# Slide 1 - Faculty of Engineering by hedongchenchen

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```									                    UAE University
Faculty of Engineering

Refinery Wastewater Treatment
Plant
Dr. Mohamed Abdul Karim
Dr. Ibrahim Ashor

Basma                            Maha
Moza                              Noura
1
Presentation Layout

 Problem definition
 Objectives
 Process flow sheet
 Material balance
 Equipment design
 Plant cost estimation
 Process simulation
 Environmental impact
 Conclusions & Recommendations
2
• Refinery WW contains pollutants including solids, oil, organic and inorganic
components.
• The composition of WW was adopted from Kurkkale Petroleum Refinery.

Parameter                     Value
COD (mg/l)                     800
BOD (mg/l)                     350
Oil (mg/l)                     1800
Phenols (mg/l)                  8
Sulphides (mg/l)                17
Suspended solids (mg/l)        150
pH                            6.5-8.5                           3
Objectives

 To design a plant for treatment of refinery
WW

Detailed Objectives:
 Material balance calculation
 Equipment design calculation
 Cost estimation of the plant
 Process simulation using Super Pro.
 Environmental impact                          4
Process Flow Sheet

CPI                          Trickling
DAF                                  Clarifier
Separator                        Filter

Gravity                 Belt filter
Thickening                 press

5
Material Balance

 material compatibility

6
Equipment Design

1. CPI Separator

The main required parameters:
• The effective surface area
needed for separation
• Rise velocity of oil globule
• Number of packs
• The separator depth

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1. CPI Separator

To calculate the effective surface area
required for separation

Total surface area of the plates

Aa  L * W * No.ofplates

Projected surface area of the plates

AP  Aa * Cos(b)

Effective surface area = Ap/1.12

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1. CPI Separator

To calculate the no. of packs

Calculate WW density

gd     2
( w  o )
Vr 
18 

Calculate horizontal surface area

Q
Vr           
A

Calculate no. of packs

Thehorizontalsurfacearea
No.ofpacks                                         9
Theeffecti vesurfacea reaofthepack
1. CPI Separator

Results
Parameter                                       Value
Aa, m2                                          67.68
Ap, m2                                           47.8
The effective surface area for separation, m2    42.6
Horizontal area of interceptor, m2               245
Vr, cm/s                                        0.017
No. of packs                                      6
Depth, m                                          2

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Equipment Design

2. Dissolved air flotation

The main required parameters:
• Air solid ratio

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Equipment Design

2. Dissolved air flotation
Air solid ratio = 0.015 lbair/lbsolid

Calculate surface area of flotation tank

QR
A

masss o l i d
A
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Equipment Design

2. Dissolved air flotation
To calculate power requirements for pumps

Calculate surface area of flotation tank

 * u * di
Re 


u 2
Pf  8 f ( L / d i )
2

P       P f
g z                   w  0
         

13
2. Dissolved air flotation

Results

Parameter             Value

Air solid ratio                  0.015

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2. Dissolved air flotation

Parameters              Pump

Mass of fluid, kg/hr        41.658

Fluid density, kg/m3         1000

Efficiency                   0.87

Fluid viscosity,             0.001
kg/m.s
Pipe length, m                15

Pipe inside diameter,       0.28594
m
Fluid velocity, m/s         0.6492

Re           E             F       ΔPf     w (J/kg)    P(Kw)
15
Pump   185591 0.00016            0.0033    1951.7 224.24       9.342
Equipment Design

3. Trickling filter

The main required parameters:
• Filter depth
• Diameter, surface area of the filter
• Recirculation ratio
• Mean detention time
• Amount of oxygen required
• Dosing rate and rotational speed
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3. Trickling filter

To Calculate the filter surface area


A               D2
4

To Calculate the filter volume

V  A h

wwflowrate , gpm

A, ft 2

V , ft 3           17
3. Trickling filter

To calculate the efficiency of the filter

Calculate recirculation factor

1 R
F 
1  0.1R 

Calculate the efficiency

100
E
1  0.0561w / VF 
0 .5

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3. Trickling filter

Results

Parameter                     Value
Diameter, ft                   40
Depth, ft                      25
Filter surface area, ft2      1,256
Volume, ft3                   31,400

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Equipment Design

4. clarifier

The main required parameters:
• Width
• Surface area
• Weir length
• detention time

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4. clarifier

To Calculate the tank surface area

Surface area (ft2) = WW flow rate (gpd) / average
overflow(gpd/m3)

Width (ft) = Surface area(ft2)/ depth ft)

Weir length (ft) = WW flow rate

Detention time (hr) = clarifier volume (ft3)/ WW flow rate
(ft3/hr)

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Equipment Design

5. Gravity thickening

The main required parameter
• Area of thickener

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5. Gravity thickening

To calculate area of thickener

wt % * Qo
A
GL

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Equipment Design

5. Belt filter press

The main required parameters
• Sludge feed rate
• Polymer dosage
• SS in the WW
• Solid recovery percentage

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5. Belt filter press

Belt width

Solid loading rate = Sludge flow rate * S.S in the feed *density of w.w
Belt width

