Hot Jobs in the 21st century by yaofenjin


									     42 jobs      source from:


An accountant prepares, analyses and verifies financial information. Becoming
an accountant usually requires 4 years of college leading to a bachelor’s
degree in accounting or a related field. A jobseeker that holds a professional
certificate or license, a master’s degree, proficiency in accounting and auditing
software, or other expertise will have an advantage in the job market. In 2000,
the median annual earnings of accountants were $43,500.

Air Traffic Controller

An air traffic controller coordinates the movement of air traffic to ensure that
planes stay a safe distance apart. The principal concern of air traffic controllers
is safety, but they also direct planes to avoid delays. They rely on radar and
visual observation to regulate airport traffic and flights between airports. Their
main responsibility is to organize the flow of aircraft traffic in and out of the
airport. They also keep pilots informed about changes in weather conditions
such as wind shear and visibility. Most air traffic controllers work for the
Federal Government, but there are also private air traffic control companies for
non-FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) towers. Trainees must pass a
written aptitude test administered by the Federal Civil Service system.
Prerequisites for the test are 3 years of work experience or 4 years of college,
or a combination of both. They develop skills through both formal and
on-the-job training. There is stiff competition to become an air traffic controller.
The occupation attracts more qualified applicants than are needed for the
number of jobs available. In 2000, the median annual earnings were $82,520.

Assistant Publications Editor

An assistant publications editor selects and prepares written material for
publication and reviews and edits a writer’s work. This job usually requires 4
years of college leading to a bachelor’s degree in a liberal arts major such as
communications, journalism, or English. The median annual salary for an
assistant publications editor in 2000 was $39,370.

Bus Driver

Bus drivers give passengers an alternative to automobiles and other forms of
transportation. Intercity busdrivers transport people between regions of a State
or of the country; local transit busdrivers, within a metropolitan area or county;
motorcoach busdrivers, on charter excursions and tours; and school
busdrivers, to and from schools and related events. Drivers must operate their
vehicles safely and adhere to strict time schedules. Intercity drivers must
comply with the U.S. Department of Transportation regulations. Qualifications
and standards for busdrivers are established by State and Federal regulations.
Under Federal regulations, drivers who operate vehicles designed to transport
16 or more passengers must hold a commercial driver’s license (CDL) from
their home State. (See requirements for CDL under Truckdrivers). Most
busdrivers work for school systems or companies providing school bus service
under contract. Preferred applicants are high school graduates who pass a
written test of ability to follow complex bus schedules. The job outlook for
busdrivers is very good. In 2000, the median hourly earnings of transit and
intercity drivers were $12.36.

A carpenter is involved in different types of construction activities that may
require cutting, fitting and assembling wood and other materials. In 2000,
nearly one-third of carpenters were self-employed and the median hourly pay
was $15.69. A high school education is suggested for this trade. The trade can
be learned through on-the-job training under the supervision of experienced
workers, vocational education, as well as through employer training programs
or apprenticeships. Union carpenters working on commercial or municipal
projects make a significantly higher wage per hour than those self-employed
referenced above.

A cashier totals bills, receives money, makes change, fills out charge forms,
and gives receipts. About one-half of all cashier positions are part-time. A
cashier’s job is usually an entry-level position that requires little or no previous
work experience because training is received on the job. There is no specific
educational requirement for the job, but many employers require a high school
education. Aptitude in mathematics or computers is strongly recommended. In
2000, the median hourly pay rate was $6.95. Union cashiers for public
warehouses, grocery stores or large food service operations will earn, on
average, a higher wage rate.

Cement Mason

A cement mason works with concrete - a mixture of cement, sand, gravel and
water - in constructing the foundation for everything from patios and floors to
huge dams or miles of roadways. Cement masons prepare the site for placing
the concrete. They first set the forms for holding the concrete to the desired
pitch and depth. They then direct laborers to cast and spread the concrete with
shovels, trowels and other special tools. They level the concrete after which
they immediately use a float to smooth the surface. They use various kinds of
finishing tools to accomplish the desired results. Sometimes concrete finishers
perform the finishing portion of the job. Concrete work is fast-paced, strenuous
and physically demanding. Concrete masons learn their trade through
on-the-job training, by attending trade or vocational/technical schools, or
through 3-year apprenticeship programs. The demand for concrete masons is
expected to rise as the population and economy grow. In 2000, the median
hourly earnings of cement masons were $12.39.


A chemist searches for new knowledge about chemicals and puts this
knowledge to use in the development of thousands of products including food
and drugs. Chemists work in offices as well as in laboratories. Nearly one-half
of all chemists are employed by manufacturing firms. The minimum
educational requirement for an entry-level position is a bachelor’s degree in
chemistry or a related field, but a research job may require a PhD. Students
planning a career as a chemist should take courses in mathematics and
science. The median annual salary for chemists in 2000 was $50,080.

