karim
            Dr. Ibrahim Ashor

        Basma                            Maha
       Moza                              Noura
                                                 1
Presentation Layout


 Problem definition
 Objectives
 Process flow sheet
 Material balance
 Equipment design
 Plant cost estimation
 Process simulation
 Environmental impact
 Conclusions & Recommendations
                                  2
• Refinery WW contains pollutants including solids, oil, organic and inorganic
components.
• The composition of WW was adopted from Kurkkale Petroleum Refinery.


                 Parameter                     Value
                 COD (mg/l)                     800
                 BOD (mg/l)                     350
                 Oil (mg/l)                     1800
                 Phenols (mg/l)                  8
                 Sulphides (mg/l)                17
                 Suspended solids (mg/l)        150
                 pH                            6.5-8.5                           3
Objectives

 To design a plant for treatment of refinery
WW

Detailed Objectives:
 Material balance calculation
 Equipment design calculation
 Cost estimation of the plant
 Process simulation using Super Pro.
 Environmental impact                          4
Process Flow Sheet




   CPI                          Trickling
             DAF                                  Clarifier
Separator                        Filter




                    Gravity                 Belt filter
                   Thickening                 press




                                                              5
 Material Balance


 material compatibility




                           6
Equipment Design

1. CPI Separator


The main required parameters:
• The effective surface area
  needed for separation
• Rise velocity of oil globule
• Number of packs
• The separator depth




                                 7
1. CPI Separator


             To calculate the effective surface area
                     required for separation


               Total surface area of the plates


               Aa  L * W * No.ofplates

             Projected surface area of the plates


                   AP  Aa * Cos(b)

               Effective surface area = Ap/1.12

                                                       8
1. CPI Separator

                   To calculate the no. of packs


                      Calculate WW density


                            gd     2
                                       ( w  o )
              Vr 
                                        18 

               Calculate horizontal surface area

                                      Q
                       Vr           
                                      A

                      Calculate no. of packs

                               Thehorizontalsurfacearea
             No.ofpacks                                         9
                            Theeffecti vesurfacea reaofthepack
1. CPI Separator


Results
        Parameter                                       Value
        Aa, m2                                          67.68
        Ap, m2                                           47.8
        The effective surface area for separation, m2    42.6
        Horizontal area of interceptor, m2               245
        Vr, cm/s                                        0.017
        No. of packs                                      6
        Depth, m                                          2




                                                                10
 Equipment Design

2. Dissolved air flotation


 The main required parameters:
 • Hydraulic loading
 • Solid loading
 • Air solid ratio




                                 11
 Equipment Design

2. Dissolved air flotation
Air solid ratio = 0.015 lbair/lbsolid

Hydraulic Loading = 3.8 gal/min.ft2

                          To calculate solid loading

                    Calculate surface area of flotation tank


                                       QR
                            A
                                 loading(hydrolic)


                                             masss o l i d
                            Solidloading 
                                                A
                                                               12
 Equipment Design

2. Dissolved air flotation
            To calculate power requirements for pumps

               Calculate surface area of flotation tank


                                   * u * di
                         Re 
                                      


                                               u 2
                      Pf  8 f ( L / d i )
                                                2

                             P       P f
                    g z                   w  0
                                      



                                                          13
2. Dissolved air flotation



Results

                          Parameter             Value

               Hydraulic loading, gal/min.ft2    3.8

               Solid loading, kg solids/m2hr    1.85

               Air solid ratio                  0.015




                                                        14
2. Dissolved air flotation


                     Parameters              Pump

                Mass of fluid, kg/hr        41.658

                Fluid density, kg/m3         1000

                Efficiency                   0.87

                Fluid viscosity,             0.001
                   kg/m.s
                Pipe length, m                15

                Pipe inside diameter,       0.28594
                   m
                Fluid velocity, m/s         0.6492

           Re           E             F       ΔPf     w (J/kg)    P(Kw)
                                                                          15
  Pump   185591 0.00016            0.0033    1951.7 224.24       9.342
 Equipment Design

3. Trickling filter



The main required parameters:
• Filter depth
• Diameter, surface area of the filter
• Hydraulic loading
• BOD loading
• Recirculation ratio
• Mean detention time
• Amount of oxygen required
• Dosing rate and rotational speed
                                         16
3. Trickling filter