Polymer dosage = Polymer dosage*powdered polymer*density of ww

The suspended solid in ww = wash-water solids + Filtrate solids

Solid recovery % = (total solids in feed sludge )-(SS in wastewater)
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Total solids in feed sludge
1. Purchase cost of the major equipment (PCE)

CostindexinyearA
CostinyearA  CostinyearB 
CostindexinyearB

For Example:
- Purchase cost of Trickling filter @ 1990 = 760,000 \$
- @ 1998 the PCE = 284,564 X (109/100)
= 310,175 \$
- Inflation rate% (1998-2002) = 10.1
 Cost @ 2002 = 310,175 X (1.101) = 341,502 \$

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 Total purchase cost of major equipment item (PCE)

CPI            219,885
DAF            389,256
TF             341,503
Thickening     24,360
Filter press   24,027
Total PCE      \$ 999,033

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Estimation of total investment cost
Total investment cost = Fixed capital + Working capital
• Fixed Capital
PPC = PCE (1+ f1 + f2 + f3 + f4 + f5 + f6 + f7 + f8 + f9)

Item          Process Type
(Fluids)
f1 Equipment erection            0.4
f2 Piping                        0.7
f3 Instrumentation               0.2
f4 Electrical                    0.1
f5 Buildings, process            0.15
f6 Utilities                     0.5
f7 Storages                      0.15
f8 Site development              0.05
f9 Ancillary buildings           0.15
f10 Design and engineering       0.3
f11 Contractors fee              0.05
f12 Contingency                  0.1            28
For refinery wastewater treatment plant, only f1, f2, f3, f4, f8

f1, Equipment erection              0.4
f2, Piping                          0.7
f3, Instrumentation                 0.3
f4, Electrical                      0.1
f8, Site development               0.05
Total PPC                      \$2,447,632.76

Fixed capital = PPC (1+ f10 + f11 + f12)

f10, Design and engineering         0.3
f11, Contractor's fee              0.05
f12, Contingency                    0.1
Fixed capital                  \$3,549,067.5                       29
• Working Capital

Working capital allows 5% of fixed capital
 Working capital = \$ 177,453

 Total investment required for the project = \$ 3,726,520

• Operating time allowing for plant attainment

hoursoperated
Attainment%                   100
8760

For 95% attainment  The operating time is 8322 hr/year
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Operating cost
Fixed operating costs: costs that do not vary with the production rate
Variable operating costs: costs that are dependent on the amount of the
product produced

• Fixed costs
1. Maintenance

2. Operating labour

3. Laboratory costs

4. Rates and any other local taxes

5. Insurance
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6. Licence fees
 Maintenance, take as 5% of the fixed capital

 Insurance cost approximated to be 1% of the fixed capital

 Operating labour

5 Utility supervisor   326975.48
5 Senior panel
supervisor              277929.16
5 Senior operator      277929.16
10 Operators           392370.57
Total operating costs   1373297 \$

 laboratory costs, take as 20% of the operating labour costs   32
Maintenance            177453.38
Operating labour       16479564
Laboratory costs        3295912
Insurance                35490
Total fixed costs      19988421 \$

• Variable
costs
1. Raw materials
2. Utilities
Raw material              1423.8
Utilities                167357
Total variable costs     168780 \$

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Annual operating costs = \$ 20157201
Direct capital cost

• Well supply
• Brine disposal
• Land
Annual operating cost
• Process equipment
• Auxiliary building
• Electricity
• Buildings
• Labor
• Membranes
• Maintenance and spares
• Insurance
• Chemicals

Indirect capital cost      • Amortization

• Freight and insurance
• Owner’s cost            Unit product cost, \$/m3

• Contingency                                         34
Assumptions

 Interest rate i = 5%
 Plant life n = 30 yrs.
 Plant availability = 0.9
 Amortization factor a = 0.08 yr-1
 Performance ratio = 7.5 kg fresh water/ kg steam
 Average latent heat = 2,222.35 kJ/kg
 Electric cost = \$ 0.025/kWh
 Heating steam cost = \$ 1.5/m3
 Specific chemical cost = \$ 0.025/m3
 Specific cost of operating labour = \$ 0.1/m3
 Plant capacity = 32,732.64 m3/d

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Process simulation

Influent characteristic
Component            User     Concentration
Defined      (mg/L)

Ethyle benzene        No         1053.04
Decane                No         596.73
Phenol                No         105.30
Biomass               No         195.25
Deadbiomass           Yes         0.00        Influent environmental properties
Carbon Dioxide        No          0.00
Property   Value        Units

Nitrogen              No          13.76
Oxygen                No          8.14         COD        11412.3      mg O/l
SS                    Yes        146.44        ThOD       5911.6       mg O/l
Water                 No       974099.98
BODu       4639.1       mg O/l