Clinical Lab Technician

A clinical laboratory technician also known as a medical technologist or
technician, performs most of the necessary laboratory tests of body fluids,
tissues, and cells for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease. A
bachelor’s degree with a major in medical technology or a life science is
preferred for an entry-level position. Generally, clinical laboratory technicians
have an associate degree from a community or junior college or a certificate
from a hospital, vocational or technical school, or from one of the Armed
Forces. A few learn their skills through on-the-job training. The rate of
employment of technicians is expected to grow. The median annual earnings
in 2000 were $40,510. Increasingly, laboratory and medical technicians are
joining unions.


A cook measures, mixes and cooks ingredients according to recipes. Cooks
work in hotels, restaurants, fast-food places, and in private homes. Most cooks
start as fast-food or short-order cooks which require little education or training:
they learn and advance on the job. Job openings for cooks and related
occupations are expected to be plentiful through 2008. The median hourly pay
for a restaurant cook in 2000 was $8.72.

Computer Programmer
A computer programmer writes, tests, and maintains the detailed programs or
software that a computer must follow to perform its functions. The programs
tell the computer what to do and what equipment to use. Programmers code
the instructions in programming languages. They usually know more than one
programming language. There are two broad groups of programmers:
applications programmers who focus on business, engineering, or science and
systems programmers who maintain and control computer systems software.
Programmers generally work in offices that are comfortable. A bachelor’s
degree is now commonly required; however, employers are now placing more
emphasis on previous experience for all types of programmers. Employment of
programmers is expected to grow faster than the average through 2008. In
2000, the median annual earnings for computer programmers were $57,590.

Correctional Officer

Correctional officers, also known as detention officers, oversee individuals
under arrest and awaiting trial or those who have been convicted of a crime
and sentenced to serve time in a jail, reformatory, or penitentiary. They
maintain security and inmate accountability to prevent disturbances, assaults,
or escapes. They have no law enforcement responsibilities outside the
institution where they work. They work in large regional jails, State and Federal
prisons, city and county jails, and other institutions operated by local
governments. The job can be stressful and hazardous. Applicants must be U.S.
citizens, at least 18-21 years old, have a high school education, and no felony
convictions. They also must pass a written examination, are subject to
background checks, and screened for drug abuse. Employment opportunities
for correctional officers are expected to be favorable through 2008. The
median annual earnings in 2000 were $31,170. The Teamsters Union
represents thousands of correctional officers and courthouse employees
throughout the United States.

An electrician installs, connects, tests, and maintains electrical systems for
various purposes including light, power, air-conditioning, refrigeration, climate
control, security, and communications. An electrician may specialize in
construction or maintenance, or he may engage in both. Most electricians
complete a 4- or 5-year apprenticeship program of at least 144 hours of
classroom instruction each year, and 8,000 hours of on-the-job training over
the duration of the apprenticeship. Applicants for an apprenticeship program
must be at least 18 years old and have a high school diploma or its equivalent.
The demand for qualified electricians is expected to be significantly higher than
the supply. In 2000, the median hourly pay for an electrician was $19.29.

Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) and Paramedic
Emergency medical technicians and paramedics provide vital emergency
medical and transportation service to people in a variety of emergency
situations. A 911 operator dispatches them to the scene where they work with
police and fire department personnel to care for and transport the sick or
injured to a medical facility. Employment is usually with a private ambulance
firm, local government, or hospital. In all 50 States, formal training and
certification is needed to become an EMT or paramedic. Training is offered at
progressive levels: EMT-Basic or EMT-1; EMT-Intermediate or EMT-2; EMT-3;
and EMT-paramedic or EMT-4. Employment outlook for EMTs is expected to
grow much faster than average for all occupations through 2008. The median
annual earnings of EMTs in 2000 were $22,460. EMTs and paramedics are
looking to organize in record numbers to address wages and other benefit

Entertainment/Disney World Characters

There are many good careers in the entertainment industry. Most workers in
entertainment carry a union card. For example, Disney World characters are
Teamster members who wear costumes and portray the various Trade Mark
Disney characters. They entertain large and small groups of people, especially
kids, at the Disney World facilities in Orlando, Florida. Teamsters also
represent many workers at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. Character jobs
require physical strength and endurance in extreme heat. They engage in such
activities as stilt-walking, tumbling, skate-boarding, roller-blading, water skiing,
scuba diving, dancing, face characters, and driving floats. New employees are
selected through an auditioning process based on their talents. However,
Disney trains applicants selected for stilt-walking jobs. As members of the
Teamsters Union, they receive decent wages and benefits and enjoy good
working conditions. Wages range from $6.50 to $11.93 an hour. Scuba divers
receive $15.00 an hour. They receive additional pay for performance at special