                To Calculate the filter surface area

                                 
                         A               D2
                                  4

                      To Calculate the filter volume

                         V  A h
              Calculate the hydraulic and BOD loading

                                        wwflowrate , gpm
         HydraulicLoading( gpm / ft )    2

                                             A, ft 2

                                     BODload , gpd
             BODloading , gpm / ft   3

                                        V , ft 3           17
3. Trickling filter

              To calculate the efficiency of the filter

                      Calculate recirculation factor

                                      1 R
                           F 
                                   1  0.1R 

                        Calculate the efficiency

                                       100
                          E
                               1  0.0561w / VF 
                                                 0 .5




                                                          18
3. Trickling filter


Results

             Parameter                     Value
             Diameter, ft                   40
             Depth, ft                      25
             Filter surface area, ft2      1,256
             Volume, ft3                   31,400
             Hydraulic loading, gpm/ft2    1.042
             BOD loading, lb/1000ft3.day   32.883




                                                    19
 Equipment Design

4. clarifier



The main required parameters:
• Width
• Surface area
• Weir length
• detention time




                                20
4. clarifier

                  To Calculate the tank surface area

         Surface area (ft2) = WW flow rate (gpd) / average
                          overflow(gpd/m3)


               Width (ft) = Surface area(ft2)/ depth ft)


                   Weir length (ft) = WW flow rate


      Detention time (hr) = clarifier volume (ft3)/ WW flow rate
                                (ft3/hr)



                                                                   21
  Equipment Design

 5. Gravity thickening



The main required parameter
• Area of thickener




                              22
5. Gravity thickening




              To calculate area of thickener


                     wt % * Qo
                  A
                        GL




                                               23
 Equipment Design

5. Belt filter press

The main required parameters
• Sludge feed rate
• Hydraulic loading rate
• Solid loading rate
• Polymer dosage
• SS in the WW
• Solid recovery percentage




                               24
5. Belt filter press



               Hydraulic loading rate = Sludge Feed rate
                                            Belt width


   Solid loading rate = Sludge flow rate * S.S in the feed *density of w.w
                                      Belt width



  Polymer dosage = Polymer dosage*powdered polymer*density of ww
                                 Solid loading * belt width


    The suspended solid in ww = wash-water solids + Filtrate solids



   Solid recovery % = (total solids in feed sludge )-(SS in wastewater)
                                                                      25
                                     Total solids in feed sludge
1. Purchase cost of the major equipment (PCE)

                                CostindexinyearA
    CostinyearA  CostinyearB 
                                CostindexinyearB

 For Example:
 - Purchase cost of Trickling filter @ 1990 = 760,000 $
 - @ 1998 the PCE = 284,564 X (109/100)
                   = 310,175 $
 - Inflation rate% (1998-2002) = 10.1
  Cost @ 2002 = 310,175 X (1.101) = 341,502 $

                                                          26
 Total purchase cost of major equipment item (PCE)


    CPI            219,885
    DAF            389,256
    TF             341,503
    Thickening     24,360
    Filter press   24,027
    Total PCE      $ 999,033




                                                27
Estimation of total investment cost
   Total investment cost = Fixed capital + Working capital
• Fixed Capital
      PPC = PCE (1+ f1 + f2 + f3 + f4 + f5 + f6 + f7 + f8 + f9)

                                 Item          Process Type
                                                  (Fluids)
                  f1 Equipment erection            0.4
                  f2 Piping                        0.7
                  f3 Instrumentation               0.2
                  f4 Electrical                    0.1
                  f5 Buildings, process            0.15
                  f6 Utilities                     0.5
                  f7 Storages                      0.15
                  f8 Site development              0.05
                  f9 Ancillary buildings           0.15
                  f10 Design and engineering       0.3
                  f11 Contractors fee              0.05
                  f12 Contingency                  0.1            28
For refinery wastewater treatment plant, only f1, f2, f3, f4, f8

f1, Equipment erection              0.4
f2, Piping                          0.7
f3, Instrumentation                 0.3
f4, Electrical                      0.1
f8, Site development               0.05
Total PPC                      $2,447,632.76

Fixed capital = PPC (1+ f10 + f11 + f12)

 f10, Design and engineering         0.3
 f11, Contractor's fee              0.05
 f12, Contingency                    0.1
 Fixed capital                  $3,549,067.5                       29
• Working Capital

 Working capital allows 5% of fixed capital
  Working capital = $ 177,453


  Total investment required for the project = $ 3,726,520


• Operating time allowing for plant attainment

                               hoursoperated
               Attainment%                   100
                                   8760