BOD5       5612.5       mg O/l

TS          1260     kg solids/day 36
Process Description
37
Process simulation

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission

Unit               Ethylebenzene   Ethylebenzene    Phenol      Phenol
In (kg/h)       Out (kg/h)    In (kg/h)   Out (kg/h)
CPI                   169.340         20.831        17.467       2.156
DAF                   20.831          20.828        2.156        2.155
Trickling filter       3.854           0.228        0.398       0.0021
Clarifier              0.228           0.227        0.022       0.0021
Thickening            16.978           7.618        1.757        1.295

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Plant cost estimation

Process performance

• The % splitting as function of % degradation

%                                  **Ethyl   Ethyl            Phenol   Phenol
spliting   *D(In)   D(Out)   % deg.     (In)    (Out)   % deg.    (In)     (Out)   % deg.
30       91.687   1.378    98.498   161.802   0.233   99.856   16.180   0.002    99.985
40       91.687   1.274    98.611   161.802   0.223   99.862   16.180   0.002    99.987

50       91.687   1.167    98.727   161.802   0.211   99.870   16.180   0.002    99.989
60       91.687   1.038    98.868   161.802   0.194   99.880   16.180   0.001    99.991
70       91.687   0.880    99.040   161.802   0.168   99.896   16.180   0.001    99.993
80       91.687   0.687    99.251   161.802   0.127   99.921   16.180   0.001    99.995
90       91.687   0.449    99.510   161.802   0.065   99.960   16.180   0.000    99.997

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Process simulation

Process performance
• The % splitting as function of % degradation

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Process simulation
4. Processes Performance

Process performance
• The kg/h of the biomass as % degradation

Phenol%
kg/h    D% deg.     EB% deg.      deg.
15        98.6109    99.86206     99.98498
20      98.80275    99.87853    99.99054
30      99.06588     99.897     99.99326
40      99.23543    99.92153    99.99499
@40% spliting
50      99.35302    99.93793    99.99604
100.2
100

99.8
99.6
99.4
99.2
99
D% deg.
98.8                                  EB% deg.
98.6                                  Phenol% deg.
98.4
10   20       30          40   50             60
Biomass, kg/h          41
Environmental impact

• The evaluation of the potential impacts of suggested projects that
relative to the physical, chemical, and biological components of the total
environment

• To abide with both local and international standards

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E1                       E2                        E3                     E4
S1
M1
CPI                    DAF                   TF                       Clarifier                  M5
M2                        M3                        M4

E4
Thickening
M6

Belt filter
S2
press
M7

Pollutants     M5            E1             E2           E3            E4         S1           S2          Available       WW France        Emission        Action
ppm          ppm            ppm          ppm           ppm        m3/hr        m3/hr        technique        standard          EPA
(ppm)         Standard

SS             9.3            -             -            -              -          -          0.08           DAF                  50             -      Land fill
BOD            24             -             -            -              -          -            -             TF                  50             -            -
COD            54             -             -            -              -          -            -             TF                 100             -            -
*Phenols       0.8        23.73E+03    30.87E+0    0.012E+03        40.95E+03      -            -             TF                 0.1          0.01      Incinerati
3                                                                                                                on
Oil            41.1           -             -            -              -        0.265          -            CPI                  10                    Land fill
Biomass        500            -             -            -              -          -            -             TF                 1000            -            -
*Ethylbenzen    -         845E+03      839E+03     1.026E+03        831E+03        -            -            CPI                  -          0.0005     Incinerati
e                                                                                                                                                           on

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Health concerns

Benzene
• It is water-soluble
• It can pass through the soil into underground water
• At relatively high exposure levels, It is extremely toxic, even fatal to
humans and other organisms
• Carcinogenic
Phenol
• It can cause muscle pain, liver damage, weight loss, and blood disorders
• In animals, high exposure to phenols can result in muscle tremors, severe
injury to the heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs, followed by death in some cases

Toluene
• It can cause damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys for humans
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• In animals, it was found that toluene has adversely effect the nervous system
Piping & Instrumentation

• It shows the engineering detailed of the equipment, instruments, piping,
valves and fittings and their arrangements

45
HAZOP analysis of DAF unit

Guide   Deviation        Cause              Consequences & Actions
word
No           Flow        • CV2 failure      • Empty flotation tank
• No WW supply      Check & repair CV2 and
• Pipe leakage     pipes
 Check WW supply

Less         Flow        • CV2 partial      • Poor flotation & accumulation
failure            of sludge in the bottom
• Pipe leakage      Fit low flow alarm (L-FA) in
S3
 Check and repair CV2 &
pipes

More         Flow        • CV2 fully open   • Sludge over flow
• CV5 failure      • Poor flotation
Check and repair CV2 & CV5
Fit high flow alarm (H-FA) in
S3                            46
Conclusions & recommendations

• A survey is essential to recognize and estimate sources and treatment
applied

• Industrial wastewater plants should be designed for industrial area such
as Jabal Ali and Al Ruwais industrial areas

Environmental agencies should conduct survey in order to identify status of
industries generating wastewater

Environmental standards should be enforced on industries

Environmental impact assessment should be carried out for such industries

There is emission studies conducted on industries such studies are valuable
to identify potential hazards
47
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