File Clerk

File clerks, also called records, information, or record center clerks, classify,
store, retrieve, and update information generated by various types of
organizations. They may also have other responsibilities such as data entry,
word processing, sorting mail, and operating copying and fax machines. File
clerks are increasingly using computerized filing and retrieval systems that are
much faster than physically filing and retrieving paper files. Usually, files clerks
receive no formal training. Many of them are employed by temporary job
agencies. Employment of files clerks is expected to grow about as fast as for
all occupations through 2008. In 1998, the median annual earnings of files
clerks were $16,830. Unions represent hundreds of thousands of clerks
throughout the U.S. and Canada.


Firefighters help protect people and property from fires and other emergency
situations. They are usually the first emergency personnel at the scene of an
accident or medical emergency and may have to extinguish a fire, treat injuries,
or perform other vital functions. They work in various settings such as urban
and suburban areas, chemical plants, industrial sites, grasslands, and forests.
Their work involves hazardous conditions and long, irregular hours. Most
firefighting jobs require candidates to pass a written examination in addition to
physical and medical examinations that include drug screening. Some fire
departments offer accredited apprenticeship programs lasting up to 5 years.
Many people are attracted to this field because of its challenge and the
opportunity to provide a public service. There is keen competition for job
openings. The median hourly earnings of firefighters in 2000 were $16.43.

Flight Attendant
A flight attendant’s primary job is to ensure that safety regulations are adhered
to. The attendant also tries to make flights comfortable and enjoyable for
passengers. The job is learned through intensive formal training after being
hired. Airlines prefer to hire people who can remain calm under pressure and
who can interact well with the public. Applicants must be high school
graduates who are at least 18 to 21 years old, in excellent health and have the
ability to speak clearly. There is also a height requirement and most airlines
prefer candidates with weight proportionate to height. Candidates must also be
willing to work nights, weekends, holidays, and to frequently be away from
home. In 2000, the median annual starting salary for a flight attendant was
$14,847. The airline industry enjoys one of the highest rates of unionization in
the United States and Canada.

Food Processor
Food processors set up and operate various types of equipment that cut, slice,
mix, and/or blend different raw food products, into which ingredients and
preservatives may be added, to get a finished product. These workers perform
a variety of tasks and include such workers as butchers, and meat, poultry,
and fish cutters, slaughterers and meat packers, and bakers. The type of tools
used, manual or automated, depends on the job to be performed. They
process foods such as meats, poultry, fish, grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts,
fried snacks, and baked goods. They mostly work in food processing plants
owned and operated by corporations involved in food production. Food
processing workers acquire their skills on the job through formal and informal
training programs. Highly skilled workers such as butchers may receive
training from one to two years. The job outlook for skilled food processing
workers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations
through 2008. However, the demand for lower skilled workers who work in
meatpacking, poultry, and fish processing plants is expected to increase
because of the increasing popularity of ready-to-heat goods. Earnings vary by
industry, skill, geographic location, and educational level. In 2000, the median
annual earnings were $20,420. The Teamsters Union represents hundreds of
thousands of workers in the food processing and meat packaging industries.

Forklift Operator

Forklift operators, also called industrial truck and tractor operators, use forklifts
or lift trucks to move materials, products, produce, or merchandise around
construction sites, factories, or warehouses. Some of them move materials on
or off trucks and ships. They drive and control the lift trucks by moving levers
or foot pedals, operating switches, or turning dials. They use the lift trucks to
carry loads on a skid, or pallet, around factory or warehouse. They may also
keep records of materials moved, perform some manual loading and unloading
and clean, fuel, and service their equipment. Forklift operators learn their skills
on the job. Employers prefer high school graduates. The employment growth
of forklift operators is expected to be slower than the average for all
occupations due to technological improvements and the use of computerized
equipment. In 1998, the median earnings of forklift operators were $23,360.
Many forklift drivers belong to the Teamsters Union and work in general, public
or grocery warehouses.


A gardener may be involved in any or all of the following occupations:
landscaping, nursery, greenhouse, and lawn service. A gardener also takes
care of indoor gardens and commercial and public areas such as malls, hotels,
and botanical gardens. No minimum educational qualification is required for an
entry-level position though several degree positions exist in fields like
landscaping design or public garden management. New hires receive
on-the-job training that is usually adequate for them to operate the equipment
needed. Because of the high turnover rate, it is not be difficult to find a job in
this field. In 2000, the median hourly pay ranges from $8.18 to $14.70.