 For 95% attainment  The operating time is 8322 hr/year
                                                             30
Operating cost
  Fixed operating costs: costs that do not vary with the production rate
  Variable operating costs: costs that are dependent on the amount of the
  product produced

• Fixed costs
  1. Maintenance

  2. Operating labour

  3. Laboratory costs

  4. Rates and any other local taxes

  5. Insurance
                                                                       31
  6. Licence fees
 Maintenance, take as 5% of the fixed capital

 Insurance cost approximated to be 1% of the fixed capital

 Operating labour

    Section head           98092.643
    5 Utility supervisor   326975.48
    5 Senior panel
   supervisor              277929.16
    5 Senior operator      277929.16
    10 Operators           392370.57
   Total operating costs   1373297 $

 laboratory costs, take as 20% of the operating labour costs   32
                     Maintenance            177453.38
                     Operating labour       16479564
                     Laboratory costs        3295912
                     Insurance                35490
                     Total fixed costs      19988421 $

• Variable
costs
  1. Raw materials
  2. Utilities
                     Raw material              1423.8
                     Utilities                167357
                     Total variable costs     168780 $


                                                         33
 Annual operating costs = $ 20157201
Direct capital cost

• Well supply
• Brine disposal
• Land
                            Annual operating cost
• Process equipment
• Auxiliary building
                           • Electricity
• Buildings
                           • Labor
• Membranes
                           • Maintenance and spares
                           • Insurance
                           • Chemicals

Indirect capital cost      • Amortization


• Freight and insurance
• Construction overhead
• Owner’s cost            Unit product cost, $/m3

• Contingency                                         34
   Assumptions


 Interest rate i = 5%
 Plant life n = 30 yrs.
 Plant availability = 0.9
 Amortization factor a = 0.08 yr-1
 Performance ratio = 7.5 kg fresh water/ kg steam
 Average latent heat = 2,222.35 kJ/kg
 Electric cost = $ 0.025/kWh
 Heating steam cost = $ 1.5/m3
 Specific chemical cost = $ 0.025/m3
 Specific cost of operating labour = $ 0.1/m3
 Plant capacity = 32,732.64 m3/d



                                                     35
     Process simulation

 Influent characteristic
Component            User     Concentration
                    Defined      (mg/L)

Ethyle benzene        No         1053.04
Decane                No         596.73
Phenol                No         105.30
Biomass               No         195.25
Deadbiomass           Yes         0.00        Influent environmental properties
Carbon Dioxide        No          0.00
                                               Property   Value        Units

Nitrogen              No          13.76
Oxygen                No          8.14         COD        11412.3      mg O/l
SS                    Yes        146.44        ThOD       5911.6       mg O/l
Water                 No       974099.98
                                               BODu       4639.1       mg O/l

                                               BOD5       5612.5       mg O/l

                                               TS          1260     kg solids/day 36
Process Description
                      37
Process simulation


Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission

   Unit               Ethylebenzene   Ethylebenzene    Phenol      Phenol
                        In (kg/h)       Out (kg/h)    In (kg/h)   Out (kg/h)
   CPI                   169.340         20.831        17.467       2.156
   DAF                   20.831          20.828        2.156        2.155
   Trickling filter       3.854           0.228        0.398       0.0021
   Clarifier              0.228           0.227        0.022       0.0021
   Thickening            16.978           7.618        1.757        1.295




                                                                            38
   Plant cost estimation

Process performance

• The % splitting as function of % degradation

   %                                  **Ethyl   Ethyl            Phenol   Phenol
spliting   *D(In)   D(Out)   % deg.     (In)    (Out)   % deg.    (In)     (Out)   % deg.
  30       91.687   1.378    98.498   161.802   0.233   99.856   16.180   0.002    99.985
  40       91.687   1.274    98.611   161.802   0.223   99.862   16.180   0.002    99.987

  50       91.687   1.167    98.727   161.802   0.211   99.870   16.180   0.002    99.989
  60       91.687   1.038    98.868   161.802   0.194   99.880   16.180   0.001    99.991
  70       91.687   0.880    99.040   161.802   0.168   99.896   16.180   0.001    99.993
  80       91.687   0.687    99.251   161.802   0.127   99.921   16.180   0.001    99.995
  90       91.687   0.449    99.510   161.802   0.065   99.960   16.180   0.000    99.997