Hotel Employees
Hotel employees provide various types of services for families, business
travelers, and others who stay in commercial, resort, residential, and
extended-stay hotels. Hotel managers and office and administrative staff
coordinate a wide range of events including conventions, business meetings,
and social gatherings. Desk clerks provide check-in and checkout services.
Maids, housekeepers, janitors, linen-room attendants, and laundry workers
provide housekeeping service. Chefs and cooks, hosts and hostesses,
waitresses and waiters, bartenders, food counter workers, and various kitchen
helpers engage in food and drinks preparation and service. Concierges
arrange special or personal services for guests. Baggage porters and bellhops
carry bags and escort guests to their rooms. Doorkeepers help guests into and
out of their cars or taxis, summon taxis, and carry baggage into the hotel lobby.
Hotels also employ a variety of workers from other industries – cashiers,
accountants, personnel workers, recreation workers, entertainers, engineers,
plumbers, painters, guards and security officers, barbers, cosmetologists,
valets, gardeners, and parking attendants. The education, skills and
experience needed by workers in the hotel industry depend on the specific
occupation; however, most entry-level jobs require little or no previous training.
Almost all hotel employees undergo on-the-job training. Some large hotel
chains provide formal training for new employees and others have video
training programs. Employment in the hotel industry is expected to increase at
a slower rate than the projected rate for all industries through 2010. In 2000,
average earnings for all non-supervisory workers in the industry were $9.65 an
hour. However, many workers earn the Federal minimum wage of $5.15 an
hour. Workers who receive tips earn the lowest wages. Workers covered by
union contracts earn significantly more than non-union workers.


A housekeeper, also called a private household worker, is usually employed by
a family to perform a number of household chores such as cleaning the house,
caring for children, planning and cooking meals, doing laundry, as well as
other duties assigned by the employer. Most of these workers are day workers
who live in their own homes and travel to work. Some live in the homes of their
employers. No special training is required for this type of job. However, most of
these jobs require skills that young people generally learn while helping with
housework at home such as the ability to clean, cook, or take care of children.
Job opportunities are excellent through 2008. In 2000, the median annual
earnings were $15,410. Housekeepers also work for hotel and motel chains
and belong to unions.


Librarians assist people in finding and using information in their personal and
professional lives. They must be familiar with a wide variety of scholarly and
public information sources in order to assist the general public. They are
increasingly combining traditional duties with the tasks involving changing
technology. Most librarians provide three types of services – user, technical,
and administrative. They spend a significant amount of time at their desks or at
the computer terminal. Most librarians work in schools and academic libraries;
others work in public and special libraries, hospitals, and religious
organizations. A master’s degree in library science (MLS) is required for a
librarian position. Most MLS programs require a bachelor’s degree in liberal
arts. Job prospects for librarians are better in rural areas than in large cities or
suburban areas. In 2000, the median annual earnings for librarians were

Mechanic (Aircraft Mechanic)

Aircraft mechanics and service technicians perform scheduled maintenance,
make repairs and complete inspections on aircraft as required by the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA). Most mechanics specialize in preventive
maintenance while others specialize in repair work. A lot of the work is done in
hangars or indoors; but they sometimes have to work outside in unpleasant
weather. They sometimes have to lift or pull objects weighing as much as 70
pounds and often have to stand, lie, or kneel in awkward positions in the
course of working. They usually work 40 hours a week on 8-hour shifts around
the clock with frequent overtime. Most of them work at major airports near
large cities. The majority of civilian aircraft mechanics are certificated by the
FAA as "airframe mechanic," "powerplant mechanic," or "avionics repair
specialist." These mechanics supervise uncertificated mechanics. 18 months
of work experience is required to obtain any of these certificates. 30 months of
work experience on both engines and airframes is required to obtain a
combination airframe-and-powerplant mechanics (A & P) certificate.
Completion of a program at an FAA mechanic school can substitute for the
work experience requirement. Applicants must also pass written, oral and
practical tests. Few people become mechanics through on-the-job training.
The majority attend trade schools for a minimum of 1900 actual class hours for
about 24-30 months. Military aircraft mechanics usually satisfy the work
experience requirement and are prime candidates for employment. Adequate
knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, electronics, computer science,
and mechanical drawing are helpful. The job outlook for aircraft mechanics is
favorable for the next 10 years. In 2000, the median hourly rate was $19.50.

Mechanic (Automotive Mechanic)

Automotive mechanics are increasingly called "service technicians." These
mechanics inspect, maintain and repair automobiles and light trucks with
gasoline engines. They resolve mechanical and electrical problems on
vehicles based on the description of the symptoms from the owner as well as
on results of computerized and other diagnostic tests. They also carry out
routine maintenance service by inspecting and lubricating engines and other
components and repair or replace parts before they cause break-downs. Most
auto mechanics work a standard 40-hour week, but those that are
self-employed work longer hours. The majority of automotive mechanics work
for retail and wholesale automotive dealers, independent automotive repair
shops, or gasoline service stations. Many high schools, community colleges,
and public and private vocational and technical schools offer automotive
service technician programs. The 3- or 4-year formal apprenticeship programs
is now very rare. The standard credential for automotive mechanics and
service technicians is voluntary certification by Automotive Service Excellence
(ASE). Certification may be obtained in up to eight different areas such as
electrical systems, engine repair, brake systems, suspension and steering,
and heating and air conditioning. A master automotive mechanic is certified in
all eight areas. Automotive mechanics must be well versed in electronics and
mathematics to work on increasingly sophisticated car components and
systems. The job outlook is very good for persons who have completed formal
automotive training programs. In 2000, the median hourly earnings were

Medical Doctor (Physician)

Medical doctors or physicians serve a fundamental role in our society and
sooner or later have an effect on all our lives. They diagnose, prescribe and
treat people for disease or injury. They examine patients, obtain medical
histories, and order, perform and interpret diagnostic tests and may also refer
patients to specialists. They also counsel patients on diet, hygiene, and
preventive health care. Many of them work long and irregular hours. They are
much more likely to work as salaried employees of group medical practices,
clinics, or health care networks than in the past. It takes 4 years of
undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school, and 3 to 8 years of internship
and residency, depending on the specialty selected, to become a physician. A
few medical schools offer a combined undergraduate and medical school
program that lasts 6 years instead of the customary 8 years. Acceptance to
medical school is very competitive. Applicants must submit transcripts, scores
from the Medical College Admission Test, and letters of recommendation.
Schools also look into applicants’ character, personality, leadership qualities
and participation in extracurricular activities. After graduating from medical
school, they enter a residency program, usually in a hospital, and receive paid
on-the-job training. A physician must be licensed in order to practice medicine.
To be licensed, a physician must graduate from an accredited medical school,
pass a licensing examination, and complete 1 to 7 years of graduate medical
education. Employment of physicians will grow faster than the average for all
occupations through 2008. In 1998, the average median income, after
expenses, for physicians was $160,000. In 1998-99, the average annual
salaries for medical residents ranged from about $34,100 in their first year to
about $42,100 in their sixth year. More and more doctors and residents are
trying to win representation to address critical issues like understaffing,
insurance, managed care restrictions, professional development and training.

Metal Fabricator/Machine Tool Operator

Metal fabricators or machine tool operators use machines and tools to produce
metal parts for various types of household and other consumer products.
These workers set up and tend the machines that cut and form all types of
metal parts according to predetermined specifications. The job requires
workers to be on their feet most of the shift and also involves moderately
heavy lifting. The job can be dangerous due to exposure to high-speed
machines. Protective equipment is worn for eyes and ears. Most workers learn
the basic skills through a few weeks of on-the-job training; however, several
years of work experience is required to become a skilled worker. No special
education is required to be hired, but employers prefer high school graduates.
The employment of manual machine tool operators is expected to decline
while that of multiple and computer-controlled machine tool operators will grow.
In 2000, the median hourly earnings of metal fabricators were $16.07. Union
workers earn much more than their nonunion counterparts.

Nursing is the largest health care occupation with over 2 million jobs.

Nurse (Registered Nurse)

Registered nurses (R.N.s) work to promote health, prevent disease, and help
patients cope with illness. They provide direct patient care, assist physicians
during treatments and examinations, administer medications, and assist in
convalescence and rehabilitation. They also develop and manage nursing care
plans, instruct patients and their families in proper care, and generally help to
improve or maintain people’s health. State laws govern the tasks of R.N.s but
the work setting determines their day-to-day duties. R.N.s work in a number of
work settings – hospital nurses provide bedside nursing care and carry out
medical treatments; office nurses work in physicians’ offices, clinics,
surgicenters, and emergency medical centers; nursing home nurses deal with
a wide range of conditions from a fracture to Alzheimer’s disease; home health
nurses provide periodic services, prescribed by a physician, to patients at
home; public health nurses work in government and private agencies and
clinics, schools, retirement communities and other community settings;
occupational health or industrial nurses provide nursing care at worksites to
employees, customers, and other with minor injuries or illnesses; head nurses
or nurse supervisors arrange and direct nursing activities of nurses and
nurses’ aides. Nurses have to stand and walk for extended period of time.
They also are exposed to hazards such as infectious diseases, radiation,
compressed gases, and shocks from electrical equipment. Most R.N.s work in
hospitals’ inpatient and outpatient departments. In all States, they are required
to graduate from a nursing program and pass a national licensing exam to
obtain a nursing license. The employment of R.N.s is expected to grow faster
than the average for all occupations through 2008. In 2000, the median annual
earnings were $44,840. Nurses seek out union representation to address
quality care and staffing issues.