                                                                                   39
  Process simulation

Process performance
• The % splitting as function of % degradation




                                                 40
 Process simulation
4. Processes Performance

Process performance
• The kg/h of the biomass as % degradation

                                  Phenol%
  kg/h    D% deg.     EB% deg.      deg.
  15        98.6109    99.86206     99.98498
  20      98.80275    99.87853    99.99054
  30      99.06588     99.897     99.99326
  40      99.23543    99.92153    99.99499
                                                                      @40% spliting
  50      99.35302    99.93793    99.99604
                                                    100.2
                                                      100
                                    % Degradation


                                                     99.8
                                                     99.6
                                                     99.4
                                                     99.2
                                                       99
                                                                                           D% deg.
                                                     98.8                                  EB% deg.
                                                     98.6                                  Phenol% deg.
                                                     98.4
                                                            10   20       30          40   50             60
                                                                          Biomass, kg/h          41
Environmental impact


• The evaluation of the potential impacts of suggested projects that
relative to the physical, chemical, and biological components of the total
environment


• To abide with both local and international standards




                                                                       42
                                      E1                       E2                        E3                     E4
                                                   S1
                     M1
                                      CPI                    DAF                   TF                       Clarifier                  M5
                                                  M2                        M3                        M4



                                                                                                              E4
                                                                                   Thickening
                                                                                                                     M6


                                                                                                                   Belt filter
                                                                                                                                            S2
                                                                                                                     press
                                                                                                                                  M7


Pollutants     M5            E1             E2           E3            E4         S1           S2          Available       WW France        Emission        Action
               ppm          ppm            ppm          ppm           ppm        m3/hr        m3/hr        technique        standard          EPA
                                                                                                                              (ppm)         Standard

SS             9.3            -             -            -              -          -          0.08           DAF                  50             -      Land fill
BOD            24             -             -            -              -          -            -             TF                  50             -            -
COD            54             -             -            -              -          -            -             TF                 100             -            -
*Phenols       0.8        23.73E+03    30.87E+0    0.012E+03        40.95E+03      -            -             TF                 0.1          0.01      Incinerati
                                           3                                                                                                                on
Oil            41.1           -             -            -              -        0.265          -            CPI                  10                    Land fill
Biomass        500            -             -            -              -          -            -             TF                 1000            -            -
*Ethylbenzen    -         845E+03      839E+03     1.026E+03        831E+03        -            -            CPI                  -          0.0005     Incinerati
e                                                                                                                                                           on

                                                                                                                                                       43
 Health concerns

Benzene
• It is water-soluble
• It can pass through the soil into underground water
• At relatively high exposure levels, It is extremely toxic, even fatal to
humans and other organisms
• Carcinogenic
Phenol
• It can cause muscle pain, liver damage, weight loss, and blood disorders
• In animals, high exposure to phenols can result in muscle tremors, severe
injury to the heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs, followed by death in some cases

Toluene
• It has been linked to headaches, confusion, and memory loss
• It can cause damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys for humans
                                                                             44
• In animals, it was found that toluene has adversely effect the nervous system
Piping & Instrumentation


• It shows the engineering detailed of the equipment, instruments, piping,
valves and fittings and their arrangements




                                                                        45
HAZOP analysis of DAF unit


     Guide   Deviation        Cause              Consequences & Actions
     word
No           Flow        • CV2 failure      • Empty flotation tank
                         • No WW supply      Check & repair CV2 and
                         • Pipe leakage     pipes
                                             Check WW supply

Less         Flow        • CV2 partial      • Poor flotation & accumulation
                         failure            of sludge in the bottom
                         • Pipe leakage      Fit low flow alarm (L-FA) in
                                            S3
                                             Check and repair CV2 &
                                            pipes

More         Flow        • CV2 fully open   • Sludge over flow
                         • CV5 failure      • Poor flotation
                                            Check and repair CV2 & CV5
                                            Fit high flow alarm (H-FA) in
                                            S3                            46
Conclusions & recommendations



• A survey is essential to recognize and estimate sources and treatment
applied

• Industrial wastewater plants should be designed for industrial area such
as Jabal Ali and Al Ruwais industrial areas

Environmental agencies should conduct survey in order to identify status of
industries generating wastewater

Environmental standards should be enforced on industries

Environmental impact assessment should be carried out for such industries

There is emission studies conducted on industries such studies are valuable
to identify potential hazards
                                                                      47
48

				
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