Nurse (Licensed Practical Nurse)

Licensed practical nurses (L.P.N.s) care for the sick, injured, convalescent,
and disabled under the direction of physicians and registered nurses. They
provide basic bedside patient care. Some of them help deliver, care for, and
feed infants. Some experienced L.P.N.s supervise nursing assistants and
aides. L.P.N.s work in hospitals, nursing homes and private homes where they
may have to stand for long periods. Most work a 40-hour week but sometimes
have to work nights, weekends, and holidays. All States require L.P.N.s to
pass a licensing examination after completing a State-approved practical
nursing program. A high school diploma is usually required for entry into the
program. The job outlook for L.P.N.s is good through 2008 because of the
long-term care needs of a rapidly growing population of elderly people. The
median annual earnings of licensed practical nurses were $29,440 in 2000.
Unions help to keep the patient to nurse ration law to ensure a better quality of


A painter prepares the surfaces of buildings and other structures and selects
the desired paint or other finish then applies it to the surfaces. Most painters
learn their trade through apprenticeship or informal on-the-job training.
Apprentices must be at least 16 years old, in good physical condition, with high
school mathematics education, good manual dexterity, and good color sense.
Job prospects are expected to be favorable in coming years. In 2000, the
median hourly pay for painters was $13.10. Unions provide for a painter’s job
security and advocate for better health and safety protection.


A pharmacist dispenses drugs prescribed by physicians and other health
practitioners and counsels patients on the use of prescribed and
over-the-counter drugs. Work is usually performed in a drug store pharmacy, a
hospital or in a clinic. A license is required to practice pharmacy. To obtain a
license, an applicant must serve an internship under a licensed pharmacist,
graduate from an accredited school of pharmacy with either the degree Doctor
of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.) or a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in pharmacy, and
pass a State examination. Admission to a college of pharmacy requires
graduation from high school. Employment of pharmacists is expected to grow
slower than the average for all other occupations through the year 2008. In
2000, the median annual earnings of pharmacists were $70,950. More than
eight hundred (800) pharmacists in the city of Chicago belong to the
Teamsters Union.

Pilot (Aircraft)
An aircraft pilot is a highly trained professional who flies airplanes and
helicopters to carry out a wide variety of tasks. Most pilots engage in
transporting passengers and cargo but others are involved in such activities as
crop dusting, aircraft testing, monitoring traffic, rescuing and evacuating
injured persons, directing fire fighting efforts, tracking criminals, and spreading
seed for reforestation. Usually, two pilots make up a cockpit crew except on a
small aircraft. Some large aircraft have a flight engineer who is considered to
be the third pilot. The most experienced pilot is the captain who supervises all
other crew members. Before departure, pilots plan their flights carefully. They
thoroughly check their aircraft to make sure that all systems are functioning
properly and that baggage or cargo is correctly loaded. They find out about the
weather conditions enroute and at their destination. Pilots rely a lot on their
instruments to ensure the fastest, safest and smoothest flight. By law, pilots
cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or 1,000 hours a year. Most airline
pilots fly an average of 75 hour a month and work an additional 75 hours a
month performing non-flying duties. About one-fifth of all pilots work more than
40 hours a week. Airline pilots spend much time away from home because of
layover flights. When away from home, the airlines provide hotel
accommodations, transportation between the hotel and airport, and allowance
for meals and other expenses. Work schedules are irregular because airlines
operate flights at all hours of the day and night. Flight assignments are based
on seniority. Pilots on international routes may suffer from jet lag. Test pilots
are exposed to danger having to fly new and experimental planes. Crop
dusters may be exposed to toxic chemicals and may not have a regular
landing strip. Helicopter pilots involved in police work may be subject to
personal injury. All pilots who are paid to transport passengers or cargo must
have a commercial pilot’s license with an instrument rating issued by the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Helicopter pilots must hold a
commercial pilot’s certificate with a helicopter rating. Applicants must be at
least 18 years old with at least 250 hours of flight experience. They must also
pass a very strict physical examination, have 20/20 vision with or without
glasses, good hearing, and no physical handicaps. A written test as well as a
practical flying test must be passed. Most entrants to this profession have a
college degree; but some small airlines may hire high school graduates or
those with two years of college. The Armed Forces have always been a good
source of trained pilots for civilian jobs. Considerable competition is expected
for job openings through 2008 as the number of applicants exceed job
openings. In 2000, the median annual earnings of aircraft pilots and flight
engineers were $110,940. The Teamsters Union represents thousands of
pilots and crew members throughout the United States and Canada.


Plumbers install, maintain, and repair many different types of pipe systems.

These systems include pure water supply to residential, commercial, and
public buildings; waste disposal; gas supply to stoves and furnaces; and
air-conditioning. Plumbers also install and repair plumbing fixtures for bathtubs,
showers, sinks, toilets, and appliances such as dishwashers and water heaters.
They often have to work in uncomfortable positions and lift heavy pipes. Nearly
all plumbers undergo 4-5 years of apprenticeship training. Many of these
programs are administered by local union-management committees consisting
of members of the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry of the United States and Canada and local
employers who are members of either the Mechanical Contractors Association
of America, Inc., the National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling
Contractors, or the National Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. Job opportunities
for plumbers are expected to be excellent through 2008. In 2000, the median
hourly earnings of plumbers were $18.19.

Police Officer

Police officers protect people’s lives and property. They also direct traffic,
investigate burglary or theft, or render first aid to accident victims. In some
areas, they are involved in community policing – building a relationship with
local citizens and mobilizing them to fight crime. In most jurisdictions, they are
expected to exercise their authority, when necessary, whether on or off duty.
Some officers specialize in different fields such as chemical and microscopic
analysis, training and firearms instruction, or handwriting and fingerprint
identification. Some also work in special units like horseback, bicycle,
motorcycle or harbor patrol, canine corps, or special weapons and tactics
(SWAT) or emergency response teams. They are required to write reports and
maintain meticulous records that may be needed in court. They usually work
40-hour weeks but may be required to work longer hours. Candidates for
police officer positions must be high school graduates, at least 20 years old
and U.S. citizens. Federal and State positions require a college degree. They
must pass a competitive written test in addition to tests of vision, hearing,
strength, and agility. Their character traits and backgrounds are also
investigated to ensure honesty, judgment, integrity, and a sense of
responsibility – important qualities in law enforcement. Recruits usually
undergo 12-14 weeks of academy training before their first assignment.
Because of attractive salaries and benefits, the number of qualified candidates
exceeds the number of job openings. The median annual salary in 2000 was
$39,790. Thousands of police officers belong to unions.

Recycling Workers
Recycling workers collect various types of materials such as newspaper,
plastic, and aluminum cans from businesses and local residents, load them on
to trucks and transport them to recycling plants. Workers at the plants operate
different types of machinery and equipment to start and complete the recycling
process. A commercial driver’s license is required to operate some of the
trucks that transport the materials. Teamster members predominate the
recycling industry.

Reservationists or Reservation Agents

Reservationists or reservation agents provide various types of services for the
millions of people who travel by plane, train, ship, bus, and automobile. They
sell tickets, confirm reservations, check baggage, and provide tourists with
useful travel information such as routes, time schedules, rates, and types of
accommodation. They assist telephone callers with their travel arrangements
on such Most of them work for large hotel chains or airlines. The requirements
for an entry-level position are minimal. High school graduates may be
preferred by some employers. Employment of reservation agents is expected
to grow about as fast as for all occupations. In 1998, the median annual
earnings of reservation agents were $22,120. The airline industry experiences
one of the highest rates of unionization.


School Teacher – Kindergarten, Elementary, and Secondary
A teacher uses interactive discussions and "hands-on" activities to help
students learn and apply concepts in the various subject areas. Teachers also
make classroom presentations and provide individual instruction to address
the individual differences in students. All 50 States and the District of Columbia
require public school teachers to be licensed to teach the early childhood
grades (usually nursery school through grade 3); elementary grades (grades 1
through 6 or 8); middle grades (grades 5 through 8); a secondary education
subject area (usually grades 7 through 12); or a special subject, such as
reading or music (usually grades K through 12). Private school teachers are
not required to be licensed. A minimum of a bachelor’s degree and completion
of an approved teacher training program is required by all States. The job
market for teachers varies widely by geographic area and subject specialty.
Many school districts have difficulty in recruiting qualified teachers especially
in mathematics, science, bilingual education, and computer science. The
median annual earnings for school teachers ranged from $37,610 to $42,080
in 2000. Private school teachers usually earn less than public school teachers.


As a result of office automation and organizational restructuring, a secretary
now assumes a wide range of managerial and professional responsibilities.
Specific job duties vary with experience and titles. A secretary performs
administrative and clerical duties. A high school graduate may qualify for an
entry-level position. Proficiency in keyboarding, spelling, punctuation, grammar,
and oral communication are a must. Knowledge of word processing,
spreadsheets and database management is a big plus in today’s job market.
Some positions require knowledge of shorthand. Job openings should be
plentiful through year 2008. Excluding legal and medical secretaries, the
median annual earnings for secretaries in 2000 were $31,090. Executive
secretaries and administrative assistants rate significantly higher.

Teacher Aide or Teacher Assistant

A teacher aide or assistant provides instructional and clerical support for
classroom teachers, giving teachers more time for lesson planning and
teaching. Teacher aides also tutor students and supervise them in the
cafeteria, schoolyard, school discipline center, or on field trips. They record
grades, set up equipment, and help prepare teaching aids. Some school
districts hire teacher aides to perform only non-instructional or clerical tasks. A
vast majority of them work in public and private elementary schools.
Educational requirements for an aide range from a high school diploma to
some college training. Some community colleges offer two-year associate
degree programs for teacher aide candidates. However, most aides receive
on-the-job training. Employment of teacher aides is expected to grow through
2010. The median annual earnings for teacher aides in 2000 were $17,350.


Truckdrivers are constantly traveling our nation’s highways delivering
everything from automobiles to fresh vegetables to canned goods.

The length of deliveries and the responsibilities and assignments of the driver
vary according to the merchandise being transported and the final destination
of the goods. Short haul or local truck drivers deliver a shipment to a nearby
city, pick up a loaded trailer and deliver it back to their home base the same
day. They may load or unload the merchandise at the customer’s place. At the
end of the day, they turn in receipts, money, records of deliveries made, and
any problems to be fixed. Driver-sales workers or route drivers deliver their
company’s products and at the same time build good customer relations and
gain additional customers. Long haul truckdrivers may be on the road for a
week or more before returning home. On "sleeper" runs, those lasting for days
or even weeks, some companies use two drivers – one drives while the other
sleeps in a berth behind the cab. Stops are only made for fuel, food, loading,
and unloading. Dispatchers schedule the work of drivers. After reaching their
destination or end of shift, long-distance truckdrivers are required by the U.S.
Department of Transportation (DOT) to complete reports detailing the trip,
condition of the truck, and the circumstances of any accidents. Federal
regulations also require employers to subject drivers to random alcohol and
drug test while on duty. Specialty cargo drivers, such as auto-transport drivers,
may load and unload their cargo after arriving at the final destination. DOT
regulations forbid long-distance drivers from working more than 60 hours in a
7-day period and require that truckers rest 8 hours for every 10 hours of driving.
Most truckdrivers work in large metropolitan areas where there are distribution
outlets. Truckdrivers must have a State-issued license. Commercial drivers
licenses (CDLs) are required for truckdrivers transporting cargo that is 26,000
pounds or more or contains hazardous materials. Applicants have to pass both
a written and practical tests and be at least 18 years old for within State driving.
The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations require that interstate drivers be
at least 21 years old and pass a physical examination every 2 years. Most
employers require that drivers be at least 25 years old with 3-5 years truck
driving experience. Many public and private technical-vocational schools,
along with some high schools, offer driver training programs. Interested
persons should make sure that the training a school provides is acceptable by
local trucking companies. State motor vehicle administrations offer information
on how to apply for a commercial driver’s license. The job outlook for
truckdrivers is very favorable. In 2000, the median hourly earnings of drivers of
heavy trucks and tractor-trailers, light and delivery-service truck and
driver-sales trucks, were $15.25, $10.74 and $9.79, respectively. However,
union truckdrivers earn significantly more than nonunion drivers.

Warehouse Workers

Warehouse workers perform clerical as well as other duties. Clerical duties
include taking telephone orders, filing and working on store orders. Warehouse
workers receive, store, and issue materials, equipment, and other items from
stockroom, warehouse, or storage yard. They also keep records and compile
stock reports. They clean the warehouse and employee facilities. They
transport, arrange, and handle merchandise and other materials or plant
equipment in a neat and orderly manner. They replenish shelves with stock
and select and pack merchandise for shipment. Teamster members dominate
the warehousing industry, earning good wages and benefits as a result.


A welder applies heat to metal pieces, melting and fusing them to form a
permanent bond. Because of its strength, welding is used in shipbuilding,
automobile manufacturing and repair, aerospace applications, construction of
buildings, bridges and other structures, to join pipes in pipelines, power plants,
refineries, and thousands of manufactured products. Welders use many types
of welding equipment in a variety of positions, such as flat, vertical, horizontal
and overhead. They are exposed to a number of potential hazards such as
fumes, burns, and the intense light created by the arc. To protect themselves,
they wear safety shoes, goggles, hoods with protective lenses, and other
devices designed to prevent burns and eye injuries and for protection from
falling objects. They usually work a 40-hour work-week, but overtime is very
common. Most welders work in manufacturing (transportation equipment,
industrial machinery and equipment, or fabrication metal products industries)
and services (repair shops and personnel supply agencies). Training for
welders can be obtained through schooling or on-the-job training. Formal
training is available in high schools, vocational schools, and post secondary
institutions such as vocational-technical institutes, community colleges, and
private welding schools. The Armed Forces al

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